in vitro growth of embryos and callus of coconut palm.a medium for optimal growth of embryos of jamaican tall and green malayan dwarf varieties of coconut palm was developed. the liquid basal murashige and skoog medium was supplemented with coconut milk, iaa and 2ip. activated charcoal improved embryo growth on agar medium. a single callus line was initiated from solid endosperm and subcultured on basal schenk and hildebrandt medium supplemented with 2 mg per 1 naa. attempts at inducing organogenesis in the callus were unsuccessful. no vascular tis ...1978669731
yeasts of the coconut palm wine of sri lanka. 1978750744
distributional patterns of mesophilous and thermophilous microfungi in two bahamian soils.this study focuses on the characteristics displayed by mesophilous and thermophilous microfungal populations occurring in two tropical monodominant plant communities, a cocos nucifera grove and a casuarina equisetifolia forest, that provide distinctly different edaphic conditions. the mesophilous population sampled at 25 degrees c by the dilution plate method and the thermophilous population that developed on soil plates incubated at 45 degrees c consisted of 1693 isolates representing 60 specie ...19751214847
[coconut (cocos nucifera l.) and the preparation of a milk substitute].coconut (cocos nucifera, l.) is an abundant product in brazil. the authors studied the use of the protein fraction to prepare "milk-substitute" beverages. the analyses were made on albumen, copra and cake. protein coconut extraction was tried with water; nacl solutions in different concentrations; hcl and naoh solutions in different concentrations; hcl and naoh solutions at different ph values. the extracted proteins were analysed for aminoacid composition and chemical score. the best results of ...19751243987
the effect of potassium on the uptake of 137cs in food crops grown on coral soils: coconut at bikini atoll.the soils of bikini atoll (11 degrees 35'n, 165 degrees 25'e) were contaminated by fallout from a thermonuclear explosion in 1954. today, in the absence of any treatment, intake of 137cs via the terrestrial food chain could account for 70% of the radiological dose received by a returning population. therefore, we examined the effectiveness of potassium applications, alone and combined with nitrogen and phosphorus, in reducing 137cs uptake by coconut (cocos nucifera l.), a major food crop. mean p ...19921321096
occupational dermatosis in coconut palm climbers. 19921386015
young coconut water for home rehydration in children with mild gastroenteritis.coconut water was evaluated as a home glucose electrolyte solution for well-nourished children with mild diarrhoea. we describe the chemical composition of coconut water by type and age of coconut (cocos nucifera). our results suggest that young coconut water can be used, together with early refeeding, as a home glucose electrolyte oral rehydration solution in the early stages of mild diarrhoeal disease, despite not having a balanced electrolyte composition. however, it should not be used in pat ...19921496708
nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm-oil diet in malaysian volunteers.the effects on serum lipids of diets prepared with palm olein, corn oil, and coconut oil supplying approximately 75% of the fat calories were compared in three matched groups of healthy volunteers (61 males, 22 females, aged 20-34 y). group i received a coconut-palm-coconut dietary sequence; group ii, coconut-corn-coconut; and group iii, coconut oil during all three 5-wk dietary periods. compared with entry-level values, coconut oil raised the serum total cholesterol concentration greater than 1 ...19912012009
evolution in oryctes baculovirus: rate and types of genomic change.three cloned strains of oryctes baculovirus were released into a previously unexposed population of the host insect, the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros. the experiment was conducted on meemu atoll in the maldive islands. viruses were isolated from the beetle population at 1 year, 1.75 years, and 4 years after release. no changes in genotype were observed in viruses isolated after 1 and 1.75 years. after 4 years, however, three types of genomic change had occurred. a recombina ...19902403706
coconut foliar decay virus particles are 20-nm icosahedra.a small single-stranded circular dna has previously been reported to be associated with foliar decay disease of coconut palm in vanuatu. here we describe the isolation of unusual 20-nm icosahedral particles which copurify with foliar decay disease dna and which we consider to be the coconut foliar decay virus. this virus seems to represent a novel group of plant viruses.19892753656
immunochemical characterization of cocos nucifera pollen.the cocos nucifera pollen, as one of the sources of allergen responsible for immediate hypersensitivity reaction, was confirmed by skin prick test, bronchial provocation test, and rast. the whole pollen extract (wpe) of c. nucifera was fractionated by combination of gel filtration and ion-exchange columns with fast protein liquid chromatography (pharmacia, uppsala, sweden). three protein peaks designated cocos ii, cocos vi, and cocos vii exhibited allergenic properties, as tested by skin prick t ...19892778244
cadang-cadang disease of coconut palm.cadang-cadang disease has caused the death of over 30 million coconut palms, and no control measures are known. the causal viroid is the smallest known pathogen. field diagnostic tests will soon be developed to allow mapping of the distribution and spread of the viroid and this should lead to the identification of appropriate control measures.19883079213
structures of the galactomannans from seeds of annona muricata, arenga saccharifera, cocos nucifera, convolvulus tricolor, and sophora japonica. 19714339945
the epizootiology of two pathogens of the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle. 19744854820
[fatty acid patterns of organic lipids in the growing pig following additional feeding with coconut-palm oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil for 5 weeks]. 19725065163
aspartate aminotransferase in the immature solid endosperm of the coconut (cocos nucifera). 19675621943
metabolic conversion of thymine-2-c-14 and its incorporation into nuclear rna of endosperm nuclei of cocos nucifera linn. 19645836561
decarboxylases in the immature solid endosperm of the coconut (cocos nucifera). 19655862216
crystalline inclusions in chloroplasts of the coconut palm. 19665930353
falls from trees and tree associated injuries in rural melanesians.falls from trees and other tree related injuries are the most common cause of trauma in some parts of rural melanesia. a four year review of all admissions for trauma to the provincial hospital at alotau, milne bay province, papua new guinea, showed that 27% were due to falls from trees, and a further 10% were due to related injuries, such as being struck by a falling branch or a coconut. a questionnaire distributed to rural health centres showed that during the study period at least 28 villager ...19846440619
the role of industry in the development of a product for control of mycoplasmal plant diseases.a number of mycoplasmal or mycoplasma-like diseases of plants have been treated with an oxytetracycline-based product. remission of symptoms has generally resulted, and in some instances the local use of this product under temporary governmental registrations has been approved. the use of oxytetracycline for control of many such diseases is not commercially feasible because the potential market is relatively small and the costs of development are relatively high. however, oxytetracycline product ...19827123054
antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shell - cocos nucifera linn. 19807412336
isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by lectin-agglutination tests of phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum) and cherimoyas (anona cherimolia) in southeastern spain.plants of lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and anona cherimolia cultivated in southeastern spain were examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. parasites were detected from the onset of fruiting. isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. isolates were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. the form and the structural organization was studied by scanning a ...19957479649
cocos nucifera pollen inducing allergy: sensitivity test and immunological study.among the heterogeneous population (n = 975) in greater calutta, sensitization to cocos nucifera pollen accounts to be 2.65% and for atopic patients (n = 204) 47.06%. out of 24 patients who had c. nucifera pollen sensitivity and suffered from asthma and allergic rhinitis, 16 showed sensitivity also to other allergens. all were skin test positive and 19 of them were phadezym rast positive to c. nucifera pollen extract. bronchial provocation test appeared to be positive in 7 out of 8 patients incl ...19957590957
acholeplasma brassicae sp. nov. and acholeplasma palmae sp. nov., two non-sterol-requiring mollicutes from plant surfaces.two mollicutes (strains 0502t [t = type strain] and j233t), which were isolated from the surfaces of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italica) plants or the crown tissues of the coconut palm (cocos nucifera), were capable of sustained growth in serum-free (or cholesterol-free) mycoplasma broth media. examination by electron and dark-field microscopic techniques revealed that the cells of each strain were small, nonhelical, nonmotile, pleomorphic, and coccoid and that each cell was surrounded by ...19947981098
the local view on the role of plant protection in sustainable agriculture in india.indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has affected humans and their environment and contributed significantly to reduced productivity of crops. with the increasing realization of the importance of sustainable agriculture, the concept of integrated pest management (ipm) for sustainable agriculture has emerged. in the recent past entomologists and the farmers have identified methods of pest management that are ecologically non-disruptive and stable. concurrently indigenous crop varieties wit ...19938149820
placebo-controlled immunotherapy with cocos nucifera pollen extract.the effectiveness of cocos nucifera pollen extract immunotherapy (cpe-it) was studied in 96 patients allergic to c. nucifera pollen. a placebo-controlled study was performed at random for a period of 6-12 months. the clinical status of the patients measured by the symptom-medication scores demonstrated that c. nucifera pollen-allergic patients had significant (p < 0.005) clinical improvement after cpe-it in comparison to placebo treatment. serological study resulted a significant reduction (p < ...19948292907
in vivo magnetic resonance study of the histochemistry of coconut (cocos nucifera).magnetic resonance imaging (mri) and localized proton mr spectroscopy (mrs) techniques have been applied for studying different maturation processes in the histochemistry of coconut (cocos nucifera). images of the tender and mature coconut are characterized by protons of the aqueous solution present in the cavity and from the surrounding pulp, whereas the image of the dry coconut is from the protons of the fat present in the pulp. localized proton mr spectra of the water present in the cavity fr ...19958544660
cloning of a coconut endosperm cdna encoding a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase that accepts medium-chain-length substrates.immature coconut (cocos nucifera) endosperm contains a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (lpaat) activity that shows a preference for medium-chain-length fatty acyl-coenzyme a substrates (h.m. davies, d.j. hawkins, j.s. nelsen [1995] phytochemistry 39:989-996). beginning with solubilized membrane preparations, we have used chromatographic separations to identify a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kd, whose presence in various column fractions correlates with the acy ...19958552723
immune responses following cocktails of inactivated measles vaccine and arachis hypogaea l. (groundnut) or cocos nucifera l. (coconut) oils adjuvant.haemagglutination inhibition (hai), geometric mean titre (gmt) and lymphocyte transformation test (ltt) were measured following inoculation of erythrocebus patas with inactivated measles vaccine (imv) and oils of arachis hypogaea l (go), cocos nucifera l (co), freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants (fca, fia). the gmt of hai were: go + imv = 8.50 +/- 4.15: co + imv = 8.08 +/- 4.03; fca + imv = 7.67 +/- 4.08. fia + imv = 7.08 +/- 4.08 compared with controls of live measles vaccine (lmv) = 7.3 ...19969032902
effect of coconut palm wine (toddy) on carbohydrate metabolism in pregnant rats and fetuses.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alcoholic beverage (toddy) and the equivalent quantity of ethanol on carbohydrate metabolism in utero. female rats were exposed to toddy from coconut palm (24.5 ml/kg body weight/day) and ethanol (0.52 ml/kg body weight/day) for 15 days before conception and throughout gestation. on the 19th day of gestation, hypoglycemia was seen in both the treated groups, but it was more in the toddy-treated group. synthesis of glycogen was elevat ...19979198117
the ecosystem study on rongelap atoll.during the 1950's and 1960's, the laboratory of radiation biology at the university of washington carried out an intensive study of this atoll, which was contaminated with radioactive fallout from the "bravo shot" in 1954. this study involved many aspects of the environment and the plant and animal life: soils, land plants, marine life, birds, geology and hydrology, and human diets as well. in much of the research, the fortuitiously present radioactive isotopes, especially 137cs and 90sr, were t ...19979199232
histopathological and lipid changes in experimental colon cancer: effect of coconut kernal (cocos nucifera linn.) and (capsicum annum linn.) red chilli powder.influence of coconut kernal and red chilli on the metabolism of lipids was studied in animals given 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh). the average weight gain by the animals in the coconut kernal group was more than dmh and chilli treated groups. the concentration of cholesterol showed a decrease and phospholipids an increase in most of the tissues studied, of the kernal groups. the cholesterol-phospholipid ratio was found to be increased in most of the tissues of all experimental groups, when compare ...19979475077
aerobiologic and immunochemical studies on borassus flabellifer pollen: evidence for a 90-kd allergen.the pollen grains of arecaceae have been proved to be a very common aeroallergen in india. except for the pollen grains of cocos nucifera, detailed information about the allergenicity of other dominant indian palm pollen is not available.19989564980
protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo developmentevidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (tyr) kinases in developing coconut (cocos nucifera l. ) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32p]atp, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32p]phosphoserine, [32p]phosphothreonine, and [32p]phosphotyrosine in [32p]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos a ...19989733545
allergenic relationship among four common and dominant airborne palm pollen grains from eastern india.palm pollen grains are predominant aeroallergens in the tropics including india. evidence of allergenic crossreactivity had been reported from various parts of the world on different families, e.g. poaceae, asteraceae, etc. no such information is available about the palm pollen of tropical countries.19989756202
effect of in utero exposure of toddy (coconut palm wine) on liver function and lipid metabolism in rat fetuses.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a country liquor toddy (coconut palm wine) and an equivalent quantity of ethanol on liver function and lipid metabolism in utero. female albino rats with an average weight of 125 +/- 5 g were exposed to toddy from coconut palm (24.5 ml/kg body weight/day) and ethanol (0.52 ml/kg body weight/day) for 15 days before conception and during pregnancy. on day 13 and day 19 of gestation, altered liver function and hyperlipidemia were seen in t ...19989950082
dietary intake and practices in the hong kong chinese examine dietary intake and practices of the adult hong kong chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis.199810023462
phytomonas and other trypanosomatid parasites of plants and fruit.trypanosomatid parasites are fairly common in the latex, phloem, fruit sap, seed albumen, and even in the nectar, of many plant families. they are transmitted to the plants in the saliva of phytophagous hemipterous bugs (insecta). morphologically, plant trypanosomatids have no special characteristic, except perhaps a very twisted cell body. most occur in plants as promastigotes and a few as choanomastigotes. it is still controversial whether or not they are pathogenic in lactiferous plants or fr ...199910050272
identification and characterization of microsatellite loci in coconut (cocos nucifera l.) and the analysis of coconut populations in sri lanka. 199910065554
systemic allergic reaction to coconut (cocos nucifera) in 2 subjects with hypersensitivity to tree nut and demonstration of cross-reactivity to legumin-like seed storage proteins: new coconut and walnut food allergens.two patients with tree nut allergy manifested by life-threatening systemic reactions reported the subsequent onset of systemic reactions after the consumption of coconut.199910359903
antigenic relationship between four airborne palm pollen grains from calcutta, india.the pollen grains of areca catechu, borassus flabellifer, cocos nucifera and phoenix sylvestris, all belonging to the family aracaceae (palmae), are airborne and found to be potent in causing human respiratory allergy. the present study was undertaken to discover the antigenic relationship, if any, in the four relevant palm pollen grains. the study was conducted by using borassus and phoenix antisera raised in rabbit. these antisera were used in rabbit igg specific elisa-inhibition and rocket im ...199910384216
lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from coconut endosperm mediates the insertion of laurate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols in lauric rapeseed oil and can increase total laurate levelsexpression of a california bay laurel (umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (bte), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. in these bte oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (t.a. voelker, t.r. hayes, a.c. cranmer, h.m. davies [1996] plant j 9: 229-241). coexpression of a coconut (cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme a-preferri ...199910398708
isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellites in cocos nucifera l.microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (ssrs) were isolated from coconut (cocos nucifera) and tested for polymorphism on restricted germplasm. sequencing of 197 clones from a cv. tagnanan tall-enriched genomic library showed that 75% contained a microsatellite, of which 64% were dinucleotide (ga/ct, ca/gt and gc/cg), 6% were trinucleotide, and 30% were compound repeats. of 41 primer pairs tested on tagnanan tall genomic dna, 38 gave the expected size product, two amplified two loci, and anot ...199910464790
influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipemic effect of vitamin b6 deficiency.since many connections exist between vitamin b6 and lipid metabolism, we aim to investigate the lipemic effect of different dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats fed a vitamin b6 deficient diet. diets were either vitamin b6 deficient (-b6) or vitamin b6 sufficient, pair-fed to the deficient group (pf) and ad libitum (n). the diets were combined with normal lipid (lc: soya bean-coconut-palm oils) and fish oil (fo: soya bean-fish oil). the fish oil diet with sufficient vitamin b6 ...199910526775
use of microsatellite dna markers to investigate the level of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of coconut (cocos nucifera l.).we have used eight pairs of simple sequence repeat (ssr) primers to analyse the genetic diversity in 130 individuals of coconut (cocos nucifera l.) comprising 75 tall individuals and 55 dwarf individuals, representing 94 different coconut ecotypes throughout the world. a total of 51 alleles were detected, with an average of 6.4 alleles per locus. fifty alleles were detected in tall coconuts (talls; mean alleles/locus 6.3) compared with only 26 (mean/locus 3.3) in dwarfs, and the average diversit ...200010701108
abscisic acid induced somatic embryogenesis in immature embryo explants of coconut (cocos nucifera l.).somatic embryogenesis in coconut (cocos nucifera l.) is generally induced by gradual reduction of auxin concentration in the culture medium and incorporation of cytokinins. although plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is possible, the protocol is yet to be perfected. in this study, nodular callus was obtained from 7-9 months old immature zygotic embryos of coconut on a medium containing 24 µm 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-d). as a novel approach, abscisic acid (aba) at a conc ...200010808075
natural tritium levels in tender and ripe coconut fruit (cocos nucifera l.): a preliminary examination.tissue free water tritium concentrations (tfwt) were determined in tender coconut (cocos nucifera l.) water, ripe coconut water, and kernel milk water, and compared with the same in groundwater collected from the vicinity of the trees. samples with a very low tritium content were enriched by the alkaline electrolysis method. all of the samples were analyzed for tritium content in an ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer. the tfwt in kernel milk water was found to be approximately 20- ...200010902850
effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.the effect of neutral detergent fiber (ndf) from coconut kernel (cocos nucifera l) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. faecal excretion of cu, cr, mn, mg, zn and ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. the result of the present in ...200010919103
biochemical and ultrastructural alterations caused by newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazole[1,5a]pyrimidine derivatives against phytomonas staheli (trypanosomatidae).six compounds, all newly synthesized triazole-pyrimidine derivatives that proved inhibitory of in in vitro growth of epimastigotes in trypanosoma cruzi and of promastigotes of leishmania donovani and phytomonas staheli, were studied to investigate their toxic effects. as a biological model, the plant trypanosome p. staheli, which causes sudden wilt in the oil palm and hartrot in the coconut palm, was used. the six compounds markedly inhibited macromolecule synthesis (nucleic acids and proteins) ...200011031318
long-term effects of intercropping and bio-litter recycling on soil biological activity and fertility status of sub-tropical soils.on-farm field experiments were carried out at two sites having 38- and 10-year-old orchard cropping systems under sub-tropical climatic regions to evaluate changes in organic carbon accumulation and chemical and microbiological properties of the soils. under a system of different intercropped fruit trees, the cultivation of coconut (cocos nucifera l.) intercropped with guava (psidium guajava l.) enhanced the soil microbial activity approximately 2-fold after 38 yrs over 10 yrs of the same interc ...200111131798
coconut palm-related injuries in the pacific islands.coconut palms are an integral part of life in the solomon islands, given the widespread dependence of subsistence agriculture. injuries related to the coconut palm are thus inevitable. hospital records from the central referral hospital were reviewed to identify (i) how commonly the coconut palm is implicated in injuries referred to the surgery department; (ii) which patients are being injured; and (iii) the type of injuries sustained.200111167595
effect of dietary fiber on the activity of intestinal and fecal beta-glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.the effects of fiber isolated from black gram (phaseolus mungo) and coconut (cocos nucifera) kernel on the metabolic activity of intestinal and fecal beta glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis were studied. the results indicated that the inclusion of fiber from black gram and coconut kernel generally supported lower specific activities and less fecal output of beta-glucuronidase than did the fiber free diet. this study suggests that the fibers isolated ...200111213165
changes in fatty acid composition during development of tissues of coconut (cocos nucifera l.) embryos in the intact nut and in vitro.intact coconuts were germinated in situ and compared with excised zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. the growth of the embryonic tissue and their fatty acid compositions were measured. haustoria, plumules and radicles of coconuts germinated in situ grew continuously and proportionately throughout the 120 d experiment with haustauria increasing to 45 g x nut(-1) and weighing 4-5-fold more than the other two tissues. the plumules and radicles of the seedlings cultured in vitro also grew continuo ...200111432910
impact of certain flavonoids on lipid profiles--potential action of garcinia cambogia flavonoids.flavonoids from cocos nucifera, myristica fragrance, saraka asoka and garcinia cambogia exerted hypolipidaemic activity in rats. lipid lowering activity was maximum in rats administered flavonoids (10 mg/kg bw/day) from garcinia cambogia. a dose response study revealed biphasic activity. higher doses were less effective in reducing lipid levels in serum and tissues, although devoid of toxic effects.200111507730
h+-atpase as a biochemical marker for early detection of root (wilt) disease in coconut palms (cocos nucifera l).h+-atpase activity in leaves and roots of coconut palms growing in 'root wilt disease-prevalent areas' was compared with that of coconut palms growing in 'disease-free areas'. the activity was found to be significantly less in the leaves and roots of palms in the disease-prevalent zone as compared to that in disease-free zone. histochemical examination of the leaves showed results that corroborated the biochemical findings. the possible application of h+-atpase activity as a marker for the early ...200111693385
kinetoplast dna minicircles of phloem-restricted phytomonas associated with wilt diseases of coconut and oil palms have a two-domain structure.we report the cloning and sequencing of the first minicircle from a phloem-restricted, pathogenic phytomonas sp. (hart 1) isolated from a coconut palm with hartrot disease. the minicircle possessed a two-domain structure of two conserved regions, each containing three conserved sequence blocks (csb). based on the sequence around csb 3 from hart 1, pcr primers were designed to allow specific amplification of phytomonas minicircles. this primer pair demonstrated specificity for at least six groups ...200111728717
construction of a linkage map of the rennell island tall coconut type (cocos nucifera l.) and qtl analysis for yield characters.aflp and ssr dna markers were used to construct a linkage map in the coconut (cocos nucifera l.; 2n = 32) type rennell island tall (rit). a total of 227 markers were arranged into 16 linkage groups. the total genome length corresponded to 1971 cm for the rit map, with 5-23 markers per linkage group. qtl analysis for yield characters in two consecutive sampling periods identified nine loci. three and two qtls were detected for number of bunches and one and three qtls for number of nuts. the corre ...200111768223
cryopreservation of plumular explants of coconut (cocos nucifera l.) to support programmes for mass clonal propagation through somatic embryogenesis.callus growth has been observed from plumules of ecotype laguna tall after cryopreservation using an encapsulation/dehydration protocol. sucrose preculture treatment and silica gel dehydration both significantly influenced the frequency of callus formation from non-frozen and frozen plumules. the greatest frequency of post-thaw callus growth occurred after incubation of the encapsulated plumules for 72-96 h in medium containing 0.75 m sucrose followed by desiccation over silica gel for 7-8 h dow ...200111788861
a (1-->4)-beta-mannan-specific monoclonal antibody and its use in the immunocytochemical location of galactomannans.galactomannan was coupled to a protein carrier for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies. the monoclonal antibodies generated bound to galactomannans from different sources as well as to glucomannan and galactoglucomannan. one monoclonal antibody, bgm c6, was characterised and found to be specific for (1-->4)-beta-linked mannopyranosyl residues; it had a binding affinity estimated at 1x10(-6) m for the (1-->4)-beta-linked mannohexaose. bgm c6 was used in immunogold labelling studies to locate ...200111800387
growth strain in coconut palm trees.until recently, growth stress studies have been made only on coniferous and dicotyledonous trees. growth stress of trees is thought to be initiated in newly formed secondary xylem cells. this stress can accumulate for years and is distributed inside the trunk. major characteristics of the trunk of monocotyledonous trees include numerous vascular bundles scattered inside the ground tissue and the lack of secondary growth for enlarging the diameter of the trunk. we used the strain gauge method to ...200211874722
variability in fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the oil of coconut (cocos nucifera l.) hybrids and their parentals.the fatty acid profiles and triacylglycerol (tag) compositions of oils from the solid endosperm of different philippine coconut hybrids and their parentals were determined by using gas chromatography (gc) and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). in general, varietal differences in fatty acid composition were observed. lauric acid (c12) content was significantly higher in the hybrids pca 15-8 (50.45%) and pca 15-9 (50.26%) by about 3.16% points as compared to other hybrids, and higher i ...200211879040
nuclear pore ion channel activity in live syncytial nuclei.nuclear pore complexes (npcs) are important nanochannels for the control of gene activity and expression. most of our knowledge of npc function has been derived from isolated nuclei and permeabilized cells in cell lysates/extracts. since recent patch-clamp work has challenged the dogma that npcs are freely permeable to small particles, a preparation of isolated living nuclei in their native liquid environment was sought and found: the syncytial nuclei in the water of the coconut cocos nucifera. ...200211976942
common environmental allergens causing respiratory allergy in india.respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. for the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. ...200212003301
purification and crystallization of coconut globulin cocosin from cocos nucifera.cocosin is a legume class reserve protein found in coconut endosperm. using coconut endosperm, two methods of purification were done. crystallization was achieved by vapor diffusion (hanging drop) method using mpd, peg 3350 and peg 4000 as precipitants. x-ray diffraction data to 3.5-a resolution were collected using mar345 image plate detector system. crystals of cocosin grown under 20% mpd, are rhombohedral with space group r3 and cell dimensions a=92.829 a, b=92.829 a, c=215.290 a.200212429510
antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from cocos nucifera linn. (palmae) husk fiber extract.the decoction of cocos nucifera l. husk fiber has been used in northeastern brazil traditional medicine for treatment of diarrhea and arthritis. water extract obtained from coconut husk fiber and fractions from adsorption chromatography revealed antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus aureus. the crude extract and one of the fractions rich in catechin also showed inhibitory activity against acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1-acvr). all fractions were inactive against th ...200212558183
characterisation of copia-like retrotransposons in oil palm ( elaeis guineensis jacq.).the work aimed to isolate and characterise copia-like sequences from elaeis guineensis. thirty-two different rt (reverse transcriptase) sequences were isolated from a single oil palm genome using degenerate primers. extreme sequence heterogeneity was observed. the dna and protein sequences were assigned to three different classes (a, b, c) on the basis of bootstrapping. we estimated the copy number of the three different classes by using a dot-blot analysis. the comparative results suggest that ...200212582647
analysis of genetic diversity and population structure within florida coconut (cocos nucifera l.) germplasm using microsatellite dna, with special emphasis on the fiji dwarf cultivar.using 15 simple sequence repeat (ssr) microsatellite dna loci, we analyzed genetic variation within cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south florida, representing eight cultivars. the loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'fiji dwarf' variety at both locations. a total of 67 alleles were detected, with eight the highest number at any one locus. these loci identified 83 of the 110 individual palms. gene diversity of the 15 loci ranged from 0.778 to 0. ...200312596002
xenomonitoring of culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes as a guide for detecting the presence or absence of lymphatic filariasis: a preliminary protocol for mosquito sampling.a protocol for the collection of resting, blood-engorged culex quinquefasciatus say and their examination for microfilariae has been developed as a way of detecting whether lymphatic filariasis (lf) occurs in a particular locality. the protocol was first implemented in a pilot study in trinidad, west indies. for gathering prevalence data, such xenomonitoring is a suitable alternative to the use of human bait, which is ethically questionable. the resting mosquitoes were collected, either indoors ...200212625917
in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties of cocos nucifera linn. water.tender cocos nucifera l. (palmacea) water (cw), variety chandrasankara, was tested for its ability to scavenge free radicals, inhibit lipid peroxidation and protect hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation. fresh sample of cw scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (dpph), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (abts) and superoxide radicals but promoted the production of hydroxyl radicals and increased lipid peroxidation. the activity was most significant for fresh samples of c ...200312744292
flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle in different coconut palm (cocos nucifera l.) tissues cultured in vitro.we conducted a study of the cell cycle of coconut palm tissues cultured in vitro in order to regulate regeneration. coconut palm is a plant for which it is difficult to monitor the ability of the meristematic cells to actively divide. cell nuclei were isolated from various types of coconut palm tissues with and without in vitro culture. after the nuclei were stained with propidium iodide, relative fluorescence intensity was estimated by flow cytometry. characterization of the cell cycle reinforc ...200312827436
the effective and environmental half-life of 137cs at coral islands at the former us nuclear test site.the united states (us) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at bikini and enewetak atolls in the northern marshall islands. based on previous detailed dose assessments for bikini, enewetak, rongelap, and utirik atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 (137cs) at bikini atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137cs by food crops. the estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radi ...200312832159
[evaluation of the efficacity of coconut (cocos nucifera), palm nut (eleais guineensis) and gobi (carapa procera) lotions and creams in indivirual protection against simulium damnosum s.l. bites in côte d'ivoire].with the interruption of larva treatments done by ocp as part of onchocerciasis control in west africa, simulium came back in abundance in forest regions and savannah fertile valleys. in addition to the severe discomfort, nuisance by simulium is in certain cases incompatible with land use. since ground treatment of larval breading sites using insecticides is not always possible or efficient, it is therefore a necessity to develop other methods among which individual protection against simulium b ...200312836527
comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of cocos nucifera, elaeis guineensis and carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in ivory coast.repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. if synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. the people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. after demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of cocos nucifera (coconut), elaeis guineen ...200312847928
effects of processing on protein nutritive quality of coconut cocos nucifera products.pared, comminuted and blanched coconut meat was freeze-dried at 25 degrees c for 24 hours and pulverized. whole coconut meal was solvent extracted with n-hexane to yield a defatted meal while full-fat coconut protein concentrate (ffc-pc) containing 27.60% protein was prepared by alkali extraction of undefatted meal followed by isoelectric precipitation. defatted coconut meal had a significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower crude fat but higher protein content than whole coconut meal. similarly, ffc-pc ...200312859010
glycaemic index of different coconut (cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.the glycaemic index (gi) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. the significantly low-gi (< ...200313129460
prestaining treatment and squashing for somatic chromosomes of the coconut palm. 196113727703
the effect of a catechin-rich extract of cocos nucifera on lymphocytes proliferation.catechins are polyphenols with antioxidant activity. the fruit cocos nucifera (palmae) has a fi ber husk rich in catechins and the local population of northeast brazil uses it as a medicine against various diseases. an anti-bacterial and anti-viral activity has been already observed using this substance. plant extracts, from other sources, rich in catechins are inhibitory to tumour cells, suppressing their proliferation. the aim of the present work was to verify if catechins isolated from cocos ...200314595586
cr(vi) removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modified with oxidizing agents and/or this study, the technical feasibility of coconut shell charcoal (csc) and commercial activated carbon (cac) for cr(vi) removal is investigated in batch studies using synthetic electroplating wastewater. both granular adsorbents are made up of coconut shell (cocos nucifera l.), an agricultural waste from local coconut industries. surface modifications of csc and cac with chitosan and/or oxidizing agents, such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, are also conducted to improve removal ...200414637353
aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in india. an overview.allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like india. today, more than 30 % of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentr ...200314677902
the phosphatases in coconut (cocos nucifera). 195114800437
the isolation of living nuclei from the endosperm of cocos nucifera. 195214913162
herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern cuba.herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern cuba. traditional herbal mixtures in eastern cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of santiago de cuba and guantánamo. one hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. cocos nucifera l. (arecaceae), bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae), cissus sicyoides l. (vitaceae), erythroxylum havanense jacq. (erythroxylaceae) ...200415013195
leishmanicidal activity of polyphenolic-rich extract from husk fiber of cocos nucifera linn. (palmae).the available therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects 2 million people per annum, still causes serious side effects. the polyphenolic-rich extract from the husk fiber of cocos nucifera linn. (palmae) presents antibacterial and antiviral activities, also inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, as shown by our group in previous works. in the present study, the in vitro leishmanicidal effects of c. nucifera on leishmania amazonensis were evaluated. the minimal inhibitory concentration of the polyphen ...200415059625
antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of cocos nucifera l. (palmae) husk fiber aqueous the current study, the analgesic and free radical scavenging properties of an aqueous extract from the husk fiber of cocos nucifera l. (palmae) were demonstrated by the use of in vivo and in vitro models. the orally administered cocos nucifera aqueous extract (200 or 400 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. tail flick and hot plate assays demonstrated that treatment of animals with this plant extract at 200 mg/kg induced attenuation in the response to a heat sti ...200415138011
the occurrence and allergising potential of airborne pollen in west bengal, india.a continuous 2-year volumetric aerobiological survey was conducted in berhampore town, a centrally located and representative part of west bengal, india. the aim of the study was to assess the allergising potential of airborne pollen grains of west bengal. a total of 31 pollen types were identified of which poaceae (grasses) pollen showed maximum frequency, followed by cyperaceae, cassia sp., acacia auriculiformis, etc. the seasonal periodicities of the pollen types and their relationship to met ...200415236497
double ovary in cocos nucifera linn. 195015414629
analysis of some cytokinins in coconut (cocos nucifera l.) water by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after solid-phase extraction.micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (mecc) was developed for the separation of cytokinins including trans-zeatin, trans-zeatin-o-glucoside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin-o-glucoside, meta-topolin riboside, n6-isopentenyladenine and n6-benzylaminopurine. under the optimum conditions, i.e. a combination of 10 mm phosphate and 10 mm borate as the running buffer containing 50 mm sodium dodecyl sulphate at ph 10.4, the separation of seven cytokinin standards was accomplished within 11 min ...200415453426
hydrophobic metabolites of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) in cultured coconut tissue.cultures of inflorescence and plumular tissues of coconut palm (cocos nucifera l.) were maintained in the presence of the auxin, [14c]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d), so that its metabolic fate could be studied. thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of the plumular tissue showed that four classes of metabolites, as well as the unchanged acid, were recovered in the extract. in inflorescence tissue, only the unchanged acid and the most polar class of metabolites (metabolite i) were ...200415474562
influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel (cocos nucifera) on the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced lipid peroxidation in rats.the influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel isolated by the neutral detergent fiber method on the antioxidant status in rats treated with the colon specific carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh) was studied in rats fed a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. the dmh-treated fiber group showed higher levels of lipid peroxides than the control group treated with dmh at the preneoplastic and neoplastic stages. free fatty acid levels were found to decrease significantly in the dmh-treated control grou ...199915539336
genotoxicity induced by saponified coconut oil surfactant in prokaryote systems.surfactants are amphiphilic substances with special properties and chemical structures that allow a reduction in interfacial tension, which permits an increase in molecule solubilization. the critical micelle concentration (cmc) is an important characteristic of surfactants that determines their aggregate state, which is generally related to its functional mechanism. in this work the genotoxic potential of saponified coconut oil (sco), a surfactant obtained from cocos nucifera, was analyzed usin ...200415548754
11s and 7s globulins of coconut (cocos nucifera l.): purification and globulins extracted with 0.4 m nacl in buffer from coconut endosperm separated into two peaks on gel filtration: peak i corresponding to 11s globulin or cocosin and peak ii to 7s globulin with native molecular weights of 326 000 and 156 000, respectively. the percent composition of total globulins was estimated to be 11s, 86% and 7s, 14%. on sds-page, cocosin resolved into two closely migrating bands at approximately 34 000 (acidic polypeptide) and another set of 2 bands at 24 000 (basic p ...200515740067
the control of hypertension by use of coconut water and mauby: two tropical food this study, the authors investigated the effect of regular consumption of two tropical food drinks, coconut (cocos nucifera) water and mauby (colubrina arborescens), on the control of hypertension. twenty-eight hypertensive subjects were assigned to four equal groups and their systolic and diastolic blood pressures recorded for two weeks before and then for another two weeks while receiving one of four interventions. one group (the control) received bottled drinking water, the second group re ...200515892382
profiling c6-c3 and c6-c1 phenolic metabolites in cocos nucifera.this paper reports the detection and identification of phenolic metabolites (c6-c3 and c6-c1 compounds) in cocos nucifera. an hplc/uv system was used to analyze the soluble and wall-associated phenolics in mesocarp and leaf tissues of c. nucifera. alkaline hydrolysis of the cell wall material of the mesocarpic and leaf tissues yielded 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major phenolic compound. other phenolic acids identified were ferulic acid, 4-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillic acid. ...200515900879
experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. this research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (agave sisalana), coir fiber (cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and ...200515946707
antibacterial properties of some plants used in mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.antibacterial properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of 26 medicinal plants used in mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were tested against eight different species of enteropathogens: two escherichia coli species; two shigella sonnei species; two shigella flexneri species; and two salmonella sp. species. the results showed that all crude extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested, at concentrations of 8 mg/ml or lower. the extracts ...200516005589
the oryctes virus: its detection, identification, and implementation in biological control of the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, oryctes rhinoceros (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).in view of the increasing and devastating damage by rhinoceros beetle (oryctes rhinoceros) to coconut palms in the middle of last century, many efforts were made to find an efficient natural control factor against this pest, which could not be controlled by pesticides. the basic procedures of these monitoring programmes are outlined together with the final detection of a virus disease in oil palm estates in malaysia in 1963. in extensive laboratory studies, the virus was isolated and identified ...200516039308
identification of kinetin and kinetin riboside in coconut (cocos nucifera l.) water using a combined approach of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.kinetin (free base and riboside), which was assumed by many scientists to be a synthetic cytokinin plant growth hormone, has been detected for the first time in the endosperm liquid of fresh young coconut fruits ("coconut water"). to facilitate the study, we developed a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) method for the identification and quantification of kinetin and kinetin riboside in purified coconut water extract sample. following a solid-phase extraction of ...200516216563
elevated blood selenium levels in the brazilian amazon.contaminated fish poses a difficult challenge throughout the world, on the one hand, fish is a very nutritious food source, while on the other hand it accumulates many toxic substances, including mercury (hg). as part of our efforts in the brazilian amazon to maximize nutritional input from fish consumption, a dietary mainstay, and minimize toxic risk, we have been studying the role of selenium (se), an essential element, that may influence the distribution of hg in the body and influence hg neu ...200616289298
qtl analysis of fruit components in the progeny of a rennell island tall coconut (cocos nucifera l.) individual.we investigated the genetic factors controlling fruit components in coconut by performing qtl analyses for fruit component weights and ratios in a segregating progeny of a rennell island tall genotype. the underlying linkage map of this population was already established in a previous study, as well as qtl analyses for fruit production, which were used to complement our results. the addition of 53 new markers (mainly ssrs) led to minor amendments in the map. a total of 52 putative qtls were iden ...200616307230
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