fungicidal activity of natural and synthetic sesquiterpene lactone analogs.fungicidal activity of 36 natural and synthetic sesquiterpene lactones with guaianolide, trans, trans-germacranolide, cis, cis-germacranolide, melampolide, and eudesmanolide carbon skeletons was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi colletotrichum acutatum, c. fragariae, c. gloeosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cinerea, and phomopsis sp. dose-response data for the active compounds dehydrozaluzanin c, dehydrocostuslactone, 5alpha-hydroxydehydrocostuslacone, costunolide, and zaluzani ...200010783981
toxic activity from liquid culture of colletotrichum acutatum.colletotrichum acutatum has become an increasingly important plant pathogen worldwide. with this background, a study was carried out to characterize the toxicity of liquid culture media from different isolates and to identify some properties of the toxic principles. liquid culture media from all isolates were toxic to rubber leaves and induced the anthracnose symptoms. toxicity of the culture filtrate was not host specific and toxic substances were thermostable. acetone soluble fraction of the c ...200111761151
osmotic dehydration of apple slices with cacl2 and sucrose limits decay caused by penicillium expansum, colletotrichum acutatum, and botrytis cinerea and does not promote listeria monocytogenes or total aerobic population growth.the interaction of penicillium expansum link, colletotrichum acutatum, and botrytis cinerea pers.:fr. with listeria monocytogenes on osmotically dehydrated apple slices was evaluated. in mineral analyses of the slices, the calcium content of the peel and flesh tissues increased by 4- and 11-fold, respectively, when processed in 2% cacl2. these slices also exhibited less decay by p. expansum, c. acutatum, and b. cinerea. inoculation of slices with p. expansum resulted in a decrease in the ph of t ...200211808790
engineering a genetic transformation system for colletotrichum acutatum, the causal fungus of lime anthracnose and postbloom fruit drop of citrus.postbloom fruit drop (pfd) of citrus is caused by colletotrichum acutatum. pfd isolates infect flower petals, induce abscission of small fruit and can cause severe yield loss on most citrus cultivars. isolates from key lime anthracnose (kla) cause that disease on the mexican lime, but also cause pfd on sweet orange. both pfd and kla isolates exhibited resistance to the common selection agents including hygromycin, bialaphos, benomyl and geneticin/g418. a genetic transformation system was develop ...200212127485
disseminated mycotic infection caused by colletotrichum acutatum in a kemp's ridley sea turtle (lepidochelys kempi).colletotrichum acutatum is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen with a wide host range. while the organism's phytopathogenic potential has been well documented, it has never been reported as an etiologic agent of disease in either animals or humans. in this case, a juvenile kemp's ridley sea turtle, lepidochelys kempi, probably with immune compromise following cold stunning (extended hypothermia), developed a disseminated mycotic infection in the lungs and kidneys. prophylactic treatment with oral itra ...200212409409
ph modulation of zopfiellin antifungal activity to colletotrichum and botrytis.zopfiellin, a novel cyclooctanoid natural product isolated from zopfiella curvata no. 37-3, was evaluated in a 96-well microtiter assay for fungicidal activity against botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and fusarium oxysporum. zopfiellin exhibited ph-dependent activity, with the most mycelial growth inhibition demonstrated at ph 5.0. mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies indicated that zopfiellin un ...200212428951
indole derivatives produced by the fungus colletotrichum acutatum causing lime anthracnose and postbloom fruit drop of citrus.postbloom fruit drop (pfd) of citrus and key lime anthracnose (kla) are caused by colletotrichum acutatum. both fungal isolates can infect flower petals, induce young fruit abscission and result in severe yield loss on many citrus cultivars. previous studies revealed that infection of citrus flowers by c. acutatum caused higher levels of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa), which could be synthesized from the host plant and/or the fungal pathogen. the ability for iaa production by c. acutatum isolates wa ...200313129603
antifungal clerodane diterpenes from macaranga monandra (l) muell. et arg. (euphorbiaceae).hexane and ethyl acetate phases of the methanol extract of macaranga monandra showed fungal growth inhibition of colletotrichum acutatum, c. fragariae and c. gloeosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cinerea, phomopsis obscurans, and p. viticola. bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two active clerodane-type diterpenes that were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1d-, 2d-nmr, and ms) as kolavenic acid and 2-oxo-kolavenic acid. a 96-well microbioassay revealed that kolaveni ...200314664515
molecular and phenotypic analyses reveal association of diverse colletotrichum acutatum groups and a low level of c. gloeosporioides with olive anthracnose.anthracnose (colletotrichum spp.) is an important disease causing major yield losses and poor oil quality in olives. the objectives were to determine the diversity and distribution pattern of colletotrichum spp. populations prevalent in olives and their relatedness to anthracnose pathogens in other hosts, assess their pathogenic variability and host preference, and develop diagnostic tools. a total of 128 colletotrichum spp. isolates representing all olive-growing areas in portugal and a few iso ...200515932994
identification of scar markers linked to rca 2 anthracnose resistance gene and their assessment in strawberry germ plasm.bulked segregant analysis combined with aflps was used to identify molecular markers linked to the rca 2 gene conferring resistance to colletotrichum acutatum pathogenicity group 2 which causes anthracnose in the octoploid strawberry fragaria x ananassa. dna bulks originating from a cross between the resistant cultivar 'capitola' and the susceptible cultivar 'pajaro' were screened with 110 ecori/m se iaflp combinations. four aflp markers were found linked in coupling phase to rca 2 with recombin ...200516003555
isolation and identification of antifungal and antialgal alkaloids from haplophyllum sieversii.bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane/ethyl acetate/water (h/etoac/h2o) crude extract of the aerial parts of haplophyllum sieversii was performed because of preliminary screening data that indicated the presence of growth inhibitory components against colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum acutatum. fractionation was directed using bioautographical methods resulting in the isolation of the bioactive alkaloids flindersine, anhydroevoxine, haplamine, and ...200516190626
growth at different temperatures and on fungicide amended media: two characteristics to distinguish colletotrichum species pathogenic to rubber.slower growth at temperatures ranging from 15 to 32.5 degrees c and high tolerance of three fungicides, benomyl, carbendazim and thio-phanate methyl, were shown to be reliable characteristics in distinguishing rubber isolates of colletotrichum acutatum from colletotrichum gloeosporioides in addition to the characteristics reported previously.199816284845
enhanced resistance to botrytis cinerea mediated by the transgenic expression of the chitinase gene ch5b in strawberry.plants of strawberry (cultivar pájaro) were transformed with three defense related genes: ch5b, gln2 and ap24 using agrobacterium tumefaciens. the ch5b gene encodes for a chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris, while gln2 and ap24 encode for a glucanase and a thaumatin-like protein, respectively, both from nicotiana tabacum. sixteen transgenic lines expressing one or a combination of two defense genes were obtained. phytopathological tests showed that two transgenic lines expressing only the ch5b gen ...200616475010
antifungal activity of thiophenes from echinops ritro.extracts from 30 plants of the greek flora were evaluated for their antifungal activity using direct bioautography assays with three colletotrichum species. among the bioactive extracts, the dichloromethane extract of the radix of echinops ritro (asteraceae) was the most potent. bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of eight thiophenes. antifungal activities of isolated compounds together with a previously isolated thiophene from echinops transiliensis were first eva ...200616506815
cloning and expression analysis of two beta-1,3-glucanase genes from strawberry.we isolated from strawberry (fragariae x ananassa duch) a genomic clone of a beta-1,3-glucanase gene, designated as fabg2-2. in addition, a related cdna clone, designated as fabg2-3, was also isolated. fabg2-2 and fabg2-3 are similar in their coding regions, except that fabg2-2 does not appear to contain a signal peptide coding sequence. the 5' and 3' flanking regions of fabg2-2 and fabg2-3 are differentt. using real-time pcr, the expression patterns of fabg2-3 and a previously isolated beta-1,3 ...200616949959
antifungal activity of strawberry fruit volatile compounds against colletotrichum acutatum.eight volatile products characterizing strawberry aroma, which is generated from the oxidative degradation of linoleic and linolenic acids by a lipoxygenase (lox) pathway, were examined because of their antifungal activity against colletotrichum acutatum, one of the causal agents of strawberry anthracnose. in this study, the effects of aldehydes, alcohols, and esters on mycelial growth and conidia development were evaluated. (e)-hex-2-enal was found to be the best inhibitor of mycelial growth [m ...200717567029
release of acetaldehyde from beta-cyclodextrins inhibits postharvest decay fungi in vitro.many naturally occurring plant volatiles are known to have antifungal properties. however, they have limited use because they diffuse rapidly in air. in this in vitro study, acetaldehyde was chosen as a prototype volatile in order to study the controlled release of antifungal volatiles from cyclodextrins (cd). the major postharvest pathogens alternaria alternata, botrytis cinerea, and colletotrichum acutatum were exposed to the pure volatile for 7 days at 23 degrees c. acetaldehyde was most effe ...200717658831
a new technique to prevent the main post harvest diseases in berries during storage: inclusion complexes beta-cyclodextrin-hexanal.natural occurring volatiles such as hexanal have a well know antifungal capacity but limited post harvest use due to their volatility. taking this into consideration, hexanal was inserted into beta-cyclodextrins (beta-cd) to develop a controlled release mechanism and then evaluated in vitro against colletotrichum acutatum, alternaria alternata and botrytis cinerea, the three main causes of post harvest diseases in berries. different concentrations of both pure volatile hexanal and its inclusion ...200717716762
the colletotrichum acutatum gene encoding a putative ph-responsive transcription regulator is a key virulence determinant during fungal pathogenesis on citrus.postbloom fruit drop of citrus and key lime anthracnose (kla) are caused by different pathotypes of colletotrichum acutatum. both pathotypes are pathogenic to citrus flowers, resulting in blossom blight and induction of young fruit abscission. two fungal mutants defective in pathogenicity were recovered from a kla pathotype after agrobacterium-mediated mutagenesis. a pacc(klap2) gene encoding a polypeptide that resembles many ph-responsive pacc/ rim101 transcription regulators in fungi was ident ...200717849717
agrobacterium-mediated transformation and insertional mutagenesis in colletotrichum acutatum for investigating varied pathogenicity lifestyles.colletotrichum acutatum is a cosmopolitan pathogen causing economically important diseases known as anthracnose on a wide range of hosts. this fungus exhibits varied pathogenicity lifestyles and the tools essential to understand the molecular mechanisms are still being developed. the transformation methods currently available for this species for gene discovery and functional analysis involve protoplast transformation and are laborious and inefficient. we have developed a protocol for efficient ...200818183501
isolation and identification of antifungal fatty acids from the basidiomycete gomphus floccosus.bioautography of extracts of the fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete gomphus floccosus (schw.) singer indicated the presence of fungitoxic compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction against the plant pathogens colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum acutatum. bioassay-guided fractionation of this fraction resulted in the isolation of the bioactive fatty acids (9 s,10 e,12 z)-9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (1), (9 e,11 z)-13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid ( ...200818557621
improved control of anthracnose rot in loquat fruit by a combination treatment of pichia membranifaciens with cacl(2).the beneficial effect of 2% cacl(2) (w/v) on the antagonistic yeast pichia membranifaciens for control of anthracnose rot caused by colletotrichum acutatum in postharvest loquat fruit (eriobotrya japonica l.) and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. the results showed that treatment with p. membranifaciens at 1x10(8) cfu ml(-1) or 2% cacl(2) alone both resulted in significantly smaller lesion diameter and lower disease incidence of anthracnose rot on loquat fruit wounds compared w ...200818590937
germination and sporulation of colletotrichum acutatum on symptomless strawberry leaves.abstract the germination and sporulation of colletotrichum acutatum were characterized over time on strawberry leaves (cv. tristar) and plastic coverslips incubated at 26 degrees c under continuous wetness. conidia germinated within 3 h after inoculation and formed melanized appressoria with pores by 9 h after inoculation. host penetration was not observed up to 7 days after inoculation. production of secondary conidia on conidial and hyphal phialides began within 6 h after inoculation. secondar ...200118942995
subcuticular-intracellular hemibiotrophic and intercellular necrotrophic development of colletotrichum acutatum on almond.abstract the early infection and colonization processes of colletotrichum acutatum on leaves and petals of two almond cultivars with different susceptibility to anthracnose (i.e., cvs. carmel and nonpareil) were examined using digital image analysis of light micrographs and histological techniques. inoculated tissue surfaces were evaluated at selected times after inoculation and incubation at 20 degrees c. depth maps and line profiles of the digital image analysis allowed rapid depth quantificat ...200518943006
inheritance of resistance to colletotrichum acutatum in fragaria x ananassa.abstract anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum acutatum, is a major disease of the octoploid cultivated strawberry, fragaria x ananassa the inheritance of high and intermediate level plant resistances to c. acutatum, pathogenicity group 2, was investigated in an 8 x 8 factorial design. a single dominant gene (rca2) controlled the high-level resistance, although minor genes may also contribute to resistance in cultivars such as belrubi. the intermediate level of resistance was quantitative and co ...200518943043
digital image analysis of internal light spots of appressoria of colletotrichum acutatum.abstract the initial penetration process of appressoria of colletotrichum acutatum on almond leaves was studied using digital image analysis of light micrographs and scanning electron microscopy. for image analysis, a series of sequential, partially focused digital micrographs of appressoria was analyzed to generate a single, completely focused montage image with a continuous in-focus depth of field. in studies on the development of the internal light spot (ils), we observed that 50.4% of the ap ...200318943858
genetic and morphological characterization of colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose of lupins.abstract anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum sp., is a serious problem of lupins (lupinus spp.) worldwide. morphological characters and molecular markers were used to characterize 43 colletotrichum isolates from lupins, 8 isolates from other hosts, and 18 reference isolates representing related colletotrichum spp., to assess the pathogen diversity and resolve its taxonomy. all lupin colletotrichum isolates tested positive with c. acutatum-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and did not te ...200218944024
genetic diversity within colletotrichum acutatum sensu simmonds.abstract isolates of colletotrichum acutatum from several hosts were characterized by various molecular methods in comparison with morphological identification. species-specific primer analysis was reliable for grouping c. acutatum isolates to their designated species. arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction and a+t-rich dna analyses identified four subgroups within c. acutatum. subgroup i contained u.s. isolates from almond, apple, peach, and pecan, subgroup ii contained isolates from anem ...200118943948
visualization of localized pathogen-induced ph modulation in almond tissues infected by colletotrichum acutatum using confocal scanning laser microscopy.modulation of ph within the host during infection of almond by the anthracnose pathogen colletotrichum acutatum was studied using confocal scanning laser microscopy and the dual emission fluorescence indicator snarf-1. this highly sensitive method allowed visualization of the spatial distribution of localized pathogen-induced ph modulation within and in proximity to fungal infection structures in host tissue at the cellular level. ratiometric measurement of fluorescence at two emission wavelengt ...200818943405
use of green fluorescent protein-transgenic strains to study pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles in colletotrichum acutatum.abstract colletotrichum acutatum, which causes anthracnose disease on strawberry, can also persist on several other plant species without causing disease symptoms. the genetic and molecular bases that determine pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles in c. acutatum are unclear. we developed a transformation system for c. acutatum by electroporation of germinating conidia, and transgenic isolates that express the green fluorescent protein (gfp) were produced. details of the pathogenic and nonpath ...200218943270
colletotrichum acutatum var. fioriniae (teleomorph: glomerella acutata var. fioriniae var. nov.) infection of a scale epizootic has been reported in fiorinia externa populations in new york, connecticut, pennsylvania and newjersey. infected insects have profuse sclerotial masses enclosing their bodies. the most commonly isolated microorganism from infected f. externa was colletotrichum sp. a morphological and molecular characterization of this fungus indicated that it is closely related to phytopathogenic c. acutatum isolates. isolates of colletotrichum sp. from f. externa in areas of the epizootic were simi ...200818751543
differential protein expression in colletotrichum acutatum: changes associated with reactive oxygen species and nitrogen starvation implicated in pathogenicity on strawberry.the cellular outcome of changes in nitrogen availability in the context of development and early stages of pathogenicity was studied by quantitative analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of colletotrichum acutatum infecting strawberry. significant alterations occurred in the abundance of proteins synthesized during appressorium formation under nitrogen-limiting conditions compared with a complete nutrient supply. proteins that were up- or down-regulated were involved in energy metaboli ...200818705850
phenotypic characterization of mutants of the citrus pathogen colletotrichum acutatum defective in a pacc-mediated ph regulatory pathway.environmental ph plays an important role in the growth and differentiation of microorganisms. in fungi, one well-studied ph-response pathway is controlled by the transcriptional regulator pacc. the pacc(klap2) gene of the citrus pathogen colletotrichum acutatum is required for virulence. here, the phenotypes of c. acutatum mutants obtained by targeted disruption of pacc(klap2) are characterized. the pacc(klap2) null mutants displayed hypersensitivity to a wide range of compounds but were more to ...200717986091
effects of a cover crop on splash dispersal of colletotrichum acutatum conidia.abstract a rain simulator, with generated rains of 11 and 30 mm/h, was used to determine the effect of a cover crop or intercrop on the splash dispersal of colletotrichum acutatum conidia. dispersal through sudangrass, which can be used as a 'living mulch', was tested at two planting densities (140 or 280 kg/ha) and two heights (5 and 20 cm) and compared with a control consisting of a bare soil. dispersal of c. acutatum conidia was assessed by counting colonies formed from spore-bearing splash d ...199818944906
chemical composition and antifungal activity of arnica longifolia, aster hesperius, and chrysothamnus nauseosus essential oils.essential oils from three different asteraceae obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts were analyzed by gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc/ms). main compounds obtained from each taxon were found as follows: arnica longifolia carvacrol 37.3%, alpha-bisabolol 8.2%; aster hesperius hexadecanoic acid 29.6%, carvacrol 15.2%; and chrysothamnus nauseosus var. nauseosus beta-phellandrene 22.8% and beta-pinene 19.8%. essential oils were also evaluated for their ant ...200717894463
fungitoxicity of lyophilized and spray-dried garlic extracts.among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-s-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. the objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: alte ...200717763036
benomyl resistance of colletotrichum acutatum is caused by enhanced expression of beta-tubulin 1 gene regulated by putative leucine zipper protein caben1.colletotrichum acutatum, the fungus causing anthracnose disease of various fruits and crops, has inherent resistance to benomyl. the mechanism underlying its resistance to benomyl remains unclear. we generated a benomyl-sensitive mutant cat7-150 by transformation-mediated insertional mutagenesis. subsequently, a caben1 gene was isolated from cat7-150 by plasmid rescue and sequenced. caben1 encodes a protein of 818 amino acids containing a leucine zipper motif, and the amino acid sequence has sig ...200717507270
bioactive constituents from turkish pimpinella species.a new 'phenylpropanoid', 4-(3-methyloxiran-2-yl)phenyl 2-methylbutanoate (1), a new trinorsesquiterpene, 4-(6-methylbicyclo[4.1.0]hept-2-en-7-yl)butan-2-one (2), and eight known compounds (3-10) were isolated from the essential oils of several pimpinella species growing in turkey. the structures of the new compounds were determined by 1d- and 2d-nmr analyses. the absolute configuration of 1 was established via comparison of its optical rotation with that of 'epoxypseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrat ...200517191975
characterization of volatile constituents of scaligeria tripartita and studies on the antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi.the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from stems and leaves, fruits and roots of scaligeria tripartita oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. a total of 38 compounds were identified ranging 89-94% of the oil samples. geijerene was found as a main compound in the oils of the stems and leaves (37%) and fruits (55%), whereas epoxypseudoisoeugenol angelate (37%) was found as a main compound in the root oil. oils were subsequently evaluated for their antimalarial, ...200717169621
elucidation of the disease cycle of olive anthracnose caused by colletotrichum acutatum.anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum acutatum and c. gloeosporioides, is a major fungal disease of olive in many countries. in spain, the disease has been associated only with a characteristic rot and mummification of mature fruit. the purpose of this study was to determine whether c. acutatum could infect other plant tissues that may serve as sources of inoculum for anthracnose epidemics. inoculations of young plants or detached leaves and field observations demonstrated that flowers and immat ...200919351251
host range and genetic relatedness of colletotrichum acutatum isolates from fruit crops and leatherleaf fern in florida.isolates of colletotrichum acutatum were collected from anthracnose-affected strawberry, leatherleaf fern, and key lime; ripe-rot-affected blueberry; and postbloom fruit drop (pfd)-affected sweet orange in florida. additional isolates from ripe-rot-affected blueberry were collected from georgia and north carolina and from anthracnose-affected leatherleaf fern in costa rica. pathogenicity tests on blueberry and strawberry fruit; foliage of key lime, leatherleaf fern, and strawberry; and citrus fl ...200919351258
antifungal and insecticidal activity of two juniperus essential oils.essential oils of two tibetan junipers juniperus saltuaria and j. squamata var. fargesii (cupressaceae) were obtained by distilling dried leaves and branches using a clevenger apparatus. sixty-seven compounds from j. saltuaria and 58 from j. squamata var. fargesii were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). both essential oils contained similar ratios of four abundant monoterpenoids: 44 and 35% sabinene, 13 and 9% elemol, 8 and 7% terpinen-4-ol, and 4 and 17% alpha-pinene, r ...200919370889
novel macrolide from wild strains of the phytopathogen fungus colletotrichum acutatum.three wild strains of c. acutatum have been investigated for their phytotoxic secondary metabolites involved in anthracnose disease. in addition to known compounds, a new macrolide 6 has been isolated and characterized by spectroscopic analysis.200919413120
chemical composition and antifungal activity of salvia macrochlamys and salvia recognita essential oils.essential oils of salvia macrochlamys and salvia recognita were obtained by hydrodistillation of dried aerial parts and characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. one hundred and twenty identified constituents representing 97.7% in s. macrochlamys and 96.4% in s. recognita were characterized, and 1,8-cineole, borneol, and camphor were identified as major components of the essential oils. the oils were evaluated for their antimalarial, antimicrobial, and antifun ...200616939314
evidence for a positive regulatory role of strawberry (fragaria x ananassa) fa wrky1 and arabidopsis at wrky75 proteins in resistance.knowledge of the molecular basis of plant resistance to pathogens in species other than arabidopsis is limited. the function of fa wrky1, the first wrky gene isolated from strawberry (fragaria x ananassa), an important agronomical fruit crop, has been investigated here. fa wrky1 encodes a iic wrky transcription factor and is up-regulated in strawberry following colletotrichum acutatum infection, treatments with elicitors, and wounding. its arabidopsis sequence homologue, at wrky75, has been desc ...200919470657
thhog1 controls the hyperosmotic stress response in trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a widespread mycoparasitic fungus, able to successfully colonize a wide range of substrates under different environmental conditions. transcript profiling revealed a subset of genes induced in t. harzianum under hyperosmotic shock. the hog1 gene, a homologue of the mapk hog1 gene that controls the hyperosmotic stress response in saccharomyces cerevisiae, was characterized. t. harzianum hog1 complemented the hog1delta mutation in s. cerevisiae, but showed different featur ...200616735732
characterization of volatile constituents of haplopappus greenei and studies on the antifungal activity against phytopathogens.essential oil of haplopappus greenei a. gray was obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts, which were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. major components were identified as carvacrol (8.7%), beta-pinene (7.6%), trans-pinocarveol (6.2%), and caryophyllene oxide (5.8%), respectively. in total, 104 components representing 84.9% of the investigated essential oil were characterized. furthermore, the essential oil was evaluated for antimalarial, ...200616608244
dehydro-alpha-lapachone isolated from catalpa ovata stems: activity against plant pathogenic fungi.the methanol extract of stems of catalpa ovata g don exhibits potent in vivo antifungal activity against magnaporthe grisea (hebert) barr (rice blast) on rice plants, botrytis cinerea pers ex fr (tomato grey mould) and phytophthora infestans (mont) de bary (tomato late blight) on tomato plants, puccinia recondita rob ex desm (wheat leaf rust) on wheat plants and blumeria graminis (dc) speer f. sp. hordei marchal (barley powdery mildew) on barley plants. an antifungal substance was isolated and i ...200616550502
morphology and lipid body and vacuole dynamics during secondary conidia formation in colletotrichum acutatum: laser scanning confocal analysis.colletotrichum acutatum may develop one or more secondary conidia after conidial germination and before mycelial growth. secondary conidia formation and germination were influenced by conidia concentration. concentrations greater than 1x105 conidia/ml were associated with germination decrease and with secondary conidia emergence. secondary conidia can form either alone or simultaneously with germ tubes and appressoria. confocal analysis showed numerous lipid bodies stored inside ungerminated con ...200616541147
identification of two new genes conferring resistance to colletotrichum acutatum in capsicum baccatum.resistance to anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum capsici and c. acutatum, was investigated in capsicum baccatum pbc80 and pbc1422 and c. chinense pbc932. mature green and ripe fruit were inoculated with 13 isolates of the two colletotrichum species pbc80 contained the broadest spectrum of resistance to both colletotrichum species because none of the isolates were able to infect the genotype. at both fruit maturity stages, pbc1422 was infected by only colletotrichum acutatum. pbc932 at ripe fr ...200919671013
a new selective medium for the recovery and enumeration of monilinia fructicola, m. fructigena, and m. laxa from stone fruits.isolation of monilinia spp. from stone and pome fruit surfaces is difficult due to the presence of several fast-growing fungal species such as rhizopus, alternaria, and penicillium spp. therefore, a new selective medium (acidified potato dextrose agar [ph 3.6] amended with fosetyl-aluminum [fosetyl-al] at 500 microg/ml) (apda-f500) was developed for the recovery of monilinia propagules. the antifungal agents fosetyl-al, dichloran, ammonium molybdate, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-dd-glucose) were tes ...200919740034
gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of volatiles obtained by four different techniques from salvia rosifolia sm., and evaluation for biological activity.four different isolation techniques, conventional hydrodistillation (hd), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (mwhd), microdistillation (md) and micro-steam distillation-solid-phase microextraction (msd-spme), have been used to analyze the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of salvia rosifolia sm. by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. hd and mwhd techniques produced quantitatively (yield, 0.39% and 0.40%) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar ...201020015509
colletotrichum acutatum is the main cause of colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber in sri lanka.colletotrichum gloeosporoides has been described as the causal agent of colletotrichum leaf disease of rubber in sri lanka and other parts of the world since 1905. a study carried out on vegetative and reproductive characteristics of 52 isolates from colletotrichum leaf disease lesions on hevea brasiliensis in sri lanka revealed that only 18 isolates belong to colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the remaining 34 isolates represented c. aculatum indicating that c. acutatum is the main cause of collet ...199716284808
a defect in nir1, a nira-like transcription factor, confers morphological abnormalities and loss of pathogenicity in colletotrichum acutatum.summary a non-pathogenic mutant of colletotrichum acutatum, designated ca5, exhibited epiphytic hyphal growth and did not cause lesions on strawberry plants but grew necrotrophically when inoculated directly onto wounded stolons. in the absence of an external nitrogen source, the mutant exhibited extended germ-tube growth prior to appressorium formation. the deduced product of the impaired gene (nir1) is similar to nira, an aspergillus nidulans transcriptional regulator of nitrogen metabolism. i ...200620507451
induction of phytohormones and differential gene expression in citrus flowers infected by the fungus colletotrichum acutatum.colletotrichum acutatum infects citrus petals and induces premature fruit drop and the formation of persistent calyces. the accumulation of hormones and other growth regulators, and differential gene expression in affected flowers and young fruit, was examined following fungal infection. ethylene evolution increased threefold and indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) accumulation was as much as 140 times. abscisic acid (aba) levels showed no significant response. after infection, both trans- and cis-12-oxo ...200415597745
re-identification and characterization of pathogens causing ugurassa (flacourtia inermis) fruit anthracnose.fruit anthracnose of ugurassa caused by colletotrichum acutatum is hereby reported for the first time in sri lanka and it is proposed that c. acutatum is considered together with c. gloeosporioides, as a causal agent of this disease. c. acutatum was characterised by fusiform conidia and white to orange colonies with slight shades of light mouse grey aerial mycelia. c. gloeosporioides produced grey colonies with a dark mouse grey centre and conidia were cylindrical. the other differences between ...200415008349
effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on anthracnose rot caused by colletotrichum acutatum and disease resistance in loquat fruit.backgound: loquat (eriobotrya japonica lindl.) fruit are susceptible to fungal decay during postharvest storage at ambient temperature. the control of postharvest diseases of loquat is based primarily on the use of synthetic fungicides. to look for an alternative method for disease control, we investigated the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-mcp) on controlling anthracnose rot caused by colletotrichum acutatum of loquat fruit. results: 1-mcp treatment significantly reduced decay incidence of l ...201020648530
eupatorium capillifolium essential oil: chemical composition, antifungal activity, and insecticidal activity.natural plant extracts often contain compounds that are useful in pest management applications. the essential oil of eupatorium capillifolium (dog-fennel) was investigated for antifungal and insecticidal activities. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc/ms). the major components were determined to be thymol methyl ether (=methyl thymol) (36.3%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (20.8%) and myrcene (1 ...201020922999
characterization of colletotrichum species associated with diseases of proteaceae.colletotrichum spp. are known to occur on and cause diseases of proteaceae, but their identities are confused and poorly understood. the aim of the present study thus was to identify accurately the colletotrichum spp. associated with diseases of cultivated proteaceae. colletotrichum spp. associated with proteaceous hosts growing in various parts of the world were identified based on morphology, sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region (its-1, its-2), the 5.8s gene, and partial seq ...200421148951
activity of quinones on colletotrichum species.the antifungal activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones, 1,2-naphthoquinones, 1,4-benzoquinones, and anthraquinones from our natural products collection was tested by direct bioautography to identify natural products with potential use in agricultural fungal pathogen control. quinones demonstrated good to moderate antifungal activity against colletotrichum spp. colletotrichum fragariae was the most sensitive species to quinone-based chemistry, colletotrichum gloeosporioides had intermediate sensitivity, ...200312797750
molluscicidal and antifungal activity of erigeron speciosus steam distillate.the steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of erigeron speciosus (lindl) dc was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi botrytis cinerea pers ex fr, colletotrichum acutatum simmonds, c fragariae brooks, c gloeosporioides (penz) penz & sacc, and the intermediate host snail planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the mississippi delta region of the usa. bioautography on s ...200212400444
osmotic dehydration of apple slices using a sucrose/cacl2 combination to control spoilage caused by botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, and penicillium expansum.the efficacy of sucrose combined with cacl2 during osmotic dehydration (od) was tested for the control of botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, and penicillium expansum growth on lightly processed apple slices. the objective of this work was to determine whether the addition of cacl2 in the osmotic solutions would limit the proliferation of fungal decay organisms. slices were submitted to od for 1 h at 25 degrees c in solutions containing 5 to 65% sucrose. calcium chloride was added to a si ...200111563522
local modulation of host ph by colletotrichum species as a mechanism to increase virulence.the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides produces one pectate lyase (pl) that is a key virulence factor in disease development. during growth of c. gloeosporioides, colletotrichum acutatum, and colletotrichum coccodes in acidified yeast extract medium, the fungus secreted ammonia and increased the medium ph. ammonia accumulation and the consequent ph change increased as a function of initial ph and buffer capacity of the medium. pl secretion by c. gloeosporioides correspondingly ...200111551075
characterization of colletotrichum acutatum causing anthracnose of anemone (anemone coronaria l.).anthracnose, or leaf-curl disease of anemone, caused by colletotrichum sp., has been reported to occur in australia, western europe, and japan. symptoms include tissue necrosis, corm rot, leaf crinkles, and characteristic spiral twisting of floral peduncles. three epidemics of the disease have been recorded in israel: in 1978, in 1990 to 1993, and in 1996 to 1998. we characterized 92 colletotrichum isolates associated with anthracnose of anemone (anemone coronaria l.) for vegetative compatibilit ...200011097901
postbloom fruit drop of citrus and key lime anthracnose are caused by distinct phylogenetic lineages of colletotrichum acutatum.colletotrichum acutatum causes two diseases of citrus, postbloom fruit drop (pfd) and key lime anthracnose (kla). pfd is a disease restricted to flowers of sweet orange and most other citrus, and symptoms include petal necrosis, abscission of developing fruit, and the formation of persistent calyces. kla is a disease of foliage, flowers, and fruits of key lime only, and symptoms include necrotic lesions on leaves, fruits, twigs, flowers, and blight of entire shoots. the internal transcribed spac ...200818944086
essential oil composition of five collections of achillea biebersteinii from central turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.the composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five achillea biebersteinii afan samples, collected in central turkey from konya, isparta and ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (gc-fid) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. the identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). two samples differed in piperi ...201121615036
the synthetic strigolactone gr24 influences the growth pattern of phytopathogenic fungi.strigolactones that are released by plant roots to the rhizosphere are involved in both plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and in plant infection by root parasitic plants. in this paper, we describe the response of various phytopathogenic fungi to the synthetic strigolactone gr24. when gr24 was embedded in the growth medium, it inhibited the growth of the root pathogens fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, fusarium solani f. sp. mango, sclerotinia sclerotiorum and macrophomina phase ...201121688170
isolation of a strawberry gene fragment encoding an actin depolymerizing factor-like protein from genotypes resistant to colletotrichum acutatum.actin depolymerizing factors (adfs) have been recently implicated in plant defense against pathogenic fungi, associated with the cytoskeletal rearrangements that contribute to establish an effective barrier against fungal ingress. in this work, we identified a dna fragment corresponding to a part of a gene predicted to encode an adf-like protein in genotypes of fragaria ananassa resistant to the fungus colletotrichum acutatum. bulked segregant analysis combined with aflp was used to identify pol ...201122107362
development and characterization of antimicrobial poly(l-lactic acid) containing trans-2-hexenal trapped in cyclodextrins.trans-2-hexenal, a naturally occurring plant volatile with antimicrobial capacity, was encapsulated into β-cyclodextrins (β-cds), enzymatically modified starch, and shown effective to control main microorganisms causing food spoilage (alternaria solani, aspergillus niger, botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, penicillium sp). loaded β-cds were incorporated into a poly(l-lactic acid) (pla) matrix by extrusion and casting, and yielded antimicrobial polymers made from natural resources. a mast ...201122177713
diversity and antimicrobial activities of the fungal endophyte community associated with the traditional brazilian medicinal plant solanum cernuum vell. (solanaceae).the diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with the brazilian medicinal plant solanum cernuum vell. were studied during summer and winter seasons. a total of 246 fungal isolates were obtained, including 225 filamentous fungi and 21 yeasts. they were identified by morphological, physiological, and molecular methods. fifty-five different taxa represented by the phyla ascomycota (33 taxa), basidiomycota (21 taxa), and zygomycota (one taxon) were identified. the most a ...201122182199
pathogenic and nonpathogenic lifestyles in colletotrichum acutatum from strawberry and other plants.abstract anthracnose is one of the major fungal diseases of strawberry occurring worldwide. in israel, the disease is caused primarily by the species colletotrichum acutatum. the pathogen causes black spot on fruit, root necrosis, and crown rot resulting in mortality of transplants in the field. the host range and specificity of c. acutatum from strawberry was examined on pepper, eggplant, tomato, bean, and strawberry under greenhouse conditions. the fungus was recovered from all plant species o ...200118944126
strawberry anthracnose: histopathology of colletotrichum acutatum and c. fragariae.abstract ontogeny of the invasion process by colletotrichum acutatum and c. fragariae was studied on petioles and stolons of the strawberry cultivar chandler using light and electron microscopy. the invasion of host tissue by each fungal species was similar; however, each invasion event occurred more rapidly with c. fragariae than with c. acutatum. following cuticular penetration via an appressorium, subsequent steps of invasion involved hyphal growth within the cuticle and within the cell walls ...200218944215
biocontrol of phytophthora blight and anthracnose in pepper by sequentially selected antagonistic rhizobacteria against phytophthora capsici.we previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. in this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against p. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. we selected four potential biocontrol strains (pseudomo ...201325288942
bacillus cereus ar156-induced resistance to colletotrichum acutatum is associated with priming of defense responses in loquat fruit.the effectiveness of a biocontrol agent bacillus cereus ar156 for control of anthracnose rot caused by colletotrichum acutatum in harvested loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms of its action have been investigated. treatment of fruit with b. cereus ar156 resulted in lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters compared with that of untreated fruit. the treatment enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxida ...201425386680
strawberry plant extracts stimulate secondary conidiation by colletotrichum acutatum on symptomless leaves.abstract conidial suspensions of colletotrichum acutatum were prepared in 1:27, 1:45, and 1:81 (wt/vol) dilutions of an extract of strawberry (cv. tristar) flowers or leaves in water. strawberry leaves and plastic coverslips were sprayed with the conidial suspensions, incubated at 25 degrees c and continuous wetness for 48 h, and the number of conidia and appressoria were counted. in another experiment, leaves and coverslips were sprayed with a conidial suspension in water, incubated for 72 h to ...200318944328
influence of temperature and wetness duration on conidia and appressoria of colletotrichum acutatum on symptomless strawberry leaves.abstract strawberry leaves (cv. tristar) inoculated with colletotrichum acuta-tum conidia were incubated at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 degrees c under continuous wetness, and at 25 degrees c under six intermittent wetness regimes. the number of conidia and appressoria was quantified on excised leaf disks. in order to assess pathogen survival, inoculated leaves were frozen and incubated to induce acervular development. germination, secondary3 conidiation, and appressorial development were signifi ...200318944367
control of human and plant fungal pathogens using pentaene macrolide 32, 33-didehydroroflamycoin.the aim of this study was to address the toxicity of recently described polyene macrolide 32, 33-didehydroroflamycoin (ddhr) on a wide range of fungal pathogens and its potential to control plant fungal diseases.201525810243
antifungal, insecticidal, and plant growth promoting potential of streptomyces hydrogenans the present study, an actinobacterium strain, possessing antagonistic activity against different fungal phytopathogens viz. colletotrichum acutatum, cladosporium herbarum, alternaria brassicicola, exserohilum sp., alternaria mali, colletotrichum gleospoiroides, alternaria alternata, cercospora sp., fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and fusarium moniliformae, was isolated from soil and identified as streptomyces hydrogenans dh16. application of culture supernatant (5%)/cells (10(7)  cfu ml(-1) ...201423765423
identification of subpopulations of colletotrichum acutatum and epidemiology of almond anthracnose in california.abstract in recent years, almond anthracnose has developed into a major problem for the california almond industry. the identification of the causal pathogen as colletotrichum acutatum was confirmed using species-specific primers and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of ribosomal dna in comparative studies with isolates of c. acutatum from strawberry and c. gloeosporioides from citrus. two distinct clonal subpopulations among the almond isolates of c. acutatum were identified. these two ...199918944662
ieodoglucomide c and ieodoglycolipid, new glycolipids from a marine-derived bacterium bacillus licheniformis 09idym23.chemical examination of the ethyl acetate extract from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium bacillus licheniformis resulted in the isolation of two new glycolipids, ieodoglucomide c (1) and ieodoglycolipid (2). the structural characterization of 1 and 2 was achieved by extensive spectroscopic evidence, including 2d nmr experiments. a combination of chemical derivatization techniques followed by nmr studies, lc-ms data analysis and a literature review was deployed for the establ ...201525893812
isolation and molecular characterization of a novel strain of bacillus with antifungal activity from the sorghum rhizosphere.we looked for bacterial strains with antifungal activity in the sorghum rhizosphere. a prescreening procedure to search for hemolytic activity among the isolated strains allowed us to detect good fungitoxic activity in a bacterial isolate that we named um96. this bacterial isolate showed strong growth inhibition in bioassays against the pathogens diaporthe phaseolorum, colletotrichum acutatum, rhizoctonia solani, and fusarium oxysporum. the supernatant of isolate um96 also showed strong hemolyti ...201222869080
identification of colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose and root necrosis of strawberry in israel.abstract strawberry anthracnose was observed for the first time in israel in 1995. the disease reached epidemic proportions in israeli nurseries and production fields in 1995 and 1996. using morphological and cultural characteristics, the species responsible for anthracnose was identified as colletotrichum acutatum. a reliable semi-selective medium, amended with iprodione and lactic acid, was used to isolate the fungus from infected tissues. in addition, c. acutatum was subsequently isolated fro ...199718945106
isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of medicago truncatula the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of medicago truncatula plants. of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic dna, yielding 88 haplotypes. the similarity coefficient of nei and li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. additionally, 8 o ...201425062484
a glomerella species phylogenetically related to colletotrichum acutatum on norway maple in massachusetts.a fungus isolated from norway maple (acer platanoides) in the boston, massachusetts, area was determined to be a species of glomerella, the teleomorph of colletotrin chum acutatum. pure cultures of the fungus were obtained from discharged ascospores from perithecia in leaf tissue. this fungus was determined to be homothallic based on the observation of perithecial development in cultures of single-spore isolates grown on minimal salts media and with sterile toothpicks. a morphological and molecu ...200818959155
the distinctive population structure of colletotrichum species associated with olive anthracnose in the algarve region of portugal reflects a host-pathogen diversity hot spot.anthracnose (colletotrichum spp.) is an important disease of olive fruits. diversity and biogeographic relationships of the olive anthracnose pathogens in the algarve (portugal) were investigated, along with host association patterns and disease levels during 2004-2007, to test the hypothesis that this region is a host-pathogen diversity hot spot. diverse colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides populations were identified based on rrna-internal transcribed spacer and partial b ...200919459972
selection and a 3-year field trial of sorangium cellulosum kyc 3262 against anthracnose in hot pepper.kyc 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. dual culture with colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of c. acutatum. all selections were sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. with the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, kyc 3262, kyc 3512, kyc 3279, and ky ...201425289014
effect of rain distribution alteration on splash dispersal of colletotrichum acutatum.abstract splash dispersal of colletotrichum acutatum conidia from infected strawberry fruit was assessed using a rain simulator to determine the properties of rain (e.g., intensity [millimeters/hour] or drop size distribution) most related to dissemination. dispersal with a simulated rain corresponding to a natural rain of about 11 mm/h was compared with dispersal of three other simulated rains that had larger and smaller drop sizes, on average, than idealized natural rains. splash droplets were ...199718945084
characterization of colletotrichum acutatum isolates causing anthracnose of almond and peach in california.abstract the causal organism responsible for the recent outbreak of almond and peach anthracnose in california was identified and characterized as colletotrichum acutatum. isolates of c. acutatum from almond were found to be similar to california strawberry isolates and south carolina peach and apple isolates of c. acutatum based on conidial morphology, temperature relationships, fungicide sensitivity, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods using dna species-specific primers. on almond, blo ...199718945071
vegetative compatibility groups and parasexual segregation in colletotrichum acutatum isolates infecting different hosts.heterokaryosis is an important mechanism which provides genetic variability increase in filamentous fungi. in order to assess the diversity of vegetative compatibility reactions existing among colletotrichum acutatum isolates derived from different hosts, complementary nit mutants of each isolate were obtained and paired in all possible combinations. vegetative compatibility groups (vcg) were identified among the isolates according to their ability to form viable heterokaryons. seven vcgs were i ...201121425929
characterization of volatile constituents from origanum onites and their antifungal and antibacterial activity.essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (hd) and microwave-assisted hd (mwhd) of origanum onites aerial parts were analyzed by gc and gcims. thirty-one constituents representing 98.6% of the water-distilled oil and 52 constituents representing 99.6% of the microwave-distilled oil were identified. carvacrol (76.8% hd and 79.2% mwhd) and thymol (4.7% hd and 4.4% mwhd) were characterized as major constituents in both essential oils. separation of carvacrol and thymol was achieved by overpressu ...201424645494
development of colletotrichum acutatum on tolerant and susceptible olea europaea l. cultivars: a microscopic analysis.colletotrichum acutatum is a cosmopolitan and damaging plant pathogen of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruits and causes anthracnose on olive (olea europaea l.). three olive cultivars showing a variable response to infection by c. acutatum were selected to a preliminary study of pathogen development. fruit samples, from susceptible and tolerant cultivars, were taken at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 192 h after inoculation for a microscopic and histological study of the infection and colonization pro ...200919484196
polyphenols variation in fruits of the susceptible strawberry cultivar alba during ripening and upon fungal pathogen interaction and possible involvement in unripe fruit tolerance.strawberry (fragaria × ananassa) fruit contains high concentrations of health-promoting phenolic compounds, playing important roles for the fruit ontogenic tolerance to fungi. in the highly susceptible cultivar alba, the two major strawberry fungal pathogens, colletotrichum acutatum and botrytis cinerea, displayed disease symptoms only at red ripe stages because immature fruits are tolerant to diseases. we analyzed and compared the variation of 47 polyphenols in the surface of unripe and ripe al ...201626895094
entomopathogenic activity of a variety of the fungus, colletotrichum acutatum, recovered from the elongate hemlock scale, fiorinia externa.a fungal epizootic in populations of fiorinia externa ferris (hemiptera: diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, tsuga canadensis (l.) carrière (pinales: pinaceae) in forests of the northeastern us has been recently detected. the current known distribution of the epizootic spans 36 sites in new york, pennsylvania, new jersey and connecticut. colletotrichum acutatum simmonds var. fioriniae marcelino and gouli var. nov. inedit. (phyllachorales: phyllachoraceae) was the most prevalent fungus recovere ...200919613442
host plant associations of an entomopathogenic variety of the fungus, colletotrichum acutatum, recovered from the elongate hemlock scale, fiorinia externa.a fungal epizootic has been detected in populations of the scale fiorinia externa ferris (hemiptera: diaspididae) in the eastern hemlock, tsuga canadensis (l.) carrière (pinales: pinaceae), of several northeastern states. colletotrichum acutatum simmonds var. fioriniae marcelino and gouli var. nov. inedit (phyllachorales: phyllachoraceae), a well-known plant pathogen, was the most commonly recovered fungus from these infected scales. this is the second report of a colletotrichum sp. infecting sc ...200919613851
pcr-based specific techniques used for detecting the most important pathogens on strawberry: a systematic review.strawberry diseases are a major limiting factor that severely impact plant agronomic performance. regarding limitations of traditional techniques for detection of pathogens, researchers have developed specific dna-based tests as sensitive and specific techniques. the aim of this review is to provide an overview of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods used for detection or quantification of the most widespread strawberry pathogens, such as fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae, phytophthora ...201525588564
methyl anthranilate and γ-decalactone inhibit strawberry pathogen growth and achene germination.plant volatile compounds have been shown to affect microbial growth and seed germination. here two fruity volatiles found in strawberry ( fragaria × ananassa ), γ-decalactone ("peachlike" aroma) and methyl anthranilate ("grapelike" aroma), were tested for effects on relevant pathogens and seedling emergence. significant growth reduction was observed for botrytis cinerea , colletotrichum gloeosporioides , colletotrichum acutatum , phomopsis obscurans , and gnomonia fragariae at 1 mm γ-decalactone ...201324328200
effects of heat treatment on wound healing in gala and red fuji apple fruits.this study investigated the effects of heat treatment (hot air at 38 degrees c for 4 days) on wound healing in gala and red fuji apple fruits (malus domestica borkh.) and the possible mechanism. wounded apples were healed at either 20 or 38 degrees c for 4 days. during the treatment, ethylene, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), peroxidase (pod), polyphenol oxidase (ppo), hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)), and phenolic and lignin contents were measured. following the treatment, healed wounds were inoc ...201020232915
genotypic and phenotypic diversity in colletotrichum acutatum, a cosmopolitan pathogen causing anthracnose on a wide range of hosts.summary colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose on a wide range of hosts including woody and herbaceous crops, ornamentals, fruits and conifers. almond, citrus, lupin, olive and strawberry are some of the crops in which c. acutatum diseases are economically important. with the application of molecular markers and diagnostic pcr over the last 10-15 years, c. acutatum was identified as a major pathogen on a number of hosts instead of or along with c. gloeosporioides. c. acutatum displays high l ...200520565664
a gene with domains related to transcription regulation is required for pathogenicity in colletotrichum acutatum causing key lime anthracnose.summary colletotrichum acutatum causes key lime anthracnose (kla) and postbloom fruit drop (pfd) of citrus. we utilized restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi) mutagenesis to produce six non-pathogenic mutants from a kla isolate after screening 1064 transformants on detached key lime leaves. subsequently, a gene designated klap1 (key lime anthracnose pathogenicity) was identified from one of the mutants and was demonstrated genetically to be required for pathogenicity to key lime leaves. ...200520565676
evaluation of leaf wetness duration models for operational use in strawberry disease-warning systems in four us states.leaf wetness duration (lwd) plays a key role in disease development and is often used as an input in disease-warning systems. lwd is often estimated using mathematical models, since measurement by sensors is rarely available and/or reliable. a strawberry disease-warning system called "strawberry advisory system" (sas) is used by growers in florida, usa, in deciding when to spray their strawberry fields to control anthracnose and botrytis fruit rot. currently, sas is implemented at six locations, ...201627180263
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