comparison of antibiotic-amended potato dextrose agar and acidified potato dextrose agar as growth substrates for fungi.fifteen fungal species, all isolated from food, were compared for their growth abilities on potato dextrose agar acidified to ph 3.5, and on nonacidified potato dextrose agar amended with 40 ppm chlortetracycline hydrochloride. comparisons were made at 16, 21, 26, 32, and 37 degrees c. of the 15 species, only penicillium expansum exhibited better growth on the acidified medium than on the nonacidified antibiotic medium, while 9 species grew better on the nonacidified antibiotic medium. five spec ...19765395
interaction of thiabendazole with fungal tubulin.thiabendazole, 2-(4'-thiazolyl)benzimidazole, at 80 micrometer completely inhibits mitosis in hyphae of aspergillus nidulans, growing in liquid culture. dna and rna synthesis and mycelial growth are only partially inhibited at this concentration. binding studies with cell-free mycelial extracts from penicillium expansum showed that thiabendazole competitively inhibits [14c]carbendazim binding to tubulin, which suggests that the antimitotic activity of thiabendazole is based on interference with ...1978361093
toxins of molds from decaying tomato fruit.among 27 mold isolates from decaying tomatoes, culture filtrates or ethyl acetate extracts of 8 isolates grown in yeast extract-sucrose medium were markedly toxic (mortality, greater than 50%) to brine shrimp larvae. the toxicity of six of these isolates could be attributed to the presence of citrinin, tenuazonic acid, or t-2 toxin. ethyl acetate extracts of five alternaria isolates and one fusarium isolate were mutagenic for salmonella typhimurium strains. in ripe tomatoes inoculated with toxin ...1979391152
[effect of imazalil (1-(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(2-propenyloxy) ethyl)-1h-imidazole) on biosynthesis of ergosterol in penicillium expansum link].imazalil is a new fungicide effective against penicillium molds on fruits after harvest. this compound inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis in mycelia of penicillium expansum. the accumulation of 24--methylenedithydrolanosterol, obtusifoliol and 14 alpha-methyl-delta 8, 24(28)-ergostadienol in treated fungi suggests that imazalil blocks sterol c--14 demethylation.1978418903
the post-harvest fruit rots of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum) in nigeria.a survey of the post-harvest fruit rot diseases of tomato was conducted in five states of nigeria. during severe infections, the diseases could cause 25% loss at harvest and 34% loss of the remaining product in transit, storage and market stalls; thus giving an overall loss of about 50% of the product. two types of rots, soft and dry were recognised. the soft rot was found to account for about 85% and the dry rot about 15% of the overall loss. erwinia carotovora, rhizopus oryzae, r. stolonifer, ...1979471028
produciton and biological activity of patulin and citrinin from penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum isolated from meat and apples produced both patulin and citrinin. toxin identity was confirmed by spectroscopic and physical methods. the mean lethal dose in chicken embryos was determined for toxins administered both singly and in various ratios. data from simultaneous administration of mycotoxin combinations plotted as isobolograms showed and additive effect. both toxins were teratogenic in chicken embryos.1977559470
occurrence of patulin in fruit and different varieties of apples and pears suffering from brown rot, patulin was found in about 50 p. 100 of samples investigated (about 120). patulin levels as high as 1 g/kg rotten material were found 2-3 days after the fruit was removed from the cold store where it had been stored for 5 months. a significant diffusion into the healthy plant tissue was not observed in apples, but in peaches, tomatoes and pears. vegetable products with natural patulin content: apples, pears, peaches, apricots, ...1977613910
role of opportunistic fungi in ocular infections in nigeria.the importance of opportunistic fungal pathogens in causing ocular infections is emphasized. a study was conducted over a period of 4 years (1974--1977) to investigate the role of opportunistic fungi in causing mycotic keratitis and to elucidate certain aspects of epidemiology of this disease in nigeria. fifty-nine cases of corneal ulcers of suspected mycotic etiology were investigated. fungal etiology was confirmed in 42 of these cases. the predominant etiological agent was fusarium solani in 1 ...1978745623
some physiological studies on penicillium expansum link.penicillium expansum link showed excellent/good growth on all carbohydrates except ribose, lactose, sorbose and sucrose, which induced fair or poor growth. it made excellent growth on mannitol and dulcitol while the rest of the carbon sources were either poorly utilized or not utilized. sorbose neither inhibited nor promoted growth of the pathogen in the presence of good carbon sources. the pathogen showed fair/poor growth on cystine, phenylalanine, histidine, mono-hcl, histidine di-hcl, ammoniu ...1978748712
[patulin in foods of vegetable origin. 2. several kinds of fruit and vegetables and fruit and vegetable products (author's transl)].patulin was found in fruit with spontaneous brown rot (bananas, pineapples, grapes, peaches, apricots) as well as in moldy compots and in sallow-thorn juice. fruit, vegetables and fruit and vegetable product were artificially infected with penicillium expansum, p. urticae and byssochlamys nivea; patulin was subsequently found in peaches, apricots, greengages, bananas, strawberries, honeydew melons, tomatoes, red and green paprika, cucumbers and carrots; in several kinds of compot, in tomato juic ...1977857490
[patulin in foods of vegetable origin i. pomaceous fruit and products made out of it (author's transl)].patulin can be detected in apples and pears which have spontaneously been affected with brown rot after storage at room temperature and at 1 degrees c. spoilage phenomena of this kind can be caused by penicillium expansum, but also by p. urticae and bysssochlamys nivea. if apples are stored at room temperature following a 4--5 months' storage at 4 degrees c, the patulin content of the rotten parts of the apple tissue. in applie puree made under household conditions the patulin content of the ini ...1976983346
letter: combined heat-irradiation effect on deoxyribonucleic acid of penicillium expansum lk. ex. thom. 19751081518
trimming as a means of removing patulin from fungus-rotted apples.penicillium expansum 1071, 1172, nrll 973, and penicillium patulum atcc 24550 were inoculated into red delicious, golden delicious, and mcintosh apples. the decayed tissue was trimmed from the sound tissue, each fraction was weighed, and the patulin concentration in the juice was assayed by thin layer chromatography. the quantity of patulin in the whole apples and in decayed tissues was calculated and these values were used to determine the percentage of total patulin removed by trimming. the pa ...19751158834
the effects of aeration on glucose catabolism in penicillium expansum.polyacrylamide-disc gel electrophoresis and quantitative enzyme assays showed that the pathways of glucose catabolism and secondary metabolism in penicillium expansum were dependent on the degree of aeration of the cultures. the isoenzyme patterns and specific activities of aldolase and succinate dehydrogenase indicated that glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle operated under conditions of both limited and efficient aeration (i.e. in cultures grown statically or on an orbital shaker). at ...19751176956
effect of penicillium expansum culture conditions on patulin production.penicillium expansum strains grown on capek-dox liquid medium excreted patulin to the medium. its amount increased until day 12, then smaller amounts of the toxin were observed. maximum patulin excretion took place at 25 degrees c, ph 6, although at 5 degrees c, ph 3 the presence of this mycotoxin was also observed. the highest amount of patulin produced was observed in medium containing fructose.19921283492
effect of preservatives on patulin production by penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum has been grown on capek-dox medium using glucose and fructose as carbon source. preservatives used in fruit processing and introduced in the medium were sorbic acid, formic acid, benzoic acid, so2 and saccharose. sulphur dioxide had a most inhibitory effect on mycelium growth and patulin production, formic acid concentration of 0.025% increased the amount of patulin by about 30% as compared to the culture with no preservatives. however its higher concentrations inhibited syn ...19921283493
assessment of the movement of triazole fungicides by soil thin-layer chromatography.soil tlc was used to assess and compare the mobility of 17 triazole fungicides in soil. a sample of versailles soil (a silt loam with 2% organic matter) was passed through a 100-microns-meshed screen, and glass plates were coated with this fine fraction at a thickness of 250 microns or 500 microns. the non-labelled compounds were bioassayed to visualize their movement. penicillium expansum was used as visualizing agent by spraying plates with an agar suspension of the fungus. plates were then in ...19921439742
identification of geosmin as a volatile metabolite of penicillium expansum.cultures of penicillium expansum produce a musty, earthy odor. geosmin [1,10-trans-dimethyl-trans(9)-decalol] was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from headspace samples of p. expansum cultures. olfactory comparison of p. expansum cultures with a geosmin standard indicated geosmin is the primary component of the odor associated with p. expansum.19921444431
production of the amylolytic enzymes of penicillium expansum. 19911783117
antifungal activity and mode of action of saponins from madhuca butyracea macb.the antifungal activity of saponins isolated as a byproduct from the defatted cake of m. butyracea oil seed is reported. the inhibitory concentrations against plant pathogenic fungi ranged from 500 to 2000 ppm. maximum sensitivity to saponins was shown by penicillium expansum. cephalosporium acrimonium, helminthosporium oryzae and trichoderma viride. the saponins caused leakage of cell components and underwent degradation by fungus, trichoderma viride. the usefulness of saponins as antimycotic a ...19911889830
antimicrobial activity of microgard against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.microgard, a commercially available fermented milk product containing antimicrobial metabolites, was a potent inhibitor for gram-negative bacteria such as pseudomonas, salmonella, and yersinia when 1% concentration was incorporated into agar media. gram-positive bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, and listeria monocytogenes were insensitive to microgard. kluyveromyces marxianus, an unidentified black yeast, and penicillium expansum were partially suppressed, whereas aspergillus niger and a y ...19911906486
fungi associated with dried fish in sri lanka.the mycoflora of dried-salted fish from markets in kandy, sri lanka was studied with emphasis on visibly spoiled dried fish. a total of 61 fungal isolates from 25 dried-fish were isolated and identified. the most prevalent fungus was aspergillus niger. species of aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. glaucus, a. restrictus, aureobasidium spp. basipetospora halophila (a genuinely halophilic fungus) cladosporium herbarum, gliomastix, spp., penicillium chalybeum and penicillium expansum were present ...19902233981
studies on antifungal properties of phenol complexes with secondary amines. 1. the effect of complex formation of nitro- and chlorophenols with dicyclohexylamine on the antifungal activity in vitro.inhibitory doses (id50) of phenols complexed with dicyclohexylamine are lower (21.4-47.7%) than the inhibitory doses of free phenols. this is demonstrated in vitro by experiments with aspergillus oryzae and penicillium expansum on solid medium.19892797052
a comparative study of the morphology and viability of hyphae of penicillium expansum and phytophthora nicotianae during freezing and thawing.the changes in morphology of penicillium expansum link and phytophthora nicotianae van breda de haan during freezing and thawing in a growth medium with and without the cryoprotective additive glycerol were examined with a light microscope fitted with a temperature-controlled stage. viability of 0.5-1.0 mm diameter colonies of both fungi was determined after equivalent rates of cooling to -196 degrees c in the presence or absence of glycerol. in p. expansum shrinkage occurred in all hyphae at ra ...19863794645
carbohydrate stability during ageing in penicillium expansum cell wall.cell walls were obtained from penicillium expansum mycelia of different ages. the yield of walls increased up to the 13th day of incubation and then remained almost constante. cell walls from 13 day-old mycelia consisted of neutral sugars (65%), chitin (10%) and protein (10%). the neutral sugars released by hydrolysis of the cell wall, identified and quantified by gas-liquid chromatography were mannose (3-4%), galactose (3-4%), glucose (37%) and trace amounts of arabinose and xylose. the content ...19853916975
influence of phosphate compounds on certain fungi and their preservative effects on fresh cherry fruit (prunus cerasus, l.).studies were conducted to ascertain the retarding effects of four phosphate compounds (sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium tetraphosphate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on molding of fresh cherries (prunus cerasus, l.). in vitro studies on their antimycotic effects against the most common fungal spoilers, penicillium expansum, rhizopus nigricans, and botrytis sp., were also carried out. sodium tetraphosphate appeared to be the most effective compound in preserving cherries ...19684295176
production of patulin by penicillium expansum.twenty-seven isolates of penicillium expansum lk. ex thom obtained from europe, australia, and north america from seven different fruit hosts all produced patulin in culture. six isolates were essentially nonpathogenic in apple fruits. in culture, patulin generally accumulated to much higher levels than in apple fruits. at all temperatures permitting fungus growth, patulin was produced. however, only small amounts were observed near the maximal temperature for growth (30 c). at 0 c, patulin accu ...19744425020
patulin production in apples decayed by penicillium expansum.sixty isolates of penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. all the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, the results indicate that apple products made partially from apples decayed by p. expansum will contain patulin which may present a health hazard. the results also suggest that patulin may be important in the decay of apples by p. expansum.19734726831
the parasexual cycle and linkage groups in penicillium expansum. 19664879384
phenolase inhibitor from cultures of penicillium expansum which may play a part in fruit rotting. 19704987845
recovery of viability and radiation resistance by heat-injured conidia of penicillium expansum lk. ex thom.spores heated in water at 54 c for up to 1 hr were plated on nutrient agar immediately or held for 3 days in aerated water at 23 c and then plated. under these conditions, holding was optimal for recovery, increasing survival percentage up to 20-fold over values for immediate plating. recovery was prevented partially or completely, however, when spores were held in any of the following solutions: glucose, potassium phosphate, ammonium or sodium acetate, sodium azide, or 2,4-dinitrophenol, or in ...19705419265
a comparison of the polygalacturonases produced in vivo and in vitro by penicillium expansum thom. 19695775123
genetics of phytopathogenic fungi. xiv. the parasexual cycle in penicillium expansum. 19655863899
fungistatic effects of controlled atmospheres.the fungistatic effects of controlled atmospheres composed of increased co(2) and decreased o(2) was studied in a manner such that the condition of stored fruit was not a factor in the growth of the fungi. varying concentrations of o(2) and co(2) were used. the fungi used were botrytis alli, rhizopus nigricans, and penicillium expansum. the results showed that controlled atmospheres, within the limits of concentrations usable for fruit storage, are effective fungistatic agents.19665951331
the nuclear division in penicillium expansum. 19676060539
substrate effect on 2,3-butylene glycol production by rhizopus nigricans and penicillium expansum.rhizopus nigricans and penicillium expansum produced 2,3-butylene glycol which accumulated in natural and artificial media with time. mycelial mats of p. expansum decreased the quantity of a diacetyl substrate and converted part of this substrate into acetylmethylcarbinol (amc) and 2,3-butylene glycol. mycelial mats of p. expansum also decreased amc substrate with the formation of 2,3-butylene glycol. 2,3-butylene glycol decreased slightly during incubation with the fungal mat. the formation of ...19676080717
thin-layer chromatographic bioassay of iridoid and secoiridoid glucosides with a fungitoxic aglucone moiety using beta-glucosidase and the fungus penicillium expansum as a test organism. 19836408105
inhibition of growth and patulin synthesis in penicillium expansum by potassium sorbate and sodium propionate in culture.potassium sorbate and sodium propionate brought about a marked inhibition in the growth of penicillium expansum and a proportionally greater inhibition in the synthesis of patulin by the mold. at inhibitor concentrations used commercially in bakery products, propionate inhibited growth less efficiently than sorbate did but was a more effective inhibitor of patulin synthesis.19846508301
development of a microbial community of bacterial and yeast antagonists to control wound-invading postharvest pathogens of fruits.two antagonists, the bacterium pseudomonas syringae and the pink yeast sporobolomyces roseus, against blue mold (caused by penicillium expansum) on apple controlled this disease more effectively when combined at approximately equal biomass (50:50 of the same turbidity) than in individual applications. addition of l-asparagine enhanced the biocontrol effectiveness of p. syringae but decreased that of s. roseus and had no significant effect when the antagonists were combined. populations of both a ...19957574636
production of patulin by different strains of penicillium expansum in pear and apple cultivars stored at different temperatures and modified was shown that the ability of three different strains of penicillium expansum (nrrl 2034, nrrl 6069, and cbs 481.84) to grow and to produce patulin in pears (cv. spadona) and apples (cv. starking) varied under the different temperatures tested (0, 3, 6, 17 and 25 degrees c). strain nrrl 2034 did not produce patulin at 0 or 25 degrees c while the two other strains produced the toxin at all temperatures, the maximum production occurring at 25 degrees c (for pears) and 17 degrees c (for apples). ...19957758631
quercetin-induced benzophenanthridine alkaloid production in suspension cell cultures of sanguinaria canadensis.addition of micromolar concentrations of quercetin or rutin to suspension cell cultures of sanguinaria canadensis l. (bloodroot) induced the biosynthesis of sanguinarine and chelerythrine in a dose-dependent manner. in contrast, related compounds: baicalein, naringin, naringenin, catechin, caffeic acid and benzoic acid displayed very weak inductive activity. of the two active flavonoids, quercetin was the most effective for inducing benzophenanthridine alkaloid biosynthesis, with doses of 100 mi ...19947809211
structural investigation of two cell-wall polysaccharides of penicillium expansum strains.the structure of two cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from three different strains of penicillium expansum, the type species of the genus, have been established by 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy, and also by methylation analyses. the water-soluble polysaccharide f1s-b consisted of a linear tetrasaccharide repeating unit with the following structure: [-->6)-beta-d-galf-(1-->5)-beta-d-galf-(1-->5)-beta-d-gal f-(1-->5)-beta-d- galf-(1-->]n the alkali-soluble polysaccharide f1i is a (1-->3)-alpha-d-gl ...19948013007
hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by penicillium expansum in a home episode of fever, cough, shortness of breath and leucocytosis developed in a 31-year-old atopic housewife from mould exposure in her home environment is evaluated. a chest radiograph revealed diffuse tiny nodular infiltrations in both whole lung fields. spirometry revealed a severe restrictive type of ventilation impairment. bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) showed an increased lymphocyte count with reversed cd4+/cd8+ ratio and transbronchial lung biopsy showed markedly increased lymphocytic infil ...19948039026
lipolytic activity and degradation of rapeseed oil and rapeseed by spoilage fungi.aspergillus, eurotium and penicillium spp. from rapeseed were able to grow and produce lipases over a range of water activities (aw) at both 15 and 25 degrees c on tributyrin agar. the ability to produce lipases was not directly related to growth rate. the clearing zone: growth rate ratios gave lipase indices which varied markedly between test fungi and with aw. the fungi with the highest indices were aspergillus candidus and aspergillus versicolor and penicillium expansum and penicillium hordei ...19938217518
citrinin-producing capacity of penicillium expansum strains from apple packinghouses of lerida (spain).a study of the citrinin producing capacity in 122 penicillium expansum strains isolated from apples and various locations of apple packaging premises lleida (spain) was conducted. among the strains examined, 46% produced citrinin in a laboratory substrate and 73.2% of these strains were isolated from decayed apples. all citrinin producing strains produced metabolites which inhibited bacillus cereus and bacillus subtilis. the majority of the strains producing citrinin in solid substrate also prod ...19938398629
purification and properties of a lipase from penicillium expansum.penicillum expansum dsm 1994 produces a new, inducible extracellular lipase when grown in medium containing 0.1% olive oil. maximum activity was obtained after 4 days of incubation at 20 degrees c. the enzyme was purified 219-fold by cross-flow filtration, ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography to a final specific activity of 558 u/mg. the molecular weight of the homogeneous lipase was (25 kda) determined by gel filtration and sds-page, however, it forms active ...19938504153
production of feruloyl/rho-coumaroyl esterase activity by penicillium expansum, penicillium brevicompactum and aspergillus niger.extracellular esterase production by penicillium expansum, penicillium brevicompactum and aspergillus niger was determined in both liquid and solid-state culture. methyl ferulate was used as the main carbon source in liquid culture whereas wheat bran and sugar beet pulp were used in solid-state culture. extracted enzyme for each fungus showed activity in the presence of onp butyrate, methyl ferulate, methyl coumarate and two 'natural' feruloylated carbohydrate esters. higher enzyme recoveries we ...19958557619
effect of fungistatic agent 2-deoxy-d-glucose on mycotoxins from penicillium expansum.mycotoxin production from penicillium expansum was effected by the 'biocontrol enhancer' 2-deoxy-d-glucose (dog). citrinin and gentisyl alcohol were produced in higher amounts, whereas patulin was inhibited, which represents a differential effect on the polyketide metabolic pathway. these effects have implications for the use of dog in biocontrol.19968862023
composition and toxigenic potential of the mould population on dry-cured iberian ham.the fungal population on dry-cured iberian ham can be essential to the development of the product's unique characteristics, but health hazards due to mycotoxins may be significant. we examined the natural fungal population of iberian hams during ripening at three different locations. chloroform extracts from 59 selected isolates were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp larvae and vero cells, for mutagenicity in the ames test and for antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus aureus. the diver ...19968880338
fungi associated with herbal drug plants during storage.samples of sundried herbal drug plant parts stored for sale were purchased from four herbal markets located in ibadan, nigeria. the plant parts were analysed for mycoflora associated with their storage. fungal colony counts ranged from 0.60 x 10(2) to 3.50 x 10(2) within the period of the survey. twenty eight fungal species were isolated with the species of aspergillus niger, a. flavus, fusarium moniliforme, trichoderma viride, penicillium expansum and mucor fragilis being the dominant ones. the ...19969208479
the influence of deck storage and initial processing on patulin levels in apple juice.patulin, a secondary metabolite produced by penicillium expansum and some other fungal species, is a common contaminant of ripened apples used for the production of apple juice concentrates. the limited availability of suitable storage facilities may result in fruit being subjected to storage in the open ('deck storage') for extended periods of time, prior to processing. a study was conducted to determine the influence that deck storage and subsequent initial processing practices had on patulin ...19979328526
purification and characterization of a feruloyl esterase from the fungus penicillium extracellular phenolic acid esterase produced by the fungus penicillium expansum in solid state culture released ferulic and rho-coumaric acid from methyl esters of the acids, and from the phenolic-carbohydrate esters o-[5-o-(trans-feruloyl)-alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl]-(1-->3)-o-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-d-xylopyranose (faxx) and o-[5-o-((e)-rho-coumaroyl)-alpha-l-arabinofuranosyl]- (1-->3)-o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-d-xylopyranose (paxx). the esterase was purified 360-fold in successiv ...19979449810
biological control of major postharvest pathogens on apple with candida sake.epiphytic microorganisms isolated from apples, pears and the surfaces of apple leaves were screened for antagonistic activity against penicillium expansum (blue-mold), botrytis cinerea (gray-mold) and rhizopus nigricans (rhizopus rot) on apple (malus domestica). a total of 933 bacteria and yeasts were tested in primary screening against p. expansum. ninety-two strains reduced the lesion size on apples by more than 50%, 72 of which were isolated from the surface of apples. for secondary screening ...19989600605
involvement of protein kinase and g proteins in the signal transduction of benzophenanthridine alkaloid biosynthesis.we have previously reported that elicitor-induced benzophenanthridine alkaloid biosynthesis in suspension-cell cultures of sanguinaria canadensis l. (scp-gm) is mediated by a signal transduction system that involves calcium and possibly protein kinase(s). in this work, a number of exogenous agents were employed to further investigate the components of the signal transduction pathway involved in the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis by a fungal elicitor and abscisic acid (aba). scp-gm suspension ...19989621455
insecticidal and antifungal activities of aminorhodanine derivatives.aminorhodanine (1) showed strong insecticidal activity against culex pipiens pallens and musca domestica, with respective ld50 values of 0.21 microgram/insect and 0.87 microgram/insect. compound 1 had antifungal activity against aspergillus niger atcc-16404, trichophyton mentagrophytes ifo-32412, candida albicans atcc-10231, hansenula anomala ops-308 and penicillium expansum ifo-8800. in particular, 1 had potent antifungal activity against aspergillus niger atcc-16404, its minimal inhibitory con ...19989648238
penicillium expansum growth and production of patulin in the presence of benzoic acid and its derivatives.this study was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of benzoic acid and its derivatives: o-nitrobenzoic acid, o- and p-aminobenzoic acids, o-hydroxybenzoic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, cinnamic acid and aldehyde, methyl and ethyl esters of benzoic acid, methyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and ethyl ester of p-aminobenzoic acid on the growth and the ability to produce patulin by penicillium expansum. the growth of the mycelium and its ability to produce patulin in the liquid enriched cza ...19989735057
the adaptation of existing personal inhalable aerosol samplers for bioaerosol monitoring of bioaerosol exposures in the workplace should ideally be carried out using size-selective personal samplers that separate the aerosol into biologically relevant size fractions and allow both quantification and identification of the microorganisms present in each fraction. as a first stage in the development of personal bioaerosol samplers a number of collection substrates were assessed for their ability to maintain the viability of the collected microorganisms, so tha ...19989866164
antisporulating and respiration-inhibitory effects of essential oils on filamentous fungi.sporulation of four species of filamentous fungi, namely aspergillus fumigatus, fusarium solani, penicillium expansum and rhizopus oryzae, was suppressed by gaseous contact with citron, lavender and thyme oils and, to a lesser extent, by that of perilla and tea tree oils. lemongrass and cinnamon bark oils were scarcely active. the antisporulating effect of the essential oils was not observed when they were applied as a solution, indicating that their vapours were the active form. moreover, expos ...19989916464
mycotoxin production by penicillium expansum on blackcurrant and cherry juice.the production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites by penicillium expansum on blackcurrant and cherry juice has been studied at 10 degrees c and 25 degrees c under storage imitated conditions. p. expansum was able to synthesize extracellular patulin under all conditions, and together with extracellular chaetoglobosin a when unlimited oxygen was available. patulin, the chaetoglobosins a and c, the communesins a and b and the expansolides a and b could be detected intracellularly dependi ...199810209577
gene encoding polygalacturonase inhibitor in apple fruit is developmentally regulated and activated by wounding and fungal infection.a cdna encoding polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from mature apple fruit has been cloned and characterized. the open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 330 amino acids, in which 24 amino acids at the n-terminus comprise the signal peptide. apple pgip contains 10 imperfect leucine-rich repeat sequence motifs averaging 24 amino acids in length. in addition to the 1.3 kb pgip transcript, the cloned cdna also hybridized to rna molecules with sizes of 3.2 and 5.0 kb. genomic dna analys ...199910380809
species-specific production of microbial volatile organic compounds (mvoc) by airborne fungi from a compost facility.thirteen airborne fungal species frequently isolated in composting plants were screened for microbial volatile organic compounds (mvoc), i.e., aspergillus candidus, a. fumigatus, a. versicolor, emericella nidulans, paecilomyces variotii, penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium clavigerum, penicillium crustosum, penicillium cyclopium, penicillium expansum, penicillium glabrum, penicillium verruculosum, and tritirachium oryzae. air samples from pure cultures were sorbed on tenax gr and analyzed by ...199910448558
production of extracellular lipases by penicillium cyclopium purification and characterization of a partial acylglycerol lipase.penicillium cyclopium, grown in stationary culture, produces a type i lipase specific for triacylglycerols while, in shaken culture, it produces a type ii lipase only active on partial acylglycerols. lipase ii has been purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatographies on sephadex g-75 and deae-sephadex. the enzyme exists in several glycosylated forms of 40-43 kda, which can be converted to a single protein of 37 kda by enzymatic deglycosylation. activity of lipase ii is maximal at ...200010737172
molecular identification of species from the penicillium roqueforti group associated with spoiled animal feed.the penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, p. roqueforti, penicillium carneum, and penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal dna sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. we reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from sweden, previously identified by morphology as p. roqueforti, by comparing the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. identities were confirmed with random amplified polymorphi ...200010742236
chromatographic determination of the mycotoxin patulin in fruit and fruit juices.patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several fungal species of the genera penicillium and aspergillus, but principally by penicillium expansum on fruit such as apples. the occurrence of patulin as a natural contaminant of apple juice is a worldwide problem and international recommendations and regulations have been made for maximum levels permitted in consumer products. this paper reviews currently available analytical methods for its determination in fruit and fruit juices. of these, hplc with ul ...200010895928
biological control of blue mould on apple by a strain of candida sake under several controlled atmosphere conditions.the biocontrol potential of the yeast candida sake (cpa-1) against penicillium expansum decay of apples under several controlled atmosphere conditions was investigated. in a laboratory trial under different commercial cold storage conditions, increasing concentrations of c. sake improved decay control. a maximum reduction of decay was achieved at 3% o2-3% co2 atmosphere. it amounted to a 97% lesion reduction after treatment with a suspension containing 2.4 x 10(6) cfu/ml of c. sake (cpa-1). in a ...200010898465
purification and characterization of novel antifungal compounds from the sourdough lactobacillus plantarum strain 21b.sourdough lactic acid bacteria were selected for antifungal activity by a conidial germination assay. the 10-fold-concentrated culture filtrate of lactobacillus plantarum 21b grown in wheat flour hydrolysate almost completely inhibited eurotium repens ibt18000, eurotium rubrum ftdc3228, penicillium corylophilum ibt6978, penicillium roqueforti ibt18687, penicillium expansum idm/fs2, endomyces fibuliger ibt605 and idm3812, aspergillus niger ftdc3227 and idm1, aspergillus flavus ftdc3226, monilia s ...200010966432
the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 in the presence of penicillium expansum and glomerella cingulata in wounds on apple surfaces.the survival of escherichia coli o157:h7 in the presence of one of two plant pathogens, penicillium expansum and glomerella cingulata, in wounds on apples was observed during 14 days storage at room temperature (rt) and at 4 degrees c. the aim of this work was to determine if changes in apple physiology caused by the proliferation of fungal decay organisms would foster the survival of e. coli o157:h7. trials were performed where (a) plant pathogens (4 log10 spores) were added to apple wounds 4 d ...200011131883
a new bio-active flavonol glycoside from the stems of butea superba roxb.a new bio-active flavonol glycoside was isolated from the stems of butea superba roxb, and its structure was determined by spectral analysis and chemical degradations as 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy-8-methoxy-flavonol-3-o-beta-d-xylopyranosyl(1-->2) -alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside. the compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity against plant pathogenic fungi trich viride, asprgillus fumigatus, a. niger, a. terreus, penicillium expansum, helmitnhosporium oryzae, botxitis cinerea, rhizopus oligosporus, r. chi ...199811261215
mycotoxin production from fungi isolated from order to assess the potential for producing mycotoxins, fungi were isolated from wine producing grapes.200111298933
antifungal and cytotoxic effects of methanol extracts of three marine molluscs.methanol extracts of whole body (melampus ceylonicus), blood (anadara rhombea) and hepatopancreas (sepiella inermis) were screened for antifungal and cytotoxic activity. blood of a. rhombea and hepatopancreas of s. inermis strongly inhibited candida albicans, mucor racemosus and penicillium expansum. a. rhombea appear to exert strong cytotoxic activity against vertebrate erythrocytes. the bacterial pathogens (escherichia coli and vibrio cholarae) were not inhibited by any of the three tested met ...200111349534
viability, efficacy, and storage stability of freeze-dried biocontrol agent candida sake using different protective and rehydration media.viability, efficacy against penicillium expansum on golden delicious apples, and storage stability of freeze-dried candida sake strain cpa-1 were studied. the effect of several protective agents and rehydration media was investigated in the freeze drying of c. sake. skimmed milk at 10% concentration was a good rehydration medium for all protectants tested. in general, good viability results were obtained when the same solution was used as a protectant and as a rehydration medium. the best surviv ...200111403138
synthesis and in vitro antifungal activity of 1-amino-3,4-dialkylnaphthalene-2-carbonitriles and their analogues.twenty-four 3- and/or 4-alkyl-substituted 1-aminonaphthalene-2-carbonitriles and their analogues were prepared and evaluated for growth-inhibiting activity against four phytopathogenic fungi: fusarium culmorum, alternaria brassicicola, botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum. the results obtained were compared with the activity of a commercial fungicide. the highest fungistatic activity was revealed by amino nitriles having hydrogen atoms or only one short alkyl group (ch3, c2h5) at the 3- or ...200111464795
osmotic dehydration of apple slices using a sucrose/cacl2 combination to control spoilage caused by botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, and penicillium expansum.the efficacy of sucrose combined with cacl2 during osmotic dehydration (od) was tested for the control of botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, and penicillium expansum growth on lightly processed apple slices. the objective of this work was to determine whether the addition of cacl2 in the osmotic solutions would limit the proliferation of fungal decay organisms. slices were submitted to od for 1 h at 25 degrees c in solutions containing 5 to 65% sucrose. calcium chloride was added to a si ...200111563522
detection of fungi in sinus fluid of patients with allergic fungal rhinosinusitis.we aim to develop a rapid, accurate and sensitive diagnostic assay with which to detect the surface antigens of fungi thought to be involved in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (afrs), by assessing the usefulness of immunofluorescence microscopy (imf) and enzyme linked immuno-absorbent assays (elisa). the age, sex, clinical symptoms and signs, imaging (ct and/or mri), microbiological subculture data, sinus contents, blood eosinophilia, aspergillosis precipitins, radioallergoabsorbent technology (r ...200011603793
biological control of postharvest pear diseases using a bacterium, pantoea agglomerans cpa-2.epiphytic microorganisms isolated from the fruits and leaf surfaces of apples and pears were screened for antagonistic activity against penicillium expansum on pears. from 247 microorganisms tested for antagonistic properties against p. expansum, a bacterium strain identified as pantoea agglomerans (cpa-2) was selected. this bacterium was very effective against botrytis cinerea, p. expansum and rhizopus stolonifer. complete control at the three tested concentrations (2 x 10(7), 8 x 10(7) and 1 x ...200111759762
control of post-harvest decay of apples by pre-harvest and post-harvest application of ammonium molybdate.ammonium molybdate was tested as a potential fungicide for use in apples (cv golden delicious) against blue and grey mould, important post-harvest diseases of pome fruits. in tests in vivo at 20 degrees c, ammonium molybdate (15 mm) reduced lesion diameters of penicillium expansum, botrytis cinerea and rhizopus stolonifer by 84%, 88% and 100% respectively. when apples treated with ammonium molybdate were stored at 1 degree c for three months, a significant reduction in severity and incidence of ...200111802595
osmotic dehydration of apple slices with cacl2 and sucrose limits decay caused by penicillium expansum, colletotrichum acutatum, and botrytis cinerea and does not promote listeria monocytogenes or total aerobic population growth.the interaction of penicillium expansum link, colletotrichum acutatum, and botrytis cinerea pers.:fr. with listeria monocytogenes on osmotically dehydrated apple slices was evaluated. in mineral analyses of the slices, the calcium content of the peel and flesh tissues increased by 4- and 11-fold, respectively, when processed in 2% cacl2. these slices also exhibited less decay by p. expansum, c. acutatum, and b. cinerea. inoculation of slices with p. expansum resulted in a decrease in the ph of t ...200211808790
control of penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea on apples and pears with the combination of candida sake and pantoea agglomerans.the effectiveness of candida sake (cpa-1) in combination with pantoea agglomerans (cpa-2) for controlling penicillium expansum and botrytis cinerea on pears and apples was determined. the concentrations tested were 2 x 10(6) and 2 x 10(7) cfu/ml for c. sake and 2 x 10(7) and 8 x 10(7) cfu/ml for p. agglomerans. at room temperature, the two antagonists were combined in proportions of 0 to 100% in 25% increments. at the proportion of 50:50, no rot development was observed in pears, and the greates ...200211808791
survival of pantoea agglomerans strain cpa-2 in a spray-drying process.spray drying could be a suitable method for preserving microorganisms, as it allows large quantities of cultures to be dried at low cost. the aims of this paper were to evaluate the effects of spray-drying conditions on survival of the biocontrol agent pantoea agglomerans cpa-2, which has shown antifungal activity against penicillium expansum and penicillium digitatum on citrus fruits. various compounds cited in the bibliography as carriers were tested in our spray drying, and some salts (mgso4, ...200211808793
molecular characterization of penicillium expansum mucl mutants.the modern biomolecular analysis of dna was carried out to determine the identity of penicillium expansum mucl v1-v9 variants with parental strain of penicillium expansum mucl 29412 and to compare the results with penicillium verrucosum, a related species. the extracted dnas were fragmented by digestion with restriction endonuclease hind iii and the fragments were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. the dnas were then denaturated in the gel after partial depurination with dilute acid and w ...200011845479
post-harvest biological control by pantoea agglomerans (cpa-2) on golden delicious investigate the potential of pantoea agglomerans to control the major post-harvest diseases on golden delicious apples.200211849352
improvement of candida sake biocontrol activity against post-harvest decay by the addition of ammonium improve the efficacy of candida sake by adding ammonium molybdate to control post-harvest decay in golden delicious apples.200211972698
identification of novel hexapeptides bioactive against phytopathogenic fungi through screening of a synthetic peptide combinatorial library.the purpose of the present study was to improve the antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi of the previously identified hexapeptide paf19. we describe some properties of a set of novel synthetic hexapeptides whose d-amino acid sequences were obtained through screening of a synthetic peptide combinatorial library in a positional scanning format. as a result of the screening, 12 putative bioactive peptides were identified, synthesized, and assayed. the peptides paf26 (ac-rkkwfw ...200211976121
in vitro antifungal activity of several antimicrobial compounds against penicillium expansum.fungicides used in the prevention and control of mold rots in stored apples are subjected to legal, social, and biological limitations. the aim of this study was to find an alternative to postharvest fungicides currently used in the prevention and control of blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in apples. for this purpose, the antimicrobial activity and mic of several substances against p. expansum were evaluated in vitro using different end point methods: agar diffusion assay, volatilit ...200212030296
the effect of modified atmospheres and packaging on patulin production in apples.this study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of modified atmospheres and packaging materials on the growth of penicillium expansum and patulin production in apples. granny smith apples were surface sterilized with 76% ethanol and inoculated with 0.1 ml of a 1.1 x 10(7) spore/ml p. expansum spore suspension. the apples were packaged either in polyethylene (pe) or polypropylene (pp) and treated with three different gas combinations, viz., 58% co2/42% n2, 48% co2/52% n2, and 88% co2/12% ...200212030304
relationship between conidial enzymes and germination of the apple blue mold, penicillium expansum.the relationship between conidial enzymes of penicillium expansum and spore germination was examined. the activities of xylanase and pectinase, but not of cellulase and amylase, were detected in the conidia. the levels of xylanase and pectinase were greatly enhanced by xylan and pectin as respective carbon sources in the basal medium. no conidia germinated in the basal medium without a carbon source. the type of carbon source and the enzyme levels of the conidia did not affect the rate of germin ...200212092828
citrinin production and stability in cheese.citrinin is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite that has been demonstrated to be mutagenic in hepatocytes. it can be produced by several fungal species that belong mainly to the genus penicillium and has been isolated from many feeds and human foods. cheese is a very sensitive product because it can be naturally contaminated by citrinin-producing molds. the purpose of this study was to determine whether citrinin can be produced in cheeses and whether it is stable in these products. both toxigenic st ...200212182486
the effect of culture preservation techniques on patulin and citrinin production by penicillium expansum study the influence of culture preservation methods and culture conditions on the production of the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin by penicillium expansum.200212358686
factors affecting patulin production by penicillium expansum.patulin, a mycotoxin produced by penicillium spp. during fruit spoilage, is a major concern with regard to human health because exposure can result in severe acute and chronic toxicity, including carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. in this study, we investigated the effects of penicillium expansum isolate, apple cultivar, storage temperature and time, and ph on the production of patulin. patulin was analyzed by a previously developed micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresi ...200212495013
[the biosynthesis of low-molecular-weight nitrogen-containing secondary metabolite-alkaloids by the resident strains of penicillium chrysogenum and penicillium expansum isolated on the board of the mir space station ].the analysis of the absorption spectra of the low-molecular-weight nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites--alkaloids--of 4 penicillium chrysogenum strains and 6 penicillium expansum strains isolated on board the mir space station showed that all these strains synthesize metabolites of alkaloid origin (roquefortine, 3,12-dihydroroquefortine, meleagrin, viridicatin, viridicatol, isorugulosuvin, rugulosuvin b, n-acetyl-tryptamine, and a "yellow metabolite" containing the benzoquinone chromophore ...200212526198
liquid formulation of the biocontrol agent candida sake by modifying water activity or adding evaluate the effect of modification of water activity (aw) and the addition of protective substances in the preservation medium of liquid formulations of the biocontrol agent candida sake stored at 4 and 20 degrees c.200312534826
non-conventional methods for the control of post-harvest pear diseases.pears are highly perishable products, especially during the post-harvest phase, when considerable losses can occur. among the fungal diseases, blue mold caused by penicillium expansum, grey mould caused by botrytis cinerea, mucor rot caused by mucor piriformis are common on pear fruits. other (weak) pathogens like phialophora malorum, alternaria spp., and cladosporium herbarum tend to infect wounds and senescent fruits. a post-harvest fungicide treatment can reduce decay but effectiveness decrea ...200312694440
apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider.patulin is a mycotoxin produced primarily by penicillium expansum, a mold responsible for rot in apples and other fruits. the growth of this fungus and the production of patulin are common in fruit that has been damaged. however, patulin can be detected in visibly sound fruit. the purpose of this project was to determine how apple quality, storage, and washing treatments affect patulin levels in apple cider. patulin was not detected in cider pressed from fresh tree-picked apples (seven cultivars ...200312696685
germination and adhesion of fungal conidia on polycarbonate membranes and on apple fruit exposed to mycoactive acetate esters.the adhesion and germination of conidia of nine fungal species were assessed on polycarbonate membranes or on the skin of apple fruit in sealed glass bottles injected or not injected with acetate esters. adhesion was determined after dislodging conidia from surfaces using a sonication probe. adhesion and germination of conidia of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, penicillium citrinum, penicillium claviforme, or trichoderma sp. on membranes after 48 h were not increase ...200312718401
isolation, identification and seasonal distribution of airborne and waterborne fungi in terkos lake (istanbul-turkey).this paper focuses on isolation and identification of airborne and waterborne fungi from different parts of terkos lake located in istanbul (turkey). the quantitative and qualitative fungal composition of the air and water of the lake was surveyed monthly for a year (august 2000-july 2001). water samples were taken at five different stations at terkos lake. airborne fungal spore levels were estimated by exposing a petri dish containing rose-bengal streptomycin agar medium to air for 15 minutes. ...200312746850
plant-based heterologous expression of mal d 2, a thaumatin-like protein and allergen of apple (malus domestica), and its characterization as an antifungal protein.mal d 2 is a thaumatin-like protein and important allergen of apple fruits that is associated with ige-mediated symptoms in apple allergic individuals. we obtained a full-length cdna clone of mal d 2 from rna isolated from ripe apple (malus domestica cv. golden delicious). the cdna's open reading frame encodes a protein of 246 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 24 residues and two putative glycosylation sites. the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature mal d 2 protein results i ...200312787673
[effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium expansum, fusarium moniliforme and fusarium poae moulds].fungicidal activity of wild plants larrea tridentata, karwinskia humboldtiana, ricinus communis, eucalyptus globulus, ambrosia ambrosioides, nicotiana glauca, ambrosia confertiflora, datura discolor, baccharis glutinosa, proboscidea parviflora, solanum rostratum, jatropha cinerea, salpianthus macrodonthus y sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium expansum, fusarium poae y fusarium moniliforme mo ...200212828509
differential adaptation of membranes of two osmotolerant fungi, aspergillus chevalieri and penicillium expansum to high sucrose concentrations.aspergillus chevalieri and penicillium expansum were able to tolerate sucrose concentrations in the growth media up to 80% (w/v). at 50% sucrose the growth rate is approximately 1.4 and 1.2 times, respectively, higher than in the control. while at 80% sucrose it drops to 35% and 45% of the control level for both fungi. lipids and proteins in plasma membranes increased with increasing sucrose concentrations in the growth medium. phospholipid content in membranes of both organisms being also incre ...200312916728
antifungal activity of 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid and 1-octen-3-ol against penicillium expansum in potato dextrose agar mushrooms, 10-oxo-trans-8-decenoic acid (oda) and 1-octen-3-ol are secondary metabolites produced naturally by the enzymatic breakdown of linoleic acid. both compounds were determined to inhibit the mycelial growth of penicillium expansum pp497a, a common food spoilage organism, when added to potato dextrose agar medium. oda and 1-octen-3-ol were inhibitory at concentrations of > 1.25 mm (230 microg/g for oda and 160 microg/g for 1-octen-3-ol). at ph 5.6, 1-octen-3-ol was more inhibitory than ...200312929847
[alcohol resistance of conidia of penicillium expansum]. 195413176321
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