assay of nitrogenase activity in intact plant systems.nitrogenase activity was assayed in intact system of cichorium intybus, a non-leguminous commercially cultivated crop, dahlia pinnata and helianthus annus, and taraxacum officinale, a common weed plant. the assay was made in fabricated cylinders which could accomodate pot with plants. in such kind of assay along with rhizosphere microflora, the nitrogen fixed by phyllosphere nitrogen fixing microflora could also be accounted, which otherwise was difficult to be accounted for.19751211718
vegetables as a source of infection with pseudomonas aeruginosa in a university and oncology hospital of rio de janeiro.samples of fresh vegetables fed to patients in an oncology and a university hospital were examined for frequency of recovery and counts of pseudomonas aeruginosa. thirty-eight isolates from vegetables as well as 98 clinical isolates recovered during the same period of vegetable collection were serotyped and assayed for pyocin production in order to evaluate the role of vegetables as a source of microorganisms. pseudomonas aeruginosa was recovered from 19.0% of the vegetable samples. although 1% ...19911682368
[gram-negative flora of horticultural produce destined for consumption mainly in the raw state].a survey has been carried out to evaluate the recovery of enterobacteriaceae in freshly consumed horticultural products. 64 samples of these vegetables random chosen in different stores in the general vegetable market of ferrara have been examined among the families of compositae (lettuce, prickly lettuce, cabbage lettuce, common chicory, artichoke), umbrelliferae (curly parsley, carrot, celery, fennel), cruciferae (garden cabbage, red radish), liliaceae (onion), and solanaceae (tomato). 654 bac ...19892483908
[yersinia enterocolitica: biotypes and serotypes isolated from horticultural products].a survey has been carried out for the presence of yersinia enterocolitica (y.e.) in horticultural products. 100 samples of these vegetables have been examined among the families of compositae (lettuce, prickly lettuce, cabbage lettuce, common chicory, artichoke), umbrelliferae (curly parsley, carrot, celery, fennel), cruciferae (garden cabbage, red radish), liliaceae (onion), and solanaceae (tomato). 12 strains have been recorded in carrots (serotype 0:6.30), 1 strain in curly parsley (0:4.32), ...19836661289
[first isolation of yersinia enterocolitica in several horticultural products intended usually to be consumed fresh].a survey has been carried out for the presence of yersinia enterocolitica in horticultural products. 60 samples of these vegetables have been examined among the families of compositae (lettuce, prickly lettuce, cabbage lettuce, common chicory), ombrelliferae (curly parsley, carrot, celery, fennel) and crociferae (garden cabbage). this is the first isolation of y.e. from horticultural products, being recorded 7 strains from carrots (serotype 0:6,30), 1 from curly parsley (serotype 0:4,32) and 1 f ...19826765383
crude extracts of hepatoprotective plants, solanum nigrum and cichorium intybus inhibit free radical-mediated dna damage.the presence of plant extracts of solanum nigrum and cichorium intybus in the reaction mixture containing calf thymus dna and free radical generating system protect dna against oxidative damage to its deoxyribose sugar moiety. the effect was dependent on the concentration of plant extracts. however, the effect of cichorium intybus was much pronounced as compared to the effect of solanum nigrum. these studies suggest that the observed hepatoprotective effect of these crude plant extracts may be d ...19957623482
erwinia chrysanthemi hrp genes and their involvement in soft rot pathogenesis and elicitation of the hypersensitive response.unlike the bacterial pathogens that typically cause the hypersensitive response (hr) in plants, erwinia chrysanthemi has a wide host range, rapidly kills and macerates host tissues, and secretes several isozymes of the macerating enzyme pectate lyase (pel). pelabce- and out- (secretion-deficient) mutants were observed to produce a rapid necrosis in tobacco leaves that was indistinguishable from the hr elicited by the narrow-host-range pathogens e. amylovora ea321 and pseudomonas syringae pv. syr ...19947949326
incidence of yersinia spp. in food in sao paulo, brazil.this study examined the occurrence of y. enterocolitica and other yersinia species in brazilian food products. samples included raw vegetables (lettuce, spinach, watercress and chicory), raw and pasteurized milk as well as meat and meat products. raw milk samples were obtained in a dairy plant and the other food samples were purchased at the retail level in sao paulo city. yersinia spp. was isolated from raw milk (45.2%), pasteurized milk (14.3%), raw vegetables samples (13.3%) and meat and meat ...19948024978
erwinia chrysanthemi harpinech: an elicitor of the hypersensitive response that contributes to soft-rot pathogenesis.mutants of the soft-rot pathogen erwinia chrysanthemi ec16 that are deficient in the production of the pectate lyase isozymes pelabce can elicit the hypersensitive response (hr) in tobacco leaves. the hrpnech gene was identified in a collection of cosmids carrying e. chrysanthemi hrp genes by its hybridization with the erwinia amylovora hrpnea gene. hrpnech appears to be in a monocistronic operon, and it encodes a predicted protein of 340 amino acids that is glycine-rich, lacking in cysteine, an ...19958589405
functional effects of food components and the gastrointestinal system: chicory fructooligosaccharides.functional food science, as recently proposed by ilsi europe, opens new perspectives in nutrition and food sciences. the systematic investigation of the interactions between food components or food ingredients and genomic, biochemical, cellular, or physiological functions is a unique way to improve both our knowledge and the role of nutrition in maintaining good health and in preventing disease. however, such basic knowledge is insufficient to justify claims, unless it is confirmed through relev ...19969110574
the cyclic amp receptor protein is the main activator of pectinolysis genes in erwinia chrysanthemi.the main virulence factors of the phytopathogenic bacterium erwinia chrysanthemi are pectinases that cleave pectin, a major constituent of the plant cell wall. although physiological studies suggested that pectinase production in erwinia species is subjected to catabolite repression, the direct implication of the cyclic amp receptor protein (crp) in this regulation has never been demonstrated. to investigate the role of crp in pectin catabolism, we cloned the e. chrysanthemi crp gene by compleme ...19979171393
pectate lyase peli of erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 belongs to a new family.erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases encoded by the pel4, pelb, pelc, peld, and pele genes and a set of secondary pectate lyases, two of which, pell and pelz, have been already identified. we cloned the peli gene, encoding a ninth pectate lyase of e. chrysanthemi 3937. the peli reading frame is 1,035 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 344 amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 19 amino acids. the purified mature peli protein ...19979393696
natural genetic transformation by agrobacterium rhizogenes . annual flowering in two biennials, belgian endive and carrotgenetic transformation of belgian endive (cichorium intybus) and carrot (daucus carota) by agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in a transformed phenotype, including annual flowering. back-crossing of transformed (r1) endive plants produced a line that retained annual flowering in the absence of the other traits associated with a. rhizogenes transformation. annualism was correlated with the segregation of a truncated transferred dna (t-dna) insertion. during vegetative growth, carbohydrate reserves ...19989765539
prebiotics and synbiotics: concepts and nutritional properties.the main role of diet is to provide enough nutrients to meet the requirements of a balanced diet, while giving the consumer a feeling of satisfaction and well-being. the most recent knowledge in bioscience supports the hypothesis that diet also controls and modulates various functions in the body, and, in doing so, contributes to the state of good health necessary to reduce the risk of some diseases. it is such an hypothesis which is at the origin both of the concept of 'functional food' and the ...19989924284
dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using prebiotics.the human colonic flora has both beneficial and pathogenic potentials with respect to host health. there is now much interest in manipulation of the microbiota composition in order to improve the potentially beneficial aspects. the prebiotic approach dictates that non-viable food components are specifically fermented in the colon by indigenous bacteria thought to be of positive value, e.g. bifidobacteria, lactobacilli. any food ingredient that enters the large intestine is a candidate prebiotic. ...19989924286
prevention of colon cancer by pre- and probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies.oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon. studies were designed to evaluate inulin (raftiline) and oligofructose (raftilose), for their potential inhibitory properties against aberrant crypt foci (acf) formation in the colon of rats. acf are putative preneoplastic lesions from which adenomas and carcinomas may develop. the results of this study demonstrate that ...19989924288
the minimal gene set member msra, encoding peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, is a virulence determinant of the plant pathogen erwinia chrysanthemi.peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (msra), which repairs oxidized proteins, is present in most living organisms, and the cognate structural gene belongs to the so-called minimum gene set [mushegian, a. r. & koonin, e. v., (1996) proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 93, 10268-10273]. in this work, we report that msra is required for full virulence of the plant pathogen erwinia chrysanthemi. the following differences were observed between the wild-type and a msra- mutant: (i) the msra- mutant was more s ...19999927663
mutagenic activity of south indian food items.dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in south india were screened for their mutagenic activity. kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seed ...19911769715
characterization of the exopolygalacturonate lyase pelx of erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes several pectinolytic enzymes, among which eight isoenzymes of pectate lyases with an endo-cleaving mode (pela, pelb, pelc, peld, pele, peli, pell, and pelz) have been identified. two exo-cleaving enzymes, the exopolygalacturonate lyase, pelx, and an exo-poly-alpha-d-galacturonosidase, pehx, have been previously identified in other e. chrysanthemi strains. using a genomic bank of a 3937 mutant with the major pel genes deleted, we cloned a pectinase gene identifi ...199910049400
high propionic acid fermentations and mineral accumulation in the cecum of rats adapted to different levels of inulin.the digestive and metabolic effects of inulin (from chicory) were studied in rats adapted to semipurified diets containing 0, 5, 10 or 20% inulin (wt/wt). moderate levels of inulin (5-10%) did not significantly affect food intake or body weight gain. dietary inulin resulted in considerably greater cecal fermentation and a significantly greater intraluminal concentration of propionate (peaking at 58.4 mmol/l). a lower concentration of acetate (42.6 mmol/l) was observed in rats fed 20% inulin. lac ...19911941180
anti-hepatotoxic effects of root and root callus extracts of cichorium intybus l.the natural root and root callus extracts of cichorium intybus were compared for their anti-hepatotoxic effects in wistar strain of albino rats against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage. the increased levels of serum enymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and bilirubin observed in rats treated with carbon tetrachloride were very much reduced in the animals treated with natural root and root callus extracts and carbon tetrachloride. the decreased levels of albumin and pro ...199810030727
caloric value of inulin and oligofructose.dietary carbohydrates, which are absorbed as hexose, (glucose, fructose) have a caloric value of 3.9 kcal/g (16.3 kj/g), and their cellular metabolism produces approximately 38 mol atp/mol. however, chicory inulin and oligofructose resist digestion and they are not absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. after oral ingestion, they reach the colon intact where they become hydrolyzed and extensively fermented by saccharolytic bacteria, which produce short-chain carboxylic and lac ...199910395615
postcoital contraceptive activity of some indigenous plants in rats.crude ethanolic extract of seeds of cichorium intybus and aerial parts of guetterda andamanica, memcylon lushingtonii, and solanum crassypetalum and their fractions were evaluated for postcoital contraceptive efficacy in adult female sprague-dawley rats. the extracts were administered orally in days 1-10 postcoitum, and significant contraceptive activity was observed. on fractionation, the activity was localized primarily in the chloroform- or butanol-insoluble fractions. the activity in these f ...19989673844
effect of plant species on the larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes which parasitise sheep.faeces containing trichostrongylus colubriformis and/or ostertagia circumcincta eggs were used to provide four contaminations in each of 2 years on plots of browntop, yorkshire fog, ryegrass, tall fescue, lucerne, chicory, cocksfoot, white clover, and prairie grass and in the second year a mixed sward of ryegrass/white clover. third stage larvae were recovered from faeces and from four strata of herbage, 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-7.5 and > 7.5 cm above the soil surface at 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 14 weeks afte ...19989650060
behavior of listeria monocytogenes and aeromonas spp. on fresh-cut produce packaged under equilibrium-modified experiments were conducted to follow the behavior of pathogens on fresh-cut vegetables (trimmed brussels sprouts, grated carrots, shredded iceberg lettuce, and shredded chicory endives) packaged under an equilibrium-modified atmosphere (ema) (2 to 3% o2, 2 to 3% co2, and 94 to 96% n2) and stored at 7 degrees c. as a comparison, fresh-cut vegetables were also packaged in a perforated high-barrier film (air conditions) and stored at 7 degrees c. in a first step, the shelf life of the veget ...199910528715
nitrogen-induced changes in morphological development and bacterial susceptibility of belgian endive (cichorium intybus l.) are genotype-dependentnitrogen is known to modulate plant development and resistance to pathogens. four selected lines (alg, ns1, nr1 and nr2) of chicory (cichorium intybus l.) were grown on low (0.6 mm) and high (3 mm) no(-)(3) nutrition in order to study the effect of n on the expression of three traits, namely, shoot/root ratio, chicon morphology and resistance to soft rot caused by erwinia sp. for all genotypes, increasing n supply led to a higher shoot/root ratio, resulting from an increased shoot biomass but wi ...199910550619
plant fructans stabilize phosphatidylcholine liposomes during freeze-drying.fructans have been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing tolerance of many plant species. a direct proof of their ability to stabilize biological structures under stress conditions, however, is still lacking. here we show that inulins (linear fructose polymers) isolated from chicory roots and dahlia tubers stabilize egg phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles during freeze-drying, while another polysaccharide, hydroxyethyl starch, was completely ineffective. liposome ...200010632723
marked inhibition of glioblastoma target cell tumorigenicity in vitro by retrovirus-mediated transfer of a hairpin ribozyme against deletion-mutant epidermal growth factor receptor messenger rna.the goal of this study was to evaluate the activity of certain hairpin ribozymes against deletion-mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (deltaegfr) messenger (m)rna in glioblastomas multiforme (gbms). a distinct 801-bp deletion mutation associated with amplification of the egfr gene is present in a large subgroup of primary gbms and confers enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo. as a result of the deletion mutation, the fusion junction of the gene is created directly upstream of a gta triplet, which ...200010659018
the bifidogenic nature of chicory inulin and its hydrolysis products.research data on the bifidogenic effect of beta(2-1)fructans, which at present are commercialized in the u.s., japan and europe as food ingredients, are presented. these food ingredients originate from two different sources. short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides are synthesized from sucrose and are composed of gfn [n beta(2-1) linked fructose moieties bound to a glucose molecule; 2 </= n </= 4]. the longer chain length molecule inulin is extracted with hot water from chicory roots (cichorium intyb ...19989430596
antihepatotoxic activity of cichorium intybus. 19979406902
health benefits of non-digestible oligosaccharides.non-digestible oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates of the non-a-glucan type which, because of the configuration of their osidic bonds, resist hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes. in the colon they are fermented by anaerobic bacteria. among the non-digestible oligosaccharides, the chicory fructooligosaccharides occupy a key position and, in most european countries, they are recognised as natural food ingredients. the other major products are the short chain fructooligos ...19979361846
external ph: an environmental signal that helps to rationalize pel gene duplication in erwinia chrysanthemi.the phytopathogenic bacterium erwinia chrysanthemi produces five major pectate lyases that are key virulence factors in soft-rot disease development. using transcriptional fusions, we studied the regulation of pela, peld, and pele gene expression as a function of variation of the external ph. pela and peld were expressed when bacteria were grown in an acidic medium while pele was transcribed only in basic medium. using phenol red, we observed that, in chicory leaves, ph value of infected tissue ...200010939260
effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition.oligofructose and inulin, naturally-occurring fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon and inhibit colon carcinogenesis in the laboratory animal models. the present study was designed to determine the effect of oligofructose and inulin on the azoxymethane (aom)-induced preneoplastic lesions such as aberrant crypt foci (acf) formation in the colon of male f344 rats. at 5 weeks of age, groups of an ...19979230282
inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene by vitamins, porphyrins and related compounds, and vegetable and fruit juices and solvent extracts.when 21 vitamins including related compounds haemin, chlorophyllin, chlorophyll, biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as juices from five fruits and 25 vegetables and solvent extracts from the residues of fruits and vegetables were tested for their antimutagenic potencies with respect to mutagenicity induced by 2-nitrofluorene (2-nf), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-nfa) and 1-nitropyrene(1-np) in salmonella typhimurium ta98 the following results were obtained. the tetracyclic nitroarenes 3-nfa and 1-np wer ...19979207899
hepatoprotective effects of turkish folk remedies on experimental liver plants which are used in turkish folk medicine were studied for possible hepatoprotective effects. these plants are carduus acanthoides and c. nutans (asteraceae), cichorium intybus (asteraceae), fumaria asepalae and f. vailantii (fumariaceae), gentiana olivieri (gentianaceae) and plantago lanceolata (plantaginaceae). stems, bracts and receptaculum of cynara scolymus were used as natural reference drugs. effects of the ethanolic extracts were studied using the carbon tetrachloride-induced ...200011025147
fructan of the inulin neoseries is synthesized in transgenic chicory plants (cichorium intybus l.) harbouring onion (allium cepa l.) fructan:fructan 6g-fructosyltransferase.fructan (polyfructosylsucrose) is an important storage carbohydrate in many plant families. fructan:fructan 6g-fructosyltransferase (6g-fft) is a key enzyme in the formation of the inulin neoseries, a type of fructan accumulated by members of the liliales. we have cloned the 6g-fft from onion by screening a cdna library using barley sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-sft) as a probe. the deduced amino acid sequence showed a high homology with plant invertases and 6-sft. incubation of prot ...19979107030
inhalative occupational and ingestive immediate-type allergy caused by chicory (cichorium intybus).we report a first case of occupational allergy to chicory (cichorium intybus) in a vegetable wholesaler. symptoms occurred after oral, cutaneous or inhalatory exposure. the patient also reported reactions after ingestion of botanically related endive (cichorium endivia) and lettuce (lactuca sativa). we identified the responsible allergen by sds-page and immunoblot to be a 48-kda protein, confined to the non-illuminated parts of the plants. no cross-reactivity was found with mugwort (artemisia vu ...19968877160
soxr-dependent response to oxidative stress and virulence of erwinia chrysanthemi: the key role of sufc, an orphan abc atpase.erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot disease in a great variety of plants. in addition to the depolymerizing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, iron acquisition and resistance to oxidative stress contribute greatly to the virulence of this pathogen. here, we studied the pin10 locus originally thought to encode new virulence factors. the sequence analysis revealed six open reading frames that were homologous to the escherichia coli sufa, sufb, sufc, sufd, sufs and sufe genes. sequence ...200111251816
relative effects on virulence of mutations in the sap, pel, and hrp loci of erwinia chrysanthemi.we constructed strains of erwinia chrysanthemi ec16 with multiple mutations involving three virulence systems in this bacterium, namely pel (coding for the major pectate lyases pelabce), hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity), and sap (sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides). the relative effects on virulence of those mutations have been analyzed on potato tubers and chicory leaves. in potato tubers, the sap mutation (bt105) had a greater effect in the reduction of the virulence than the ...200111277436
utilization of chicory roots for microbial endoinulinase production.the optimal culture conditions for endoinulinase production using chicory roots were studied in shake-flask culture.200111555200
a glutathione s-transferase cdna identified by mrna differential display is upregulated during somatic embryogenesis in cichorium.chi-gst1, a cdna encoding a glutathione s-transferase, was isolated by differential display in leaf tissues of chicory, during the early stages of somatic embryogenesis. expression analysis of the gene by northern blot indicated that the transcript accumulation is specific of the leaf developing somatic embryogenesis and is not observed in leaf tissue of the non-embryogenic cultivar.200111779636
effect of high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging on microbial growth and sensorial qualities of fresh-cut produce.the application of high oxygen atmospheres (hoa) (i.e. > 70% o2) for packaging ready-to-eat vegetables was evaluated as an alternative technique for low o2 equilibrium modified atmosphere (ema) packaging (3% o2-5% co2-balance n2) for respiring products. comparative experiments between both techniques were performed in-vitro and in-vivo. typical spoilage causing microorganisms (pseudomonas fluorescens, candida lambica), the moulds botrytis cinerea, aspergillus flavus and the opportunistic psychro ...200111789938
effect of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and inulin on the formation of aberrant crypt foci in rats.our studies were aimed at investigating the effect of lactic acid producing bacteria (lab) or inulin, a natural source of non-digestible oligosaccharides derived from chicory, on the induction by carcinogens of aberrant crypt foci (acf) in the colon, which are considered to be early precursor lesions of neoplasia.200111876494
the ybit gene of erwinia chrysanthemi codes for a putative abc transporter and is involved in competitiveness against endophytic bacteria during infection.we investigated the role in bacterial infection of a putative abc transporter, designated ybit, of erwinia chrysanthemi ac4150. the deduced sequence of this gene showed amino acid sequence similarity with other putative abc transporters of gram-negative bacteria, such as escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as structural similarity with proteins of streptomyces spp. involved in resistance to macrolide antibiotics. the gene contiguous to ybit, designated as pab (putative antibioti ...200211916677
the water-soluble extract of chicory reduces glucose uptake from the perfused jejunum in rats.among the components of dietary fiber, the soluble fibers have been found to impair glucose absorption. little is known, however, about the mechanism of this effect. the direct action of soluble fibers (chicory water-soluble extract and inulin) on the intestinal absorption of glucose was investigated in gutperfused rats. after equilibrium, both jejunal and ileal segments were simultaneously perfused with an isotonic electrolyte solution (ph 7.4) containing glucose (10 mmol/l) and chicory water-s ...19968814212
production of high concentrations of ethanol from inulin by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using aspergillus niger and saccharomyces cerevisiae.pure nonhydrolyzed inulin was directly converted to ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. an inulinase-hyperproducing mutant, aspergillus niger 817, was grown in a submerged culture at 30 degrees c for 5 days. the inulin-digestive liquid culture (150 ml) was supplemented with 45 g of inulin, 0.45 g of (nh4)2so4, and 0.15 g of kh2po4. the medium (ph 5.0) was inoculated with an ethanol-tolerant strain, saccharomyces cerevisiae 1200, and fermentation was conducted at ...19938481000
isolation and characterization of two germacrene a synthase cdna clones from chicory.chicory (cichorium intybus) sesquiterpene lactones were recently shown to be derived from a common sesquiterpene intermediate, (+)-germacrene a. germacrene a is of interest because of its key role in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis and because it is an enzyme-bound intermediate in the biosynthesis of a number of phytoalexins. using polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, we have isolated two sesquiterpene synthases from chicory that exhibited 72% amino acid identity. heterologous e ...200212011345
experimental evidences on the potential of prebiotic fructans to reduce the risk of colon cancer.inulin is extracted from the chicory root. it is a set of fructans with its monomers linked by means of beta(2-1) bonds. this linkage cannot be hydrolysed by either pancreatic or by brush border digestive enzymes in the upper intestinal tract of humans. as such the carbohydrates arrive in the colon, where they are fermented by bifidobacteria and other lactic acid producing bacteria, thus enhancing their relative populations in the gut. recent research in experimental animal models revealed that ...200212088529
rats discriminate between starch and other substances having a similar texture.studies examined the contribution of textural factors to the ability of rats to sense starch. if rats sense the abrasive effects of starch suspensions, conditioned aversions to starch should generalize to substances having a similar texture. two substances having a texture similar to that of starch were examined, polymeric dialdehyde (a product derived from starch) and inulin (a polymer of fructose). rats were trained to avoid dilute suspensions of rice starch, potato starch, polymeric dialdehyd ...19938446700
in vitro effect of vegetable and fruit juices on the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline.the antimutagenic potencies of the juices of 28 fruits and 34 vegetables commonly consumed in germany were investigated with respect to the mutagenic activities induced by 2-amino-3-methyl[4,5-f]-quinoline (iq), and in part by 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (meiq) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (meiqx) in salmonella typhimurium ta98 and ta100. with iq, weak to strong antimutagenic activities were found in 68% of the fruits and 73% of the vegetables that were tested ...19948206443
effects of grazing undrenched weaner deer on chicory or perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture on the viability of gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworms.this study determined the in vitro effects on the viability of internal parasites of grazing undrenched weaner deer on either chicory (cichorium intybus) or perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne)/white clover (trifolium repens) pasture. one experiment investigated the hatching and development of gastrointestinal nematode eggs and larvae, and the development and motility of l1 lungworm (dictyocaulus eckerti) larvae, and a second experiment used larval migration inhibition assays to test the viabilit ...200212371691
fermentation of chicory fructo-oligosaccharides in mixtures of different degrees of polymerization by three strains of bifidobacteria.we estimated and compared the action of three selected strains of bifidobacteria in a semi-synthetic medium for different degrees of polymerization of fructo-oligosaccharides contained in three commercial products derived from chicory inulin: fibrulose f97 (shorter chains), fibruline instant (native chains), fibruline lc (longer chains). biomass and production of lactate and acetate were greater when the substrate contained mostly shorter chain fructo-oligosaccharides. shorter chains were first ...200212381033
[the in vitro action of plants on vibrio cholerae].natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. when cholerae cases appeared in peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. the following plants were tested: cichorium intybus, althaea officinalis, psorela glandulosa, geranium maculatum, punica granatum, malus sativa, cydonia oblonga, chenopodium ambrosoide ...19948018898
in vivo gastroprotective effects of five turkish folk remedies against ethanol-induced lesions.through evaluation of the data accumulated in data bank of turkish folk remedies (tuhib), five plant remedies, which are used to treat stomach ache were selected to test for their anti-ulcerogenic potency. in order to confirm the claimed activities, either decoction or methanol extracts were prepared from the roots of asphodelus aestivus and cichorium intybus, herbs of equisetum palustre and viscum album ssp. album and fruits of laurus nobilis, according to their folkloric application way and te ...200212426092
catalytic properties of hairpin ribozymes derived from chicory yellow mottle virus and arabis mosaic virus satellite rnas.regions of the negative strands of the satellite rnas of chicory yellow mottle virus (scymv1) and arabis mosaic virus (sarmv) have similarity in sequence and predicted secondary structure compared to the tobacco ringspot virus satellite rna (strsv) hairpin ribozyme, suggesting that they may also be catalytic rnas of a similar type. our experiments show that the hairpin ribozyme-like sequences derived from scymv1 and sarmv have high phosphodiesterase activity. the kcat values determined are simil ...19957495810
toxicological profile of carboxymethyl inulin.carboxymethylinulin (cmi), formed by carboxylation of a natural carbohydrate obtained from the chicory plant, is particularly effective in sequestration of hard water cations, and thus serves as a unique anti-scalant which could find uses in food processing. a series of toxicological studies has been performed to investigate its toxiciologic properties following repeated exposure, possible sensitization, and its potential to elicit genotoxic activity; all studies conformed to internationally acc ...200312453728
analysis of the linkage positions in d-fructofuranosyl residues by the reductive-cleavage method.the suitability of the reductive-cleavage method for analysis of the linkage positions in d-fructofuranosyl residues of d-fructans was examined by using sucrose, chicory-root inulin, and aerobacter levanicum levan as models. permethylation, and reductive cleavage with triethylsilane in the presence of either boron trifluoride etherate or trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, gave the expected methylated derivatives of 2,5-anhydro-d-mannitol and 2,5-anhydro-d-glucitol. with either catalyst, n ...19846488201
[organic acids in vegetables. i. brassica, leaf and bulb vegetables as well as carrots and celery].18 german vegetable species were analyzed for their organic acid content. organic acids were isolated by methanol extraction followed by ion exchange. after derivatisation with bsa the trimethylsilyl derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography using se-52 and ov-1701 glass capillaries. the predominate acids are malic and citric acid, and in most cases malic acid was the most abundant. succinic, fumaric, and quinic acids are wide spread, tartaric acid was found in carrots, lettuce, endives, c ...19854002860
inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions by cichorium intybus.we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of cichorium intybus (ciae) on mast cell-mediated immediate type allergic reactions. ciae (0.1-1000 mg kg-1) dose-dependently inhibited systemic anaphylactic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in mice. especially, ciae inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic reaction 100% with the dose of 1000 mg kg-1. ciae 1000 mg kg-1also significantly inhibited local anaphylactic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (dnp) ige. when mice were pretreate ...199910378992
nucleotide sequence and structural analysis of two satellite rnas associated with chicory yellow mottle virus.the two satellite rnas associated with cymv infections were sequenced. the larger (scymv-l1) has only linear molecules 1145 nucleotides long, a poly(a) tail, a long open reading frame (orf) coding for a protein of mr 39,636 resembling in composition those of other large nepovirus satellite rnas, a 5' leader sequence of 16 nucleotides and a 3' non-coding region of 40 nucleotides. in vitro translation of scymv-l1 yielded a protein product with a size that corresponded to that predicted from the se ...19901698918
relation between microbiological quality, metabolite production and sensory quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut produce.the quality of four types of fresh-cut produce, packaged in consumer-sized packages under an equilibrium modified atmosphere and stored at 7 degrees c, was assessed by establishing the relation between the microbial outgrowth and the corresponding production of nonvolatile compounds and related sensory disorders. in vitro experiments, performed on a lettuce-juice-agar, demonstrated the production of nonvolatile compounds by spoilage causing lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteriaceae. pseudomona ...200312745232
possible mechanisms by which pro- and prebiotics influence colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth.oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon. studies were designed to evaluate inulin (raftiline) and oligofructose (raftilose) for their potential inhibitory properties against the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci (acf) in rats. acf are putative preneoplastic lesions from which adenomas and carcinomas may develop in the colon. the results of this study ...199910395625
the erwinia chrysanthemi phop-phoq operon plays an important role in growth at low ph, virulence and bacterial survival in plant tissue.we have studied the role of acidic ph as a barrier for the colonization of the plant apoplast by erwinia chrysanthemi. a minitransposon containing a promoterless reporter gene, gus, was used for random mutagenesis of the bacterial genome. an acid-sensitive mutant, named bt119, was isolated and had the following differential features with respect to the wild-type strain: (i) inability to grow at ph </= 5.5; (ii) decreased survival at acid ph and in plant tissues; (iii) increased susceptibility to ...200312828634
antihepatotoxic activity of seeds of cichorium intybus.the different fractions of alcoholic extract and one phenolic compound ab-iv of seeds of cichorium intybus linn were screened for antihepatotoxic activity on carbon tetrachloride (ccl(4))-induced liver damage in albino rats. the degree of protection was measured using biochemical parameters like aspartate transaminase (ast), alanine transaminase (alt), alkaline phosphatase (alkp), and total protein (tp). the methanol fraction and compound ab-iv were found to possess a potent antihepatotoxic acti ...200312860315
the water-soluble extract of chicory influences serum and liver lipid concentrations, cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and fecal lipid excretion in rats.sprague-dawley rats (n = 32) were fed diets without fiber (control) or containing 1 or 5% chicory extract or 5% inulin for 4 wk; 0.2% cholesterol was added to all diets. rats fed chicory extract and inulin diets had significantly higher serum high density lipoprotein (hdl) cholesterol and generally lower low density lipoprotein (ldl) cholesterol concentrations, thus significantly greater ratios of hdl/ldl cholesterol compared with the controls (p < 0.05). the serum apolipoprotein b/apolipoprotei ...19989772143
[effect of chicory (cichorium) on neoplastic processes in rats]. 195713465460
effect of ultraviolet light on pectolytic enzyme production and pathogenicity of pseudomonas.ultraviolet radiation-induced mutants of the soft rot bacterium pseudomonas marginalis were selected for loss of pathogenicity for lettuce and witloof chicory. the avirulent mutants differed from the parent pathogen in their inability to synthesize pectolytic enzymes in culture or to ferment sodium pectate or sodium polygalacturonate as the sole carbon source in media.195913635008
growth, voluntary food intake and digestion in farmed temperate and tropical deer.growth and voluntary feed intake (vfi) in grazing temperate farmed deer species are influenced by the feeding value of the forage and the stage of the deer's seasonal cycle. liveweight gain (lwg) of growing red deer was greater when perennial ryegrass (0.80)/white clover (0.20) pasture was grazed at 10 cm than 5 cm surface height, but venison production by one year of age was still low. chicory and red clover were of superior feeding value for deer than perennial ryegrass-based pastures, increas ...19989704535
fn-type chicory inulin hydrolysate has a prebiotic effect in humans.the partial enzymatic hydrolysis of chicory inulin (gfn; 2 < or =n < or =60) yields an oligofructose preparation that is composed of both gfn-type and fn-type oligosaccharides (2 < or =n < or =7; 2 < or =m < or =7), where g is glucose, f is fructose, and n is the number of beta(2-->1) bound fructose moieties. human studies have shown that feeding gfn-type oligomers significantly modifies the composition of the fecal microflora especially by increasing the number of bifidobacteria. the experiment ...200010801918
esculetin prevents liver damage induced by paracetamol and ccl4.esculetin, a phenolic compound found in cichorium intybus and bougainvllra spectabillis was investigated for its possible protective effect against paracetamol and ccl4-induced hepatic damage. paracetamol produced 100% mortality at the dose of 1 g kg-1 in mice while pre-treatment of animals with esculetin (6 mg kg-1) reduced the death rate to 40%. oral administration of paracetamol (640 mg kg-1) produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the rise in serum enzyme levels of alkaline phosphatas ...19989503477
analysis of erwinia chrysanthemi ec16 pele::uida, pell::uida, and hrpn::uida mutants reveals strain-specific atypical regulation of the hrp type iii secretion system.the plant pathogen erwinia chrysanthemi produces a variety of factors that have been implicated in its ability to cause soft-rot diseases in various hosts. these include hrpn, a harpin secreted by the hrp type iii secretion system; pele, one of several major pectate lyase isozymes secreted by the type ii system; and pell, one of several secondary pels secreted by the type ii system. we investigated these factors in e. chrysanthemi ec16 with respect to the effects of medium composition and growth ...200414964532
cloning, developmental, and tissue-specific expression of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase from taraxacum officinale. fructan localization in roots.sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-sst) is the key enzyme initiating fructan synthesis in asteraceae. using reverse transcriptase-pcr, we isolated the cdna for 1-sst from taraxacum officinale. the cdna-derived amino acid sequence showed very high homology to other asteracean 1-ssts (cichorium intybus 86%, cynara scolymus 82%, helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-sst from allium cepa (46%) and aspergillus foetidus (18%) was much lower. fructan concentrations, 1-sst activities, 1-s ...200010806226
the erwinia chrysanthemi ec16 hrp/hrc gene cluster encodes an active hrp type iii secretion system that is flanked by virulence genes functionally unrelated to the hrp system.erwinia chrysanthemi is a host-promiscuous plant pathogen that possesses a type iii secretion system (ttss) similar to that of the host-specific pathogens e. amylovora and pseudomonas syringae. the regions flanking the ttss-encoding hrp/hrc gene clusters in the latter pathogens encode various ttss-secreted proteins. dna sequencing of the complete e. chrysanthemi hrp/hrc gene cluster and approximately 12 kb of the flanking regions (beyond the previously characterized heca adhesin gene in the left ...200415195947
differentiation-inducing effect of magnolialide, a 1 beta-hydroxyeudesmanolide isolated from cichorium intybus, on human leukemia cells.cichorium intybus contains two 1beta-hydroxyeudesmanolides, magnolialide and artesin, together with several constituents. magnolialide inhibits the growth of several tumor cell lines and appears to induce differentiation of human leukemia hl-60 and u-937 cells to monocyte/macrophage-like cells. another 1beta-hydroxyeudesmanolide, artesin, and other constituents were inactive. the content of magnolialide was shown to be highest in the leaves of inje cultivar among the cultivars investigated in th ...200010963313
evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of five herbal plants.a group of medicinal plants including, silybum marianum, matricaria chamomilla, calendula officinalis, cichorium intybus and dracocephalum kotschyi which grow in iran, were extracted with ethanol 70% and the mitogenic activity was examined both on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes. effect of these extracts on proliferative responsiveness of human lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (pha) and on the mixed lymphocyte reaction (mlr) was also investigated. the results obtained indicate ...200010967468
herbs as a food source in turkey.medical benefits of herbs have been known for centuries. many examples contain powerful active components that, if used correctly, can help in healing the living organism. these herbs can also be provided in the form of capsules and powders, as dietary supplements, and thus differ from conventional foods or food ingredients. the traditional turkish kitchen is rich of various herbs which have been employed as ingredients since ancient times. the present paper provides a brief overview of some imp ...200415373716
antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant salmonella typhi.screening was done of some plants of importance in the ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in india to treat enteric diseases. fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant salmonella typhi. strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of aegle marmelos, salmalia malabarica, punica granatum, myristica fragrans, holarrhena antidysenterica, terminalia arjuna and triphal (mixture of emblica of fi cinalis, ...200415476301
antimalarial activity of lactucin and lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones isolated from cichorium intybus l.folklore reports from afghanistan prior to the wars described the use of aqueous root extracts of cichorium intybus (l.) as a light-sensitive plant remedy for malaria. preparative isolation and bioassay against hb3 clone of strain honduras-1 of plasmodium falciparum identified the previously known light-sensitive sesquiterpene lactones lactucin and lactucopicrin to be antimalarial compounds.200415507374
antibacterial activity of cichorium intybus.antibacterial activity of the water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of cichorium intybus was investigated. all the tested extracts showed antibacterial activity, the ethyl acetate extract being the most active. water extract inhibits agrobacterium radiobacter sp. tumefaciens, erwinia carotovora, pseudomonas fluorescens and p. aeruginosa.200415567253
fructan synthesis in transgenic tobacco and chicory plants expressing barley sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyltransferase.we have recently cloned a cdna encoding sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-sft), a key enzyme of fructan synthesis forming the beta-2,6 linkages typical of the grass fructans, graminans and phleins [sprenger et al. (1995) proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 92, 11652-11656]. here we report functional expression of 6-sft from barley in transgenic tobacco and chicory. transformants of tobacco, a plant naturally unable to form fructans, synthesized the trisaccharide kestose and a series of unbranched ...19979009230
concepts in functional foods: the case of inulin and oligofructose.recent advances in biosciences support the hypothesis that diet modulates various body functions. diet may maintain well-being and reduce the risk of some diseases. such discoveries have led to the concept of "functional food" and the development of the new discipline, i.e., "functional food science." a practical and simple definition of a "functional food" is a food for which a claim has been authorized. the food components to be discussed as potential "functional food ingredients" are the inul ...199910395606
[vasorelaxant activity of caffeic acid derivatives from cichorium intybus and equisetum arvense].the vasorelaxant activities of chicoric acid (compound 1) from cichorium intybus and dicaffeoyl-meso-tartaric acid (compound 2) from equisetum arvense l. in isolated rat aorta strips were studied. compound 1 is a diester composed of (s,s)-tartaric acid and caffeic acid, and 2 is composed of its meso type. both 1 and 2 showed slow relaxation activity against norepinephrine (ne)-induced contraction of rat aorta with/without endothelium. these compounds did not affect contraction induced by a high ...200312875242
the scymv1 hairpin ribozyme: targeting rules and cleavage of heterologous rna.the catalytic center of the rna from the negative strand of the satellite rna of chicory yellow mottle virus type 1 (scymv1) is in the hairpin ribozyme family, has catalytic activity, and cleaves substrates before a preferred gua sequence. this is different from that of the satellite rna from the negative strand of tobacco ringspot virus (strsv) which prefers a guc sequence at the site of cleavage. the scymv1 hairpin ribozyme has now been developed for cleaving heterologous rna substrates. when ...199910455414
in vitro and ex vivo anti- and prooxidant components of cichorium intybus.the water soluble antioxidant properties of cichorium intybus var. silvestre, whose production zone is around chioggia, italy, were investigated. vegetable juices were obtained by centrifugation, and (1) filtration at 2 degrees c; (2) filtration at 25 degrees c, and stored for 3 h; (3) boiled for 30 min at 102 degrees c, and then analysed. the antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro as antioxidant activity (aa) (model system beta-carotene-linoleic acid) and ex vivo as protective activity ...200010898162
production of inulooligosaccharides from chicory extract by endoinulinase from xanthomonas oryzae no. 5.inulooligosaccharides (ios) production from chicory extract was carried out using endoinulinase obtained from a new isolate, xanthomonas oryzae no. 5. the ios production from chicory extract was maximum when 50 g/liter of chicory extract was utilized as the substrate. as the substrate concentration increased, the ios production accordingly decreased probably due to substrate inhibition. for a comparative study, enzyme reactions were carried out from pure inulin as substrate. though total ios con ...200111240203
antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi.petroleum ether (pe) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi. the efficacy of pe extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than that of methanolic extracts. wild marjoram (origanum syriacum) pe extract showed the highest and widest range of activity. it resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete inhibition of spore germinatio ...200212009988
effects of the ethanol extract of cichorium intybus on the immunotoxicity by ethanol in mice.effects of the ethanol extract of cichorium intybus (ciee) on the immunotoxicity of ethanol (etoh) were investigated in icr mice. mice were divided into four groups, and ciee at dose of 300 mg/kg was orally administered to mice daily for 28 consecutive days, and normal mice were given vehicle. mice treated with etoh were given freely with 20% w/v etoh solution. the results of this study are summarized as follows: the combination of ciee and etoh showed significant increases in the circulating le ...200212095163
the effect of birdsfoot trefoil (lotus corniculatus) and chicory (cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. however, several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches to parasite control. studies in new zealand have shown that some alternative forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. in the current study, it was found that under uk environmental conditi ...200312581592
inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental and human data.inulin-type fructans (beta(2,1)fructans) extracted from chicory roots (cichorium intybus) are prebiotic food ingredients, which in the gut lumen are fermented to lactic acid and scfa. research in experimental animal models revealed that inulin-type fructans have anticarcinogenic properties. a number of studies report the effects of inulin-type fructans on chemically induced pre-neoplastic lesions (acf) or tumours in the colon of rats and mice. in twelve studies, there were twenty-nine individual ...200515877900
the syncan project: goals, set-up, first results and settings of the human intervention study.experimental evidence on the anticancer properties of dietary prebiotics such as chicory inulin and oligofructose and dietary probiotics has accumulated in recent years. various experimental models ranging from chemoprevention studies, tumour implantation models to genetically modified mice models, etc. have systematically shown the protective effects of these food ingredients. in some studies it appeared that synbiotics (combination of pre- and probiotics) exerted synergistic activity against p ...200515877901
effects of condensed tannins and crude sesquiterpene lactones extracted from chicory on the motility of larvae of deer lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of condensed tannins (ct) and an extract containing crude sesquiterpene lactones (csl) from chicory (cichorium intybus) on the motility of the first-(l1) and third-stage (l3) larvae of deer lungworm dictyocaulus viviparus and the l3 larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes in vitro, using the larval migration inhibition (lmi) assay. the ct and csl had a profound effect on the motility of the larvae displayed by their ability to inhibit larval ...200314550476
probiotics and prebiotics: a brief overview.probiotics and prebiotics are 2 food ingredients that confer physiologic effects through the gastrointestinal tract. probiotics have been defined as viable microorganisms that (when ingested) have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions. these microorganisms are believed to exert biological effects through a phenomenon known as colonization resistance, whereby the indigenous anaerobic flora limits the concentration of potentially pathogenic (mostly a ...200211953920
microfungi on compositae in the ruhr basin.forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the compositae occurring in several locations in the ruhr basin in north rhine-westphalia. many fungi belong to the ascomycetes (erysiphales, diaporthales, dothideales, leotiales and pleosporales) and to the deuteromycetes (melanconiales, moniliales and sphaeropsidales). other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the basidiomycetes (uredinales) and to the oomycetes (peronosporales). some recorded microfungi have been ...200212701426
dietary effects on bifidobacteria and clostridium perfringens in the canine intestinal tract.dietary effects on the intestinal microflora have gained increasing interest because of the evidence that a balanced micro ecology in the gut is important for health and well being. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different diets on faecal counts of bifidobacteria and clostridium perfringens in dogs. two extruded, dry diets, one supplemented with 3% chicory (1.5% inulin), a non-digestible oligosaccharide (ndo) and the other with 3% glucose (glu) were compared with a pr ...200314633049
tol-pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of erwinia chrysanthemi affecting cell morphology and virulence.the tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of gram-negative bacteria. these genes were first described in escherichia coli, and more recently in several other species. they are involved in the pathogenesis of e. coli, haemophilus ducreyi, vibrio cholerae and salmonella enterica. the role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium erwinia chrysanthemi, assuming that this organism might be a good model fo ...200516207916
dietary chicory inulin increases whole-body bone mineral density in growing male rats.chicory inulin is a natural linear fructan that is not digested in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract but is fermented in the cecocolon. it enhances calcium absorption in rats and improves femur and tibia mineral contents in gastrectomized or ovariectomized rats. we studied the effect of inulin (0, 5 and 10 g/100 g diet) on whole-body bone mineral content (wbbmc), whole-body bone area (wbba) and whole-body bone mineral density (wbbmd) in live, growing male rats fed diets containing 0.2 ...200212468594
relationship between dietary-induced changes in intestinal commensal microflora and duodenojejunal myoelectric activity monitored by radiotelemetry in the rat in vivo.interdigestive intestinal motility, and especially phase iii of the migrating myoelectric/motor complex (mmc), is responsible for intestinal clearance and plays an important role in prevention of bacterial overgrowth and translocation in the gut. yet previous results from gnotobiotic rats have shown that intestinal microflora can themselves affect the characteristics of the myoelectric activity of the gut during the interdigestive state. given that the composition of the intestinal microflora ca ...200616263800
stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon.prebiotics, in particular the chicory derived beta(2-1) fructans, have been shown to exert cancer protective effects in animal models. the present study was carried out to determine the effects of two chicory fructans--oligofructose (raftilosep95; average degree of polymerization dp = 4) and long chain inulin (raftilinehp; average dp = 25), on apoptosis and bacterial metabolism associated with carcinogenesis. eighteen rats were fed a stock diet for one week. three groups of six animals were then ...200111159739
the consequences of short-term grazing of bioactive forages on established adult and incoming larvae populations of teladorsagia circumcincta in lambs.the objective of this study was to investigate the consequences of short-term grazing on bioactive forages on (i) the viability and fecundity of established adult teladorsagia circumcincta population and (ii) the establishment and development of incoming t. circumcincta infective larvae. forty-eight, parasite naive, 3-month old, grazing lambs were artificially infected with 8000 infective larvae of t. circumcincta on day 1 of the experiment. on day 21 p.i., lambs were allocated to one of three b ...200515722084
enrichment of higher molecular weight fractions in inulin.inulin (general formulas gfn and fm, with g = anhydroglucose and f = anhydrofructose) naturally occurs as a homologous series of oligo- and polysaccharides with different chain lengths. for reasons of growing interest in the food and pet food industries, the short chain inulins have to be separated from their long chain analogues because their properties (digestibility, prebiotic activity and health promoting potential, caloric value, sweetening power, water binding capacity, etc.) differ substa ...200415186097
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