natural enemies of three mealybug species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) found on citrus and effects of some insecticides on the mealybug parasitoid coccidoxenoides peregrinus (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) in south africa.the population density of mealybug species in some south african citrus orchards has increased to pest status in recent years. the characterization of the natural enemy complex and quantification of their contribution to the control of planococcus citri (risso), pseudococcus longispinus (targioni-tozzetti) and pseudococcus calceolariae (maskell) on citrus limon (l.) and citrus reticulata (blanco) was investigated through intensive sampling. eight primary and four secondary parasitoids, and two p ...200312762866
anopheles gambiae feeding and survival on honeydew and extra-floral nectar of peridomestic is widely believed that the malaria vector anopheles gambiae giles (diptera: culicidae) rarely or never feeds on sugar in nature. if so, the need for supplemental blood-feeding may be increased and this would help to explain why it is such an efficient malaria vector. nonetheless, both sexes of this mosquito species readily imbibe and digest sugar solutions, and sugar is a staple of laboratory colonies. in this study, we investigated whether an. gambiae will feed on the extra-floral nectar of ...200415189234
activity of an essential oil derived from chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.this study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (qrd 400) derived from chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. ambrosioides l. (chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, planococcus citri (risso); longtailed mealybug, pseudococcus longispinus (targioni tozzetti); western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), and fungus gnats (bradysia spp.). treatments were applied ...200717461071
a survey of scale insects (sternorryncha: coccoidea) occurring on table grapes in south africa.increasing international trade and tourism have led to an increase in the introduction of exotic pests that pose a considerable economic threat to the agro-ecosystems of importing countries. scale insects (sternorryncha: coccoidea) may be contaminants of export consignments from the south african deciduous fruit industry to the european union, israel, united kingdom and the united states, for example. infestations of immature scale insects found on south african fruit destined for export have re ...200920050816
mealybug transmission of grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector understand ecological factors mediating the spread of insect-borne plant pathogens, vector species for these pathogens need to be identified. grapevine leafroll disease is caused by a complex of phylogenetically related closteroviruses, some of which are transmitted by insect vectors; however, the specificities of these complex virus-vector interactions are poorly understood thus far. through biological assays and phylogenetic analyses, we studied the role of vector-pathogen specificity in th ...201020626287
pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. all pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted pseudococcus longispinus (targioni tozzetti) and pseudococcus viburni (signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male p. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attrac ...201121510204
Molecular and histological characterisation of primary (ß-proteobacteria) and secondary (?-proteobacteria) endosymbionts of three species of mealybugs (Pseudococcus longispinus, Pseudococcus calceolariae, Pseudococcus viburni) (Pseudococcidae, Hemiptera) and prediction of interactions of their GroEL homologs with Grape Leaf Roll-associated Virus-3.Microscopic localization of endosymbiotic bacteria in three species of mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus, long-tailed mealybug; Pseudococcus calceolariae, citrophilus mealybug; and Pseudococcus. viburni, obscure mealybug) showed these organisms were confined to bacteriocyte cells within a bacteriome centrally located within the haemocoel. Two species of bacteria were present, with the secondary endosymbiont, in all cases, living within the primary endosymbiont. DNA from the dissected bacteriome ...201122156418
development of a multiplex pcr for identification of vineyard mealybugs.a simple molecular tool was developed and tested to identify seven mealybug species found in north american vineyards: pseudococcus maritimus ehrhorn, pseudococcus viburni (signoret), pseudococcus longispinus (targioni-tozzeti), pseudococcus calceolariae (maskell), planococcus ficus (signoret), planococcus citri (risso), and ferrisia gilli gullan. the developed multiplex pcr is based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit one gene. in tests, this single-step multiplex pcr correctly i ...201122217778
the link between independent acquisition of intracellular gamma-endosymbionts and concerted evolution in tremblaya princeps.many insect species establish mutualistic symbiosis with intracellular bacteria that complement their unbalanced diets. the betaproteobacterium "candidatus tremblaya" maintains an ancient symbiosis with mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae), which are classified in subfamilies phenacoccinae and pseudococcinae. most phenacoccinae mealybugs have "candidatus tremblaya phenacola" as their unique endosymbiont, while most pseudococcinae mealybugs show a nested symbiosis (a bacterial symbiont placed in ...201526161080
honeydew analysis for detecting phloem transport of plant natural products : implications for host-plant resistance to sap-sucking insects.analysis of honeydew excreted by various sap-sucking insects indicated the presence of certain plant secondary constituents in the phloem of their host plants. honeydew excreted by mealybugs (pseudococcus longispinus), living oncastanospermum australe, contained the indolizidine alkaloid castanospermine, a potent β-glucosidase inhibitor. similarly, honeydew from green peach aphids (myzus persicae), feeding onsenecio vulgaris flower buds, contained the pyrrolizidine alkaloid senecionine, itsn-oxi ...199024263993
identification of mealybug pest species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in egypt and france, using a dna barcoding approach.pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. we combined molecular analysis of three dna markers (28s-d2, cytochrome oxidase i and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various ...201222360997
integrative taxonomy methods reveal high mealybug (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) diversity in southern brazilian fruit crops.the serra gaúcha region is the most important temperate fruit-producing area in southern brazil. despite mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) infesting several host plants in the region, there is a lack of information about the composition of species damaging different crops. a survey of mealybug species associated with commercial fruit crops (apple, persimmon, strawberry and grapes) was performed in serra gaúcha between 2013 and 2015, using both morphology and dna analyses for species identifi ...201729147020
phylogenetic relationships of the endosymbionts of mealybugs (homoptera: pseudococcidae) based on 16s rdna sequences.a portion of the gene coding for the 16s ribosomal rna from the endosymbionts of three species of mealybugs [pseudococcus longispinus (targioni-tozzetti), pseudococcus maritimus (ehrhorn), and dysmicoccus neobrevipes (beardsley)] was cloned, sequenced, and compared to a homologous fragment from bacteria representative of aphid endosymbionts as well as major subdivisions of the proteobacteria. parsimony analysis of the sequences indicated that the mealybug endosymbionts are related and belong to ...19921342920
potential of temperature, controlled atmospheres, and ozone fumigation to control thrips and mealybugs on ornamental plants for export.ozone (o3) fumigation is a potential quarantine treatment alternative for controlling stored-product pests and surface insect pests on fresh agricultural commodities. we explored the effects of temperature, treatment time, controlled atmospheres, and vacuum in combination with o3 to control two important pests of ornamental crops: western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande), and longtailed mealybug, pseudococcus longispinus targioni tozzetti. treatment parameters tested were o3 ...200515889716
mealybug species from chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of pseudococcus viburni.the present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug pseudococcus viburni. an extensive survey was completed using dna barcoding methods to identify chilean mealybugs to the species level. moreover, a fine-scale study of ps. viburni genetic diversity and population s ...201526559636
molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) from chilean vineyards.mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. they cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. we surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 v ...201222361038
physiological response of orchids to mealybugs (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) infestation.the harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. this study documents the influence of pseudococcus maritimus (ehrhorn) and pseudococcus longispinus (targioni tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of phalaenopsis x hybridum 'innocence'. the condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. we ha ...201627780838
enantiospecific synthesis of both enantiomers of the longtailed mealybug pheromone and their evaluation in a new zealand vineyard.the irregular monoterpenoid sex pheromone of pseudococcus longispinus and its enantiomer were prepared from the corresponding bornyl acetates. the use of readily accessible chiral starting materials and lactone-lactone rearrangement are the highlights of the present synthesis. the biological activities of the two enantiomers and racemic mixture were tested in a new zealand vineyard. the (s)-(+)-enantiomer was significantly more attractive to p. longispinus males than the racemic mixture or the ( ...201526154579
the effect of mealybug pseudococcus longispinus (targioni tozzetti) infestation of different density on physiological responses of phalaenopsis × hybridum 'innocence'.cultivated orchids are the most abundantly attacked by polyphagous mealybugs. this study documented how different density of mealybug pseudococcus longispinus (targioni tozzetti) infestation is associated with a response of antioxidative systems of phalaenopsis × hybridum 'innocence'. the degree of cell damage, estimated by electrolyte leakage measurement and the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars), the content of pigments as well as the activity of antioxidative enzymes and ...201525827410
optimizing metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation components to control pseudococcus longispinus.metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (msdd) has been demonstrated to effectively control longtailed mealybug, pseudococcus longispinus (targioni tozzetti). standard components previously used for testing msdd system included a 30-min physical phase of short cycles pressure changes followed by a 60-min chemical phase using ethanol vapor at 10 kpa. this study investigated the effect of varying the following msdd components on mealybug mortality: duration of the physical and chemical ph ...201222928295
pheromone-based monitoring of pseudococcus maritimus (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) populations in concord grape vineyards.the grape mealybug, pseudococcus maritimus (ehrhorn), is the dominant mealybug in washington's concord grape vineyards (vitis labrusca l.). it is a direct pest of fruit clusters and a vector of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. using traps baited with the sex pheromone of ps. maritimus, we determined the optimal trap density for monitoring ps. maritimus, with the goal of providing a more rapid monitoring method for ps. maritimus than visual surveys. varying densities of pheromone-baited tra ...201323448065
a multiplex pcr assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae).molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. in this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex pcr for the identification of three mealybug species (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in south africa: planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and pseudoc ...200818076775
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