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nephrotic syndrome associated with ant bite.a 3-year-old child experienced edema of the face and extremities approximately 2 weeks after being stung on the legs, scrotum, and penis by "fire ants" (solenopsis invicta). after diagnosis of idiopathic minimal-change nephrotic syndrome and treatment with steroids, the edema rapidly disappeared. follow-up 3 years after his hospitalization showed no recurrence of nephrotic syndrome. we have correlated this case with previously published reports of the causal relationship of allergy to nephrotic ...19902185577
crossed immunoelectrophoretic studies of whole body extracts and venom from the imported fire ant solenopsis invicta.although allergic reactions occur after imported fire ant (ifa) sting, currently, only ifa whole body extract (ifawbe) is available for diagnosis and immunotherapy of ifa-sensitive individuals. we report our crossed immunoelectrophoretic studies comparing antigenicity and allergenicity of solenopsis invicta ifawbe and ifa venom (ifav). rabbits were hyperimmunized with ifawbe prepared from s. invicta or with ifav obtained from s. invicta by an electric shock method. crossed immunoelectrophoresis ...19883123537
antibacterial activity of venom alkaloids from the imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren.the antibacterial properties of synthetic fire ant venom alkaloids were tested by disc-diffusion procedures against a variety of bacteria and by doubling concentrations in broth cultures of staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. gram-positive bacteria were inhibited by lower concentrations of trans-2-methyl-6-n-undecylpiperidine, trans-2-methyl-6-n-tridecylpiperidine, and trans-2-methyl-6-n-pentadecylpiperidine than were gram-negative bacteria. a fourth alkaloid, trans-2-methyl-6-(cis-6-pen ...19724670503
hypersensitivity to fire ant venom.reading this article will reinforce the reader's knowledge of the taxonomy, origin, and distribution of fire ants and will increase his ability to diagnose and manage reactions caused by the two imported species, solenopsis invicta and richteri. this review will also enhance the reader's knowledge of the available diagnostic methods and therapeutic measures, including the role of fire ant venom versus whole body extract in the management of fire ant allergy.19968760773
effects of fire ant venom alkaloids on platelet and neutrophil function.about 95% of venom of the imported fire ant solenopsis invicta is composed of dialkyl piperidines. these alkaloids produce a distinct pustule at the site of injection. the formation of this pustule may involve the activation of platelets and neutrophils. the purpose of this paper was to characterize the effects of fire ant venom alkaloids (fava) on certain physiological and biochemical functions of human platelets and neutrophils. in platelets, fava caused a rise in intracellular [ca2+], secreti ...19938396703
effect of a founder event on variation in the genetic sex-determining system of the fire ant solenopsis invicta.effects of a recent founder event on genetic diversity in wild populations of the fire ant solenopsis invicta were studied, with particular attention given to the genetic sex-determining system. diploid males are far more common relative to haploid males in introduced populations than in native populations of fire ants, and queens that produce diploid males account for a significantly larger proportion of the mated queens in introduced than in native populations. differences between native and i ...19938293983
stability of polygyne and monogyne fire ant populations (hymenoptera: formicidae: solenopsis invicta) in the united states.over the past decade, polygyne red imported fire ants (solenopsis invicta buren) have been found at more and more sites across the southeastern united states. the objective of my study was to determine if polygyne (multiple-queen) populations are expanding and at what rate this might be occurring. more than 200 sites were inspected for polygyny in florida and several other southeastern states. these sites were reinspected 1-3 yr later. results showed that polygyne populations were not expanding ...19938254133
effect of the red imported fire ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) and carcass type on the daily occurrence of postfeeding carrion-fly larvae (diptera: calliphoridae, sarcophagidae).red imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta buren, caused an increased in the proportion of gaps in the daily occurrence of postfeeding larvae of cochliomyia macellaria (f.) in carrion-baited traps. chrysomya rufifacies appeared later in the decomposition process and over a wider period of days in goat than in rabbit carcasses. the dependence of presence or absence of a carrion arthropod taxon at a given point in succession on interactions between other arthropods or carcass type must be consider ...19948158622
clinical and histologic characterization of cutaneous reactions to stings of the imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta) in dogs.four adult dogs received experimentally controlled stings in the dorsolateral abdominal skin by imported fire ants (solenopsis invicta). the sites were examined grossly 15 minutes and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours and histologically 15 minutes and 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after stinging. the initial gross lesions at 15 minutes were swelling and erythema, and the microscopic changes were vascular congestion and superficial dermal edema. by 6 hours, the lesions consisted of bright eryth ...19938116149
laboratory study of predation by solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae) on eggs of aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren, punctured and fed on the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse), eggs in the laboratory. the presence and actions of the ants, especially the minima workers, reduced the hatching of egg populations.19947966185
the natural history of exposure to the imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta).imported fire ants (ifa) are a common cause of insect venom hypersensitivity in the southeastern united states. the purpose of this study was to determine the sting attack rate and development of specific ige in an unsensitized population.19957722162
treatment of local skin response to imported fire ant sting.the sting of the imported fire ant (ifa), solenopsis invicta buren and solenopsis richteri forel, produces characteristic sterile pustules. substantial morbidity and occasional mortality from secondary infection of the ifa pustule(s) or anaphylaxis in hypersensitive persons has occurred. ifas are found in the southeastern and south central united states. the effects of various medical regimens currently used to treat ifa pustules were evaluated clinically and histologically in rabbits. neither p ...19817302637
fire ant envenomation in children.fire ants (solenopsis richteri and solenopsis invicta) have received scant attention from individuals other than agriculturists, entomologists, and victims of the bite and sting. since their original importation into mobile, alabama, these small, seemingly benign, creatures have slowly migrated throughout most of the southern united states. not unexpectedly, physicians working in the southern portions of the united states have been confronted with increasingly large numbers of patients, particul ...19846201811
use of computerized pattern recognition in the study of the cuticular hydrocarbons of imported fire ants. i. introduction and characterization of the cuticular hydrocarbon patterns of solenopsis invicta and s. richteri.a method is described in which gas chromatographic (gc) data obtained from cuticular hydrocarbons are treated by methods of pattern recognition. based on a recently described sample preparation procedure, gc data are normalized to eliminate slight variations in chromatographic conditions and converted into the proper format for discriminant analysis by computer. the results of several methods of data treatment and display are discussed, based upon the chemometric system package, arthur. the appr ...19854086644
fluoroaliphatic sulfones: a new class of delayed-action insecticides for control of solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae). 19854078136
rast-inhibition studies of the imported fire ant solenopsis invicta with whole body extracts and venom preparations.whole body extracts of imported fire ants (ifawbe) are the only reagents currently available for diagnosis and immunotherapy of patients with anaphylaxis to these hymenoptera. to characterize better ifawbe of the species solenopsis invicta, we evaluated the sera of 29 patients with systemic or large local reactions to imported fire ant (ifa) stings. forty-eight percent (14/29) of these sting-sensitive patients were ifawbe rast positive (greater than or equal to 6% binding of total radioactivity ...19883379222
allergens in hymenoptera venom. xxi. cross-reactivity and multiple reactivity between fire ant venom and bee and wasp venoms.the relationships between fire ant venom and bee and wasp venoms were explored by studying sera from five groups of subjects. group 1 included adults not allergic to any venoms and who were not exposed to fire ants. group 2 included adults with fire ant exposure who were not allergic to venoms. group 3 included patients with recent systemic reactions to fire ant venom. group 4 included patients allergic to bee and vespid venoms with no fire ant exposure. last, group 5 included patients allergic ...19883192866
multiple stings by imported fire ants (solenopsis invicta), without systemic effects.this is the first case report of imported fire ants invading a building and aggressively attacking a human being, resulting in multiple stings. this case illustrates that, although the venom has a high ld50 in mice, it does not induce toxic systemic effects in humans when the venom is introduced intradermally.19892567534
allergens in hymenoptera venom. xxii. comparison of venoms from two species of imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta and richteri.venoms were collected by electrical stimulation from the two major species of imported fire ants found in the united states, solenopsis invicta (sol i) and s. richteri (sol r). antigens similar to three of the four known sol i venom proteins (i, ii, iii, and iv) were isolated from sol r. the n-terminal amino acid sequences for the antigens iii were identical; but those for the antigens ii demonstrated only nine of 20 residues to be identical. two monoclonal antibodies raised against sol i ii did ...19902355158
fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae).eight laboratory-reared ant species were fed baits of house fly, musca domestica l., pupae treated with hydramethylnon. two fire ant species, solenopsis invicta buren and solenopsis geminata (f.), and pheidole morrissi (forel) were killed; average percentage of mortality of the five other species was less than 20%. in contrast, all species that were fed the commercial fire ant bait containing hydramethylnon (amdro) died or were adversely affected. in the field, applications of house fly pupae an ...19902324379
distribution and density of polygyne fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae) in texas.multiple-queen or "polygyne" solenopsis invicta buren colonies are a serious economic and environmental concern because they occur in much higher densities than the monogyne form. polygyne colonies have been found at numerous locations in the united states; nevertheless, the frequency and distribution of this form are poorly known. almost 700 roadside sites in 168 texas counties were surveyed. polygyny was discovered at 54% of the infested sites. polygyne populations were scattered in a mosaic a ...19911885844
red imported fire ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) control with a corn grit bait of fenoxycarb without soybean oil.the standard fenoxycarb fire ant bait formulation (logic), composed of pregel defatted corn grits and soybean oil toxicant, was modified by eliminating the soybean oil. this formulation without soybean oil contained greater than 2 times more fenoxycarb and was as effective as the standard bait formulation against laboratory colonies of red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren. in field tests, the modified and standard baits were equally effective in controlling fire ants after 6, 12, and ...19911885843
susceptibility and behavioral response of red imported fire ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) to selected entomogenous nematodes (rhabditida: steinernematidae & heterorhabditidae).pathogenicity of infective juveniles of selected steinernema spp. and heterorhabditis spp. toward developing and reproductive stages of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren, was tested under laboratory conditions. at 10(3)-10(5) infective juveniles per petri dish, mortality of reproductive larvae, pupae, and alates ranged from 28 to 100% at higher doses after 96 h at 23-25 degrees c. steinernema carpocapsae all was the most consistent species tested; this nematode caused mortality ...19921593012
fire ant allergy.two species of imported fire ants (ifa) now infest large areas of the southern united states. the most aggressive species, solenopsis invicta, has adapted well to environmental conditions in the south where it has become a considerable agricultural pest and a significant public health problem. sting reactions range from local pustules and large, late-phase responses to life-threatening anaphylaxis. four important sol i venom allergens have been isolated and characterized. clinical studies under ...19921577260
gynandromorphism in the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren (hymenoptera: formicidae). 19751175547
light and electron microscope study of thelohania solenopsae n. sp. (microsporida: protozoa) in the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta. 1977850074
evidence of intracolony transmission of thelohania solenopsae (microsporidia: thelohaniidae) in red imported fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae) and the first report of spores from pupae.red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, colonies were infected horizontally by introducing live brood (mainly larvae and pupae) infected with thelohania solenopsae. live, infected brood introduced into uninfected colonies were adopted and raised to adulthood instead of being executed by the recipient colony. introductions of infected larvae with uninfected pupae, which eclose into adult worker caste fire ants, resulted in an 80% infection rate of the inoculated colonies. infections from intro ...200111812115
development of thelohania solenopsae in red imported fire ants solenopsis invicta from polygynous colonies results in formation of three spore types. 200111906091
mirex residues in bobwhite quail after aerial application of bait for fire ant control, south carolina--1975-76.mirex, the organochlorine compound used for control of the imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta buren), was applied aerially under supervision of the south carolina plant pest regulatory service in october 1975 to a game management area in hampton county, s.c. influenced by recent reports indicating that low levels of mirex were toxic to certain nontarget organisms in laboratory studies, authors initiated a program for monitoring mirex residues in bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus). pretreatm ...1977600676
medical implications: imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta. 1977559570
anaphylaxis due to red imported fire ant sting.the invasive red imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta buren) is well established at two locations in the brisbane area, and we report a patient with anaphylaxis after a sting. the potential for anaphylactic events in australia due to s. invicta will be greater than for native ants because of its unusual venom, its habit of forming supercolonies in grassy areas, and its aggressive group territorial defence, which can result in multiple stings.200212064982
reactions to less common species of fire ants.there are four species of fire ants found in the united states in addition to the most common, solenopsis invicta. reactions have been reported from stings of each of these species, but large numbers of insects and adequate amounts of venom for study are very difficult to obtain.19979389299
fatal anaphylaxis due to fire ant stings.imported fire ants (solenopsis invicta and solenopsis richteri) are the source of a potentially lethal environmental hazard in the southeastern united states. because of their resistance to natural and chemical control, fire ants can overwhelm their environment, causing destruction of land and animals. fire ants can also cause a variety of health problems in humans, ranging from simple stings to anaphylaxis and death. we present a case of a 30-year-old woman who died of anaphylaxis following mul ...19989662108
multilocus evolution in fire ants: effects of selection, gene flow and recombination.the reproductive success of individual fire ant queens (solenopsis invicta) previously has been shown to be strongly influenced by their genotype at a single enzyme-encoding gene, designated pgm-3. this paper presents evidence that a second, tightly linked gene, designated gp-9, is under similarly strong selection in these ants. selection appears to act independently on the two genes and is detectable in only one of the two social forms of this species (the "polygyne" social form in which nests ...19979093850
hierarchical analysis of genetic structure in native fire ant populations: results from three classes of molecular markers.we describe genetic structure at various scales in native populations of the fire ant solenopsis invicta using two classes of nuclear markers, allozymes and microsatellites, and markers of the mitochondrial genome. strong structure was found at the nest level in both the monogyne (single queen) and polygyne (multiple queen) social forms using allozymes. weak but significant microgeographic structure was detected above the nest level in polygyne populations but not in monogyne populations using b ...19979335601
characterization of vitellogenin in the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: apocrita: formicidae).vitellin (vn) and vitellogenin (vg) profiles were analyzed in monogyne and polygyne colonies of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta. non-denaturing and sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) analyses indicated that the native vn was likely 350 kda and comprised of two subunits in the molecular size range of 170-185 kda. sds-page of hemolymph showed that the relative mobilities and subunit patterns of vg and vn were similar. vg was present in the hemolymph of reproductive queens; ...200111249942
expanding habitat of the imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta): a public health concern.residents in the southeastern united states would hardly describe life with the aggressive imported fire ant as peaceful coexistence. the continued spread of these insects has produced agricultural problems, changes in the ecosystem, and increasing numbers of subjects with sting sequelae, including hypersensitivity reactions, secondary infections, and rare neurologic sequelae. evolutionary changes have facilitated their expansion northward into virginia and westward into california, and increasi ...200010756216
ecology. when fire ants move in, others leave.researchers have uncovered new evidence about the long-range, and potentially long-term, ecological damage being wrought by an invasive species of fire ant. the red imported fire ant solenopsis invicta displaces other ant species and upsets the structures of native communities of ants--disruptions that appear to be permanent, they report in the july issue of ecology letters. the drop in biodiversity could represent a significant loss, experts note, because of the critical role ants play in recyc ...200010917841
detection of magnetism in the red imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta) using magnetic resonance imaging.red imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta) workers, queens, and alates were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (mri) for the presence of natural magnetism. images of ants showed distortion patterns similar to those of honey bees and monarch butterflies, both of which possess ferromagnetic material. the bipolar ring patterns of mri indicated the presence in fire ants of small amounts of internal magnetic material, which may be used in orientation behaviors, as in the honey bees.19979209721
venom alkaloids of fire ants in relation to worker size and age.piperidine alkaloids compose most of the venom of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, and we examined how six of these alkaloids varied across worker size and age. in a colony sampled intensively, the relative abundance of each alkaloid was highly correlated with worker size with one exception, and ratios of saturated to unsaturated alkaloids were positively correlated with worker size. similarly, both the abundance and ratios of alkaloids differed significantly between the small and ...200010665803
efficacy of bait distributional strategies to deliver canine rabies vaccines to coyotes in southern texas.this study sought to develop a baiting strategy to deliver an oral rabies vaccine to free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in southern texas. to determine bait longevity, dog foodlard baits were placed (n = 50) on- and off-roads during july 1994 and january 1995. coyote visitation and uptake rates did not differ between on-road and off-road placement of baits. to evaluate bait stations as possible visual cues, baits were placed out both with (n = 50) and without (n = 50) bait stations. a visual c ...19989476222
determination of 'irritant' threshold concentrations for intradermal testing with allergenic insect extracts in normal horses.sixteen healthy horses with no history of skin or respiratory disease were used for an intradermal testing (idt) threshold study, in order to determine the concentrations of 13 commercial allergenic insect extracts most appropriate for idt. five dilutions of each extract were used, which included the manufacturer's recommended concentrations for equine idt, plus one dilution higher and three lower than these standard concentrations. allergens tested included caddisfly (trichoptera spp.), mayfly ...200312603683
analysis of the ribosomal dna sequences of the microsporidia thelohania and vairimorpha of fire ants.sequences of the 16srrna gene of three microsporidia pathogenic to imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta and solenopsis richteri, were determined and compared to each other and 15 other species of microsporidia. the sequences of 2 thelohania species are nearly identical (99.2% identity), supporting light-microscopic and ultrastructural evidence that thelohania solenopsae and thelohania sp. are closely related but probably not conspecific. sequence comparisons further revealed that vairimorpha s ...19989709016
cloning of the 16-kda v-atpase proteolipid subunit from the red imported fire ant solenopsis invicta buren (hymenoptera: formicidae).v-atpases are ubiquitous proton pumps found in eukaryotes, and are important in regulating the ph of cell compartments and in creating membrane potentials. the v-atpase creates a proton gradient that is used as an energy source for the transport of other ions. the 16-kda proteolipid is the proton-translocating subunit c of v-atpases. using pcr methods, we have cloned the fire ant 16-kda subunit c, providing the first molecular characterization of this protein in a social insect. northern blot an ...200011169750
discovery of thelohania solenopsae from the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, in the united statescopyright19989500936
population dynamics of immature amblyomma maculatum (acari: ixodidae) and other ectoparasites on meadowlarks and northern bobwhite quail resident to the coastal prairie of texas.a survey of ectoparasites from 219 meadowlarks conducted during 2 consecutive fall-winter periods in a coastal prairie found immature amblyomma maculatum koch to be the most abundant parasite. peak larval infestations occurred in december with 80-100% of collected birds infested and with a monthly mean of up to 34 larvae per bird. peak nymphal infestations occurred in february or march with 95-100% of birds infested and with a monthly mean of up to 11 nymphs per bird. seasonal dynamics of these ...19989701932
assessing genetic structure with multiple classes of molecular markers: a case study involving the introduced fire ant solenopsis invicta.we used 30 genetic markers of 6 different classes to describe hierarchical genetic structure in introduced populations of the fire ant solenopsis invicta. these included four classes of presumably neutral nuclear loci (allozymes, codominant random amplified polymorphic dnas (rapds), microsatellites, and dominant rapds), a class comprising two linked protein-coding nuclear loci under selection, and a marker of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna). patterns of structure revealed by f statistics and exact ...199910331278
characterizing the interaction between fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae) and developing soybean plants.this research characterizes the interaction between the fire ants solenopsis invicta buren and developing soybean plants. phagostimulant studies showed that fire ant foraging on soybean seeds increased once the seeds imbibed water. during seedling development over a 5-d germination period, fire ant foraging shifted from the stem/cotyledons to the roots, despite continual increases in fresh weights for each region, and the fact that stem/cotyledon tissue contained the majority of food reserves. c ...200011142298
the structure of an insect chymotrypsin.the south american imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta), without natural enemies in the united states, widely infests the southern united states, causing more than a half billion dollars in health and agriculture-related damage annually in texas alone. fire ants are resistant to most insecticides, so control will require a more fundamental understanding of their biochemistry and metabolism leading to the design of selective, ecologically safe insecticides. the 4th instar larvae play a crucial ...200010801356
queen control of sex ratio in fire ants.the haplodiploid sex-determination system of ants gives rise to conflict between queens and workers over colony sex ratios, and the female-biased allocation ratios seen in many species suggest that workers often prevail in this conflict. we exchanged queens between male- and female-specialist colonies of the fire ant solenopsis invicta. these exchanges quickly reversed the sex-ratio biases of adopting colonies. the sex ratio of queen-laid eggs differed strongly between male- and female-specialis ...200111509728
stinging ants.ants belong to the order hymenoptera, along with bees, wasps, yellow jackets, etc., they are the most successful animal genera in this world. it is their selfless social structure which accounts for their huge impact. their effect on man ranges from the parasol ant, which makes plant cultivation untenable in certain parts of south america, to solenopsis invicta in the southeastern united states of america, which kill ground dwelling birds and small animals, harass livestock, and renders farmland ...200111964710
genetics of social behaviour in fire ants.a recent study is the first to sequence a gene known to underlie a complex social phenotype. in the fire ant, solenopsis invicta, a single allelic difference at the gp-9 locus specifies the number of queens a colony has, and hence the social structure of the colony. gp-9 appears to encode a protein implicated in chemical recognition of nestmates, consistent with workers determining queen number by selectively executing queens as a function of workers' and queens' gp-9 genotypes. other solenopsis ...200212047935
sperm structure and ultrastructure of the fire ant solenopsis invicta (buren) (hymenoptera, formicidae).the spermatozoa of solenopsis invicta are long and slender, measuring about 70 microm in length, of which the head region measures approximately 13 microm. the head consists of an acrosome formed by an acrosomal vesicle covering a perforatorium and a nucleus. this latter measures about 12 microm, has compact chromatin, and many translucent areas. the flagellum consists of an axoneme of 9+9+2 microtubules that begins just below the nuclear base. the two mitochondrial derivatives are of almost equ ...200212165248
use of ribosomal dna sequence data to characterize and detect a neogregarine pathogen of solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae).a neogregarine parasite of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, was discovered recently in florida and tentatively placed in the mattesia genus based on morphological characterization. s. invicta infected with this mattesia species exhibited a characteristic yellowing of the cuticle which was designated mattesia "yellow-head disease" (yhd). the 18s rrna gene sequence from mattesia yhd was elucidated and compared with the neogregarine pathogens, mattesia geminata and ophriocystis elektr ...200314615220
hemolymph of reproductives of solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)-amino acids, proteins and sugars.free amino acid composition and carbohydrate and protein concentration of the hemolymph of the pupal and adult stages of reproductives of solenopsis invicta are presented. the physico-chemical properties of the hemolymph differ between both sexes of fire ants during development. male alates (459 mmol/kg) have a higher osmolality than pupae (388 mmol/kg). osmolality during the pupal stage was 428 mmol/kg, decreasing to 354 mmol/kg soon after de-alation and increasing again to 463 mmol/kg in activ ...200212128057
impact of thelohania solenopsae (microsporidia: thelohaniidae) on polygyne colonies of red imported fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae).three studies were conducted to assess the effects of the entomopathogen thelohania solenopsae on polygynous, red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren, colonies. a total of 57 of 122 queens (46.7%) from nine, field-collected, polygyne, s. invicta colonies, was infected with t. solenopsae. infection rate of queens for each colony ranged from 25 to 75%. laboratory colonies of polygyne s. invicta, with three to 12 queens, were inoculated and infected with t. solenopsae. brood levels in all i ...200212076000
effect of thelohania solenopsae (microsporida: thelohaniidae) on weight and reproductive status of polygynous red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae), alates. 200312676557
a queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta).we conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta. in each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. the larvae were also kill ...200212216859
detection of thelohania solenopsae (microsporidia: thelohaniidae) in solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae) by multiplex pcr.oligonucleotide primer pairs were designed to unique areas of the small subunit (16s) rrna gene of thelohania solenopsae and a region of the gp-9 gene of solenopsis invicta. multiplex pcr resulted in sensitive and specific detection of t. solenopsae infection of s. invicta. the t. solenopsae-specific primer pair only amplified dna from t. solenopsae and t. solenopsae-infected s. invicta. this primer pair did not produce any amplification products from dna preparations from uninfected s. invicta, ...200212507489
effects of contaminants on bait acceptance by solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae).three commonly used fire ant baits, amdro (0.73% hydramethylnon [ai]), ascend (0.011% abamectins [ai]), and maxforce (1.0% hydramethylnon [ai]), were exposed to potential, volatile contaminants. the contaminants included the insecticides orthene fire ant killer (75.0% acephate [ai] ), cyren (44.6% chlorpyrifos [ai]), and tempo 2 (24.3% cyfluthrin [ai]); cigarette smoke; gasoline (unleaded, 89 octane); and fertilizer (10-10-10). fire ant baits previously exposed for 48 h to these contaminants wer ...200312650350
efficacy of bifenthrin treatment zones against red imported fire ant.exclusion of ants, particularly red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta (buren), from homes, nursing facilities, hospitals, and electrical housings is an important strategy in urban and rural pest control. we conducted a laboratory bioassay to determine the repellency of granular bifenthrin (talstar: rate 2.087 kg of formulated product/92.88 m2 or 4.6 lb formulated product/1000 feet2 or 4.2 g active ingredient/92.88 m2) to s. invicta foragers. in the field, we compared the efficacy of three wi ...200312650351
proteolytic enzymes from larvae of the fire ant, solenopsis invicta. isolation and characterization of four serine endopeptidases.the imported red fire ant (solenopsis invicta) is a problematic pest in the southern united states. the stages of development for these ants are as follows: egg, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar larvae, prepupae, pupae, and adult. the 4th instar larvae plays an important role in the survival of the colony in that it is totally responsible for the digestion of solid foods and the source of nutrients for the queen and adult workers. in our studies we have been successful in purifying and characterizi ...19989603955
simple, filter-based pcr detection of thelohania solenopsae (microspora) in fire ants (solenopsis invicta).thelohania solenopsae is a microsporidian parasite that may serve as a biological control agent for the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta. a rapid, filter-based pcr amplification method detecting a portion of the small-subunit ribosomal rna gene was developed to facilitate field studies detecting the parasite in fire ants. processing ant homogenates with a commercially available membrane-based system, fta classic card technology, compared favorably with traditional dna extraction and pcr ...200212503678
spore morphotypes of thelohania solenopsae (microsporidia) described microscopically and confirmed by pcr of individual spores microdissected from smears by position ablative laser microbeam microscopy.development of thelohania solenopsae, a parasite of the red imported fire ant (solenopsis invicta), until recently was thought to include formation of two types of spores: unicellular meiospores, maturing inside sporophorous vesicles in sets of eight (octospores); and nosema-like binuclear free spores. megaspores, discovered in 2001, develop primarily in alates and are morphologically distinct from the two previously known types of spores. the role of megaspores in the t. solenopsae life cycle, ...200415133089
preference of food particle size among several urban ant species.appropriate particle size may be a critical characteristic for effective granular ant baits. we examined the particle size preference of six species of pest ants to an anchovy-based bait. we also examined head capsule widths of argentine ants, linepithema humile (mayr) (mean = 0.54 mm), california harvester ants, pogonomyrmex californicus (buckley) (mean = 1.63 mm), red imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta buren (mean = 0.9 mm), and southern fire ants, solenopsis xyloni mccook (mean = 0.76 mm) ...200212539835
protein that makes sense in the argentine ant.with a protein-based approach, we have identified and cloned the cdna encoding a chemosensory protein (lhumcsp) in the argentine ant, linepithema humile. the open reading frame of the cloned cdna encoded a signal peptide (20 residues), and a mature protein (pi 4.62) of 106 amino acid residues. the calculated molecular mass (12,453 da) was in agreement with the molecular mass measured by on-line chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (12,448 da), given the formation of two disul ...200212451452
dietary influences on terpenoids sequestered by the biological control agent oxyops vitiosa: effect of plant volatiles from different melaleuca quinquenervia chemotypes and laboratory host species.the weevil oxyops vitiosa is an australian species imported to florida, usa, for the biological control of the invasive species melaleuca quinquenervia. the larvae of this species feed on the leaves of their host and produce a shiny orange secretion that covers their integument. previous results indicated that a major component of this secretion, viridiflorol, is sequestered from the host plant and repels a generalist predator, the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta. when the larvae fed o ...200312647862
molecular evolutionary analyses of mariners and other transposable elements in fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae).screens of a library of genomic dna made during a recent study of the fire ant solenopsis invicta revealed the presence of three distinct types of transposable elements (tes). two of the recovered sequences showed a high similarity to long-terminal repeat (ltr) retrotransposons, while the third showed a high homology to mariner elements. to investigate the distribution and relationships of mariners in related ants, we pcr-amplified these elements from additional solenopsis species. phylogenetic ...200312653937
repellency and toxicity of mint oil granules to red imported fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae).repellency and toxicity of 2% mint oil granules were evaluated against worker red imported fire ants. solenopsis invicta buren, in a series of laboratory and field experiments. in continuous exposure experiments, lt50 values ranged from 1.2 h with 164.8 mg/cm2 of 2% mint oil granules to 15.3 h with 1.65 mg/cm2 of granules. lt50 values declined exponentially with increasing rate of mint oil granules. limited exposure to 164.8 mg/cm2 mint oil granules resulted in > 50% knock down (kd) after 30 min ...200415154484
forest edges and fire ants alter the seed shadow of an ant-dispersed plant.exotic species invade fragmented, edge-rich habitats readily, yet the distinct impacts of habitat edges and invaders on native biota are rarely distinguished. both appear detrimental to ant-dispersed plants such as bloodroot, sanguinaria canadensis. working in northeastern georgia (usa), an area characterized by a rich ant-dispersed flora, fragmented forests, and invasions by the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, i monitored the interactions between ants and s. canadensis seeds in uninv ...200414673638
sources of spores for the possible horizontal transmission of thelohania solenopsae (microspora: thelohaniidae) in the red imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta.we screened adult and larval secretions and midden piles for the presence of thelohania solenopsae spores to decipher potential sources for the horizontal transmission of the pathogen in fire ants. hemolymph samples from both adult and larvae were also screened to rule out hemolymph contamination of samples. in adults, thelohania spores were found in the crop and the fecal fluids, although only free spores were found in the fecal fluids of adults. in fourth instar larvae, both free and octospore ...200415109896
occurrence of myrmicinosporidium durum in red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, and other new host ants in eastern united states.myrmicinosporidium durum, a parasitic fungus in several ant species, is reported from seven new hosts collected in the eastern united states, including solenopsis invicta, solenopsis carolinensis, paratrechina vividula, pheidole tysoni, pheidole bicarinata, pyramica membranifera, and pogonomyrmex badius. spores can be found in most ant body parts, are dark brown when mature, and clear to light brown while immature. ants infected with mature spores appear darker than normal. spores from different ...200415145249
fire ant venom alkaloid, isosolenopsin a, a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.massive, multiple fire ant, solenopsis invicta, stings are often treated aggressively, particularly in the elderly, despite limited evidence of systemic toxicity due to the venom. over 95% of the s. invicta venom is composed of piperidine alkaloid components, whose toxicity, if any, is unknown. to assess a possible pharmacological basis for systemic toxicity, an alkaloid-rich, protein-free methanol extract of the venom from whole ants was assayed for inhibitory activity on the following nitric o ...200312745988
semiochemicals released by electrically stimulated red imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta.the red imported fire ant solenopsis invicta buren, has evolved sophisticated chemical communication systems that regulate the activities of the colony. among these are recruitment pheromones that effectively attract and stimulate workers to follow a trail to food or alternative nesting sites. alarm pheromones alert, activate, and attract workers to intruders or other disturbances. the attraction and accumulation of fire ant workers in electrical equipment may be explained by their release of ph ...200212564802
effects of wolbachia on mtdna variation in two fire ant species.wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that infect arthropods. as they are maternally transmitted, the spread of wolbachia variants within host populations may affect host mtdna evolution. we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i gene from numerous individuals of two wolbachia-infected fire ant species, solenopsis invicta and s. richteri, to determine how these bacteria influence patterns of mtdna variation. as predicted, there was a strong association between wolbachia str ...200312803629
developmental rates and host specificity for pseudacteon parasitoids (diptera: phoridae) of fire ants (hymenoptera: formicidae) in argentina.this study extends our comparative knowledge of pseudacteon interactions with solenopsis fire ant workers. reported in this work are development times for seven argentinean parasitoid species reared on two hosts, solenopsis richteri forel and solenopsis invicta buren, under laboratory temperature regimes comparable with those of the climatic zones occupied by these host species. developmental times spanned 31-66 d across phorid species, and in general did not differ between genders or host speci ...200212539825
wolbachia infections in native and introduced populations of fire ants (solenopsis spp.).wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited bacteria that induce a variety of effects with fitness consequences on host arthropods, including cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, male-killing and feminization. we report here the presence of wolbachia in native south american populations of the fire ant solenopsis invicta, but the apparent absence of the bacteria in introduced populations of this pest species in the usa. the wolbachia strains in native s. invicta are of two divergent types ( ...200011122476
ultrastructural characterization and further transmission studies of thelohania solenopsae from solenopsis invicta pupae. 200312788287
effect of the red imported fire ant on cotton aphid population density and predation of bollworm and beet armyworm eggs.the effects of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren (hymenoptera: formicidae), on cotton aphid, aphis gossypii glover, populations and its predation of bollworm, helicoverpa zea (boddie), and beet armyworm, spodoptera exigua (hübner), (both lepidoptera: noctuidae) eggs were evaluated in cotton under field conditions during 2001 and 2002 in central and northern texas. in central texas, cotton aphid populations were approximately 5.5 times greater and predation of sentinel bollworm ...200415154439
rodents balancing a variety of risks: invasive fire ants and indirect and direct indicators of predation risk.we used foraging trays to compare how oldfield mice, peromyscus polionotus, altered foraging in response to the presence of fire ants, solenopsis invicta, and in the presence of direct (predator urine) and indirect (sheltered or exposed microhabitat, moonlight, and precipitation) indicators of predation risk. foraging reductions elicited by s. invicta were greater than reductions in response to well-documented indicators of risk (i.e., moonlit nights) and the presence of predator urine. the pres ...200415185138
residual susceptibility of the red imported fire ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) to four agricultural insecticides.the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren, is an abundant predator in cropping systems throughout its range. it has been documented to be an important predator of numerous crop pests, as well as being an agricultural pest itself. information on the impact of insecticides on natural enemies such as fire ants is necessary for the integration of biological and chemical control tactics in an effective pest management program. therefore, a residual vial bioassay was developed to determine t ...200312852600
behavioral and chemical analysis of venom gland secretion of queens of the ant solenopsis geminata.bioassays in a y-tube olfactometer showed that workers of solenopsis geminata (hymenoptera: formicidae) were attracted to venom gland extracts of queens. gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry analysis of individual glands of queens of s. geminata showed that the secretion is composed mainly of a large amount of 2-alkyl-6-methylpiperidine alkaloids and a tiny amount of a delta-lactone and a a-pyrone, which have been earlier identified as components of the queen attractant pheromone of sole ...200111789950
purification, biochemical characterization, and cdna cloning of a glutathione s-transferase from the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta.a glutathione s-transferase (gst) was purified 266-fold from adult workers of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae) by affinity chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing. the purified enzyme appeared as a single band on sds-page and had a mr of 25.5 kda. steady state kinetics assays of the enzyme with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate were conducted. the vmax, km cdnb, km gsh, kcat, kcat/km cdnb, and kcat/km gsh for the purified fire ant gst wer ...200314505691
an empirical test of lanchester's square law: mortality during battles of the fire ant solenopsis invicta.lanchester's models of attrition describe casualty rates during battles between groups as functions of the numbers of individuals and their fighting abilities. originally developed to describe human warfare, lanchester's square law has been hypothesized to apply broadly to social animals as well, with important consequences for their aggressive behaviour and social structure. according to the square law, the fighting ability of a group is proportional to the square of the number of individuals, ...200516096093
patterns of venom synthesis and use in the fire ant, solenopsis invicta.in the life of the fire ant, solenopsis invicta, venom plays several important roles, including prey capture, defense, and anti-microbial action. although this venom's chemistry, pharmacology, and effects on humans have been extensively studied, its patterns of synthesis and use have not. we determined the ability of different-aged workers to synthesize venom, and measured the amount of venom workers delivered per sting. newly eclosed workers contained little or no venom in their reservoirs. the ...200314602123
cdna cloning and transcriptional regulation of the vitellogenin receptor from the imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren (hymenoptera: formicidae).we describe the cloning of the first hymenopteran vitellogenin receptor (vgr) cdna from the imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, an invasive pest. using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cdna ends, fragments encompassing the entire coding region of a putative vgr were cloned and sequenced. the complete 5764 bp cdna encodes a 1782 residue protein with a predicted molecular mass of 201.3 kda (=sivgr). northern blot analysis demonstrated that the 7.4 kb si ...200415056367
differential gene expression between alate and dealate queens in the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren (hymenoptera: formicidae).the transition of fire ant queens from alates to dealates, following a mating flight, is associated with numerous important physiological changes. a molecular analysis of gene expression differences that occur between alates and dealates was performed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) method. 983 ssh clones were arrayed and screened by dot blot hybridization, followed by northern blot analysis for selected clones. gene expression profiles throughout fire ant development were ...200415350613
cyp4ab1, cyp4ab2, and gp-9 gene overexpression associated with workers of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren.two cytochrome p450 genes, cyp4ab1 and cyp4ab2, and the gp-9 gene were identified as being specifically overexpressed in workers of the red imported fire ant using pcr-selected subtractive hybridization and cdna array techniques. full-length cyp4ab1 and cyp4ab2 were cloned and sequenced. the cdna sequences of cyp4ab1 and cyp4ab2 have open reading frames of 1389 and 1533 nucleotides encoding proteins of 463 and 511 amino acid residues, respectively. northern blot analysis was performed to compare ...200414960363
comparative effectiveness of light-microscopic techniques and pcr in detecting thelohania solenopsae (microsporidia) infections in red imported fire ants (solenopsis invicta).the main goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three staining techniques (calcofluor white m2r, giemsa and modified trichrome), and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in detecting the microsporidium thelohania solenopsae in red imported fire ants (solenopsis invicta). the effect of the number of ants in a sample on the sensitivity of the staining techniques and the pcr, and the effect of three dna extraction protocols on the sensitivity of pcr were also examined. in the first p ...200415134254
social evolution in a new environment: the case of introduced fire ants.the inadvertent introduction of the fire ant solenopsis invicta to the united states from south america provides the opportunity to study recent social evolution by comparing social organization in native and introduced populations. we report that several important elements of social organization in multiple-queen nests differ consistently and dramatically between ants in argentina and the united states. colonies in argentina contain relatively few queens and they are close relatives, whereas co ...199611607647
a picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization.we report the first discovery and genome sequence of a virus infecting the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta. the 8026 nucleotide, polyadenylated, rna genome encoded two large open reading frames (orf1 and orf2), flanked and separated by 27, 223, and 171 nucleotide untranslated regions, respectively. the predicted amino acid sequence of the 5' proximal orf1 (nucleotides 28 to 4218) exhibited significant identity and possessed consensus sequences characteristic of the helicase, cysteine p ...200415380366
the diminutive supercolony: the argentine ants of the southeastern united states.native to argentina and brazil, the argentine ant (linepithema humile) is an invasive species that has become established on six continents and many oceanic islands. in several parts of its introduced range, including the western united states, southern europe and chile, the argentine ant is unicolonial, forming extensive supercolonies. we examined population genetic structure and intercolony aggression in two regions of the introduced range of this species in the united states: california and t ...200415245397
influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.in fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., in tift county, georgia. the objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. the five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, secale cereale l., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, trifolium incarnatum l., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, trifoli ...200415384330
apolipophorin-iii-like protein expressed in the antenna of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta buren (hymenoptera: formicidae).antennal proteins of the male fire ant (solenopsis invicta) were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, with the objective of identifying pheromone-binding proteins, which have not previously been found in ant antennae. the major low-molecular weight protein found in the male fire ant antenna was subjected to edman degradation to determine the n-terminal amino acid sequence. degenerate pcr primers based on this sequence were used to obtain a cdna sequence corresponding to the full-leng ...200415484261
parasitoids and competitors influence colony-level responses in the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta.social insect colonies respond to challenges set by a variable environment by re-allocating work among colony members. in many social insects, such colony-level task allocation strategies are achieved through individual decisions that produce a self-organized adapting group. we investigated colony responses to parasitoid and native ant competitors in the red imported fire ant ( solenopsis invicta). parasitoid flies affected fire ants by decreasing the proportion of workers engaged in foraging. c ...200415490096
tiny genomes and endoreduplication in strepsiptera.using flow cytometry, the genome sizes of two species of strepsiptera were studied: that of male caenocholax fenyesi texensis kathirithamby & johnston (myrmecolacidae) at 108 mb, which is the smallest insect genome documented to date; and those of male and female xenos vesparum rossi (stylopidae), which are 1c = 130 and 133 mb, respectively. the genome sizes of the following were analysed for comparative purposes: (a) the hessian fly, mayetiola destructor (say), which was previously reported to ...200415606806
interaction of an entomopathogen with an insect social form: an epizootic of thelohania solenopsae (microsporidia) in a population of the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta.this is the first report of thelohania solenopsae infections in monogyne (single-queen) solenopsis invicta colonies in the field. in a 0.2-ha plot near baton rouge, louisiana, inter-colony prevalence was 63% infection in june, 1999, when the population was 100% monogyne. in february, 2000, 21% of 33 monogyne and 90% of 10 polygyne colonies were infected. by may, 2001, the polygyne colonies had disappeared and only one of 34 monogyne colonies was infected, the final detection of t. solenopsae in ...200415707872
transmission of vairimorpha invictae (microsporidia: burenellidae) infections between red imported fire ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) colonies.red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta, colonies were successfully infected with the microsporidium vairimorpha invictae by introducing live larvae, pupae, or dead adults from v. invictae-infected field colonies collected in argentina. introductions with 4th instar larvae or non-melanized pupae obtained from infected field colonies, resulted in infection of 40% of the inoculated colonies. introductions of 4th instars or melanized pupae produced from colonies that were initially infected in th ...200515766927
experimental evidence that the introduced fire ant, solenopsis invicta, does not competitively suppress co-occurring ants in a disturbed habitat.1. the fire ant, solenopsis invicta, is a globally distributed invasive ant that is largely restricted to disturbed habitats in its introduced range. for more than half a century, biologists have believed its success results from superior competitive abilities relative to native ant species, as well as an escape from their natural enemies. 2. we used large volumes of hot water to kill fire ant colonies, and only fire ant colonies, on experimental plots in pastures, and found that populations and ...200617032369
ant community change across a ground vegetation gradient in north florida's longleaf pine flatwoods.ant communities in longleaf pine habitats are poorly known and hence the naturally occurring ant assemblages of a large portion of southeastern north america are not well understood. this study examined the diverse ant community found in the longleaf pine flatwoods of north florida and tested how ant diversity changes along a herbaceous ground cover gradient. restoring the ground cover to its original floral composition is an important focus of longleaf pine conservation and hence it is importan ...200315841237
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