organic amendments and control of foot rot of piper betle caused by phytophthora parasitica var. piperina.experiments have been performed to control foot rot of piper betle by organic amendments and antagonists in soil. soil amended with corn straw gave best control. corn straw supplemented with nitrogen (nh4no3) gave still better control. the effect of different antagonists growing on corn-straw and til (sesamum indicum) oil cake amendments showed that trichoderma viride gave best control. aspergillus terreus failed to control the disease although it showed great antifungal activity under controlle ...1976952442
antifertility effect of piper betle linn. extract on ovary and testis of albino rats.chronic administration (sc) of the extract of the stalk of p. betle at 30 mg/kg body weight daily for 21 days produced significant decrease in oestrogen and androgen dependent target organ weights along with increase in cholesterol in adrenal, ovary and testis. acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum, liver and kidney did not exhibit any toxic effect. there was marked change in morphology of testis and ovary. vaginal smear showed prolonged dioestrus in treated female. the treated male ...19892635145
oral lesions, genotoxicity and nitrosamines in betel quid chewers with no obvious increase in oral cancer risk.a link between the generation of areca nut-related n-nitrosamines in the saliva, the induction of genotoxic damage in the oral mucosa, as judged by an increase in micronucleated exfoliated cells (mec), and a low incidence of oral cancer was studied in 2 population groups characterized by their habit of chewing quids without tobacco: guamanians, who chew areca nuts (areca catechu) with or without the addition of betel leaf (piper betle); taiwanese, who use areca nut, betel leaf or inference and s ...19863697952
studies on leaves of piper betle. 19715170641
effect of piper betle l. and its extracts on the growth and aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus.ground powder of the leaf and fruit of piper betle l., a tropical spice plant grown in southeast asia, was prepared and extracted by chloroform, ethanol and water with one solvent only or with 3 solvents in sequence. the betel powder and various extracts were added to yes broth to determine their effects on the growth and aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus. results showed that betel leaf powder exhibited higher antimycotic activity than fruit. one half percent of ground leaf powder ...19846531413
the mutagenicity of nitrite-treated aqueous extract of piper betle l.betel quid is chewed as a masticatory material by people in certain areas of asia. the quid chewing has been related to oral cancer by epidemiological study. the mutagenic components in the aqueous extracts of betel quid ingredients were studied. only nitrite-treated aqueous extract of piper betle l fruits, leaves or rhizoma were demonstrated to exhibit a mutagenic response, using salmonella typhimurium strains ta100 and ta1535 in the ames test. when the aqueous extract of the fruit was nitrosat ...19846531415
inhibitors of certain enzymes (of botryodiplodia theobromae) in piper betle leaf extracts. 19846746311
chromosome-damaging activity of saliva of betel nut and tobacco chewers.saliva of volunteers chewing betel quid, cured betel nut (areca catechu), betel leaves (piper betle), a mixture of quid ingredients (dried betel nut flakes, catechu, cardamon, lime, copra and menthol) and indian tobacco was collected and examined for its genotoxic activity. chromosome aberrations (chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges) in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells were used to estimate the genotoxic effect. no detectable levels of clastogenic activity were observed in the saliva of no ...19827116324
c-fiber-evoked autonomic cardiovascular effects after injection of piper betle inflorescence extracts.piper betle inflorescence extracts contain eugenol (6.2%) and safrole (78.9%). intravenous injections of water extracts of p. betle inflorescence (pbe), eugenol, and safrole in rats induced hypotensive and bradycardiac effects, whereas both intraarterial and intrathecal injections of pbe, eugenol and safrole resulted in hypotensive and tachycardiac effects. moreover, the effects of intravenous injections of pbe were reversed or inhibited by the pretreatment with bilateral vagotomy, atropine (1 m ...19957542715
triterpenes and b-sitosterol from piper betle: isolation, antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects. 19938132030
effect of orally administered betel leaf (piper betle linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.the influence of two varieties of betel leaf (piper betle linn.) namely, the pungent mysore and non-pungent ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. the betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. the results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influen ...19958575807
the mutagenicities of alkaloids and n-nitrosoguvacoline from betel taiwan, betel quid is a natural masticatory, which is composed of fresh green areca fruit, piper betle and slaked lime paste. areca fruit contains some alkaloids, of which arecoline is the major one. n-nitrosoguvacoline (ng), one of the n-nitrosation products of arecoline, is the only one n-nitrosamine found in taiwanese betel quid chewing saliva. the mutagenic studies in ames salmonella microsome test showed that crude alkaloid extracts of areca fruit and arecoline were active in salmonella ...19968692215
role of oxidative dna damage in hydroxychavicol-induced genotoxicity.chewing betel quid has been linked to the development of oral cancer. in taiwan, fresh piper betle inflorescence is uniquely added to betel quid, and hydroxychavicol is the major phenolic components of p.betle inflorescence. in this study, we tested the mutagenic potential of hydroxychavicol in salmonella typhimurium ta97, ta98, ta100 and ta102 with and without aroclor-1254 induced s9 fraction. the results showed that hydroxychavicol was positive in s.typhimurium ta102 without metabolic activati ...19968921515
piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol a and piperol b: a new series of highly specific paf receptor antagonists from piper betle.piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol a, and piperol b, isolated from piper betle, selectively inhibited the washed rabbit platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (paf) in a concentration-dependent manner. the ic50 values of piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol a, piperol b, and ginkgolide b were about 18.2, 10.6, 114.2, 11.8, and 4.8 mumol/l, respectively. the inhibitory potency of ginkgolide b was about 2.8, 1.2, 22.8, and 1.4 times higher than those of piperbetol, methylpi ...19979270371
effect of betel quid on catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin damage and environmental pollution are serious problems caused by betel quid chewing in taiwan. many people acquire the habit of chewing betel quid due to its physiological effects, including increased stamina and a general feeling of well-being. in this study, a sympathetic model system of adrenal chromaffin cells and sensory evaluation were used to examine the physiological effects of betel quid and the interaction of all the ingredients (areca fruit, piper betle inflorescence and red t ...19979369022
betel: consumption and consequences.betel is a compound of natural substances chewed for its psychostimulating effects. betel is composed of the nut of the areca palm (areca catechu), the leaf of the betel pepper (piper betle), and lime (calcium hydroxide). approximately 200 million persons chew betel regularly throughout the western pacific basin and south asia. only three drugs (nicotine, ethanol, and caffeine) are consumed more widely than betel. when betel is chewed, it produces mild psychoactive and cholinergic effects. there ...19989448210
effects of areca nut, inflorescence piper betle extracts and arecoline on cytotoxicity, total and unscheduled dna synthesis in cultured gingival keratinocytes.betel quid (bq) chewing has a strong correlation with oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. for elucidation of its pathogenesis, we investigated the effects of areca nut (an) and inflorescence piper betle (ipb) extracts and arecoline on the growth, total dna synthesis (tds) and unscheduled dna synthesis (uds) of cultured human gingival keratinocytes (gk). arecoline and an extract suppressed the growth of gk over 5 days of incubation in a dose-dependent fashion. at concentrations ...19999950252
jamu gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of jamu gendong (jg) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the department of health of indonesia in 1986. samples of jg and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of surabaya. the samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (tpc), mpn coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the pres ...199810030724
contact leukomelanosis induced by the leaves of piper betle l. (piperaceae): a clinical and histopathologic april 1997, an unusual pigmentary disorder was noticed by dermatologists in taiwan. all patients had a history of using facial dressings with steamed leaves of piper betle l. (piperaceae).199910188678
the antimicrobial efficiency of piper betle linn leaf (stalk) against human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi.the in vitro antimicrobial activity of different varieties of piper betle linn, leaf stalk extracts were studied against human pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi by comparing the results with standard microbial susceptibility testing biodiscs. the ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of all the four varieties have shown significant activity against bacteria vibrio cholerae ogawa, staphylococcus aureus, diplococcus pneumoniae and klebsiella aerogenes. the hexane and benzene extracts have ...199910499145
screening for the in vitro anti-tumor-promoting activities of edible plants from malaysia.a total of 114 methanol extracts from 42 plant families of edible malaysian plants were screened for their inhibitory activities toward tumor promoter 12-o-hexadecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (hpa)-induced epstein-barr virus (ebv) activation in raji cells. by testing at a concentration of 200 micrograms/ml, 74% of the 114 extracts inhibited ebv activation by 30% or more. this rate is comparable to those observed in the previous tests on edible thai (60%) and indonesian (71%) plants, and, importantly, ...200010705442
the presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents in piper betle linn.the crude aqueous extract of piper betle leaves ( was studied for the possible presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents. at doses of 1-10 mg/ml caused a moderate spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum and this activity was concentrated in the aqueous fraction, which was found to be about 5 times more potent. pretreatment of the tissue with atropine (1 microm) but not hexamethonium (100 microm) completely abolished the contractile effect of the a ...200010960898
effects of betel chewing on the central and autonomic nervous systems.betel chewing has been claimed to produce a sense of well-being, euphoria, heightened alertness, sweating, salivation, a hot sensation in the body and increased capacity to work. betel chewing also leads to habituation, addiction and withdrawal. however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, has been extensively studied, and several effects of betel chewing are thought to be related to the actions of this parasympathomimetic ...200111385294
modulation of platelet aggregation by areca nut and betel leaf ingredients: roles of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase.there are 2 to 6 billion betel quid (bq) chewers in the world. areca nut (an), a bq component, modulates arachidonic acid (aa) metabolism, which is crucial for platelet function. an extract (1 and 2 mg/ml) stimulated rabbit platelet aggregation, with induction of thromboxane b2 (txb2) production. contrastingly, piper betle leaf (pbl) extract inhibited aa-, collagen-, and u46619-induced platelet aggregation, and txb2 and prostaglandin-d2 (pgd2) production. pbl extract also inhibited platelet txb2 ...200211978487
antifertility effect of betal leaf stalk (tambul patrabrint): a preliminary experimental study.this study was undertaken to determine possible antifertility properties of the stalk of the betel plant, piper betle, which is extensively cultivated in warm moist parts of india for its leaves. the thin stalks were dried, powdered, and extracted with alcohol; the residue was used in the study and named betel leaf stalk extract (blse). it was macerated with gum acacia, suspended in distilled water, and diluted to 25 mg/ml. the drug was fed by oral intubation. initially 20 rats were used in ...197012305561
phenolic antibacterials from piper betle in the prevention of halitosis.piper betle l. (piperaceae) leaves which are traditionally used in india and china in the prevention of oral malodor was examined by bioassay-guided fractionation to yield allylpyrocatechol (apc) as the major active principle which showed promising activity against obligate oral anaerobes responsible for halitosis. the biological studies with apc indicated that the potential to reduce methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide was mainly due to the anti-microbial activity as established using dynamic ...200212413722
larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (piper betle) on chrysomya megacephala.many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by chrysomya species.200212492975
antioxidative and antiplatelet effects of aqueous inflorescence piper betle extract.piper betle, belonging to the piperaceae family, is a tropical plant, and its leaf and inflorescence are popularly consumed by betel quid (bq) chewers in taiwan and many other south and southeast asian countries. however, little is known about the biochemical properties of inflorescence piper betle (ipb) toward reactive oxygen species (ros) and platelet functions. in the present work, aqueous ipb extract was shown to be a scavenger of h(2)o(2), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical with a 50% ...200312643677
studies on the sporulation of phytophthora parasitica dastur var. piperina dast. responsible for leaf and foot-rot of pan, piper betle. l. 196113716994
selection of antagonistic soil microbes against a few fungal pathogens of piper betle l. 196314111112
biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (piper betle l.) caused by sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent pseudomonas fluorescens nbri-n6 and p. fluorescens nbri-n.collar rot disease of betelvine (piper betle l.) caused by sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. in the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against s. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. two strains, pseudomonas fluorescens nbri-n6 and p. fluorescens nbri-n, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhi ...200314506865
effect of piper betle leaf extract on alcoholic toxicity in the rat brain.the protective effect of piper betle, a commonly used masticatory, has been examined in the brain of ethanol-administered wistar rats. brain of ethanol-treated rats exhibited increased levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation, and disturbances in antioxidant defense. subsequent to the experimental induction of toxicity (i.e., the initial period of 30 days), aqueous p. betle extract was simultaneously administered in three different doses (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days along with the daily ...200314585193
reactive oxygen species are crucial for hydroxychavicol toxicity toward kb epithelial cells.betel quid (bq) chewing shows a strong correlation to the incidence of oral submucous fibrosis (osf), leukoplakia and oral cancer. bq contains mainly areca nut, lime, piper betle leaf (pbl) and the inflorescence of p. betle (ipb). hydroxychavicol (4-allyl-catechol, hc), as a major phenolic compound in pbl and ipb, is shown to induce oxidative stress, glutathione (gsh) depletion and cell cycle deregulation. using bivariate brdu/pi flow cytometry, kb cells in dna synthesis (s phase) are shown to b ...200414704856
the anti-adherence effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on the adhesion of early settlers in dental plaque to saliva-coated glass surfaces.the aqueous extracts of piper betle and psidium guajava were prepared and tested for their anti-adherence effect on the adhesion of early plaque settlers (strep. mitis, strep. sanguinis and actinomyces sp.). the saliva-coated glass surfaces were used to simulate the pellicle-coated enamel surface in the oral cavity. our results showed that the anti-adherence activities of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts towards the bacteria were different between the bacterial species. psidium guajava w ...200314763515
vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), piper betle (betel leaf), anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), carica papaya (papaya leaf), and mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while piper betle and cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric ...200415138017
association of cucumovirus and potyvirus with betelvine (piper betle l.) as evidenced by elisa and attempt was made to detect various viruses of piper betle grown at mahoba and banthara in india. dac-elisa and rt-pcr tests were performed in leaf sap samples of betelvine for detection of a cucumovirus (cucumber mosaic virus) and potyvirus (bean yellow mosaic virus) using specific antibodies and universal primers of respective viruses. dac-elisa could detect only cmv. however, rt-pcr detected both cucumovirus and potyvirus infection in betelvine samples. association of cmv with betelvine was ...200315267161
genetic diversity amongst landraces of a dioecious vegetatively propagated plant, betelvine (piper betle l.).betelvine (piper betle l., family piperaceae) is an important, traditional and widely cultivated crop of india. the cultivators and consumers recognize more than 100 cultivars (landraces) based on regional and organoleptic considerations, while in terms of phytochemical constituents only five groups have been identified for all the landraces. since betelvine is an obligate vegetatively propagated species, genomic changes, if any, may have become 'fixed' in the landraces. we carried out random am ...200415381853
the in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by aids patients in southern thailand.this study evaluated the anti-giardial activity of chloroform, methanol and water extracts of 12 medicinal plants (39 extracts), commonly used as self medication by aids patients in southern thailand. the plant extracts and a standard drug, metronidazole, were incubated with 2x10(5) trophozoites of giardia intestinalis per millilitre of growth medium in 96-well tissue culture plates under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. the cultures were examined with an inverted microscope and the minimum inhibi ...200415614584
effects of aqueous extracts of "betel quid" and its constituents on testosterone production by dispersed mouse interstitial cells.betel quid (bq) is a favorite chewing item among many communities in different parts of asia where it is popular by different names. bq is a unique combination of nut or fruit from the areca catechu linn. (an) tree, leaf from the piper betle linn. (bl) vine, slaked lime, paste of bark from the acacia catechu tree and other spices. an has been used successfully in various traditional medicines by different civilizations over several ages. initially condemned by the medical communities for its hea ...200415633806
cumulative trauma disorders in betel pepper leaf-cullers visiting a rehabilitation clinic: experience in taitung.betel pepper (piper betle l.) cultivation is an important agricultural industry in taitung, taiwan, and culling leaves is very labor-intensive. this case study compares the proportion of cumulative trauma disorders (ctds) between cullers and those with other occupations.200516013343
antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of piper betle leaves in rats.leaves of piper betle (piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. however, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. the aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of piper betle leaves. this was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (hwe) and cold ethanolic extract (cee). in normoglycaemic rats, both hwe and ...200516055288
the anti-amoebic activity of some medicinal plants used by aids patients in southern thailand.the anti-amoebic activities of chloroform, methanol and water extracts from 12 thai medicinal plants (39 extracts) commonly used by aids patients in southern thailand were screened, at a concentration of 1,000 microg/ml, against entamoeba histolytica strain hth-56:mutm and strain hm1:imss growing in vitro. the extracts were incubated with 2x10(5) e. histolytica trophozoites/ml of medium at 37 degrees c under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. the cultures were examined with an inverted microscope an ...200616447069
[oral submucous fibrosis in a 31-year-old indian women: first case report from germany].oral submucous fibrosis (osf) is a chronic disease characterized by subepithelial collagen deposition with formation of bands involving the oral cavity and adjacent structures. oral submucous fibrosis is a precancerous condition. it is caused by chewing of betel quid (areca catechu l., piper betle, lime and tobacco) and ready-made products like pan masala and gutka which also contain areca nut. these products are available all over south asia. the hallmark of osf is extremely restricted mouth op ...200616568335
induction of plant defense enzymes and phenolics by treatment with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria serratia marcescens greenhouse experiments, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) serratia marcescens nbri1213 was evaluated for plant growth promotion and biologic control of foot and root rot of betelvine caused by phytophthora nicotianae. bacterization of betelvine (piper betle l.) cuttings with s. marcescens nbri1213 induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase activities in leaf and root. qualitative and quantitative estimation of phenolic compounds was done through high-perf ...200616586018
the effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on the cell-surface hydrophobicity of selected early settlers of dental plaque.the adhesion of early settlers of dental plaque to the tooth surface has a role in the initiation of the development of dental plaque. the hydrophobic surface properties of the bacteria cell wall are indirectly responsible for the adhesion of the bacteria cell to the acquired pellicle on the tooth surfaces. in this study, the effect of aqueous extract of two plants (psidium guajava and piper betle) on the cell-surface hydro-phobicity of early settlers of dental plaque was determined in vitro. he ...200616858135
ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of piper betle, alpinia galanga and allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.crude ethanolic extracts of piper betle leaves (piperaceae), alpinia galanga rhizomes (zingiberaceae) and allium ascalonicum bulbs (liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (microsporum canis, microsporum gypseum and trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like candida albicans. a broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. all extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a ...200817482221
cytokine-mimetic properties of some philippine food and medicinal plants.this study evaluated philippine indigenous plants for cytokine-mimetic properties and partially characterized candidate mimetics for their stability as well as their sensitivity to variations in temperature and ph. forty-five plant extract preparations were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of mouse spleen cells and bone marrow cells. temperature and ph effects were determined by subjecting the extracts to different temperature and ph levels and measuring their residual prolife ...200717651065
chemical constituents of piper betle linn. (piperaceae) roots.column chromatography of the alcoholic extract of piper betle roots furnished aristololactam a-ii and a new phenyl propene, characterized as 4-allyl resorcinol, while the petroleum-ether extract yielded a diketosteroid, viz. stigmast-4-en-3,6-dione. all these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic means. isolation of these compounds from this source is being reported here for the first time.200518007349
an ethanolic extract of leaves of piper betle (paan) linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to develop new antileishmanial agents. the leaves of piper betle (locally known as paan) have long been in use in the indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves of piper betle (pb) was tested for its antileishmanial activity that was evidenced in both pr ...200818273645
evaluation of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroxychavicol for its potential use as an oral care agent.hydroxychavicol isolated from the chloroform extraction of aqueous extract of piper betle leaves showed inhibitory activity against oral cavity pathogens. it exhibited an inhibitory effect on all of the oral cavity pathogens tested (mics of 62.5 to 500 microg/ml) with a minimal bactericidal concentration that was twofold greater than the inhibitory concentration. hydroxychavicol exhibited concentration-dependent killing of streptococcus mutans atcc 25175 up to 4x mic and also prevented the forma ...200918573934
availability and characteristics of betel products in the u.s.betel use involves oral placement of shards of areca nut (areca catechu palm seed containing the cholinergic agonist arecoline) wrapped with slaked lime in a betel leaf (piper betle plant) or various chopped or powdered products containing areca nut and/or parts of the betel plant. additives to this mixture include catechu (areca palm extract), spices/ sweeteners (e.g., saccharin, cloves), and/or tobacco. betel use is most common in asia and east india; however, little is known about the availab ...200819004423
consumption of guava (psidium guajava l) and noni (morinda citrifolia l) may protect betel quid-chewing papua new guineans against diabetes.rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (dm2) in papua new guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (bq) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing dm2. we investigated the dietary habits of kalo residents from coastal central province who are avid bq chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of dm2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent wanigelans wh ...200819114402
pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace bangla mahoba of piper betle on leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of the absence of effective and safe treatment for visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar - a devastating parasitic disease caused by leishmania donovani - the search for anti-leishmanial agents from natural resources in common use is imperative. recently, the comparative in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts from two landraces of piper betle - p. betle landrace bangla mahoba (pb-bm) and p. betle landrace kapoori vellaikodi (pb-kv) - has been reported. here, the putative pathway ...200919528177
bacteriostatic effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on dental plaque this study, the bacteriostatic effect of piper betle and psidium guajava extracts on selected early dental plaque bacteria was investigated based on changes in the doubling time (g) and specific growth rates (micro). streptococcus sanguinis, streptococcus mitis and actinomyces sp. were cultured in brain heart infusion (bhi) in the presence and absence of the extracts. the growth of bacteria was monitored periodically every 15 min over a period of 9 h to allow for a complete growth cycle. grow ...200919580002
inhibitory effects of safrole on phagocytosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the activity of myeloperoxidase released by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.safrole, a component of piper betle inflorescence, inhibits bactericidal activity and the release of superoxide anion (o(2)(-)) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns). this in vitro study further investigated the effects of safrole on phagocytic activity, the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ros), and the activity of the lysosomal enzyme myeloperoxidase (mpo), which is released by human pmns.200919656034
evaluation of sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid on piper betle leaves and its effect on antioxidant properties.the sanitizing efficacy of acetic acid and its effect on health beneficial properties of piper betle leaves were determined. betel leaves artificially inoculated with aeromonas, salmonella and yersinia were subjected to organic acid (citric acid, acetic acid and lactic acid) treatment. pathogen populations reduced by 4 log upon individual inoculation and up to 2 log in a mixed cocktail following treatment with 2% acetic acid during storage up to 20 h at 28 degrees c, indicating a residual antimi ...200919670009
in vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from piper betle l.hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of piper betle l., (piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. the leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies.201020128889
efficacy of chemically characterized piper betle l. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.the study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (eo) of piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. a total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. eleven aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)) producing strains of a. flavus were recorded from the samples. eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugeno ...201020621374
modulation of th1/th2 cytokines and inflammatory mediators by hydroxychavicol in adjuvant induced arthritic tissues.the present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of hydroxychavicol (hc) a major phenolic compound isolated from the aqueous extract leaves of plant piper betle (piperaceae). the compound showed significant lowering of pro-inflammatory (th1) cytokine levels in arthritic paw tissue homogenate supernatant viz. il-2, ifn-gamma, and tnf-alpha with maximum inhibition at higher dose levels of 2 and 4 mg/kg p.o. and enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory (th2) cytokines ...201019782577
effect of piper betle on cardiac function, marker enzymes, and oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.the present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of piper betle (p. betle) against isoproterenol (isp)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. rats were randomly divided into eight groups viz. control, isp, p. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) and p. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) + isp treated group. p. betle leaf extract (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or saline was orally administered for 30 days. isp (85 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at an interval of 24 h on the 28(th) and 2 ...201020846025
antimalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of piper betle l.the need for new compounds active against malaria parasites is made more urgent by the rapid spread of drug-resistance to available antimalarial drugs. the crude methanol extract of piper betle leaves (50-400 mg/kg) was investigated for its antimalarial activity against plasmodium berghei (nk65) during early and established infections. the phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of the crude extract were evaluated to elucidate the possibilities of its antimalarial effects. the safety of the ext ...201021189459
scanning electron microscopic study of piper betle l. leaves extract effect against streptococcus mutans atcc 25175.previous studies have shown that piper betle l. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development.201121552715
the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of piper betle l. trigger different arms of immune responses in balb/c mice and exhibit antifilarial activity against human lymphatic filarid brugia malayi.modulation of immune functions by using herbal plants and their products has become fundamental regime of therapeutic approach. piper betle linn. (piperaceae) is a widely distributed plant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and has been attributed as traditional herbal remedy for many diseases. we have recently reported the antifilarial and antileishmanial efficacy in the leaf extract of bangla mahoba landrace of p. betle which is a female plant. the present report describes th ...200919281872
insights into the mechanism of piper betle leaf-induced contact leukomelanosis using c57bl/6 mice as the animal model and tyrosinase assays.background/objectives:ôçé steamed piper betle leaves (pbl) were once used by many taiwanese women to treat pigment disorders on the face. most women claimed a quick, favourable response at first, only to be overcome with facial leukomelanosis later. methods:ôçé c57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to different groups to study if pbl could cause the following effects: contact dermatitis, leukomelanosis, or hair bleaching. intracellular melanin content was measured by tyrosinase assays. results:ôçé ...201121834811
standardization of spray-dried powder of piper betle hot water extract.the leaves of piper betle linn. (family: piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the traditional medical systems of sri lanka. the present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of p. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of high pressure liquid chromatography (hplc) fingerprint and densitogram. the percentages ...201121716924
Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even toda ...201122119904
effect of piper betle on plasma antioxidant status and lipid profile against d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats.betle leaf chewing is an old traditional practice in india and other countries of east asia. we have investigated the antioxidant and antihyperlipidaemic potential of an alcoholic leaf-extract of piper betle against d-galactosamine (d-galn; 400 mg/kg body weight, i.p. single dose) intoxication in male albino wistar rats. rats were treated with leaf-extract (200 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubations daily for 20 days. the animals were divided randomly into five groups of six animals each ...200919161673
Broad spectrum antidermatophytic drug for the control of tinea infection in human beings.During antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts, free and bound flavonoids of Piper betle were found to be most effective as an antidermatophytic against human pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans. Dermatophytic fungi cause both superficial and internal mycoses. These mycoses, although normally not lethal, are unpleasant and difficult to cure and cause considerable financial losses. Earlier workers prove that a ...201121929713
influence of piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in d-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.d-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. d-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. the leaves of piper betle l., a commonly used masticatory in asian countries, possess several biological properties. our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of p. betle leaf-extract against oxida ...200819024930
antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and chlorella vulgaris in aging c57bl/6 mice.the aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, piper betle, and chlorella vulgaris.201223295600
piper nigrum, piper betle and gnetum gnemon--natural food sources with anti-quorum sensing properties.various parts of piper nigrum, piper betle and gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by malaysians. the purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-qs) properties of p. nigrum, p. betle and g. gnemon extracts. the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving pseudomonas aeruginosa pa01, escherichia coli [psb401], e. coli [psb1075] and chromobacterium violaceum cv026. it was found that the extracts of these three plants have ...201323519352
thin layer chromatography-bioautography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of antimicrobial leaf extracts from philippine piper betle l. against multidrug-resistant bacteria.this study isolated and identified the antimicrobial compounds of philippine piper betle l. leaf ethanol extracts by thin layer chromatography- (tlc-) bioautography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). initially, tlc separation of the leaf ethanol extracts provided a maximum of eight compounds with r f values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under uv 366 nm. agar-overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds demonstrated two sp ...201627478476
antimicrobial activities of methanol, ethanol and supercritical co2 extracts of philippine piper betle l. on clinical isolates of gram positive and gram negative bacteria with transferable multiple drug resistance.piper betle l. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. however, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. this study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical co2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the infectious disease society ...201626741962
targeting n-acyl-homoserine-lactones to mitigate membrane biofouling based on quorum sensing using a biofouling reducer.exploring novel biological anti-quorum sensing (qs) agents to control membrane biofouling is of great worth in order to allow sustainable performance of membrane bioreactors (mbrs) for wastewater treatment. in recent studies, qs inhibitors have provided evidence of alternative route to control membrane biofouling. this study investigated the role of piper betle extract (pbe) as an anti-qs agent to mitigate membrane biofouling. results demonstrated the occurrence of the n-acyl-homoserine-lactone ...201222796090
inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of piper betle contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. in order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. anti-infectious activity of piper betle used in traditional medicine of malaysia has been reported previously.201325848517
screening and study of antifungal activity of leaf litter actinomycetes isolated from ternate island, characterize abundance of leaf litter actinomycetes from ternate island and to assess the antifungal activity of actinomycetes isolates against candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae (s. cerevisiae), and aspergillus niger.201425312129
an in vitro study on the anti-adherence effect of brucea javanica and piper betle extracts towards oral candida.the adherence of candida to mucosal surfaces is the initial step for successful invasive process of the oral cavity. the study aimed to investigate the effect of two plant extracts on the non-specific and specific bindings of oral candida.201323915676
effect of piper betle and brucea javanica on the differential expression of hyphal wall protein (hwp1) in non-candida albicans candida (ncac) species.the study aimed to identify the hwp1 gene in non-candida albicans candida species and the differential expression of hwp1 following treatment with piper betle and brucea javanica aqueous extracts. all candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 10(6) cells/ml. the suspension was incubated overnight at 37 °c (c. parapsilosis, 35°c). candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6 mg/ml for 24 h. the total rna was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain react ...201323853657
antibacterial activity of polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles synthesized from piper betle leaves extract.plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. in this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (agnps) synthesized from piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and nabh4 was used as reducing agent. silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. prepared nanoparticles were characteri ...201627642330
arecoline and the 30-100 kda fraction of areca nut extract differentially regulate mtor and respectively induce apoptosis and autophagy: a pilot study.areca nut (an) is recognized as a human carcinogen; however, few studies of the cytotoxic effects of an ingredients on cells have been reported. in taiwan, an, lime and inflorescence of piper betle are the common components of betel quid (bq). we recently noticed that extract of an (ane), but not those of lime and inflorescence of piper betle, induces rounding cell morphology and nuclear shrinkage in different types of carcinoma cells. in this study, the rounding cell activity was first traced t ...200818668345
anti-inflammatory effect of allylpyrocatechol in lps-induced macrophages is mediated by suppression of inos and cox-2 via the nf-kappab pathway.the crude ethanol extract of piper betle leaf is reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity which has been suggested to be mediated by allylpyrocatechol (apc). in the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of apc (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in an animal model of inflammation. to investigate the mechanism(s) of this anti-inflammatory activity, we examined its effects on the lipopolysaccaride (lps)-induced production of no and pge(2) in a murine macrophage cell line, raw 264.7. ...200818602073
in vitro susceptibilities of wild and drug resistant leishmania donovani amastigotes to piperolactam a loaded hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin nanoparticles.leishmaniasis is an epidemic in various countries, and the parasite leishmania donovani is developing resistance against available drugs. in the present study the antileishmanial action of piperolactam a (pl), isolated after bioactivity guided fractionation from root extracts of piper betle was accentuated in detail. activity potentiation was achieved via cyclodextrin complexation. crude hydro-ethanolic extract (pb) and three fractions obtained from pb and fabricated pl-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodext ...201626940000
inhibitory effects of piper betle on production of allergic mediators by bone marrow-derived mast cells and lung epithelial cells.the leaves of the piper betle linn. (piperaceae) are used in traditional medicine and possess anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic and radioprotective activities. however, little is known about their anti-allergic activity. therefore, the effects of p. betle ethanolic extract (pe) on the production of histamine and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf) by murine bone marrow mast cells (bmmcs) and on the secretion of eotaxin and il-8 by the human lung epith ...200818279799
endothelial cytoprotection from oxidized ldl by some crude melanesian plant extracts is not related to their antioxidant capacity.habitual consumption of some melanesian medicinal and food plants may influence atherosclerosis development via their antioxidant capacity at the endothelial level. areca nut (an; areca catechu), piper inflorescence (pbi; piper betle), betel quid (bq), guava buds (gb; psidium guajava), the leaves (nl), juice (nj), fruit (nf), and root (nr) of noni (morinda citrifolia), the propagules of raw (mbr), and cooked (mbc) mangrove (bruguiera gymnorrhiza) were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the ...200717912700
modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (piper betle l.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.the current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (piper betle l. var. tamluk mitha) essential oil (bleo) and modelling its effect on growth of penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (gc-ms) analysis of bleo revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and c ...201526439423
piper betle leaf extract affects the quorum sensing and hence virulence of pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1.quorum sensing (qs) plays an important role in virulence of pseudomonas aeruginosa, blocking of qs ability are viewed as viable antimicrobial chemotherapy and which may prove to be a safe anti-virulent drug. bioactive components from piper betle have been reported to possess antimicrobial ability. this study envisages on the anti-qs properties of ethanolic extract of p. betle leaf (pble) using p. aeruginosa pao1 as a model organism. a marked reduction in swarming, swimming, and twitching ability ...201628330090
an ethanol extract of piper betle linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.the leaves of piper betle (locally known as paan) have long been in use in the indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of p. betle (100 mg kg(-1); pb) were demonstrated in a complete freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. at non-t ...200717524237
growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (atcc) by piper betle l. extract.candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. this study aimed to investigate the effects of piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. the major component of p. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (lc-ms/ms). seven atcc control strain ...201424406634
piper betle and its bioactive metabolite phytol mitigates quorum sensing mediated virulence factors and biofilm of nosocomial pathogen serratia marcescens in vitro.piper betle, a tropical creeper plant belongs to the family piperaceae. the leaves of this plant have been well known for their therapeutic, religious and ceremonial value in south and southeast asia. it has also been reported to possess several biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic, insecticidal and gastroprotective activities and used as a common ingredient in indigenous medicines. in indian system of ayurvedic medicine, p. betle has been wel ...201627721053
ingredients contribute to variation in production of reactive oxygen species by areca quid.areca quid (aq) chewing has been implicated an independent risk factor for the development of oral cancer. taiwanese areca quid (aq) refers to a combination of areca nut (an), lime, and inflorescence of piper betle linn. (ipb) or piper betle leaf (pbl). studies of aq in other countries reported that an extract combined with lime generates reactive oxygen species (ros), such as hydroxyl radical (ho.), known to be a contributing factor in oral mucosa damage. to determine whether ho. is formed in t ...200616840253
effects of extracts from thai piperaceae plants against infection with toxoplasma gondii.herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). we evaluated how effective the thai piperaceae plants piper betle, p. nigrum and p. sarmentosum are against toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ...201627213575
comparative analysis of mosquito (diptera: culicidae: aedes aegypti liston) responses to the insecticide temephos and plant derived essential oil derived from piper betle l.resistance to treatments with temephos or plant derived oil, pb-cvo, between a field collected wild strain (ws) and a susceptible laboratory strain (ls) of ae. aegypti were measured. the temephos (0.1mg/l) showed the greatest percentage of mosquito mortality compared to pb-cvo (1.5mg/l) in ls ae. aegypti. however, ws ae. aegypti was not significantly affected by temephos (0.1mg/l) treatment compare to the pb-cvo (1.5mg/l). however, both strains (ls and ws) when treated with pb-cvo (1.5mg/l) disp ...201728213320
antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of piper betle, areca catechu, uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide.betel quid chewing is a popular habit in southeast asia. it is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). the correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined.201324330738
antihyperglycemic activity of piper betle leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.piper betle, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (siddha and ayurvedha) reputation in the rural southern india. the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of p. betle on glucose metabolism since it is consumed as betel-quid after meals. plasma levels of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in control and streptozotocin (stz) diabetic rats were assayed. ora ...200616579737
constituents of areca chewing related to esophageal cancer risk in taiwanese men.two most common types of areca chewing are noted in taiwan: raw betel fruit with piper betle inflorescence or folded in betel leaf. piper betle inflorescence contains carcinogens, whereas betel leaf includes anticarcinogenic agents. one hundred and twenty-six esophageal squamous-cell-carcinoma patients and 279 healthy controls, all men, were analyzed. areca chewers were 4.4 times (95% ci, 2.2-8.8) more likely to develop esophageal cancer than non-chewers. sixty-five of the patients were areca ch ...200415361101
hydroxychavicol modulates benzo[a]pyrene-induced genotoxicity through induction of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.areca quid (aq) chewing and smoking have synergistic potential in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc). in taiwan, fresh piper betle inflorescence is uniquely added to aq, and hydroxychavicol (hc) is the major phenolic component of p. betle inflorescence. this study investigated whether hc modulates cigarette carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (b[a]p)-mediated toxic effects. pretreatment of hc and followed by b[a]p challenge resulted in higher cytotoxicity and hprt gene mutation frequen ...200415331132
effect of ethanol extract of piper betle linn leaf on healing of nsaid-induced experimental ulcer--a novel role of free radical scavenging action.treatment with ethanol extract of leaf of p. betle at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days, after induction of peptic ulcer by nsaid in albino rats, produced significant healing effect. during healing process, on treatment with the extractive, antioxidative factor, e.g. superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, mucus and total gastric tissue sulfhydryl group were increased. in contrast, oxidised lipid and oxidatively modified proteins were reduced to near normalcy, within 7 to 10 ...200315255639
influence of piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated wistar rats.piper betle l. is a commonly used masticatory in asia. this study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of p. betle, using ethanol intoxication as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. ethanol-treated rats exhibited elevation of hepatic marker enzymes and disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal rats. oral administration of p. betle extract (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days significantly (p <.05) decreased aspart ...200212639394
biological monitoring of environment exposure to safrole and the taiwanese betel quid chewing.a rapid and sensitive biological monitoring (bm) method for assessing exposure to the environmental carcinogen safrole has been developed. the method is an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (hplc) analysis of urinary dihydroxychavicol (dhab) and eugenol, the urinary metabolites of safrole. good linearity, precision, and accuracy were demonstrated. a recovery of 98.8 +/- 5.4% (sd, n = 3) was found for dhab and 84.1 +/- 3.4% (n = 3) for eugenol. the quantitation limits of the metho ...200212399914
hydroxyl radical formation and oxidative dna damage induced by areca quid in vivo.chewing areca quid (aq) has been implicated as a major risk factor for the development of oral squamous-cell carcinoma (oscc). recent studies have suggested that aq-generated reactive oxygen species (ros) is one of the contributing factors for oral carcinogenesis. however, the aq used in taiwan is different from that used in other countries. this study is designed to test whether ros are generated and the consequent effects in locally prepared aq in vivo. we measured the hydroxyl radical formati ...200211911495
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