preliminary observations in the rabbit on the anti-ovulatory activity present in taxus baccata linn. leaves. 19705421102
[judgement supreme court of the netherlands on liability in the poisoning of horses with taxus baccata]. 19947974447
tissue cultures of taxus baccata as a source of 10-deacetylbaccatin iii, a precursor for the hemisynthesis of taxol.callus cultures of taxus baccata l. cv. stricta were induced from hypocotyl and leaf explants on woody plant medium (hormone-free or additionated with phytohormones). under continuous dark condition, adventitious roots were regenerated from hypocotyl- and leaf-derived callus cultures. antibodies raised in rabbits against 10-succinyl-10-deacetylbaccatin iii were used for the detection and the semi-quantitative determination of 10-deacetylbaccatin iii in taxus cultures. the presence of 10-deacetyl ...19958590626
two new taxoids from the stem bark of taxus baccata.two new taxoids, 13-deoxo-13 alpha-acetyloxy-7 beta,9 alpha-diacetyl-1,2-dideoxytaxine b[1] and 7 beta-xylosyl-10-deacetyltaxol d [7], were isolated from the stem bark of taxus baccata cv. stricta. their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and their bioactivity was evaluated using an in vitro microtubule assembly assay.19958691211
detecting taxus poisoning in horses using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.a method is described for the analysis of taxine alkaloids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. it is applicable to the detection of taxine alkaloids in the stomach contents of horses in which taxus poisoning is suspected. analysis of a leaf extract of taxus baccata revealed unreported alkaloids of the same relative molecular mass as taxine b and isotaxine b.200010839318
suicidal yew leave ingestion--phloroglucindimethylether (3,5-dimethoxyphenol) as a marker for poisoning from taxus a case of suicide in a depressive 19-year-old man with considerable ingestion of new leaves, resorption of yew ingredients could be demonstrated. the main substance could be identified as 3,5-dimethoxyphenol, the aglycone of taxicatine, which is a typical ingredient of yew leaves. 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was demonstrated in harvested yew leaves, stomach content and cardiac blood of the victim. structure confirmation was achieved by means of hplc, uv, gc-ms, ir and 1h-nmr spectroscopy. none of the ...19938398891
english yew poisoning in 43 cattle.thirty-five privately owned 1- to 2-year-old mixed-breed steers and heifers, weighing 340 to 454 kg, died from accidental ingestion of english yew (taxus baccata). estimated dosages ranged from 0.36 to 0.70 g of fresh plant/kg of body weight. clinical signs of poisoning and death began 2 to 3 hours after first exposure, and cattle continued to have clinical signs, which ended in death 6 to 8 hours later. most cattle had died by 4 hours after first ingestion. necropsy of 4 cattle revealed substan ...19938098701
taxotere inhibits in-vitro growth of human colonic cancer cell lines.taxotere a semisynthetic analogue of taxol, is prepared from a precursor extracted from needles of the tree, taxus baccata. it is a mitotic spindle poison more potent than taxol, that increases the rate of microtubule assembly and inhibits depolymerization of microtubules. there has been little research on its effects on colorectal cancer. five colorectal tumour cell lines were investigated using three modes: flow cytometry (to determine how taxotere affects the cell cycle), mtt assay, (to exami ...19947995417
taxanes in taxus baccata pollen: cardiotoxicity and/or allergenicity?diterpenic alkaloids belonging to taxine (yield: 0.18 % dry weight) and taxoids (paclitaxel, baccatine iii and 10-deacetylbaccatine iii, cumulated yield: 0.004 % dry weight) were isolated from taxus baccata l. pollen. moreover, taxoids conjugated to macromolecules were also detected by elisa. according to these data and to semi-quantitative measurements of pollen production, a hundred-year-old yew during its flowering time releases several grams of taxanes contained in 16 to 20 kg of pollen. tox ...200211842324
[taxotere: from yew's needles to clinical practice].taxotere [n-debenzoyl-n-tert-butoxycarbonyl-10-deacetyl taxol] is a new chemical entity obtained by semisynthesis from 10-deacetylbaccatin iii, a non cytotoxic precursor extracted from the needles of the european yew taxus baccata. taxotere retains the unique mechanism of action of taxol and inhibits the depolymerisation of microtubules into tubulin. in vitro, taxotere is cytotoxic against murine and human tumor cells with ic50 values ranging from 4 to 35 ng/ml. taxotere inhibits the clonogenic ...19937909695
antifungal activity of biflavones from taxus baccata and ginkgo biloba.bilobetin and 4'''-o-methylamentoflavone were isolated and identified in the needles of taxus baccata, for the first time in this species. the antifungal activity of biflavones from t. baccata and ginkgo biloba, namely amentoflavone, 7-o-methylamentoflavone, bilobetin, ginkgetin, sciadopitysin and 2,3-dihydrosciadopitysin towards the fungi alternaria alternata, fusarium culmorum, cladosporium oxysporum was determined employing computer-aided image analysis couplet to a microscope. bilobetin exhi ...200312622229
analysis of pharmaceutically relevant taxoids in wild yew trees from sardinia.needles from a series of wild yews (taxus baccata l.) from sardinia were investigated for their contents of 10-deacetyl baccatin iii (dab-iii, 1), paclitaxel (taxol) (2) and taxine (3). despite a common geographical origin, ample variation of the taxoid profile was discovered, and several samples were surprisingly devoid of all terpenoid markers above. this finding is unprecedented within the european yew, while the general lack of taxine might rationalize the observation that most plants invest ...200312628392
new bioactive taxoids from cell cultures of taxus baccata.four new taxoids were isolated from cell cultures of taxus baccata. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. two were the aglycones corresponding to previously isolated 7-o-xylosides of taxol c [1] and 10-deacetyltaxol c [2]. the third [3] had an n-methylated side-chain, while the fourth, named taxcultine [4], contained an n-propyl group on the side-chain. all four compounds actively promoted tubulin assembly. taxol c [1] showed potent and selective cytotoxicity in the nci hum ...19947908950
electrophoretic analysis of seed storage proteins from gymnosperms.sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), pore gradient gel electrophoresis (pgge) followed by sds-page and western blot analysis were used to characterize the seed storage proteins from seven gymnosperm species from the families pinaceae (abies alba, cedrus atlantica and picea abies), cupressaceae (biota orientalis, chamaecyparis lawsoniana and cupressus arizonica), and taxaceae (taxus baccata). sds-page and pgge x sds-page indicate the presence of proteins with char ...19947859708
preclinical evaluation of docetaxel (taxotere).progress in cancer chemotherapy has been made owing to the discovery and development of drugs that have new structures, new mechanisms of action, and high levels of experimental antitumor activity. docetaxel (taxotere; rhône-poulenc rorer, antony, france) is prepared by semisynthesis from 10-deacetyl baccatin iii, an inactive taxoid precursor extracted from the needles of the european yew taxus baccata. docetaxel has been found to promote tubulin assembly in microtubules and to inhibit their dep ...19957740328
immunoenzymatic methods applied to the search for bioactive taxoids from taxus baccata.polyclonal antibodies raised against 2'-succinyltaxol-bovine serum albumin (bsa) conjugate were used for the immunodetection of bioactive taxoids in chromatographic fractions of the stem bark extract of taxus baccata. in addition to taxol, cephalomannine, and baccatin iii, two taxoids were isolated and their structures were elucidated as 4 alpha,7 beta-diacetoxy-2 alpha,9 alpha-dibenzoxy-5 beta,20-epoxy-10 beta, 13 alpha, 15-trihydroxy-11(15-->1)-abeo-tax-11-ene[5] and taxol c [6] using spectros ...19957561894
expression cloned cdna for 10-deacetylbaccatin iii-10-o-acetyltransferase in escherichia coli: a comparative study of three fusion systems.10-deacetylbaccatin iii-10-o-acetyltransferase (10-dabt) catalyzes the formation of baccatin iii, which is an immediate diterpenoid precursor of taxol. a cdna encoding 10-dabt was cloned from taxus baccata by using rt-pcr and screening a cdna library. a study of its heterologous overexpression in escherichia coli was carried out. to get high-level expression of recombinant enzyme, three kinds of iptg inducible fusion expression systems (with glutathione s-transferase (gst), hexahistidine (6x his ...200415039061
foliar injury in young betula pendula roth., salix purpurea l. and ilex aquifolium l. trees and in propagated taxus baccata l. shoots exposed to intermittent fog at a range of acidities.the occurrence of various visible symptoms of foliar injury was assessed on a 5-point scale for each of the species. there was a distinct increase in the incidence of most types of injury in plant material which has been exposed to ph 2.5 acid fog. no clear ph-related trend in foliar injury occurred in plants exposed to acid fog at ph 3.5, ph 4.5 and ph 5.6, indicating that a threshold for a range of different types of visible injury may exist between ph 2.5 and ph 3.5 for all four species.199315091854
effect of biflavonoids of taxus baccata on the central nervous system. 19806967860
[action of taxol on human tumors transplanted in athymic mice].in order to study the antitumour activity of taxol (a diterpene of the taxane type) isolated from yew: taxus baccata l. (taxacae), human tumours implanted as xenografts in athymic mice were used. swiss nude mice were treated subcutaneously (12.5 mg/kg/injection/day for 5 consecutive days out of 7, over a period of 3 weeks). treatment by taxol of a liver metastasis of a breast tumour, a tongue primary tumour and a skin metastasis of bronchial carcinoma gave statistically significant results (0,01 ...19836143600
the stereochemistry of hydrogen elimination from c-7 during biosynthesis of ecdysones in insects and plants.1. [7alpha-(3)h(1)]- and [7beta-(3)h(1)]-cholesterol were synthesized by a modified method. 2. the stereochemistry of delta(7)-bond formation during ecdysone and ecdysterone biosynthesis in the insect, calliphora erythrocephala and the plants, taxus baccata and polypodium vulgare was investigated by using [4-(14)c,7alpha-(3)h(1)]cholesterol and [4-(14)c,7beta-(3)h(1)]cholesterol. 3. in each case, the 7beta hydrogen was stereospecifically eliminated. 4. the possible significance of the results is ...19734772621
taxanes from rooted cuttings of taxus canadensis.a 3,11-cyclotaxane (1), a new epoxytaxane (2), an abeo-taxane (3), and 26 known taxanes were isolated in rooted cuttings of the canadian yew (taxus canadensis) for the first time. their chemical structures were characterized as 1 beta,2 alpha,9 alpha-trihydroxy-10 beta-acetoxy-5 alpha-cinnamoyloxy-3,11-cyclotaxa-4(20)-en-13-one (1), 2 alpha,9 alpha,10 beta-triacetoxy-11,12-epoxy-20-hydroxytaxa-4-en-13-one (2), and 7 beta,9 alpha,10 beta,13 alpha-tetraacetoxy-11(15-->1)abeo-taxa-4(20),11-diene-5 ...200415568777
therapeutic response to taxol of six human tumors xenografted into nude test the antineoplastic activity of taxol, a natural product isolated from yew (taxus baccata l.), six human tumors transplanted into athymic mice were used (primary tumors of breast, endometrium, ovary, brain, lung and a recurrence of tongue tumor). while the growth rates varied with the histopathological characteristics of different tumor types, all mice were treated at a mean tumor volume of 200 +/- 8 mm3. taxol was given sc at a dose level of 12.5 mg/kg per injection per day for 5 consecu ...19862872974
[electrophysiology of the mechanisms of action of the yew toxin, taxine, on the heart].the effects of the sulfate salt of taxine, the alkaloid mixture of the yew (taxus baccata l.), on membrane currents of enzymatically isolated single ventricular cells of guinea pig were studied under current- or voltage clamp conditions. it was found that the drug inhibits both the sodium (ina) and the calcium current (ica). the mean decrease of ica and the maximum rate of rise of the action potential (dv/dtmax), an index of ina, and their standard errors under the influence of 10(-6), 10(-5), 1 ...19872440454
[taxus baccata poisoning in lambs and meat inspection].yew (taxus baccata) poisoning in lambs: meat control twenty-two poisoned lambs were slaughtered at a special slaughterhouse. yew intoxication was diagnosed on the basis of the anamnesis and the presence of yew needles in the rumen. data from the literature concerning the toxicity of yew and some (traditional) uses of yew are reported. the symptoms and post-mortem findings in animals and humans are discussed, together with the poorly effective treatment of yew poisoning and preventative measures. ...19921462346
beneficial effect of taxus baccata, l. in experimental myocardial necrosis. 1977905428
[taxoids: structural and experimental properties].paclitaxel (taxol) and docetaxel (taxotere) are the first representatives of a new class of antitumor compounds. these two taxoids are clinically active against breast, ovarian and lung cancers. taxoids are highly complex diterpenoids form natural origin. preclinical and clinical developments have been made possible after a long and sustained chemical effort: paclitaxel is extracted from the barks of the pacific yew tree taxus brevifolia whereas docetaxel is prepared by hemisynthesis starting fr ...199510846536
effect of the components extracted from the needles of taxus baccata on protein biosynthesis in a cell-free rat liver system.various species of taxus contain taxanes that promote polymerization and stabilization of microtubules. they have been reported as antineoplastic compounds with highly effective chemiotherapeutic application. a decrease in incorporation of the radiolabelled precursors into dna, rna and proteins in vivo has been reported too. the preliminary results have shown that also the other compounds present in the aqueous extract from taxus baccata needles, participate in the inhibition of the protein bios ...199910635350
comparative determination of the cardioselectivity of taxine and verapamil in the isolated aorta, atrium and jejunum preparations of rabbits.the calcium channel antagonistic effect of taxine (cas 12607-93-1) (active principle of leaves of english yew; taxus baccata l.) was investigated in isolated aorta of rabbit, and its organ selectivity was determined and compared with that of verapamil (cas 52-53-9) in isolated aorta, atrium and jejunum preparations of rabbits. taxine (10(-6)-10(-4) g/ml) inhibited concentration-dependently the ca(2+)-induced contractions of the aorta depolarized by 60 mmol/l k+ in ca2+ free media. both taxine (3 ...199910483513
pollen calendar of the city of salamanca (spain). aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.we report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of salamanca (spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. the pollen was captured with burkard spore-traps, based on hirst's volumetric method. determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously st ...19989885728
a simple procedure for purifying the major chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from spinach (spinacia oleracea) and characterization of its stimulation by sub-femtomolar mercuric ions.a rapid procedure for the purification of the redox-regulated chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase [ec] from spinach leaf extract to homogeneity is described. no thiol-reducing agents were present during the purification and the enzyme is > 99% in the oxidized form. a rapid procedure to reduce and activate the fru-1,6-p2ase by dithiothreitol in the absence of thioredoxin is described. reduction activates the enzyme up to several hundred-fold when assayed at ph 8.0 with 2 mm mg2+. the ...19989735161
the unusual occurrence of 14-methylhexadecanoic acid in pinaceae seed oils among plants.14-methylhexadecanoic (14-mhd) acid has been identified in a sample of pine seed oil (pinus contorta) by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of its picolinyl ester derivative. its identification (through its equivalent chain length) and its distribution in four conifer families have been checked. it occurred only in pinaceae, where it was found in 72 species belonging to the genera pinus, abies, cedrus, tsuga, pseudotsuga, larix, and picea, in the range 0.02-1.15%. 14-mhd acid could not ...19979307939
[serious plant poisonings in switzerland 1966-1994. case analysis from the swiss toxicology information center].to analyze the types, frequency and severity of plant poisonings in switzerland over 29 years.19968711457
semisynthesis of some 7-deoxypaclitaxel analogs from taxine b.taxine b (3), isolated from the dried needles of taxus baccata, was converted into six novel 7-deoxypaclitaxel analogs, 20, 21a,b, and 23-25, that have structural changes at c1, c2, and c4. a method for the introduction of the benzoyl function at c2, via a benzylidene acetal at c1-c2, will be revealed. all compounds showed very little or no measurable cytotoxic activity against some well-characterized human tumor cell lines, probably due to the nonacylated hydroxyl group at c4.199611667611
an evaluation of toxicity of taxus baccata linn. (talispatra) in experimental animals.a toxicological study was performed in albino mice and rat with methanolic extract and isolated alkaloid of taxus baccata linn. (family: taxaceae). ld(50) study showed the higher toxic activity in stem (txa-1,2,3) as compared with leaf (txb-1,2,3) extract. as the extract were further fractionated into crude alkaloids and purified by chromatography the toxicity of these fractions were found to be in increasing order as follows: methanolic extract (1) < crude alkaloidal fraction (2) < purified alk ...200211744297
docetaxel (taxotere) in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.docetaxel is a new semi-synthetic anticancer agent derived from bacatin iii of the needles of the european yew taxus baccata. docetaxel has a novel mechanism of action since it binds to tubulin inducing its polymerization and promoting stable microtubule formation. several differences exist between docetaxel and paclitaxel: (i) broader activity of docetaxel against freshly explanted human tumors than paclitaxel; (ii) a 2-fold higher affinity than paclitaxel; (iii) 2.5-fold more potent than pacli ...200211966449
an epidemiological survey of cupressaceae pollenosis in italy.allergic reaction to cupressaceae and taxodiaceae pollens appears to be on the increase in the last years in italy. an epidemiological survey on this pollenosis was conducted in 12 italian centers. the diagnostic panel consisted of seven cupressaceae and taxodiaceae genus (cupressus sempervirens, cupressus arizonica, cryptomeria japonica, chamaecyparis obtusa, thuja orientalis, taxus baccata, and juniperus oxycedrus). a total of 3057 pollen-sensitized outpatients were examined. the study took pl ...200212940232
[taxus baccata poisoning]. 195213021841
[experimental poisoning of the rat by the common if, taxus baccata l. anatomo-pathological aspect]. 196414190928
lc-ms determination of taxus alkaloids in biological specimens.a semi-quantitative lc-ms method was developed for the detection of the pseudo alkaloids of taxus baccata (yew) from human body fluids and tissue samples. this method was used to examine the cause of death of a 43-year-old man who died several hours after he drank a decoction of taxus leaves. autopsy and histology demonstrated early signs of myocardial hypoxia. since investigation of the stomach content did not yield evidence of taxus ingestion, the taxus alkaloids were determined in blood, stom ...200314530985
isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of angucycline antibiotics from an epiphytic yew the course of study of epiphytic microorganisms occurring on the surface of roots of taxus baccata l. a new strain streptomyces sp. ac113 was isolated. according to 16s ribosomal dna-based identification the new strain is 99% identical with streptomyces flavidofuscus. this strain cultivated in an arginine glycerol medium produced three major metabolites identified as (-)-8-o -methyltetrangomycin (1), 8-o -methyltetrangulol (2) and 8-o -methyl-7-deoxo-7-hydroxytetrangomycin (3). the chemical s ...201020082376
anti-ulcerogenic lignans from taxus baccata l.four lignan type compounds, lariciresinol, taxiresinol, isolariciresinol and 3-demethyl-iso-lariciresinol, were isolated from the heartwood of taxus baccata l. (taxaceae) growing in turkey through chromatographic techniques. in vivo anti-ulcerogenic potency of these compounds was investigated on ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in rats at two different doses, 50 and 100 mg/kg. all compounds were shown to possess significant anti-ulcerogenic activity at both doses. however, the effect of taxir ...200415241933
chemical components of heartwood and sapwood of common yew (taxus baccata l.).cell-wall components and solubility characteristics of the heartwood and sapwood of taxus baccata l. were determined by methods of wood analysis and the differences between heartwood and sapwood were established. when we observe the data obtained, it is seen that the amount of extractive material found in the heartwood is substantially higher than the sapwood. the extractive material in taxus baccata l. is originated from the hidden epithelial cells surrounded by resin canals.200315248668
antitumour activity of some plants from meghalaya and mizoram against murine ascites dalton's five plants, three from mizoram (dillenia pentagyna, ageratum conyzoides, blumea lanceolaria) and two from meghalaya (potentilla fulgens, taxus baccata) were studied for their antitumour activity against murine ascites dalton's lymphoma (dl) in vivo. only three plants showed the different magnitude of antitumour activity. out of these three plants, the antitumour activity was maximally observed with the methanol extract of the stem bark of d. pentagyna as compared to the aqueous extract of ...200415511001
therapeutic applications of medicinal plants in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability.various active compounds (or their semi-synthetic derivatives) derived from medicinal plants have been assessed for their efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of breast cancer. some of these plant species, including taxus baccata (paclitaxel, docetaxel), podophyllum peltatum (etoposide), camptotheca acuminata (camptothecin) and vinca rosea (vinblastine, vinorelbine) have well recognized antitumour activity in breast cancer, and have been evaluated in clinical trials. for example, results f ...200011059361
in-vitro antimicrobial activities of some iranian conifers.male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of iranian conifers (cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, c. sempervirens var. sempervirens, c. sempervirens cv. cereifeormis, juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, j. excelsa subsp. excelsa, j. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, j. foetidissima, j. oblonga, j. sabina, platycladus orientalis and taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of iran, dried and extracted with methanol. the extracts were tested for their antimic ...201324250573
increased efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in combination with tannic acid.we identified tannic acid as an inexpensive additive that increased the efficacy of sublethal concentrations of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (berliner). tannic acid mimicked the active constituents contained in an aqueous, tannin-rich extract of taxus baccata (l.) bark that retarded development of heliothis virescens (f.) larvae at 10,000 ppm; most larvae remained in first and second stage when treated with 250-10,000 ppm of tannic acid. instar development of trichoplusia ni (hübner) l ...19957722082
studies on taxus baccata. ii. pharmacological investigation of the total extract of leaves. 19725083249
anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of taxoids and lignans from the heartwood of taxus baccata l.four taxoids (taxusin, baccatin vi, baccatin iii and 1beta-hydroxybaccatin i) and five lignans (lariciresinol, taxiresinol, 3'-demethylisolariciresinol-9'-hydroxyisopropylether, isolariciresinol and 3-demethylisolariciresinol) were isolated from the heartwood of taxus baccata l. (taxaceae) growing in turkey through chromatographic techniques. in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of these compounds were investigated. all the compounds were shown to possess significant antinocice ...200314611890
taxol production by an endophytic fungus, fusarium redolens, isolated from himalayan yew.different endophytic fungi isolated from himalayan yew plants were tested for their ability to produce taxol. the bapt gene (c-13 phenylpropanoid side chain-coa acetyl transferase) involved in the taxol biosynthetic pathway was used as a molecular marker to screen taxol-producing endophytic fungi. taxol extracted from fungal strain tbpj-b was identified by hplc and ms analysis. strain tbpj-b was identified as fusarium redolens based on the morphology and internal transcribed spacer region of nrd ...201323801250
antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of iranian conifers.cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, cupressus semipervirens cv. cereifeormis, juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, juniperus foetidissima, juniperus oblonga, juniperus sabina, platycladus orientalis and taxus baccata are iranian conifers. the antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. the leaves of both male and female, and frui ...200717965761
antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, hylobius abietis.bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. species were alder (alnus glutinosa), aspen (populus tremula), beech (fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (viburnum opulus), holly (ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (evonymus europaeus), walnut (juglans regia), and yew (taxus baccata). bark of each sp ...200818719963
seed dispersal patterns in a temperate forest during a mast event: performance of alternative dispersal kernels.seed dispersal patterns were studied in a north-western spain temperate forest community to assess the performances of alternative dispersal kernels during two years with ecologically contrasting scenarios; a non-mast year, and a mast year of the dominant canopy species, beech fagus sylvatica. dispersal kernels were fitted under a bayesian modeling framework. both simple and mixture kernels were considered for the five more abundant tree species (corylus avellana, crataegus monogyna, f. sylvatic ...200919018573
in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of 2-deacetoxytaxinine j and synthesis of novel taxoids and their in vitro anticancer activity.the taxane diterpneoid 2-deacetoxytaxinine j (2-dat-j) 1 has been isolated from the bark of himalayan yew, taxus baccata l. spp. wallichiana in a reasonably good yield (0.1%) and its anticancer activity against breast cancer cell lines (mcf-7 and mda-mb-231) and normal human kidney epithelial cell line (hek-293) has been studied. 2-dat-j (1) showed significant in vitro activity against breast cancer cell line at a concentration of 20 microm and 10 microm in mcf-7 and mda-mb-231 respectively. few ...200919446930
ethnobotanical and phytomedicinal knowledge in a long-history protected area, the abruzzo, lazio and molise national park (italian apennines).this study reports on the ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in one of the oldest european parks, the abruzzo, lazio and molise national park (central italy). we selected this area because we judged the long history of nature preservation as an added value potentially encouraging the survival of uses possibly lost elsewhere.201019874882
bioactivity of lignans from taxus baccata.three lignan derivatives, (-)-taxiresinol (1), (-)-3'-demethylisolariciresinol-9'-hydroxyisopropylether (2) and (-)-3-demethylisolariciresinol (3), previously isolated from the heart-wood of taxus baccata l. (taxaceae) were investigated for cytotoxicity against the oncology cell line panel (breast, colon, ovary, prostate, lung and a normal adult bovine aortic endothelial cell line) as well as for antimicrobial activities. besides, a chloroform-soluble portion of the ethanol extract from the hear ...200415813367
production, purification and characterization of taxol and 10dab iii from a new endophytic fungus gliocladium sp. isolated from the indian yew tree, taxus baccata.we have isolated endophytic fungi from indian yew tree, taxus baccata and then screened for taxol production. out of the forty fungal cultures screened, one fungus gliocladium sp. was found to produce taxol and 10dab iii (10 deacetyl baccatin iii). these compounds were purified by tlc, hplc and characterized using uv-spectroscopy, esi-ms, ms/ms and proton nmr. one liter of gliocladium sp. culture yielded 10 microg of taxol and 65 microg of 10 dab iii. the purified taxol from the fungus showed cy ...200919996685
spatial genetic structure of taxus baccata l. in the western mediterranean basin: past and present limits to gene movement over a broad geographic scale.english yew (taxus baccata l., taxaceae), a tertiary relict, provides a seminal example of a widespread albeit locally endangered (often close to extinction) tree species. in order to gain detailed insights into the evolutionary dynamics of the species on a broad geographical scale, over 1000 trees from 91 populations of english yew in the western mediterranean were analyzed using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. our results revealed contrasting patterns of genetic structure at different sp ...201020211747
isolation and identification of antimicrobial agent-producing bacterium from taxus baccata rhizosphere antagonistic against clinically significant microbes.a bacterium identified as pseudomonas fluorescence was isolated from taxus baccata rhizosphere. ethyl acetate extract from its culture filtrate yielded an active antimicrobial compound that was purified by tlc. the active metabolites were resolved by column chromatography on silica gel (60-120 mesh). the compound was further characterized on the basis of spectral data (uv, ir and (1)hnmr), which indicated the presence of an aromatic ring and phenolic functionality. the compound showed significan ...200723100684
comparison of the cytotoxic effects of juniperus sabina and zataria multiflora extracts with taxus baccata extract and cisplatin on normal and cancer cell lines.isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for the determination of anti-tumor effects. in this study, cytotoxic effects and ic(50) of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of fruits of juniperus sabina and leaves of zataria multiflora were compared with hydro-alcoholic extract of bark of taxus baccata and cisplatin, well-known anticancer compounds, on normal (cho and ra ...201020668574
cytotoxicity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of cucurbitapepo and solanum nigrum on hepg2 and ct26 cancer cell lines.plants are used worldwide for the treatment of diseases, and novel drugs continue to be developed through research from plants. there are more than 20,000 species of plants used in traditional medicines, and these are all potential reservoirs for new drugs. cucurbitapepo has been used in traditional folk medicine to treat cold and alleviate ache. previous pharmacological tests have shown that it possesses antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. also, solanum nigrum has been used as ...201020931075
the strait of gibraltar as a major biogeographic barrier in mediterranean conifers: a comparative phylogeographic survey.the strait of gibraltar (sg) is reputed for being both a bridge and a geographic barrier to biological exchanges between europe and africa. major genetic breaks associated with this strait have been identified in various taxa, but it is unknown whether these disjunctions have been produced simultaneously or by independent biogeographic processes. here, the genetic structure of five conifers distributed on both sides of the sg was investigated using mitochondrial (nad1 b/c, nad5-1, nad5-4 and nad ...201021073588
evaluation of effect of taxus baccata leaves extract on bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyperreactivity in experimental animals.the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the bronchodilating effect and bronchial hyperreactivity of alcoholic extract of taxus baccata linn. (aet) leaves in experimental animals. bronchodilator activity of aet was studied on the histamine and acetylcholine aerosol induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) in the egg albumin sensitized guinea pigs and by histopathological studies. in vitro mast cell stabilizin ...201121607053
incubation of european yew (taxus baccata) with white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) rumen fluid reduces taxine a concentrations.yew ( taxus baccata) foliage was co-incubated with rumen fluid (rf) taken from fistulated cattle (bos taurus), anesthetized white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and o. virginianus killed by bow hunters. the first trial with live deer resulted in statistically significant 59% reduction of taxine a by deer rf and no reduction by cattle rf. the second intubation trial, in which half the samples were stopped after 12 h, resulted in slightly less taxine a reduction by deer (46%) and 12% reducti ...200415587242
assessment of enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of lignans from taxus baccata l.phytochemical investigations of taxus baccata l. by successive chromatographic methods resulted in the isolation of the lignans lariciresinol (1), taxiresinol (2), 3'-demethylisolariciresinol-9'-hydroxyisopropylether (3), isolariciresinol (4), and 3-demethylisolariciresinol (5) as well as taxoids. compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase (ache), butyrylcholinesterase (bche), and lipoxygenase (lox) inhibitory activities, which play a role in the pathogenesis of alzheimer's dise ...201020469636
isolation and characterization of stemphylium sedicola sbu-16 as a new endophytic taxol-producing fungus from taxus baccata grown in this study, a total of 25 endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from the inner bark of taxus baccata grown in iran by the aseptic technique. genomic dna was extracted from isolated endophytic fungi and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis for the presence of the taxus taxadiene synthase (ts) gene, which encodes the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step of taxol biosynthesis. four of 25 isolated endophytic fungi isolates showed pcr positive for the ts gene. subseque ...201122211912
screening of mutant strain streptomyces mediolani sp. ac37 for (-)-8-o-methyltetrangomycin production enhancement.streptomyces mediolani sp. ac37 was isolated from the root system of higher plant taxus baccata and produced metabolite identified as (-)-8-o-methyltetrangomycin according to lc/ms/ms analysis. in our screening program for improvements of bioactive secondary metabolites from plant associate streptomycetes, mutation was used as a tool for the induction of genetic variations for selection of higher (-)-8-o-methyltetrangomycin producers of isolates. s. mediolani sp. ac37 was treated with uv irradia ...201223274989
flavanol binding of nuclei from tree species.light microscopy was used to examine the nuclei of five tree species with respect to the presence of flavanols. flavanols develop a blue colouration in the presence of a special p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (dmaca) reagent that enables those nuclei loaded with flavanols to be recognized. staining of the nuclei was most pronounced in both tsuga canadensis and taxus baccata, variable in metasequoia glyptostroboides, faint in coffea arabica and minimal in prunus avium. hplc analysis showed that th ...200414595514
biosynthesis of taxadiene in saccharomyces cerevisiae : selection of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase directed by a computer-aided docking strategy.identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. in this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (ggpps), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (mva) pathway catalyzing fame ...201425295588
isolation, identification, and ecology of growth and taxol production by an endophytic strain of paraconiothyrium variabile from english yew trees (taxus baccata).endophytic fungi were isolated/screened from temperate taxus baccata (yew) for production of the anti-cancer drug taxol. of 242 endophytic fungi isolated from surface-sterilised yew tree twig segments, only two produced taxol in a defined liquid medium; confirmed by hplc and lc-ms/ms analyses. they were identified by molecular means by sequencing of its1/its2 regions and shown to be paraconiothyrium variabile and epicoccum nigrum. they produced 1.75 and 1.32 μgl(-1) taxol respectively in a defin ...201526466877
plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.particulate matter (pm) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in norway and poland. leaf pm in different particle size fractions (pm(10), pm(2.5), pm(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. pinus mugo and pinus sylvestris, taxus media and taxus baccata, stephanandra incisa and betula pendula were efficient species in capturing pm. less efficient species were acer platanoides, prunus avium and tilia cordata. differences among ...201222554531
enhanced taxane production and secretion from taxus baccata cell culture by adding dimethylsulfoxide.the ability of an aprotic solvent, dimethylsulfoxide (dmso), to induce taxane synthesis and release from cell suspension culture of taxus baccata was examined. the results showed that applying dmso in optimal conditions not only led to enhancement in taxane excretion from the cells but also led to improvement in taxol synthesis. maximum yields for taxol [3.34 mg/g dry cell weight (dcw)] were achieved by adding 5% dmso to the culture at the late-exponential phase of cell growth (day 14) and cultu ...201223586832
characterization and control of endophytic bacterial contaminants in in vitro cultures of piper spp., taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana, and withania somnifera.bacterial contamination is a serious problem that causes severe loss of in vitro grown cultures of a number of plants. this problem becomes even more acute if the bacterial contamination is of endophytic origin. in such cases, identification and characterization of the contaminants is essential for achieving specific control of the contaminants through selective use of antibiotic agents, especially if the routinely used contamination control methods practiced elsewhere in tissue culture studies ...200717496951
in vitro activity of 10-deacetylbaccatin iii against leishmania donovani promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes.current treatments for leishmaniasis are unsatisfactory due to their route of administration, toxicity and expense but, most importantly, to the developed resistance of leishmania to first-line drugs. therefore, the identification of new effective targeted drugs is an urgent need. since many studies have shown that medicinal plants contain compounds active against protozoa we have undertaken a study aiming to determine the antileishmanial activity of the taxoid 10-deacetylbaccatin iii, isolated ...200717691059
alkaloid-containing plants poisonous to cattle and horses in europe.alkaloids, nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites, are of major interest to veterinary toxicology because of their occurrence in plant species commonly involved in animal poisoning. based on epidemiological data, the poisoning of cattle and horses by alkaloid-containing plants is a relatively common occurrence in europe. poisoning may occur when the plants contaminate hay or silage or when forage alternatives are unavailable. cattle and horses are particularly at risk of poisoning by co ...201526670251
in vitro cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effect of selected coniferous tree explore cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effect of six coniferous trees (abies bornmulleriana, picea pungens, juniperus communis, cedrus libani, taxus baccata, and cupressus sempervirens var. horizantalis).201525975497
heterologous virus-induced gene silencing as a promising approach in plant functional genomics.vigs (virus induced gene silencing) is considered as a powerful genomics tool for characterizing the function of genes in a few closely related plant species. the investigations have been carried out mainly in order to test if a pre-existing vigs vector can serve as an efficient tool for gene silencing in a diverse array of plant species. another route of investigation has been the constructing of new viral vectors to act in their hosts. our approach was the creation of a heterologous system in ...201121655951
acute plant poisoning: analysis of clinical features and circumstances of exposure.introduction. human contact with potentially toxic plants, which may occur through abuse or by accident or attempted suicide, is frequent and sometimes results in clinically significant toxicity. objective. the aim of the present study was to identify which plants may lead to severe poisoning, and to define the clinical relevance of plant toxicity for humans in switzerland. methods. we analyzed 42?193 cases of human plant exposure and 255 acute moderate, severe, and lethal poisonings, which were ...201121809910
epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in europe.this review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in european countries. poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. in europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by datura stramonium (jimson weed), senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), quercus spp. (oak), taxus baccata (european yew), nerium oleander (oleander), pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern ...201323570777
rodent seed predation promotes differential recruitment among bird-dispersed trees in temperate secondary forests.we investigated the role of seed predation by rodents in the recruitment of the fleshy-fruited trees taxus baccata, ilex aquifolium and crataegus monogyna in temperate secondary forests in nw spain. we measured the densities of dispersed seeds, early emerged seedlings, established recruits and adults, at four sites over a period of 2 years. seed predation among species was compared by seed removal experiments and analysis of rodent larder-hoards. the three species differed markedly in local rege ...200515891859
non-crop plants used as hosts by drosophila suzukii in europe.the invasive spotted wing drosophila drosophila suzukii, a fruit fly of asian origin, is a major pest of a wide variety of berry and stone fruits in europe. one of the characteristics of this fly is its wide host range. a better knowledge of its host range outside cultivated areas is essential to develop sustainable integrated pest management strategies. field surveys were carried out during two years in italy, the netherlands and switzerland. fruits of 165 potential host plant species were coll ...201628275324
in vitro plant tissue cultures accumulate polyisoprenoid vitro cultivated plant cells and tissues were found to synthesize polyisoprenoids. taxus baccata suspension cell cultures accumulated polyisoprenoids of the same pattern as the parental tissue; methyl jasmonate or chitosan treatment almost doubled their content. all the root cultures studied accumulated dolichols as predominant polyisoprenoids. roots of ocimum sanctum grown in vitro accumulated approx. 2.5-fold higher amount of dolichols than the roots of soil-grown plants. dolichols dominate ...200718066399
ethnomedicinal plants of kathua district, j&k, india.natural products, especially those derived from plants, continue to provide new and important leads in the drug discovery process. the first step in drug discovery is to document material traditionally used to treat an ailment. documentation of such knowledge will lead to its conservation and facilitate future research on medicinal plant safety and efficacy to validate traditional use. the present study was undertaken with an aim to document the ethnomedicinal plants of kathua district.201526023030
two-photon excitation with pico-second fluorescence lifetime imaging to detect nuclear association of flavanols.two-photon excitation enabled for the first time the observation and measurement of excited state fluorescence lifetimes from three flavanols in solution, which were ~1.0 ns for catechin and epicatechin, but <45 ps for epigallocatechin gallate (egcg). the shorter lifetime for egcg is in line with a lower fluorescence quantum yield of 0.003 compared to catechin (0.015) and epicatechin (0.018). in vivo experiments with onion cells demonstrated that tryptophan and quercetin, which tend to be major ...201222340533
analysis of photosystem i donor and acceptor sides with a new type of online-deconvoluting kinetic led-array spectrophotometer.the newly developed dual/klas-nir spectrophotometer, technical details of which were reported very recently, is used in measuring redox changes of p700, plastocyanin (pc) and ferredoxin (fd) in intact leaves of hedera helix, taxus baccata and brassica napus an overview of various light-/dark-induced changes of deconvoluted p700(+), pc(+) and fd(-) signals is presented demonstrating the wealth of novel information and the consistency of the obtained results. fd(-) changes are particularly large a ...201627053032
the norway spruce genome sequence and conifer genome evolution.conifers have dominated forests for more than 200 million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of norway spruce (picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. the number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of arabidopsis thaliana, and there is no evidence of a recent whole-genome duplication in the gymnosperm lineage. instead, the large genome size seems to result fr ...201323698360
[yew poisoning in australian emus (dromaius novaehollandiae, latham)].six, four month old, captive bred emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) were found dead in their pen without any previous indications of illness. postmortem examination revealed the cause of death to be taxine poisoning after ingestion of leaves and green berries from a yew bush (taxus baccata) growing outside the perimeter fencing but encroaching through the wire. after longstanding access to the yew bush, an unidentified stimulus prompted these young birds to sample this toxic plant. pathological fi ...19947993338
post-dispersal seed predation and the establishment of vertebrate dispersed plants in mediterranean scrublands.the post-dispersal fate of seeds and fruit (diaspores) of three vertebrate-dispersed trees, crataegus monogyna, prunus mahaleb and taxus baccata, was studied in the andalusian highlands, south-eastern spain. exclosures were used to quantify separately the impact of vertebrates and invertebrates on seed removal in relation to diaspore density and microhabitat. the three plant species showed marked differences in the percentage of diaspores removed, ranging from only 5% for c. monogyna to 87% for ...199728307510
characteristics of tree bark as an indicator in high-immission areas : ii. contents of heavy metals.1. studies on indicator characteristics of bark of deciduous trees have been continued by measuring accumulation of pb, cd, ni and mn in the bark of fraxinus excelsior at 34 sampling sites over an area of 150 km(2) in the immission area of frankfurt am main. 2. iso-lines of equal pb-contamination have been found. they include zones of graduated immissions. the pattern of these zones shows an eccentrical orientation and is the result of the distribution of the main traffic roads. a significant co ...197828309292
molecular and morphological characterization of a taxol-producing endophytic fungus, gliocladium sp., from taxus baccata.the endophytic fungal populations of different tissues of taxus baccata grown at high altitudes in west bengal, india were explored. these isolated fungal populations represented different genera, which were screened for taxol production using immunoassay technique. the culture aat-ts-4(1) that produced taxol was identified as gliocladium sp. based on its cultural, morphological characteristics, internal transcribed spacer, and 18s rrna sequence analysis. kinetics of taxol production as a functi ...201122783096
endophytic streptomyces sp. ac35, a producer of bioactive isoflavone aglycones and this research, a microbial endophytic strain obtained from the rhizosphere of the conifer taxus baccata and designated as streptomyces sp. ac35 (fj001754.1 streptomyces, genbank) was investigated. high 16s rdna gene sequence similarity suggests that this strain is closely related to s. odorifer. the major fatty acid profile of intracellular lipids was also carried out to further identify this strain. atomic force microscopy and scanning acoustic microscopy were used to image our strain. its m ...201627344572
optimization of the basal medium for improving production and secretion of taxanes from suspension cell culture of taxus baccata l.taxol is one of the most effective anticancer drugs that isolated from taxus sp. due to the slow growth of taxus trees and low concentration of taxol in the tissues, the biotechnological approaches especially plant cell culture have been considered to produce taxol in commercial scale.201223352123
isolation of taxol-producing endophytic fungi from iranian yew through novel molecular approach and their effects on human breast cancer cell line.taxol or paclitaxel, an approved drug by the food and drug administration, is being used for the treatment of human cancers. this study aimed to isolate and determine different species of native endophytic fungi from iranian taxus baccata (yew) plants located in the northern forests of iran. to do so, a novel molecular screening approach was performed for 50 isolated endophytic fungi through amplification of exon no. 1 of taxadine synthase as a key gene in taxol production pathway. we used effec ...201728332162
antimicrobial endophytic fungal assemblages inhabiting bark of taxus baccata l. of indo-burma mega biodiversity hotspot.fungal endophytes were isolated from inner bark of taxus baccata l., an important source of potent anticancer drug taxol. bark samples were collected from two locations of arunachal pradesh, india, part of the indo-burma mega biodiversity hotspot, during two seasons i.e. monsoon and winter. altogether 77 fungal strains representing 18 genera were isolated from t. baccata bark during the present investigation. the colonizing frequency was recorded as 38.5% and the fungal community comprised of 78 ...201022815576
taxus sp. intoxication in three francois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi).three francois' langurs (trachypithecus francoisi) were found dead, without previous clinical signs, over a 48-hour period at a zoological institution after transfer to a new exhibit. a hybrid yew shrub (taxus baccata x t. cuspidata) was found in close proximity to the exhibit perimeter fence. despite clinical suspicion of yew intoxication, thin-layer chromatography performed on gastric contents was negative. however, microscopic examination of gastric contents revealed multiple yew fragments, a ...200717402624
glucosylation of the peptide leucinostatin a, produced by an endophytic fungus of european yew, may protect the host from leucinostatin toxicity.yew species (taxus spp.) throughout the world are hosts to hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of endophytic organisms. most commonly, these organisms are fungi, living in a commensal or a symbiotic relationship with their host plant, so the plants exhibit little or no outward evidence that they are supporting these microorganisms. little is known about any of the biochemical mechanisms that mediate the interactions between the yew host and its associated microbes. we feel that such information may ...19979263641
gymnosperm b-sister genes may be involved in ovule/seed development and, in some species, in the growth of fleshy fruit-like structures.the evolution of seeds together with the mechanisms related to their dispersal into the environment represented a turning point in the evolution of plants. seeds are produced by gymnosperms and angiosperms but only the latter have an ovary to be transformed into a fruit. yet some gymnosperms produce fleshy structures attractive to animals, thus behaving like fruits from a functional point of view. the aim of this work is to increase our knowledge of possible mechanisms common to the development ...201323761686
molecular analyses of mads-box genes trace back to gymnosperms the invention of fleshy fruits.botanical fruits derive from ovaries and their most important function is to favor seed dispersal. fleshy fruits do so by attracting frugivorous animals that disperse seeds together with their own excrements (endozoochory). gymnosperms make seeds but have no ovaries to be transformed into fruits. many species surround their seeds with fleshy structures and use endozoochory to disperse them. such structures are functionally fruits and can derive from different anatomical parts. ginkgo biloba and ...201221972256
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