isolation of a virus with rhabdovirus morphology from a white-beaked dolphin (lagenorhynchus albirostris).a virus with rhabdovirus morphology which proved to be antigenically distinct from rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated from a dolphin that had beached on the dutch coast. neutralizing antibodies to this virus were found in several european marine mammal species.19938240009
[viruses of whales and dolphins].dna- and rna-genome viruses of whales and dolphins belong to families poxviridae, herpesviridae, adenoviridae, orthomyxoviridae, paramyxoviridae, togaviridae, picornaviridae. virological, serological and pathomorphological signs of infection have been registered in odontoceti (bottle-nosed dolphin, atlantic white-sided dolphin, striped dolphin, harbona porpoise, white-beaked dolphin, common dolphin, sperm whale, pilot whale, white whale) and musticeti (sei whale, fin whale, gray whale, and bowhe ...19969044706
the use of microsomal in vitro assay to study phase i biotransformation of chlorobornanes (toxaphene) in marine mammals and birds. possible consequences of biotransformation for bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.the factors determining the bioaccumulation of lipophilic compounds in wildlife are often poorly understood, partly because it is difficult to do in vivo experiments with animals such as marine mammals and birds. to evaluate the role of phase i biotransformation in the bioaccumulation process of chlorobornanes (toxaphene), this was studied in in vitro assays with hepatic microsomes of animals that could be sampled shortly after death. the capacity of microsomes to metabolise a technical toxaphen ...19989972480
marine mammals from northeast atlantic: relationship between their trophic status as determined by delta13c and delta15n measurements and their trace metal concentrations.the relationship between trophic position through delta13c and delta15n and trace metal concentrations (zn, cd, cu and hg) was investigated in the tissues of six marine mammal species from the northeast atlantic: striped dolphin stenella coeruleoalba, common dolphin, delphinus delphis, atlantic white-sided dolphin lagenorhynchus acutus, harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena, white beaked-dolphin lagenorhynchus albirostris, grey seal halichoerus grypus stranded on french channel and irish coasts. wh ...200312738219
perfluorinated chemicals infiltrate ocean waters: link between exposure levels and stable isotope ratios in marine mammals.this is the first study to report on concentrations of perfluorinated organochemicals (focs) in marine mammals stranded along the southern north sea coast in relation to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (delta15n and delta13c). the presence of focs in top predators such as marine mammals would indicate a potential biomagnification of these compounds and their widespread occurrence. liver and kidney tissues of nine marine mammal species have been sampled. among all the measured focs comp ...200314717162
echolocation signals of dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus) in kaikoura, new array of four hydrophones arranged in a symmetrical star configuration was used to measure the echolocation signals of the dusky dolphin (lagenorhynchus obscurus) near the kaikoura peninsula, new zealand. most of the echolocation signals had bi-modal frequency spectra with a low-frequency peak between 40 and 50 khz and a high-frequency peak between 80 and 110 khz. the low-frequency peak was dominant when the source level was low and the high frequency peak dominated when the source level was ...200415139642
identification and characterization of a tandem repeat in exon iii of the dopamine receptor d4 (drd4) gene in cetaceans.a large number of mammalian species harbor a tandem repeat in exon iii of the gene encoding dopamine receptor d4 (drd4), a receptor associated with cognitive functions. in this study, a drd4 gene exon iii tandem repeat from the order cetacea was identified and characterized. included in our study were samples from 10 white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris), 10 harbor porpoises (phocoena phocoena), eight sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus), and five minke whales (balaenoptera acutoro ...200616495430
shipboard measurements of the hearing of the white-beaked dolphin lagenorhynchus albirostris.this is the first report of an underwater audiogram from a dolphin in a capture-and-release scenario. two bow-riding white-beaked dolphins lagenorhynchus albirostris (a female and a male) were captured using the hoop-net technique in faxaflói bay, iceland. the dolphins were transferred to a stretcher and hoisted into a plastic research tank on board a small fishing vessel. two underwater transducers were used to cover the frequency range from 16 to 215 khz. two human eeg electrodes mounted in su ...200818245641
is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris)?the virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. in 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. in 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. in these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphi ...201424399208
low density of top predators (seabirds and marine mammals) in the high arctic pack ice.the at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker rv polarstern in july to september 2014. in total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. the five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake rissa tridactyla, fulmar fulmarus glacialis, puffin fratercula arctica, ross's gull rhodostethia rosea, and little auk alle alle. eight cetac ...201627777810
meals on wheels? a decade of megafaunal visual and acoustic observations from offshore oil & gas rigs and platforms in the north and irish seas.a decade of visual and acoustic detections of marine megafauna around offshore oil & gas (o&g) installations in the north and irish seas are presented. marine megafauna activity was monitored visually and acoustically by joint nature conservation committee (jncc) qualified and experienced marine mammal observers (mmo) and passive acoustic monitoring (pam) operators respectively, with real-time towed pam in combination with industry standard software, pamguard. monitoring was performed during rou ...201627078153
comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans.the structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the monodontidae, phocoenidae, delphinidae, ziphiidae, balaenidae and the balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. eight white whale fetuses (delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (monodon monoceros) represented the monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the phoc ...200717532800
skull shapes of the lissodelphininae: radiation, adaptation and asymmetry.within delphinidae, the sub-family lissodelphininae consists of 8 southern ocean species and 2 north pacific species. lissodelphininae is a result of recent phylogenetic revisions based on molecular methods. thus, morphological radiation within the taxon has not been investigated previously. the sub-family consists of ecologically diverse groups such as (1) the cephalorhynchus genus of 4 small species inhabiting coastal and shelf waters, (2) the robust species in the lagenorhynchus genus with th ...201627027647
categorizing click trains to increase taxonomic precision in echolocation click loggers.passive acoustic monitoring is an efficient way to study acoustically active animals but species identification remains a major challenge. c-pods are popular logging devices that automatically detect odontocete echolocation clicks. however, the accompanying analysis software does not distinguish between delphinid species. click train features logged by c-pods were compared to frequency spectra from adjacently deployed continuous recorders. a generalized additive model was then used to categorize ...201728863550
organochlorine chemical and heavy metal contaminants in white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris) and pilot whales (globicephala melaena) from the coast of newfoundland, canada. 19883214191
mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the delphinidae with an emphasis on the globicephalinae.previous dna-based phylogenetic studies of the delphinidae family suggest it has undergone rapid diversification, as characterised by unresolved and poorly supported taxonomic relationships (polytomies) for some of the species within this group. using an increased amount of sequence data we test between alternative hypotheses of soft polytomies caused by rapid speciation, slow evolutionary rate and/or insufficient sequence data, and hard polytomies caused by simultaneous speciation within this f ...201121392378
a false killer whale adjusts its hearing when it echolocates.the use of auditory evoked potential (aep) measurements has added considerably to knowledge of the hearing mechanisms of marine mammals. we have recently measured the hearing of a stranded infant risso's dolphin, the audiograms of white-beaked dolphins temporarily caught and released, and the hearing of anaesthetized polar bears. most small toothed whales echolocate and hear very high frequency sounds underwater. while much has previously been learned about the echolocation performance and chara ...200818490386
a genomewide catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms in white-beaked and atlantic white-sided dolphins.the field of population genetics is rapidly moving into population genomics as the quantity of data generated by high-throughput sequencing platforms increases. in this study, we used restriction-site-associated dna sequencing (radseq) to recover genomewide genotypes from 70 white-beaked (lagenorhynchus albirostris) and 43 atlantic white-sided dolphins (l. acutus) gathered throughout their north-east atlantic distribution range. both species are at a high risk of being negatively affected by cli ...201625950249
vertebral column deformities in white-beaked dolphins from the eastern north atlantic.five white-beaked dolphins lagenorhynchus albirostris with outwardly vertebral kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis or lordosis were identified during a photo-identification survey of over 400 individuals (2002-2013) in faxaflói and skjálfandi bays, iceland. in addition, 3 stranding reports from denmark, the netherlands and the uk were analysed, providing both external observation and post mortem details of axial deviations of the vertebral column in this species. two of the free-ranging cases and 2 of the ...201526378408
cetacean range and climate in the eastern north atlantic: future predictions and implications for conservation.there is increasing evidence that the distributions of a large number of species are shifting with global climate change as they track changing surface temperatures that define their thermal niche. modelling efforts to predict species distributions under future climates have increased with concern about the overall impact of these distribution shifts on species ecology, and especially where barriers to dispersal exist. here we apply a bio-climatic envelope modelling technique to investigate the ...201424677422
pfas profiles in three north sea top predators: metabolic differences among species?profiles of seven compounds of perfluoro-alkyl substances (pfass) were compared among three species of top predators from the danish north sea: the white-beaked dolphin (lagenorhynchus albirostris), the harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena), and the harbor seal (phoca vitulina). the seals had higher total burdens (757.8 ng g(-1) ww) than the dolphins (439.9 ng g(-1) ww) and the porpoises (355.8 ng g(-1) ww), probably a reflection of feeding closer to the shore and thus contamination sources. the m ...201323532533
toward the resolution of an explosive radiation--a multilocus phylogeny of oceanic dolphins (delphinidae).oceanic dolphins (delphinidae) are the product of a rapid radiation that yielded ∼36 extant species of small to medium-sized cetaceans that first emerged in the late miocene. although they are a charismatic group of organisms that have become poster children for marine conservation, many phylogenetic relationships within delphinidae remain elusive due to the slow molecular evolution of the group and the difficulty of resolving short branches from successive cladogenic events. here i combine exis ...201121600295
occurrence of vertebral osteophytosis in a museum sample of white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris) from danish waters.the occurrence of pathologic new bone formation in the vertebral column was studied in 46 skeletons of the white-beaked dolphin (lagenorhynchus albirostris) stranded in denmark between 1903 and 2002 and held in the collections of the zoological museum, university of copenhagen. new bone formation was evident in 18 (72%) of 25 physically mature specimens and in one of 21 physically immature specimens. this pattern of occurrence is consistent with spondylosis deformans, which is caused by degenera ...200919204332
auditory temporal resolution of a wild white-beaked dolphin (lagenorhynchus albirostris).adequate temporal resolution is required across taxa to properly utilize amplitude modulated acoustic signals. among mammals, odontocete marine mammals are considered to have relatively high temporal resolution, which is a selective advantage when processing fast traveling underwater sound. however, multiple methods used to estimate auditory temporal resolution have left comparisons among odontocetes and other mammals somewhat vague. here we present the estimated auditory temporal resolution of ...200919198850
source levels and harmonic content of whistles in white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris).recordings of white-beaked dolphin whistles were made in faxafl6i bay (iceland) using a three-hydrophone towed linear array. signals from the hydrophones were routed through an amplifier to a lunch box computer on board the boat and digitized using a sample rate of 125 khz per channel. using this method more than 5000 whistles were recorded. all recordings were made in sea states 0-1 (beaufort scale). dolphins were located in a 2d horizontal plane by using the difference of arrival time to the t ...200616875247
estimated transmission beam pattern of clicks recorded from free-ranging white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris).recordings were made from white-beaked dolphins in icelandic waters using a four-hydrophone array in a star configuration. the acoustic signals were amplified and sampled to a hard disk at a rate of 800 khz per channel. the 3 and 10 db beamwidths were calculated to be 8 degrees and 10 degrees, respectively, indicating a narrower transmission beam for white-beaked dolphins than that reported for bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus). the beamwidth was more similar to that found for belugas (de ...200415478450
source levels of clicks from free-ranging white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris gray 1846) recorded in icelandic waters.this study reports the source levels of clicks recorded from free-ranging white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris gray 1846). a four-hydrophone array was used to obtain sound recordings. the hydrophone signals were digitized on-line and stored in a portable computer. an underwater video camera was used to visualize dolphins to help identify on-axis recordings. the range to a dolphin was calculated from differences in arrival times of clicks at the four hydrophones, allowing for calcula ...200211865816
levels of alpha-hch, lindane, and enantiomeric ratios of alpha-hch in marine mammals from the northern hemisphere.the enantiomeric ratios of alpha-hch were determined by chiral gas chromatography in blubber of marine mammals from regions of the northern hemisphere (north sea, baltic sea, arctic and iceland). cetaceans (harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins) showed a preferential accumulation of (+)-alpha-hch. in blubber of harbour seals, grey seals and harp seals (+)-alpha-hch was also more abundant than (-)-alpha-hch. hooded seals formed an exception with a (+/-) enantiomeric ratio of alpha-hch < 1.19958528649
evidence of high-frequency acoustic emissions from the white-beaked dolphin (lagenorhynchus albirostris).recordings of the signals from a school of white-beaked dolphins show that the frequency of their acoustic emissions extends to at least 305 khz. these signals were detected by a sector scanning sonar used as a passive listening device of high bearing and time resolution. the records contain three types of signal, one of high intensity, one of a variable high repetition rate, and another showing a time-varying effect. acoustic signals radiated by dolphins have been recorded and studied over a lo ...19883351138
heptachlor epoxide in marine mammals.the presence of heptachlor epoxide in harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris) has been confirmed by chemical derivatization and mass spectrometric analyses. an unknown compound at a retention time close to half of heptachlor epoxide interfered in the determination by electron capture detector-gas chromatography. on a wcot cp-sil 7 column programmed from 85 to 175 degree c two poorly separated peaks could be detected. heptachlor epoxide contents up to ...19816791283
notes on the viscera of the porpoise and white-beaked dolphin. 188417231534
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