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degradation of parathion in culture by microorganisms found in cranberry bogs.oxygen concentration and different carbon sources drastically altered parathion degradation in culture media inoculated with microorganisms from wisconsin cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) growing soils. these microorganisms also grew in basal salts media utilizing parathion as the sole carbon source. 14co2 was produced only from [phenyl-14c]parathion, whereas [ethyl-14c]parathion-derived radiocarbon remained in the stale media of the soil-free cultures. addition of 0.05% glucose to basal s ...19807378942
loss of fimbrial adhesion with the addition of vaccinum macrocarpon to the growth medium of p-fimbriated escherichia coli.vaccinium macrocarpon--the american cranberry--irreversibly inhibits the expression of p-fimbriae of e. coli. further effects on the function and expression of p-fimbriae were studied by growing p-fimbriated e. coli in solid media laced with cranberry juice.19989649291
the structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins which inhibit adherence of uropathogenic p-fimbriated escherichia coli in vitro.ethyl acetate extracts of sephadex lh20-purified proanthocyanidins of american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) exhibited potent biological activity by inhibiting adherence of uropathogenic isolates of p-fimbriated escherichia coli bacteria to cellular surfaces containing alpha-gal(1-->4)beta-gal receptor sequences similar to those on epithelial cells in the urinary tract. the chemical structures of the proanthocyanidins were determined by 13c nmr, electrospray mass spectrometry, matrix-as ...200010872208
a-type proanthocyanidin trimers from cranberry that inhibit adherence of uropathogenic p-fimbriated escherichia coli.three proanthocyanidin trimers possessing a-type interflavanoid linkages, epicatechin-(4beta-->6)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->o-->7)-epicatechin (4), epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->o-->7)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (5), and epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->o-->7)-epicatechin (6), were isolated from the ripe fruits of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) and prevented adherence of p-fimbriated escherichia coli isolates from the urinary tract to cellular surfaces ...200011000024
a preliminary rapd-pcr analysis of cimicifuga species and other botanicals used for women's health.traditional taxonomic methods of botanical identification that rely primarily on morphological observations cannot be used efficiently when only powdered plant materials are available. thus, our objectives were to determine if we could apply a molecular approach to: a) produce unique dna profiles that are characteristic of the species, and b) determine if the geographical area or time of collection influences these dna profiles. towards this end, random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analyses ...200212587700
responses of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal erica cinerea and vaccinium macrocarpon to glomus mosseae.an investigation was carried out on the mycorrhizal colonisation, growth and nutrition of two members of the ericaceae in close proximity to an arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) association. this was undertaken by separating mycorrhizal (em) and non-mycorrhizal (nem) erica cinerea and vaccinium macrocarpon from am (inoculated by glomus mosseae) and non-mycorrhizal (nam) plantago lanceolata using a 30 micro m nylon mesh in a sand culture/pot system. ericoid mycorrhizal colonisation by hymenoscyphus eri ...200414574619
compensatory response of cranberry to simulated damage by cranberry weevil (anthonomus musculus say) (coleoptera: curculionidae).cranberry weevil (anthonomus musculus say), a key pest of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon aiton) in massachusetts, deposits eggs in unopened flowers and often severs the flower pedicel from the peduncle. the compensatory response of cranberry to simulated cranberry weevil damage was investigated by severing the pedicel of unopened flowers with scissors. when intensity of damage was varied on the cultivar early black, complete compensation was observed at three of four sites after removal of 33% ...200314994808
total cranberry extract versus its phytochemical constituents: antiproliferative and synergistic effects against human tumor cell lines.cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) are an excellent dietary source of phytochemicals that include flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), and organic and phenolic acids. using c-18 and sephadex lipophilic lh-20 column chromatography, hplc, and tandem lc-es/ms, the total cranberry extract (tce) has been analyzed, quantified, and separated into fractions enriched in sugars, organic acids, total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins (39.4, 30.0, 10 ...200415113149
effects of species diversity on establishment and coexistence: a phylloplane fungal community model system.a model system was devised, evaluating the influence that species diversity (species richness) has on fungal establishment and coexistence. seven members of the fungal phylloplane community of vaccinium macrocarpon (american cranberry) were selected to assess how species diversity affected development and coexistence of another community member, pestalotia vaccinii. pestalotia was engaged in competitive interactions on 1% malt extract agar (mea) petri dishes with each of the seven individual sap ...200415692863
a-type cranberry proanthocyanidins and uropathogenic bacterial anti-adhesion activity.clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic studies support the role of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) in maintaining urinary tract health. cranberry proanthocyanidins contain a-type linkages and have been associated with preventing adhesion of p-fimbriated uropathogenic escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells. it is not known if the presence of the a-type linkage is a prerequisite for anti-adhesion activity. other commercial sources of proanthocyanidins with all b-type linkages have not p ...200516055161
inhibition of uropathogenic escherichia coli by cranberry juice: a new antiadherence assay.a combination of microplate technology and turbidity assessment for testing the adherence of p-fimbriated escherichia coli to human uroepithelial cell line t24, validated with the addition of the known inhibitor 4-o-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-alpha-d-galactopyranose (galabiose), resulted in a high-throughput, biologically relevant assessment of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon). p-fimbriated atcc e. coli strains 25922, 29194, and 49161 were inhibited by galabiose. atcc 29194, a representative urin ...200516277386
prevention of nonspecific bacterial cell adhesion in immunoassays by use of cranberry juice.the ability of vaccinum macrocarpon, the north american cranberry, to prevent bacterial adhesion has been used to advantage in the prevention of urinary tract infections and has recently been described for the prevention of adhesion of bacteria responsible for oral infections and stomach ulcers. this report documents the ability of cranberry juice to reduce nonspecific adhesion of bacteria to the borosilicate glass microscope slides used in an immunoarray biosensor format. nonspecific binding of ...200616448060
antiviral effects on bacteriophages and rotavirus by cranberry juice.studies were undertaken to investigate the antiviral effects of comestible juices, especially cranberry juice, on non-related viral species. after exposure of bacteriophage t2 to a commercially available cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) juice cocktail (cj), virus infectivity titer was no longer detectible. after a 60-min exposure to orange (oj) and grapefruit juices (gj), phage infectivity was reduced to 25-35% of control, respectively. similar data were observed for the bacteriophage t4. cj in ...200717140784
coumaroyl iridoids and a depside from cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon).cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) juice has been used for urinary tract infections for approximately 50 years. recent research suggests that this botanical blocks adherence of pathogenic e. coli to urinary tract cells, thus preventing infection. while current evidence indicates that proanthocyanidins are responsible for this activity, these compounds may not reach the urinary tract; thus further investigation is warranted. fractionation of cranberry juice concentrate was guided by a recently pub ...200717269823
effects of propagule density and survival strategies on establishment and growth: further investigations in the phylloplane fungal model system.this work builds on an earlier culture study where we determined that species diversity of competing saprotrophic phyllpolane fungi had only a negligible effect on the establishment and coexistence of a target fungus, pestalotia vaccinii. here, we explore preliminary evidence suggesting that spore density is a more important contributing factor to colonization and coexistence. we examine the influence of propagule density in vitro on establishment and growth of select members of the phylloplane ...200817436116
bioactive compounds in cranberries and their role in prevention of urinary tract infections.cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) ingestion has long been associated with prevention of urinary tract infections. the beneficial mechanism was historically thought to be due to the fruit acids causing a bacteriostatic effect in the urine. however, recently, a group of proanthocyanidins (pacs) with a-type linkages were isolated from cranberry which exhibit bacterial antiadhesion activity against both antibiotic susceptible and resistant strains of uropathogenic p-fimbriated escherichia coli ...200717487930
cranberry juice-- a well-characterized folk-remedy against bacterial urinary tract infection.cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) is a north-american folk remedy for treating and preventing infection. research has identified an anti-adhesive mechanism of cranberry-proanthocyanidins that inhibit docking of bacteria on tissues "in vitro". this efficacy mechanism can be traced in the patient's urine following oral intake of cranberry juice. the efficacy of cranberry juice and extracts as a prophylactic agent against recurrent urinary infections is well documented in women. the anti-adhesion e ...200717704981
inoculation of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) with the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus rhizoscyphus ericae increases nitrate influx.despite the ubiquitous presence of ericoid mycorrhizal (erm) fungi in cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon), no prior studies have examined the effect of erm colonization on no(3)(-) influx kinetics. here, (15)no(3)(-) influx was measured in nonmycorrhizal and mycorrhizal cranberry in hydroponics. mycorrhizal cranberry were inoculated with the erm fungus rhizoscyphus (syn. hymenoscyphus) ericae. (15)no(3)(-) influx by r. ericae in solution culture was also measured. rhizoscyphus ericae no(3)(-) infl ...200717803649
widespread association between the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus rhizoscyphus ericae and a leafy liverwort in the maritime and sub-antarctic.a recent study identified a fungal isolate from the antarctic leafy liverwort cephaloziella varians as the ericoid mycorrhizal associate rhizoscyphus ericae. however, nothing is known about the wider antarctic distribution of r. ericae in c. varians, and inoculation experiments confirming the ability of the fungus to form coils in the liverwort are lacking. using direct isolation and baiting with vaccinium macrocarpon seedlings, fungi were isolated from c. varians sampled from eight sites across ...200717888123
[cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) and urinary tract infections: study model and review of literature].cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon) have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. among cranberry compounds, a group of proanthocyanidins (pacs) with a-type linkages were isolated which exhibit bacterial anti-adhesion activity against uropathogenic escherichia coli strains. these pac inhibit p-fimbriae synthesis and induce a bacterial deformation. this activity was demonstrated on both antibiotic susceptible and resistant bacteria. this ...200717905535
influence of cranberry phenolics on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases and streptococcus mutans acidogenicity.to investigate the influence of several phenolic compounds isolated from cranberry fruit (vaccinium macrocarpon) on some of the virulence properties of streptococcus mutans associated with glucan synthesis and acidogenicity.200717953606
cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon) and cardiovascular disease risk factors.the american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the three commercially important fruits native to north america. cranberries are a particularly rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, including phenolic acids (benzoic, hydroxycinnamic, and ellagic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols). a growing body of evidence suggests that polyphenols, including those found in cranberries, may contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (cvd) by increasing th ...200718038941
in-vitro and in-vivo evidence of dose-dependent decrease of uropathogenic escherichia coli virulence after consumption of commercial vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) capsules.this study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the consumption of cranberry capsules vs. placebo in the urine of healthy volunteers. a first double-blind, randomised, crossover trial involved eight volunteers who had followed three regimens, with or without cranberry, with a wash-out period of at least 6 days between each regimen. twelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. different escherichia coli strains were culture ...200818190583
berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.an overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in north america, include blackberry ( rubus spp.), black raspberry ( rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the american cranberry, vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the european cranbe ...200818211023
an experimental implementation of chemical subtraction.a preparative analytical method was developed to selectively remove ("chemically subtract") a single compound from a complex mixture, such as a natural extract or fraction, in a single step. the proof of concept is demonstrated by the removal of pure benzoic acid (ba) from cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) juice fractions that exhibit anti-adhesive effects versus uropathogenic escherichia coli. chemical subtraction of ba, representing a major constituent of the fractions, eliminates the pot ...200818234463
cranberry juice for prophylaxis of urinary tract infections--conclusions from clinical experience and research.cranberry juice (vaccinium macrocarpon) is a widely used and recommended north-american folk remedy for prophylaxis of urinary tract infections (uti). clinical trials have documented its efficacy in women with recurrent uti, but so far not in other groups of patients. the composition of effective cranberry products and its dosage in uti prophylaxis have not been defined. intriguing experimental research has identified an anti-adhesive mechanism of cranberry juice that prevents docking of bacteri ...200818691859
cranberry derived proanthocyanidins reduce bacterial adhesion to selected biomaterials.catheter associated urinary tract infections (cauti) linked with the uropathogens escherichia coli (e. coli) and enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) account for the majority of nosocomial infections acquired in the clinical environment. because these infections develop following initial adhesion of the bacterial pathogens to the catheter surface, there is increased interest in developing effective methods to inhibit attachment of cells to biomaterials used in the manufacture of indwelling device ...200818698853
identification of a new phytophthora species causing root and runner rot of cranberry in new jersey.abstract in new jersey, phytophthora cinnamomi is the pathogen most commonly isolated from diseased roots and runners of the cultivated cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon). a second distinct species of phytophthora has been isolated from dying cranberry plants and surface irrigation water. this species is homothallic with paragynous antheridia and ellipsoid-limoniform, nonpapillate sporangia. it was tentatively identified as p. megasperma in an earlier report. laboratory experiments demonstrate th ...200518943477
impact of cranberry on escherichia coli cellular surface characteristics.the anti-adhesive effects of cranberry have been attributed to both interactions of its components with the surface of bacterial cells and to inhibition of p-fimbriae expression. previous reports also suggested that the presence of cranberry juice changed the gram stain characteristics of escherichia coli. here, we show that the morphology of e. coli is changed when grown in the presence of juice or extract from vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry). gene expression analysis indicates the down regul ...200818957286
application of cranberry concentrate (vaccinium macrocarpon) to control escherichia coli o157:h7 in ground beef and its antimicrobial mechanism related to the downregulated slp, hdea and cfa.the possible use of cranberry concentrate (cc) as a natural food preservative was studied by examining its antimicrobial effect on the growth of escherichia coli o157:h7 inoculated in ground beef, its organoleptical effect on beef patties, and its antimicrobial mechanism on the gene regulation level. inoculated ground beef was added with cc and stored at 4 degrees c for 5 days. bacteria were detected on day 0, 1, 3, and 5. cranberry concentrate (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% w/w) reduced total aerobic bact ...200919028302
anthocyanins, antioxidative, and antimicrobial properties of american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) and their press cakes.amounts of total phenolics, anthocyanins, and ascorbic acid in 4 american cranberry varieties harvested at 4 stages of maturity were measured. the larger amount of phenolic compounds was found in berries of "black veil" cultivar (504 mg/100 g) at ii stage of maturity. significantly larger amounts of anthocyanins were determined in the overripe berries of the cultivars "ben lear" and "black veil." the amount of ascorbic acid in berries increased during ripening from i to iii stage, and slightly d ...200919323730
screening of binding activity of streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus suis to berries and juices.antiadhesion therapy is a promising approach to the fight against pathogens. antibiotic resistance and the lack of effective vaccines have increased the search for new methods to prevent infectious diseases. previous studies have shown the antiadhesion activity of juice from cultivated cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) against bacteria, especially e. coli. in this study, the binding of two streptococcal strains, streptococcus pneumoniae and streptococcus agalactiae, to molecular size frac ...201019610031
vaccinium macrocarpon: an interesting option for women with recurrent urinary tract infections and other health benefits.to review the scientific publications concerning the clinical use and mechanism of action of the north american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (uti) and other health conditions.200919751320
production of a phenolic antioxidant enriched cranberry juice by electrodialysis with filtration membrane.the fruit of the american cranberry is known for its benefits on human health and its nutraceutical potential. the enrichment of cranberry products with functional phytochemicals may improve their functionality for enhancing health benefits, but this enrichment may be difficult due to the commercial rarity and difficulty of purification of anthocyanins and other phytochemicals from natural sources. the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of the production of a cranberry juice enrich ...200919886681
media acidification by escherichia coli in the presence of cranberry juice.the inhibition of escherichia coli growth in the presence of vaccinium macrocarpon has been extensively described; however, the mechanisms of this activity are not well characterized.200919909515
long-term effects of three commercial cranberry products on the antioxidative status in rats: a pilot study.cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait. ericaceae) fruits and juice are widely used for their antiadherence and antioxidative properties. little is known however about their effects on clinical chemistry markers after long-term consumption. this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three commercial cranberry products, nutricran90s, hi-pac 4.0, and pacran on the antioxidative status of rodents, divided into three experimental groups. the products were given as dietary admixtures (1500 mg o ...201020058864
cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.doxorubicin (dox) is a widely used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. however, it generates free oxygen radicals that result in serious dose-limiting cardiotoxicity. supplementations with berries were proven effective in reducing oxidative stress associated with several ailments. the aim of the current study was to investigate the potential protective effect of cranberry extract (cran) against dox-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. cran was given orally to rats (100mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days) an ...201020146931
antimicrobial action of the american cranberry constituents; phenolics, anthocyanins, and organic acids, against escherichia coli o157:h7.we investigated the antimicrobial effect of constituents of the american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon); sugar plus organic acids, phenolics, and anthocyanins, against escherichia coli o157:h7. each fractional component was assayed over a 24-h period with 5-log initial inocula to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic), minimal bactericidal concentration (mbc), and log cfu/ml reductions, at their native ph and neutral ph. each fraction produced significant reductions (p<0.05) at ...201020153540
effects of cranberry extracts and ursolic acid derivatives on p-fimbriated escherichia coli, cox-2 activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release and the nf-kappabeta transcriptional response in vitro.cranberry, the fresh or dried ripe fruit of vaccinium macrocarpon ait. (ericaceae), is currently used as adjunct therapy for the prevention and symptomatic treatment of urinary tract infections. data from clinical trials suggest that extracts of cranberry or cranberry juice reduce the bacterial load of e. coli and also suppress the inflammatory symptoms induced by e. coli infections. a methanol extract prepared from 10 kg of dehydrated cranberries did not directly inhibit the growth of e coli st ...200920376297
dosage effect on uropathogenic escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study.ingestion of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) has traditionally been utilized for prevention of urinary tract infections. the proanthocyanidins (pacs) in cranberry, in particular the a-type linkages have been implicated as important inhibitors of primarily p-fimbriated e. coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. additional experiments were required to investigate the persistence in urine samples over a broader time period, to determine the most effective dose per day and to determine if the u ...201020398248
inhibition activity of wild berry juice fractions against streptococcus pneumoniae binding to human bronchial cells.bacterial adhesion to the cell surface is a crucial step before infection can take place. inhibition of bacterial binding offers a novel preventive approach against infections. cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) juice has been found to have antiadhesive activity against different bacteria. streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen and the most common cause for pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. in this study the inhibitory activity of cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccos l.), bilberr ...201120625989
proanthocyanidins from the american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in human prostate cancer cells via alterations in multiple cellular signalling pathways.prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the western world, and it is believed that an individual's diet affects his risk of developing cancer. there has been an interest in examining phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants, in order to determine their potential anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. in this study we document the effects of proanthocyanidins (pacs) from the american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) on matrix metalloproteinase (mmp) activity in du14 ...201020626034
inhibitory activity of cranberry extract on the bacterial adhesiveness in the urine of women: an ex-vivo study.strains of uropathogenic e. coli are responsible for approximately 90% of community-acquired, uncomplicated cystitis, and fimbriae represent the adhesive factors enabling e. coli to be anchored to uroepithelial cells in the first step of the infectious process. recently, a few studies have shown that a correlation between the consumption of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) and prevention of uti is related to the ability of proanthocyanidins to reduce the bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cell ...201020646356
bioactive compounds in cranberries and their biological properties.cranberries are healthy fruit that contribute color, flavor, nutritional value, and functionality. they are one of only three fruits native to america. over the past decade, public interest for the north american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) has been rising with reports of their potential health benefits linked to the numerous phytochemicals present in the fruit--the anthocyanins, the flavonols, the flavan-3-ols, the proanthocyanidins, and the phenolic acid derivatives. the presence of thes ...201020694928
isolation and identification of intestinal cyp3a inhibitors from cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes.cranberry juice is used routinely, especially among women and the elderly, to prevent and treat urinary tract infections. these individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome p450 3a (cyp3a). using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice ...201120717876
iron chelation by cranberry juice and its impact on escherichia coli growth.the various health benefits of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well documented and have been attributed mainly to its antioxidant capacity and anti-adhesive activity. several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the possible role of cranberries, cranberry juice, and cranberry extracts in inhibiting bacterial growth. these mechanisms of action (i.e., inhibition of the microbial growth) have not been thoroughly studied. here, we took advantage of current advances in microarray ...201120806417
effect of american cranberry (cysticlean) on escherichia coli adherence to bladder epithelial cells. in vitro and in vivo study.the american cranberry proanthocyanidins (pacs) are the main responsible for its efficacy in urinary tract infections. their mechanism of action is related to inhibition of escherichia coli to urothelial cells. cysticlean contains an extract of american cranberry which provides 118 mg of pacs per dose. the activity of cysticlean tablets on escherichia coli adherence to bladder epithelial cells has been studied in vitro. moreover, the activity of cistyclean both in powder for oral suspension and ...201020820081
morphological and molecular characterization of phomopsis vaccinii and additional isolates of phomopsis from blueberry and cranberry in the eastern united states.forty isolates of phomopsis were obtained from twigs and berries of highbush blueberry, vaccinium corymbosum, and cranberry, vaccinium macrocarpon, isolated primarily from plants grown in the eastern united states. they were characterized using conidiomatal morphology, conidial dimensions, colony appearance and growth rate, and sequences of its rdna. based on morphological and molecular similarities, most isolates grouped together with an authentic culture of phomopsis vaccinii shear. this taxon ...200221156520
north american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in du145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro.diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to improve patient prognosis in a variety of cancers, a benefit partly derived from phytochemicals, many of which target cell death pathways in tumor cells. cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon) are a phytochemical-rich fruit containing a variety of polyphenolic compounds. as flavonoids have been shown to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells, this study investigated the hypothesis that cranberry-mediated cytotoxicity in du145 human prostate aden ...201121161819
wound-healing properties of the oils of vitis vinifera and vaccinium macrocarpon.vitis vinifera (grape) and vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. the oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model i ...201121305631
antimicrobial traits of tea- and cranberry-derived polyphenols against streptococcus mutans.there are over 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the human oral cavity, but only a small fraction of those are attributed to causing plaque-related diseases such as caries. streptococcus mutans is accepted as the main cariogenic agent and there is substantial knowledge regarding the specific virulence factors that render the organism a pathogen. there has been rising interest in alternative, target-specific treatment options as opposed to nonspecific mechanical plaque removal or application o ...201121720161
proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from cranberry fruit ( vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) selectively inhibit the growth of human pathogenic fungi candida spp. and cryptococcus neoformans.cranberry ( vaccinium macrocarpon ) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce infections caused by escherichia coli and other bacteria, and proanthocyanidins are believed to play a role. the ability of cranberry to inhibit the growth of opportunistic human fungal pathogens that cause oral, skin, respiratory, and systemic infections has not been well-studied. fractions from whole cranberry fruit were screened for inhibition of five candida species and cryptococcus neoformans , a causative ...201122066866
cranberry proanthocyanidins: natural weapons against periodontal diseases.cranberry ( vaccinium macrocarpon ) is known to have a beneficial effect on several aspects of human health. proanthocyanidins (pacs), the most abundant flavonoids extracted from red cranberry fruits, have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antiadhesion, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. recent in vitro studies have shown that cranberry pacs may be potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and management of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin affect ...201122082264
enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of utis and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma.cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins can interfere with adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells, potentially preventing lower urinary tract infections (lutis). because lutis are a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy (ebrt) for prostate cancer, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of enteric-coated tablets containing highly standardized v. msacrocarpon (ecvm) in this condition.201222977312
characterization of in vitro antifungal activities of small and american cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccos l. and v. macrocarpon aiton) and lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea l.) concentrates in sugar reduced fruit spreads.in this study, cranberry and lingonberry concentrates were added to commercial sugar-reduced fruit spreads (raspberry-aloe vera, strawberry-guava, and strawberry-lime), and tested for their antifungal activities. selected strains of the species absidia glauca, penicillium brevicompactum, saccharomyces cerevisiae and zygosaccharomyces bailii, as well as xerophilic environmental isolates of the genera penicillium and eurotium were used for challenge testing. initially, varying concentrations of sy ...201525868124
adhesion of asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of cranberry juice.the aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. the strain of a. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. the cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. the adhesive ab ...201526038911
promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral candida biofilms.in the context of dental caries prevention by natural foodstuff sources, antifungal and antibiofilm activities of dry commercial extracts of cranberry fruit (vaccinium macrocarpon aiton) and two other red fruits (vaccinium myrtillus l. and malpighia punicifolia l.) were assessed on candida albicans and candida glabrata yeasts. when added to the culture medium, the cranberry extract displayed a significant anti-adhesion activity against candida spp. when used at low concentrations. in addition, t ...201424623607
cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins prevent formation of candida albicans biofilms in artificial urine through biofilm- and adherence-specific mechanisms.candida albicans is a common cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (utis) and is responsible for increased morbidity and healthcare costs. moreover, the us centers for medicare & medicaid services no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired catheter-associated utis. thus, development of specific approaches for the prevention of candida urinary infections is needed. cranberry juice-derived proanthocyanidins (pacs) have efficacy in the prevention of bacterial utis, partially due to anti-adher ...201424114570
chromobacterium vaccinii sp. nov., isolated from native and cultivated cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) bogs and irrigation ponds.a large number of gram-negative, motile, mesophilic, violacein-producing bacteria were isolated from the soils and roots of vaccinium macrocarpon ait. and kalmia angustifolia l. plants and from irrigation ponds associated with wild and cultivated cranberry bogs in massachusetts, usa. phylogenetic analyses of 16s rrna gene sequences placed these isolates in a clade with chromobacterium species, but the specialized environment from which they were isolated, their low genomic dna relatedness with c ...201322984138
habitat and host indicate lineage identity in colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. from wild and agricultural landscapes in north america.understanding the factors that drive the evolution of pathogenic fungi is central to revealing the mechanisms of virulence and host preference, as well as developing effective disease control measures. prerequisite to these pursuits is the accurate delimitation of species boundaries. colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. is a species complex of plant pathogens and endophytic fungi for which reliable species recognition has only recently become possible through a multi-locus phylogenetic approach. ...201323671594
effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-a) in patients with recurrent uti by pathogenic e. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study.to evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (pac-a ~ proanthocyanidin-a) on the in vitro bacterial properties of uropathogenic (e. coli) and its efficacy/tolerability in patients with subclinical or uncomplicated recurrent uti (r-uti).201627314247
antibacterial activity of isolated phenolic compounds from cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) against escherichia coli.phenolic compounds from a cranberry extract were isolated in order to assess their contribution to the antibacterial activity against uropathogenic strains of escherichia coli (upec). with this purpose, a total of 25 fractions from a cranberry extract were isolated using semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and characterized based on the results obtained by reversed-phase hplc coupled to mass spectrometry detection. then, the effects on upec surface hydrophobicity and bi ...201626902395
in vitro activity of vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) on urinary tract pathogens in uncomplicated urinary tract infection.urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection in the community, mainly caused by escherichia coli (e coli). due to its high incidence and recurrence, problems are faced in the treatment with antibiotics. cranberry being herbal remedy have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. this study was conducted to analyse in vitro activity of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) on uropathogenic e coli in uncomplicated urinary tra ...201626721034
cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) oligosaccharides decrease biofilm formation by uropathogenic escherichia coli.the preventive effects of the american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) against urinary tract infections are supported by extensive studies which have primarily focused on its phenolic constituents. herein, a phenolic-free carbohydrate fraction (designated cranf1b-f2) was purified from cranberry fruit using ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. maldi-tof-ms analysis revealed that the cranf1b-f2 constituents are predominantly oligosaccharides possessing various degrees of polymerisatio ...201526613004
comparison of the anti-adhesion activity of three different cranberry extracts on uropathogenic p-fimbriated escherichia coli: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, ex vivo, acute study.research suggests that cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) helps maintain urinary tract health. bacterial adhesion to the uroepithelium is the initial step in the progression to development of a urinary tract infection. the bacterial anti-adhesion activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins (pacs) has been demonstrated in vitro. three different cranberry extracts were developed containing a standardized level of 36 mg of pacs. this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, ex vivo, acute study was ...201526411014
in vivo consumption of cranberry exerts ex vivo antiadhesive activity against fimh-dominated uropathogenic escherichia coli: a combined in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro study of an extract from vaccinium macrocarpon.for investigation of the molecular interaction of cranberry extract with adhesins of uropathogenic escherichia coli (upec), urine from four volunteers consuming standardized cranberry extract (proanthocyanidin content = 1.24%) was analyzed within ex vivo experiments, indicating time-dependent significant inhibition of 40-50% of bacterial adhesion of upec strain nu14 to human t24 bladder cells. under in vitro conditions a dose-dependent increase in bacterial adhesion was observed with proanthocya ...201526330108
recurrent urinary tract infections in children: preventive interventions other than prophylactic antibiotics.urinary tract infection (uti) is one of the most common childhood infections. permanent renal cortical scarring may occur in affected children, especially with recurrent utis, leading to long-term complications such as hypertension and chronic renal failure. to prevent such damage, several interventions to prevent uti recurrences have been tried. the most established and accepted prevention at present is low dose long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. however it has a risk of break through infections ...201526140267
consumption of cranberry beverage improved endogenous antioxidant status and protected against bacteria adhesion in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial.consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with lower risk from many chronic diseases. we hypothesized that a single dose of cranberry beverage would improve indices of oxidative stress, inflammation, and urinary antibacterial adhesion activity in healthy humans. six males and 6 females (18-35 years; body mass index, 19-25 kg/m(2)) consumed placebo, cranberry leaf extract beverage, or low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (lcjc) once in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross ...201424916555
development of a fluorometric microplate antiadhesion assay using uropathogenic escherichia coli and human uroepithelial cells.a fluorometric microplate assay has been developed to determine escherichia (e.) coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells (uec). p-fimbriated e. coli were labeled with baclight green and preincubated 30 min with human urine or standard. fluorescent-e. coli were added to uec in mircoplates at a 400:1 ratio, incubated 1 h, and washed, and the fluorescence intensity was measured. specific labeling and adherence were confirmed by flow cytometry. a myricetin (1) standard curve (0-30 μg/ml) was developed; ...201424749980
anti-adhesion activity of a2-type proanthocyanidins (a cranberry major component) on uropathogenic e. coli and p. mirabilis strains.urinary tract infections (utis) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. acute uncomplicated cystitis (auc) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. the vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. about 90% of auc are caused by ...201427025740
development and validation of a sensitive, high-throughput bioassay for the adhesion of radiolabeled e. coli to uroepithelial cells in vitro.vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) products have been used to prevent uropathogenic escherichia (e.) coli adherence to uroepithelial cells (uec) and may help reduce risk of urinary tract infection. reported herein are the development and validation of an assay to assess antiadhesion activity of v. macrocarpon extracts and human urine. p-fimbriated e. coli (cft073) was labeled with ³h-uridine, then co-incubated with htb-4 uec at a 400:1 ratio. v. macrocarpon extracts (0-17 mg proanthocyanidins/ml) ...201323964569
prevention of urinary tract infections with vaccinium products.cranberries exert a dose-dependent inhibition of the adherence of e. coli fimbriae to uroepithelial cells. this was demonstrated in vitro but also ex vivo in vitro with urine from cranberry consumers. the active principle has not been identified in detail but type-a proanthocyanidins (pac) play an important role in the mechanism of action. since the three species, american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon), european cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccus) and/or lingonberry (vaccinium vitis-idaea), have ...201423922238
cysticlean® a highly pac standardized content in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: an observational, prospective cohort study.the present study was aimed at determining the prophylactic efficacy of american cranberry (ac) extract (cysticlean®) in women with recurrent symptomatic postcoital urinary tract infections (pcuti), non-consumer of ac extract in the past 3 months before inclusion, and to determine changes in their quality of life (qol).201323738867
effects of cranberry extracts on growth and biofilm production of escherichia coli and staphylococcus species.biofilm producing bacteria such as staphylococcus species and escherichia coli are the most common cause of catheter related urinary tract infections (utis). the american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) is utilized widely as a prophylaxis for utis due to its prevention of microbial adhesion. cranberry contains proanthocyanidins (pacs), which have been implicated as active constituents responsible for its bacterial antiadhesive properties. despite overwhelming data supporting cranberry's benefi ...201222294419
effects of cranberry components on human aggressive periodontitis gingival fibroblasts.aggressive periodontitis (agp) causes rapid periodontal breakdown involving agp gingival fibroblast production of cytokines [i.e. interleukin (il)-6, a bone metabolism regulator], and matrix metalloproteinase (mmp)-3. lipopolysaccharide upregulates fibroblast il-6 and mmp-3, via transcription factors (i.e. nf-κb). cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage and normal gingival fibroblast activities, but little is known of its effects on agp fibroblasts. ob ...201323106206
inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 infections by oximacro(®), a cranberry extract with a high content of a-type proanthocyanidins (pacs-a).in the absence of efficient preventive vaccines, topical microbicides offer an attractive alternative in the prevention of herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) and type 2 (hsv-2) infections. because of their recognized anti-adhesive activity against bacterial pathogens, cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.) extracts may represent a natural source of new antiviral microbicides. however, few studies have addressed the applications of cranberry extract as a direct-acting antiviral agent. here, we report ...201627321663
the effect of american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) constituents on the growth inhibition, membrane integrity, and injury of escherichia coli o157:h7 and listeria monocytogenes in comparison to lactobacillus rhamnosus.the antimicrobial properties of the american cranberry were studied against escherichia coli o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, and lactobacillus rhamnosus to determine the effects on growth inhibition, membrane permeability, and injury. cranberry powder was separated using a c-18 sep-pak cartridge into sugars plus organic acids (f1), monomeric phenolics (f2), and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (f3). fraction 3 was further separated into anthocyanins (f4) and proanthocyanidins (f5) using an l ...201323541202
nematodes associated with dieback disease of cranberries.hemicycliophora ritteri and paratrichodorus minor were associated in high numbers with a previously unknown "dieback disease" of cranberry. chemical treatment with nematicides and fungicides failed to control this disease. there were no correlations (p </= 0.05) among nematode numbers and yields of good or rotten berries, and with disease ratings. nematodes were apparently not involved in the etiology of this dieback disease.199119283175
cranberry impairs selected behaviors essential for virulence in proteus mirabilis hi4320.proteus mirabilis is an etiological agent of complicated urinary tract infections. north american cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon) have long been considered to have protective properties against urinary tract infections. this work reports the effects of cranberry powder (cp) on the motility of p. mirabilis hi4320 and its expression of flaa, flhd, and ured. our results show that swimming and swarming motilities and swarmer-cell differentiation were inhibited by cp. additionally, transcription ...201323750959
adjuvant effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin active fraction on antivirulent property of ciprofloxacin against pseudomonas aeruginosa.quorum sensing inhibitors (qsis) act as antivirulent agents since quorum sensing (qs) plays a vital role in regulating pathogenesis of pseudomonas aeruginosa. however, application of single qsi may not be effective as pathogen is vulnerable to successful mutations. in such conditions, combination of qsis can be exploited as there can be synergistic or adjuvant action. in the present study, we evaluated the antivirulence efficacy of combination of vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidin active fra ...201626620081
the antimicrobial effects of cranberry against staphylococcus aureus.the antimicrobial effects of the american cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) on a major food-borne pathogen, staphylococcus aureus, were investigated using commercially obtained lakewood® organic cranberry juice and ocean spray® cranberry juice cocktail and four other berry fruit extracts (acai berry, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry). the results showed that cranberry is a potent antimicrobial against s. aureus and the most potent among the berries studied. the order of percentage inhibition ...201222414934
anthocyanin incorporated dental copolymer: bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rates and stability by (1)h nmr.objective. to evaluate bacterial growth inhibition, mechanical properties, and compound release rate and stability of copolymers incorporated with anthocyanin (acy; vaccinium macrocarpon). methods. resin samples were prepared (bis-gma/tegdma at 70/30 mol%) and incorporated with 2 w/w% of either acy or chlorhexidine (chx), except for the control group. samples were individually immersed in a bacterial culture (streptococcus mutans) for 24 h. cell viability (n = 3) was assessed by counting the num ...201424693287
effects of sphagnum moss and urban runoff on bioavailability of lead and zinc from acidic wetlands of the new jersey pinelands.the effects of sphagnum and urban runoff on the bioavailability of metals were tested by adding pbcl2 and zncl2 to laboratory microcosms constructed of peat substrate with or without live sphagnum spp. and planted with acer rubrum l. seedlings or vaccinium macrocarpon ait. shoots. we hypothesized that sphagnum would increase bioavailability through its acidifying action, while urban runoff would decrease availability through increases in alkalinity. metals were more available to the test plants ...199115092098
exploiting genotyping by sequencing to characterize the genomic structure of the american cranberry through high-density linkage mapping.the application of genotyping by sequencing (gbs) approaches, combined with data imputation methodologies, is narrowing the genetic knowledge gap between major and understudied, minor crops. gbs is an excellent tool to characterize the genomic structure of recently domesticated (~200 years) and understudied species, such as cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon ait.), by generating large numbers of markers for genomic studies such as genetic mapping.201627295982
hplc-msn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. more than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with hplc-ms(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog ...201222980782
composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species.sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic content in fruit of 25 wild and cultivated berry species were identified and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatograph. the composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic compounds in various species of vaccinium, rubus, ribes, and fragaria genus was evaluated. additonally, total phenolics of less known berry species of the morus, amelanchier, sorbus, sambucus, rosa, lycium, actinidia, and aronia genus were determined in wild growin ...201222924969
natural cures for breast cancer treatment.for centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. this review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. these phytochemicals have different mechanisms of action. they either stimulate the protective enzyme ...201627275107
phenotyping studies to assess the effects of phytopharmaceuticals on in vivo activity of main human cytochrome p450 enzymes.the extensive use of herbal drugs and their multiple components and modes of action suggests that they may also cause drug interactions by changing the activity of human cytochrome p450 enzymes. the purpose of the present review is to present the available data for the top 14 herbal drug sales in the u. s. studies describing the effects of herbal drugs on phenotyping substrates for individual cyps were identified by a comprehensive medline search. drugs included allium sativum (liliaceae), echin ...201222588833
a critical approach to evaluating clinical efficacy, adverse events and drug interactions of herbal remedies.systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent the uppermost ladders in the hierarchy of evidence. systematic reviews/meta-analyses suggest preliminary or satisfactory clinical evidence for agnus castus (vitex agnus castus) for premenstrual complaints, flaxseed (linum usitatissimum) for hypertension, feverfew (tanacetum partenium) for migraine prevention, ginger (zingiber officinalis) for pregnancy-induced nausea, ginseng (panax ginseng) for improving fasting glucose levels as well as phytoestro ...201626887532
functionality of varroa-resistant honey bees (hymenoptera: apidae) when used in migratory beekeeping for crop pollination.two types of honey bees, apis mellifera l. (hymenoptera: apidae), bred for resistance to varroa destructor anderson & trueman were evaluated for performance when used in migratory crop pollination. colonies of russian honey bees (rhb) and outcrossed bees with varroa-sensitive hygiene (vsh) were managed without miticide treatments and compared with colonies of italian honey bees that served as controls. control colonies were managed as groups which either were treated twice each year against v. d ...201222606798
effects of honey bee (hymenoptera: apidae) and bumble bee (hymenoptera: apidae) presence on cranberry (ericales: ericaceae) pollination.honey bees, apis mellifera l., are frequently used to pollinate commercial cranberries, vaccinium macrocarpon ait., but information is lacking on the relative contribution of honey bees and native bees, the effects of surrounding vegetation on bee visitation, and on optimal timing for honey bee introduction. we begin with a descriptive study of numbers of honey bees, bumble bees, and other bees visiting cranberry blossoms, and their subsequent effect on cranberry yield, on three cranberry proper ...200616813289
dose-response relationships between pollination and fruiting refine pollinator comparisons for cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon [ericaceae]).comparisons of pollinator efficacy using pollen received on stigmas can be refined by incorporating experimental dose-response relationships for pollen deposition and fruiting responses. a range of discrete pollen doses applied to cranberry stigmas resulted in decelerating curvilinear responses for fruiting, berry size, and seed set. minimum thresholds and maximum asymptotes bounded reproductive responses to incremental stigmatic pollen loads. four bee species were compared for their pollination ...200321659094
the first genetic map of the american cranberry: exploration of synteny conservation and quantitative trait loci.the first genetic map of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) has been constructed, comprising 14 linkage groups totaling 879.9 cm with an estimated coverage of 82.2 %. this map, based on four mapping populations segregating for field fruit-rot resistance, contains 136 distinct loci. mapped markers include blueberry-derived simple sequence repeat (ssr) and cranberry-derived sequence-characterized amplified region markers previously used for fingerprinting cranberry cultivars. in addition, ssr marke ...201323224333
phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants.the aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the available scientific information on the commonest plant extracts marketed in western countries. in view of the intense, ongoing search for new plant extracts with powerful anti-inflammatory activity, we paid particular attention to this topic. the aim is to provide broad coverage of as many potentially useful plants as possible and then to focus on those with the greatest therapeutic potential.201020175810
diversity of fungi associated with hair roots of ericaceous plants is affected by land use.culture-independent molecular studies have provided new insights into the diversity of fungi associating with ericaceous plant roots. however, there is little understanding of the distribution of these fungi across landscapes, or the effects of environmental heterogeneity on ericoid mycorrhizal (erm) fungal diversity and distribution. terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and selective sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rdna were used to infer fungal dive ...201424741702
natural antimicrobials and oral microorganisms: a systematic review on herbal interventions for the eradication of multispecies oral biofilms.oral diseases such as caries and periodontitis are mainly caused by microbial biofilms. antibiotic therapy has reached its limits with regard to antimicrobial resistance, and new therapeutic measures utilizing natural phytochemicals are currently a focus of research. hence, this systematic review provides a critical presentation of the antimicrobial effects of various medicinal herbs against in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ formed multispecies oral biofilms. searches were performed in three englis ...201526834707
botanicals and their bioactive phytochemicals for women's health.botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. the specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (pms) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. some examples include vitex agnus-castus (chastebe ...201627677719
authentication of punica granatum l.: development of scar markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.the large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (ema), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. a method based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (scars) was developed to detect the presence of aristotelia chilensis, aronia melanocarpa, dioscorea alata, euterpe oleracea, malus×domestica, morus nigra, sambucus nigra, vacci ...201626920316
cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.anthocyanins from tart cherries, prunus cerasus l. (rosaceae) cv. balaton and montmorency; sweet cherries, prunus avium l. (rosaceae); bilberries, vaccinum myrtillus l. (ericaceae); blackberries, rubus sp. (rosaceae); blueberries var. jersey, vaccinium corymbosum l. (ericaceae); cranberries var. early black, vaccinium macrocarpon ait. (ericaceae); elderberries, sambucus canadensis (caprifoliaceae); raspberries, rubus idaeus (rosaceae); and strawberries var. honeoye, fragaria x ananassa duch. (ro ...200111695879
scavenging capacity of berry crops on superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen.the antioxidant activities against superoxide radicals (o(2)(*)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)), hydroxyl radicals (oh(*)), and singlet oxygen ('o(2)) was evaluated in fruit juice from different cultivars of thornless blackberries (rubus sp.), blueberries (vaccinium spp.), cranberries (vaccinium macrocarpon aiton), raspberries (rubus idaeus l. and rubus occidentalis l.), and strawberries (fragaria x ananassa duch.). among the different cultivars, juice of 'hull thornless' blackberry, 'earliglo ...200011087538
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