bacterial secondary production on vascular plant detritus: relationships to detritus composition and degradation rate.bacterial production at the expense of vascular plant detritus was measured for three emergent plant species (juncus effusus, panicum hemitomon, and typha latifolia) degrading in the littoral zone of a thermally impacted lake. bacterial secondary production, measured as tritiated thymidine incorporation into dna, ranged from 0.01 to 0.81 microgram of bacterial c mg of detritus-1 day-1. the three plant species differed with respect to the amount of bacterial productivity they supported per millig ...19892802603
toxicity evaluation of natural and synthetic phenanthrenes in aquatic natural 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes were isolated from the common reed juncus effusus by means of chromatographic processes and identified by spectroscopic means. furthermore, mimics of natural isolated compounds were synthesized to try to evaluate the influence of functional groups on the dihydrophenanthrene skeleton. syntheses of compounds were based on the cross-coupling of 1-(2-iodo-5-methoxy)phenyl-ethanol with variously substituted iodobenzenes by zerovalent nickel. all the chemicals w ...200111491568
trace element removal from coal ash leachate by a 10-year-old constructed wetland.this study investigated the ability of a 10-yr-old constructed wetland to treat metal-contaminated leachate emanating from a coal ash pile at the widows creek electric utility, alabama (usa). the two vegetated cells, which were dominated by cattail (typha latifolia l.) and soft rush (juncus effusus l.), were very effective at removing fe and cd from the wastewater, but less efficient for zn, s, b, and mn. the concentrations were decreased by up to 99% for fe, 91% for cd, 63% for zn, 61% for s, 5 ...200111577880
antimicrobial dna-binding photosensitizers from the common rush, juncus effusus.our continuing survey of phototoxins from higher plants has led to the isolation and identification from the common rush, juncus effusus l., of the phenanthrene, dehydroeffusol (1), and the dihydrophenanthrene, juncusol (2), compounds that display enhanced antimicrobial activities in light. the antimicrobial activities (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for these compounds against methicillin-resistant and -sensitive staphylococcus aureus and candida albicans were increased 16- and two-fold, re ...200212126307
bioavailability and trophic transfer of sediment-bound ni and u in a southeastern wetland system.elemental composition of soil, herbaceous and woody plant species, and the muscle and liver tissue of two common small mammal species were determined in a wetland ecosystem contaminated with ni and u from nuclear target processing activities at the savannah river site, aiken, sc. species studied were black willow ( salix nigra l.), rushes ( juncus effusus l.), marsh rice rat ( oryzomys palustris), and cotton rat ( sigmodon hispidus). two mature trees were sampled around the perimeter of the form ...200312434216
denitrification in constructed wetlands used for treatment of swine wastewater.constructed wetland treatment of swine wastewater probably involves substantial denitrification. our objective was to assess denitrification and denitrification enzyme activity (dea) in such wetlands in relation to plant communities, n loading, carbon or nitrogen limitations, and water depth. two wetland cells each 3.6 m wide and 33.5 m long were connected in series. one set of cells was planted with rushes and bulrushes, including soft rush (juncus effusus l.), softstem bulrush [schoenoplectus ...200312708698
incidence of antibiotic-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae and enterobacter species in freshwater wetlands.the aim of this study was to assess the incidence of enterobacteriaceae (potential human and animal pathogens) in wetlands.200415482436
determining diet composition on complex swards using n-alkanes and long-chain fatty alcohols.we conducted an experiment to quantify the accuracy of methods based on n-alkanes and long-chain fatty alcohols for determining the diet composition of animals grazing complex swards. we cut forage from two indigenous vegetation communities, a molinia caerulea-dominated grassland and a calluna vulgaris-dominated dwarf-shrub community, and offered it to mature ewes in different ratios in a zero-grazing experiment. nine dietary categories were identified within the forage offered: molinia caerulea ...200617069381
removal of bacteria by filtration in planted and non-planted sand order to diminish hygienic hazards from pathogens, the elimination of pathogenic bacteria in a pre-treatment step is important for the use of domestic wastewater for irrigation purposes. therefore, we analysed the removal of bacteria in laboratory-scale model sand filters simulating vertical flow systems of constructed wetlands (cw). sand-filled glass columns were planted with juncus effusus or phragmites australis and non-planted columns were used as controls. processes of bacteria removal s ...200717084880
field comparison of bermuda-hay infusion to infusions of emergent aquatic vegetation for collecting female mosquitoes.field experiments were conducted in east-central alabama in 2003 and 2004 to compare the attractiveness of selected gravid-trap infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. comparisons were made among infusions of the following plants: bermuda hay, cynodon dactylon, and 3 species of emergent aquatic plants typical of culex larval habitats, i.e., soft rush, juncus effusus; a common sedge, rhynchospora corniculata; and broad-leaf cattail, typha latifolia. experiments were conducted at a site in lee ...200717847842
aggregation in the tick ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae): use and reuse of questing vantage points.ongoing work in oak woods in killarney national park in southwestern ireland is focusing on the factors influencing the fine-scale aggregated distribution of ixodes ricinus l. (acari: ixodidae) on the ground. the extent of reuse of stems of vegetation as questing points by adult ticks was determined by paint-marking stems on which ticks were found, counting and removing these ticks, and subsequently reexamining the same stems for ticks on two further occasions. overall, an estimated 2,967 stems ...200818402137
anxiolytic and sedative effects of dehydroeffusol from juncus effusus in mice.dehydroeffusol, a phenanthrene isolated from juncus effusus l., possesses characteristic anxiolytic and sedative properties, as determined by an array of behavioral tests in mice. in the elevated plus-maze test, dehydroeffusol significantly increased the number of entries into the open arms and the time the mice spent in these arms in a dose-dependent manner, with a minimum effective dose of 2.5 mg/kg. dehydroeffusol also significantly increased the head-dips of mice in the hole-board test in a ...201021104609
plants as bio-monitors for cs-137, pu-238, pu-239,240 and k-40 at the savannah river site.the savannah river site was constructed in south carolina to produce plutonium (pu) in the 1950s. discharges associated with these now-ceased operations have contaminated large areas within the site, particularly streams associated with reactor cooling basins. evaluating the exposure risk of contamination to an ecosystem requires methodologies that can assess the bioavailability of contaminants. plants, as primary producers, represent an important mode of transfer of contaminants from soils and ...201121412545
the detection of snail host habitats in liver fluke infected farms by use of plant indicators.field investigations in 361 liver fluke infected cattle- or sheep-breeding farms on acid soil were carried out during thirty years in march and april to record indicator plants in relation to the category of site colonized by the intermediate host of liver fluke, the snail galba truncatula. seven types of snail zones and six species of indicator plants were recorded in the 7709 positive sites studied. the most frequent habitats were located at the peripheral extremities of open drainage furrows. ...201121524858
efficacy of a juncus effusus extract on grapevine and apple plants against plasmopara viticola and venturia inaequalis, and identification of the major active constituent.there is growing demand to replace chemical pesticides with alternatives owing to concerns related to impacts on human health and the environment. plant-derived plant protection products could provide sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical products. the aim of this study was to identify plant and fungal extracts with so far unknown activity against important plant pathogens by in vitro screening of a library of more than 3000 extracts.201626616740
plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 1: a review of preclinical studies.research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. however, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. this article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. in part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for a ...201323436255
analysis of arsenic and antimony distribution within plants growing at an old mine site in ouche (cantal, france) and identification of species suitable for site of the objectives of this study was to assess the contamination levels in the tailings of an old antimony mine site located in ouche (cantal, france). throughout the 1.3 ha site, homogenous concentrations of antimony and arsenic, a by-product of the operation, were found along 0-0.5 m-deep profiles. maximum concentrations for antimony and arsenic were 5780 mg kg(-1) dry tailings and 852 mg kg(-1) dry tailings, respectively. despite the presence of the contaminants and the low ph and organic ...201222789654
concentrations of heavy metals and plant nutrients in water, sediments and aquatic macrophytes of anthropogenic lakes (former open cut brown coal mines) differing in stage of acidification.concentration of heavy metals (al, ba, cd, co, cr, cu, fe, mn, ni, pb, sr, v and zn) as well as macronutrients (n, p, k, ca, mg, s) were measured in water, bottom sediments and plants from anthropogenic lakes in west poland. the collected plants were: phragmites australis, potamogeton natans, iris pseudoacorus, juncus effusus, drepanocladus aduncus, juncus bulbosus, phalaris arundinacea, carex remota and calamagrostis epigeios. two reference lakes were sampled for nymphaea alba, phragmites austr ...200111778963
influences of plant type on bacterial and archaeal communities in constructed wetland treating polluted river water.both bacteria and archaeal communities can play important roles in biogeochemical processes in constructed wetland (cw) system. however, the influence of plant type on microbial community in surface water cw remains unclear. the present study investigated bacterial and archaeal communities in five surface water cw systems with different plant species. the abundance, richness, and diversity of both bacterial and archaeal communities considerably differed in these five cw systems. compared with th ...201627392623
influence of different plant species on methane emissions from soil in a restored swiss wetland.plants are a major factor influencing methane emissions from wetlands, along with environmental parameters such as water table, temperature, ph, nutrients and soil carbon substrate. we conducted a field experiment to study how different plant species influence methane emissions from a wetland in switzerland. the top 0.5 m of soil at this site had been removed five years earlier, leaving a substrate with very low methanogenic activity. we found a sixfold difference among plant species in their ef ...201424586894
copper, zinc and lead biogeochemistry in aquatic and land plants from the iberian pyrite belt (portugal) and north of morocco mining areas.the ability of aquatic (juncus effusus l., scirpus holoschoenus l., thypha latifolia l. and juncus sp.) and land (cistus ladanifer l., erica andevalensis c.-r., nerium oleander l., isatis tinctoria l., rosmarinus officinalis l., cynodon dactylon l. and hordeum murinum l.) plants from portugal (aljustrel, lousal and são domingos) and morocco (tighza and zeida) mining areas to uptake, translocate and tolerate heavy metals (cu, zn and pb) was evaluated. the soils (rhizosphere) of the first mining a ...201525167810
[fungal endophytes in juncus imbricatus var chamissonis: identification of colonization patterns.].colonization patterns corresponding to individual endophytic species were observed in asymptomatic leaves and culms of juncus imbricatus var chamissonis, a perennial plant. the presence of the fungi within the host was demonstrated by light microscopy after the cleaning and staining of tissues. the main endophytic species, pleospora aff togwotiensis, was found colonizing the substomatal chamber and growing intercellularly between mesophyll cells. in a second colonization pattern, an unknown fung ...199717655388
methyl parathion toxicity in vegetated and nonvegetated wetland mesocosms.methyl parathion (mep) was introduced into constructed wetlands for the purpose of assessing the influence of emergent vegetation on transport and toxicity of the pesticide. two vegetated (90% cover, mainly juncus effusus) and two nonvegetated wetland cells (each with a water body of 50 x 5.5 x 0.2 m) were each dosed with 6.5 m3 of water containing active ingredient of mep at 6.6 mg/l associated with suspended soil at 400 mg/l to simulate a storm runoff event. acute toxicity was assessed by samp ...200312785582
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