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synthesis and biological evaluation of new analogues of the active fungal metabolites n-(2-methyl-3-oxodecanoyl)-2-pyrroline and n-(2-methyl-3-oxodec-8-enoyl)-2-pyrroline.to evaluate the effect of simplifying the beta-ketoamide system present in active isolated metabolites from penicillium brevicompactum (2 and 3) on the activity, new analogues with a monocarbonylic amide functionality have been obtained. in this way, the insecticidal and fungicidal activities have been improved in relation to the natural products taken as lead molecules. thus, two of the synthetic analogues (5a and 5b) showed very important insecticidal activities against third-instar nymphs of ...199910552736
local modulation of host ph by colletotrichum species as a mechanism to increase virulence.the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides produces one pectate lyase (pl) that is a key virulence factor in disease development. during growth of c. gloeosporioides, colletotrichum acutatum, and colletotrichum coccodes in acidified yeast extract medium, the fungus secreted ammonia and increased the medium ph. ammonia accumulation and the consequent ph change increased as a function of initial ph and buffer capacity of the medium. pl secretion by c. gloeosporioides correspondingly ...200111551075
a pathogen-induced chitin-binding protein gene from pepper: its isolation and differential expression in pepper tissues treated with pathogens, ethephon, methyl jasmonate or wounding.a chitin-binding protein (cbp) cdna (cacbp1) was isolated from a cdna library of pepper (capsicum annuum l.) leaves infected with xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. the deduced amino acid sequence of the cacbp1 gene which has chitin-binding domain and hinge region shares a high level of identity with cbp sequences from tomato, potato and tobacco. the cacbp1 gene was organ-specifically regulated in pepper plants, and differentially induced during the compatible and incompatible interactions ...200111773524
induction by pathogen, salt and drought of a basic class ii chitinase mrna and its in situ localization in pepper (capsicum annuum).northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses revealed that a pepper basic class ii chitinase gene (cachi2) is constitutively expressed in floral organs and root endodermis, but not in leaf, stem and fruit of pepper. resistance of pepper leaves to colletotrichum coccodes infection at a late growth stage was correlated with induction of beta-1,3-glucanase and pr-1 mrna, but not of chitinase (cachi2) mrna. transcriptional activation of the cachi2 gene in pepper leaves occurred during anthracnos ...200211975728
a gene encoding stellacyanin is induced in capsicum annuum by pathogens, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, wounding, drought and salt stress.a stellacyanin cdna clone (caslp1) was isolated from a pepper cdna library from hypersensitive response (hr) lesions of leaves infected with an avirulent strain of xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. the deduced amino acid sequences of caslp1 are homologous to those of stellacyanins from cucumber, maize, pea and arabidopsis. the caslp1 mrna was not constitutively expressed in all organs of pepper, but strongly induced and accumulated in pepper tissues infected with x. campestris pv. vesicato ...200212121461
engineering hypervirulence in a mycoherbicidal fungus for efficient weed control.agents proposed for biocontrol of major weeds in arable row-crop agriculture have not met expectations because an evolutionary balance has developed between microorganism and weed, even when the mycoherbicide is used inundatively at very high levels (>10(4)spores/cm<(2)). sufficient virulence can be achieved by transferring genes to the microorganism, tipping the evolutionary balance. virulence was increased ninefold and was more rapidly effected; furthermore, the requirement for a long duration ...200212355116
ultralow calcium requirements of fungi facilitate use of calcium regulating agents to suppress host calcium-dependent defenses, synergizing infection by a mycoherbicide.infection by many fungi activates a variety of calcium dependent defenses in the hosts, slowing or suppressing the attacker and limiting the efficacy of mycoherbicides. the calcium requirement for fungal growth is so low that it could only be implied based on fungi containing calcium-dependent signaling enzymes. analytical grade media contain <2 microm calcium, and the addition of specific chelators does not affect fungal growth. hydrophobic derivatives of the calcium-specific chelator bapta des ...200212381116
expression of the antiapoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in tomato blocks programmed cell death and provides broad-spectrum resistance to disease.the sphinganine analog mycotoxin, aal-toxin, induces a death process in plant and animal cells that shows apoptotic morphology. in nature, the aal-toxin is the primary determinant of the alternaria stem canker disease of tomato, thus linking apoptosis to this disease caused by alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici. the product of the baculovirus p35 gene is a specific inhibitor of a class of cysteine proteases termed caspases, and naturally functions in infected insects. transgenic tomato plan ...200212403830
identification of the pepper sar8.2 gene as a molecular marker for pathogen infection, abiotic elicitors and environmental stresses in capsicum annuum.pepper ( capsicum annuum l.) sar8.2 genes, designated casar82a, b and c, which are induced by all the biotic and abiotic stresses, were isolated from a pepper cdna library constructed with the mrnas from pepper plants infected with xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. the pepper casar82a, b and c gene products, which are very similar to each other in amino acid sequences, have 43-50% homology with those of tobacco sar8.2 genes. the casar8.2 genes were not constitutively expressed in any of th ...200312520329
the lethal and mutagenic effects of n-nitroso-n-methyl-urethane and n-nitroso-n-ethylurethane in colletotrichum coccodes. 196414195749
detection of the biocontrol agent colletotrichum coccodes (183088) from the target weed velvetleaf and from soil by strain-specific pcr markers.diagnostic molecular markers, generated from random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and used in polymerase chain reaction (pcr), were developed to selectively recognize and detect the presence of a single strain of the biocontrol fungus colletotrichum coccodes (183088) on the target weed species abutilon theophrasti and from soil samples. several isolates of c. coccodes, 15 species of colletotrichum, a variety of heterogeneous organisms and various plant species were first screened by rapd-pcr, ...200314499995
identification of a novel pathogen-induced gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein expressed in phloem cells of capsicum annuum.the calrr1 gene, expressed in pepper leaves following infection by xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, encodes a secreted leucine-rich repeat (lrr) with five tandem repeats of a 24-amino-acid lrr motif. northern blot analyses revealed that calrr1 is not constitutively expressed in pepper plants, but is strongly induced upon the infection by x. campestris pv. vesicatoria, phytophthora capsici, colletotrichum coccodes and colletotrichum gloeosporioides on leaves. calrr1 was not systemically in ...200414984927
molecular and morphological identification of colletotrichum species of clinical interest.colletotrichum species have caused human infections in recent years. because of the difficulties in recognizing them in vitro, we have designed a quick and unambiguous molecular test, based on the amplification of a specific fragment of the internal transcribed spacer 1 region, to distinguish any colletotrichum isolate from other fungi, including the common pathogenic species. analysis of the sequences of the ribosomal dna (rdna) fragment showed sufficient variability to clearly separate the fiv ...200415184418
cazfp1, cys2/his2-type zinc-finger transcription factor gene functions as a pathogen-induced early-defense gene in capsicum annuum.a pepper zinc-finger protein gene, cazfp1 , encoding the cys2/his2-type zinc-finger transcription factor was isolated from pepper leaves inoculated with an avirulent strain bv5-4a of xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria . the cazfp1 protein is a nuclear targeting protein, which functions as a transcriptional regulator. the full-length cazfp1 had no transcriptional activation activity, whereas the c-terminal region of cazfp1 had transactivation activity. the cazfp1 transcripts were constitutive ...200415604723
nitric oxide has a regulatory effect in the germination of conidia of colletotrichum coccodes.nitric oxide (no) was first detected in mammals and has since been found in plants and in micro-organisms such as bacteria. no is an important signalling molecule involved in a number of critical signal transduction pathways. to date, no has not been directly detected in fungi, and little research on no and fungi has been completed. here, the role of no in the germination of colletotrichum coccodes conidia was investigated. conidia were germinated on microscope slides, treated with chemicals to ...200515749048
sources of variability in the measurement of fungal spore yields.variability in the production of fungal spores and in the measurement of spore yields was investigated in four species of fungi: colletotrichum gloeosporioides, colletotrichum coccodes, colletotrichum phomoides, and acremonium strictum. when the fungi were grown on solid medium in microplates and spore yields were measured by counting the subsamples with a hemacytometer, the variability among hemacytometer squares was always the largest source of variation, accounting for 51 to 91% of the total ...198816347653
dehydro-alpha-lapachone isolated from catalpa ovata stems: activity against plant pathogenic fungi.the methanol extract of stems of catalpa ovata g don exhibits potent in vivo antifungal activity against magnaporthe grisea (hebert) barr (rice blast) on rice plants, botrytis cinerea pers ex fr (tomato grey mould) and phytophthora infestans (mont) de bary (tomato late blight) on tomato plants, puccinia recondita rob ex desm (wheat leaf rust) on wheat plants and blumeria graminis (dc) speer f. sp. hordei marchal (barley powdery mildew) on barley plants. an antifungal substance was isolated and i ...200616550502
fungal endophytes in potato roots studied by traditional isolation and cultivation-independent dna-based methods.the composition and relative abundance of endophytic fungi in roots of field-grown transgenic t4-lysozyme producing potatoes and the parental line were assessed by classical isolation from root segments and cultivation-independent techniques to test the hypothesis that endophytic fungi are affected by t4-lysozyme. fungi were isolated from the majority of root segments of both lines and at least 63 morphological groups were obtained with verticillium dahliae, cylindrocarpon destructans, colletotr ...200617117985
role of a novel pathogen-induced pepper c3-h-c4 type ring-finger protein gene, carfpi, in disease susceptibility and osmotic stress tolerance.limited information is available about the roles of ring-finger proteins in plant defense. a pepper carfp1 encoding the c3-h-c4 type ring-finger protein that physically interacted with the basic pr-1 protein cabpr1 was isolated from pepper leaves infected by xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. the carfp1 protein has vwfa domain, and n-terminal serine-rich and c-terminal cysteine-rich regions. the carfp1 transcripts accumulated earlier than did those of the basic pr-1 gene cabpr1 during the i ...200717149652
detection of the nec1 virulence gene and its correlation with pathogenicity in streptomyces species on potato tubers and in soil using conventional and real-time pcr.to evaluate the virulence gene nec1 as a reliable marker for the detection of pathogenic streptomyces species on potato tubers and in soil samples using conventional and real-time quantitative pcr assays.200717381752
isolation and antifungal activity of lignans from myristica fragrans against various plant pathogenic fungi.in a search for plant extracts with potent in vivo antifungal activity against various plant diseases, we found that treatment with a methanol extract of myristica fragrans houttyn (nutmeg) seeds reduced the development of various plant diseases. the objectives of the present study were to isolate and determine antifungal substances from my. fragrans and to evaluate their antifungal activities.200717659535
early and rapid detection of potato's fungal infection by fourier transform infrared microscopy.fungi are considered serious pathogens to many plants and can cause severe economic damage. early detection of these pathogens is very important and might be critical for their control. the available methods for detection of fungi are time consuming and not always very specific. fourier transform infrared (ft-ir) microscopy has proved to be a reliable and sensitive method for detection of molecular changes in cells. fungi pathogens display typical infrared spectra that differ from the spectra of ...200717958954
characterization of plant growth-promoting traits of bacteria isolated from larval guts of diamondback moth plutella xylostella (lepidoptera: plutellidae).eight bacterial isolates from the larval guts of diamondback moths (plutella xylostella) were tested for their plant growth-promoting (pgp) traits and effects on early plant growth. all of the strains tested positive for nitrogen fixation and indole 3-acetic acid (iaa) and salicylic acid production but negative for hydrogen cyanide and pectinase production. in addition, five of the isolates exhibited significant levels of tricalcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilization; six isolates were able ...200818172718
(iso)-quinoline alkaloids from fungal fruiting bodies of cortinarius subtortus.chemical analysis of the fruiting bodies of the agaricoid fungus cortinarius subtortus yielded three new natural products, two quinoline and one isocarbostyryl alkaloid. the structures of compounds 1- 3 were determined by analysis of nmr and ms data. compound 1 exhibited inhibitory effects against the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum coccodes. all three compounds displayed moderate antioxidant activity in a dpph free radical scavenging bioassay.200818447384
a role for a menthone reductase in resistance against microbial pathogens in plants.plants elaborate a vast array of enzymes that synthesize defensive secondary metabolites in response to pathogen attack. here, we isolated the pathogen-responsive camnr1 [menthone: (+)-(3s)-neomenthol reductase] gene, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (sdr) superfamily, from pepper (capsicum annuum) plants. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that purified camnr1 and its ortholog atsdr1 from arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) catalyze a menthone reduction wit ...200818599651
role of ammonia secretion and ph modulation on pathogenicity of colletotrichum coccodes on tomato fruit.colletotrichum coccodes was found to alkalinize the decaying tissue of tomato fruit via accumulation and secretion of ammonia. alkalinization dynamics caused by ammonia secretion from growing hyphae was examined microscopically using the ph-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. values of ph of 7.9 observed in the host tissue close to the hyphal tips declined to ph 6.0 at 10 mm away from the hyphal tip, which was a value that was still higher than that detecte ...200818616402
involvement of the pepper antimicrobial protein caamp1 gene in broad spectrum disease resistance.pathogen-inducible antimicrobial defense-related proteins have emerged as key antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in disease resistance in plants. a novel antimicrobial protein gene, caamp1 (for capsicum annuum antimicrobial protein1), was isolated from pepper (c. annuum) leaves infected with xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. expression of the caamp1 gene was strongly induced in pepper leaves not only during pathogen infection but also after exposure to abiotic elicitors. the purified ...200818676663
isolation and characterization of an extracellular antimicrobial protein from aspergillus oryzae.a 17 kda antimicrobial protein was isolated from growth medium containing the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae by extracting the supernatants from the culture media, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose, and c18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. this antimicrobial protein, which we considered to be an extracellular antimicrobial protein from a. oryzae (exap-ao17), possessed antimicrobial activity but lacked hemolytic activity. the exap-ao17 protein strongly inhibi ...200818803391
vegetative compatibility groups in colletotrichum coccodes, the causal agent of black dot on potato.abstract black dot of potato, caused by colletotrichum coccodes, is a disease of growing economic importance, but the degree of genetic diversity and pathogenic differentiation among isolates is unknown. using nitrate auxotrophic (nit) mutants, we characterized vegetative compatibility groups (vcg) diversity for c. coccodes for 110 isolates originating from israel, the netherlands, and france. we recovered frequencies of nit1 and nitm mutant classes at 38.5 and 7.2%, respectively, and selected 1 ...200218942960
variability in morphology and aggressiveness among north american vegetative compatibility groups of colletotrichum coccodes.north american isolates of colletotrichum coccodes, representing six vegetative compatibility groups (na-vcg), were used to study morphological and pathogenic variability. the objective was to determine if variability in conidial and microsclerotial size was related to pathogenicity. significant differences were detected in length, width, and length/width ratios of conidia as well as in the length and width of microsclerotia among the na-vcgs. the longest and widest conidia were produced by isol ...200818943208
genetic variability in the potato pathogen colletotrichum coccodes as determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism and vegetative compatibility group analyses.abstract amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) using three primer sets was used to characterize 211 colletotrichum coccodes isolates from north america, 112 of which were assigned to six vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs) using nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. these isolates clustered into five corresponding groups by unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic means-based cluster analysis of aflp banding patterns. isolates of c. coccodes belonging to na-vcg1 and na-vcg3 were clos ...200618943498
metallothionein and bzip transcription factor genes from velvetleaf and their differential expression following colletotrichum coccodes infection.abstract colletotrichum coccodes is a biocontrol agent of velvetleaf (abutilon theophrasti), a noxious weed of corn and soybean. metallothioneins (mts) and basic region/leucine zipper motif (bzip) are heavy-metal-binding proteins and transcription factors, respectively, that have been related to several plant processes, including the responses of plants to pathogen attack. previous investigation of the determinants involved in the velvet-leaf-c. coccodes interaction had shed light on particular ...200618943500
expression of an antifungal peptide in saccharomyces: a new approach for biological control of the postharvest disease caused by colletotrichum coccodes.abstract a cecropin a-based peptide inhibited germination of colletotrichum coccodes at 50 mum. the dna sequence encoding the peptide was cloned in prs413, using the saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase leader sequence for secretion of the peptide, and expressed in yeast. yeast transformants inhibited the growth of germinated c. coccodes spores and inhibited decay development caused by c. coccodes in tomato fruits. expression of the antifungal peptide in yeast therefore represents a new approach f ...200218944136
transforming a nep1 toxin gene into two fusarium spp. to enhance mycoherbicide activity on orobanche--failure and success.the nep1 gene encoding a fungal toxin that successfully conferred hypervirulence when transformed into colletotrichum coccodes (wallr.) hughes attacking abutilon theophrasti (l.) medic. was tested to ascertain if it would enhance pathogenicity of fusarium species to orobanche aegyptiaca pers. parasitising crops.200919291699
antioomycete activity of gamma-oxocrotonate fatty acids against p. infestans.infections with phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato and tomato late blight disease, are difficult to control and can lead to considerable agricultural losses. thus, the development of new effective agents against the pathogen is of great interest. in previous work, (e)-4-oxohexadec-2-enoic acid (3) was isolated from hygrophorus eburneus, which exhibited fungicidal activity against cladosporium cucumerinum. here, the inhibitory effect of 3 on p. infestans spore germination and myce ...200919778058
antifungal mechanism of a novel antifungal protein from pumpkin rinds against various fungal pathogens.a novel antifungal protein (pr-2) was identified from pumpkin rinds using water-soluble extraction, ultrafiltration, cation exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 14865.57 da. automated edman degradation showed that the n-terminal sequence of pr-2 was qgigvgdndgkrgkr-. the pr-2 protein strongly inhibited in vitro growth of bot ...200919807165
ammonium secretion by colletotrichum coccodes activates host nadph oxidase activity enhancing host cell death and fungal virulence in tomato fruits.colletotrichum pathogens of fruit and leaves are known ammonium secretors. here, we show that colletotrichum coccodes virulence, as measured by tomato (solanum lycopersicum cv. motelle) fruit tissue necrosis, correlates with the amount of ammonium secreted. ammonium application to fruit tissue induced hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) accumulation. to examine whether the tomato nadph oxidase, slrboh, is a source for the ammonium-induced h(2)o(2), wild-type and antisense lines abrogated for slrboh (sl ...200919888814
the pepper 9-lipoxygenase gene calox1 functions in defense and cell death responses to microbial pathogens.lipoxygenases (loxs) are crucial for lipid peroxidation processes during plant defense responses to pathogen infection. a pepper (capsicum annuum) 9-lox gene, calox1, which encodes a 9-specific lipoxygenase, was isolated from pepper leaves. recombinant calox1 protein expressed in escherichia coli catalyzed the hydroperoxidation of linoleic acid, with a k(m) value of 113. 9 mum. expression of calox1 was differentially induced in pepper leaves not only during xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria ...201019939946
vegetative compatibility groups in colletotrichum coccodes subpopulations from australia and genetic links with subpopulations from europe/israel and north america.vegetative compatibility of 94 isolates of colletotrichum coccodes from australia originating from potato, soil, and a weed (solanum esuriale) was tested using nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants. isolates distributed to six vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs), five of them multimember (24.5, 23.4, 13.8, 12.8, and 7.5% distribution) and only one composed of two isolates (2.1%); 15.9% of them were not assigned to any of the vcgs. aggressiveness of 51 isolates representing all six vcgs was teste ...201020128701
ethanol, vinegar and origanum vulgare oil vapour suppress the development of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit.anthracnose rot (colletotrichum coccodes) development in vitro or in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum l.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with absolute ethyl alcohol (aea), vinegar (vin), chlorine (chl) or origanum oil (ori) and storage at 12 degrees c and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. fruit treated with vapours reduced fungal spore germination/production, but in the case of aea- and vin-treated fruits, fungal mycelium development was accelerated. fruit ...201020576303
biocontrol activity and induction of systemic resistance in pepper by compost water extracts against phytophthora capsici.we investigated the effects of water extracts of composts (cwe) from commercial compost facilities for controlling root and foliar infection of pepper plants by phytophthora capsici. among 47 cwe tested, cwe from composts iljuk-3, iljuk-7, shinong-8, and shinong-9 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and population of p. capsici. all selected cwe significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the disease incidence and severity in the seedling and plan ...201020626281
biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.we investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (cwes) from iljuk-3, iljuk-7, shinong-8, and shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and c. orbiculare on cucumber. all tested cwes significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited in vitro conidial germination and appressorium formation of the fungal pathogens; however, dl-ß-amino-n-butyric acid (baba) failed to inhibit the conidial development of the pathogens. direct treatments of the cwes an ...201121281115
Pectate lyase affects pathogenicity in natural isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes and in pelA gene-disrupted and gene-overexpressing mutant lines.Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) S. Hughes, the causal agent of black dot on potato and anthracnose on tomato, reduces yield and crop quality. We explored the role of secreted pectate lyase (PL), a cell wall-degrading enzyme, in the aggressiveness of C. coccodes. In vitro-cultivated highly aggressive isolates secreted immunologically detectable PL levels 6 h after transfer to secondary medium versus 12 h for mildly aggressive isolates, suggesting that secreted PL is a virulence factor. The gene ...201121848609
The pepper extracellular peroxidase CaPO2 is required for salt, drought and oxidative stress tolerance as well as resistance to fungal pathogens.In plants, biotic and abiotic stresses regulate the expression and activity of various peroxidase isoforms. Capsicum annuum EXTRACELLULAR PEROXIDASE 2 (CaPO 2) was previously shown to play a role in local and systemic reactive oxygen species bursts and disease resistance during bacterial pathogen infection. Here, we report CaPO 2 expression patterns and functions during conditions of biotic and abiotic stress. In pepper plants, CaPO ...201122210598
Ammonium Secretion During Colletotrichum coccodes Infection Modulates Salicylic and Jasmonic Acid Pathways of Ripe and Unripe Tomato Fruit.The postharvest pathogens Colletotrichum coccodes remains quiescent after infection of unripe fruit. However, during fruit ripening, the pathogen assumes a necrotrophic life style, rapidly colonizing the tissue. C. coccodes secretes ammonium during germination and colonization of host tissue that induces host programmed cell death. We further examined the role of ammonia in the infection process by analyzing transcriptome expression from infected and ammonia-treated fruit tissue compared with he ...201222150075
synthesis of novel tetrazole derivatives and evaluation of their antifungal activity.with the appearance of the antifungal resistance, novel antifungal agents need to be identified. in this context new 2,5-disubstituted tetrazole derivatives containing benzothiazole, benzoxazole or phenylsulfonyl moiety were synthesized by n-alkylation of aryltetrazole with 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzothiazole or 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzoxazole and michael-type addition of aryltetrazole to phenyl vinyl sulfone. the chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were conf ...201627745991
identification of antifungal niphimycin from streptomyces sp. kp6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. a microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (ak) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. a culture extract of streptomyces sp. strain kp6107 lysed cells of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high ak activity. the active ingr ...201322915202
extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potato cells.a quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. an increase in extracellular ph is known to be an early defense response in plants. in this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-deriv ...201728174578
direct estimation of local ph change at infection sites of fungi in potato tubers.fungi can modify the ph in or around the infected site via alkalization or acidification, and ph monitoring may provide valuable information on host-fungus interactions. the objective of the present study was to examine the ability of two fungi, colletotrichum coccodes and helminthosporium solani, to modify the ph of potato tubers during artificial inoculation in situ. both fungi cause blemishes on potato tubers, which downgrades tuber quality and yield. direct visualization and estimation of ph ...201727819539
direct estimation of local ph change at infection sites of fungi in potato tubers.fungi can modify the ph in and/or around the infected site via alkalinization or acidification and ph monitoring may provide valuable information on host-fungus interactions. the objective of the present study was to examine the ability of two fungi, colletotrichum coccodes and helminthosporium solani, to modify the ph of potato tuber during artificial inoculation in situ. both fungi cause blemishes on potato tubers which downgrade tuber quality and yield. direct visualization and estimation of ...201627642795
antifungal activity of rimocidin and a new rimocidin derivative bu16 produced by streptomyces mauvecolor bu16 and their effects on pepper anthracnose.the objective of this study was to explore antifungal metabolites targeting fungal cell envelope and to evaluate the control efficacy against anthracnose development in pepper plants.201626808253
non traumatic keratitis due to colletotrichum coccodes: a case report.colletotrichum species, a rare and emerging fungus is a well- known plant pathogen and an uncommon cause of human infection. it has been implicated as the etiological agent of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis and keratitis, particularly following colonization of traumatized tissues or in immunocompromised patients. however, it has hardly ever been reported in the absence of such predisposing risk factors. here, we report a case of keratitis with colletotrichum coccodes occurring in a middle- aged, im ...201525859457
assignment of colletotrichum coccodes isolates into vegetative compatibility groups using infrared spectroscopy: a step towards practical application.colletotrichum coccodes (c. coccodes) is a pathogenic fungus that causes anthracnose on tomatoes and black dot disease in potatoes. it is considered as a seed tuber and soil-borne pathogen that is difficult to control. c. coccodes isolates are classified into vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs). early classification of isolates into vcgs is of great importance for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and improving its control. moreover, the differentiation among these iso ...201525790802
essential oil composition, antioxidant and antifungal activities of salvia sclarea l. from munzur valley in tunceli, turkey.the essential oil composition and in vitro antioxidant and antifungal activity of the salvia sclarea l. from munzur valley in tunceli, turkey were evaluated in this research. the in vitro antifungal activity of ethanol, hexane and aqueous extracts of s. sclarea against pathogen fungi epicoccum nigrum and colletotrichum coccodes were investigated. the essential oil of aerial parts of s. sclarea was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analysed by gc and gc—ms. total antioxidant status was determ ...201424929006
classification of colletotrichum coccodes isolates into vegetative compatibility groups using infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.in this study the potential of infrared (ir) spectroscopy for the classification of colletotrichum coccodes (c. coccodes) isolates into vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs) was evaluated. isolates which belong to the same vcg may have similar pathological and physiological traits that differ from those that are not assigned to the same vcg. early classification of isolates into vcgs is of a great importance for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and improves its control. ...201424582779
extracellular proteases from streptomyces phaeopurpureus expro138 inhibit spore adhesion, germination and appressorium formation in colletotrichum coccodes.to study the antifungal mechanism of proteases from streptomyces phaeopurpureus strain expro138 towards colletotrichum coccodes and to evaluate its utilization as biofungicide.201323560777
utilizing ftir-atr spectroscopy for classification and relative spectral similarity evaluation of different colletotrichum coccodes isolates.colletotrichum coccodes (c. coccodes) is a pathogenic fungus which causes anthracnose on tomatoes and black dot disease in potatoes. it is important to differentiate among these isolates and to detect the origin of newly discovered isolates, in order to treat the disease in its early stages. however, distinguishing between isolates using common biological methods is time-consuming, and not always available. we used fourier transform infra-red (ftir)-attenuated total reflectance (atr) spectroscop ...201222728584
identification of fungal phytopathogens using fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods.the early diagnosis of phytopathogens is of a great importance; it could save large economical losses due to crops damaged by fungal diseases, and prevent unnecessary soil fumigation or the use of fungicides and bactericides and thus prevent considerable environmental pollution. in this study, 18 isolates of three different fungi genera were investigated; six isolates of colletotrichum coccodes, six isolates of verticillium dahliae and six isolates of fusarium oxysporum. our main goal was to dif ...201222352668
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