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incidence of aflatoxin-potential contamination in spanish sausages.525 strains of moulds were isolated from 8 samples of red pepper (capsicum annuum) and from 3 samples of black pepper (piper nigrum). these spices were commonly added to the various kinds of spanish sausages, specially to the spanish "chorizo". of these 525 isolated moulds, 100 belonged to the aspergillus flavus group. 69 were isolated from red pepper and 31 from black pepper. of these strains, 28 strains isolated from red pepper were found positive in producing aflatoxin b1 while only 8 of the ...1977613913
occurrence of n-isobutyl eicosa-trans-2-trans-4-dienamide in piper nigrum. 1976981396
carcinogenicity testing of some constituents of black pepper (piper nigrum).in mice, injection of safrole, tannic acid or methylcholanthrene (mca) during the preweaning period induced tumors in different organs. safrole and tannic acid (constituents of black pepper) were weak carcinogens when compared with mca which was used as a carcinogenic control substance. force feeding of d-limonene (one of the pepper terpenoids) for a long time to the mice which were injected with any of the above 3 substances reduced their carcinogenic activity, while force feeding of piperine ( ...19921617288
carcinogenic effect of force-feeding an extract of black pepper (piper nigrum) in egyptian toads (bufo regularis).50 male and 50 female bufo regularis were treated, by force-feeding, with an extract of black pepper, at a dose level of 2 mg, 3 times a week for 5 months. the first tumors appeared after 2 months. liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinomas, lymphosarcomas and fibrosarcomas) were found in 12 males and 18 females. metastatic deposits of hepatocellular carcinomas were registered in the spleen, kidney, fat body and ovary.19911891179
influence of spices on utilization of sorghum and chickpea protein.influence of eight common indian spices on the protein quality of sorghum and chickpea was studied. spices used include red chillies (capsicum annum), black pepper (piper nigrum), coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) cumin seeds (cuminum cyminum), garlic (allium sativum), asafoetida (ferula foetida), dry ginger (zingiber officinale) and ajowan (carum copticum). addition of spices did not affect protein digestibility (td) of sorghum. the bv of all sorghum diets with spices was higher than that of ...19911924191
carcinogenesis induced by black pepper (piper nigrum) and modulated by vitamin a.painting and feeding of mice with 2mg of an extract from black pepper on 3 days a week for 3 months results in a significant increase of the number of tumor-bearing mice. tumor incidence is reduced in those groups of experimental animals receiving 5 or 10mg vitamin a-palmitate twice weekly for 3 months by feeding or painting during and subsequent to application of pepper extract. feeding of mice with powder of black pepper in diet (50g/3kg food) has no impact on carcinogenesis.19902098270
effect of piperine on pentobarbitone induced hypnosis in rats.piperine (1-peperoyl piperidine), a major alkaloid isolated from piper nigrum linn, potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time in dose dependant manner, with peak effect at 30 min. blood and brain pentobarbitone levels were higher in piperine treated animals. piperine treatment in rats, treated chronically with phenobarbitone, significantly potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time, as compared to the controls. there was no alteration in barbital sodium sleeping time. it is possible that, piperine ...19902401524
aflatoxin contamination of some common drug plants.this paper deals with the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in some common drug plants collected from storehouses in bihar, india. of 15 samples analyzed, 14 were aflatoxin positive. the highest level of aflatoxin contamination was detected in the seeds of piper nigrum (1.20 micrograms/g), followed by the level detected in the seeds of mucuna prurita (1.16 micrograms/g), and the lowest level was detected in the bark of acacia catechu (0.09 micrograms/g). of 158 isolates of aspergillus flavus obta ...19883132102
chemical constituents of peppers (piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.in a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus piper (family piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from piper nigrum, seven compounds from p. retrofractum, and two compounds from p. baccatum. all the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. one amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) and butylated hydroxyt ...19863757949
[decontamination of spices by ethylene oxide. the case of cloves (eugenia caryophyllus spreng.) and white pepper (piper nigrum l.)]. 19854062177
fungus flora of black and white pepper (piper nigrum l.). 19734517377
determination of piperine in pepper (piper nigrum) using high-performance liquid chromatography. 19836885950
influence of spices on protein utilisation of winged bean (psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and horsegram (dolichos biflorus).the influence of a mixture of eleven spices commonly consumed in india on the utilisation of protein from boiled winged bean (psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and horsegram (dolichos biflorus) was studied at 10 and 20 percent level of protein intake in experimental rats. spices used in the mixture include red chillies (capsicum annum), black pepper (piper nigrum), coriander (coriandrum sativum), cumin (cuminum cyminum), garlic (allium sativum), ajowan (carum copticum), turmeric (curcuma longa), cara ...19947855088
antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against staphylococcus aureus growth.alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin g resistant strain of staphylococcus aureus. twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, myristica fr ...19947992816
resiniferatoxin and piperine: capsaicin-like stimulators of oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb.the naturally occurring capsaicin-like molecules, resiniferatoxin (rtx, euphorbia spp.) and piperine (piper nigrum), each stimulated oxygen uptake (vo2) in association with increased vascular resistance in a concentration-dependent manner when infused into the perfused rat hindlimb. 5 microm glyceryl trinitrate (gtn, a nitrovasodilator) significantly blocked the oxygen and pressure responses to both rtx and piperine, indicating a close relationship between changes in vo2 and the vasoconstriction ...19948035653
common indian spices: nutrient composition, consumption and contribution to dietary value.nutrient composition of eight commonly consumed spices of south india was analysed. spices analysed were red chillies (capsicum annum), black pepper (piper nigrum), coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum), cumin seeds (cuminum cyminum), garlic (allium sativum), asafoetida (ferula foetida), dry ginger (zingiber officinale) and ajowan (carum copticum). the nutrients analysed were proximate principles, minerals, starch, sugars, dietary fibre components, tannins, phytic acid, enzyme inhibitors and amin ...19938397396
high incidence of aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins in stored groundnut in ghana and the use of a microbial assay to assess the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on aflatoxin synthesis.groundnut samples from 21 selected markets in the 10 regions of ghana yielded high levels of the aflatoxigenic fungus aspergillus flavus on half-strength potato dextrose agar. the fungus was associated with 31.7 and 12.8%, respectively, of all damaged and undamaged kernels assayed. only 0.24% of total kernels assayed yielded a. parasiticus. other fungi detected from total kernels assayed were a. niger (34%), a. candidus (1.45%), a. tamarii (3.93%), a. ochraceous (5.26%), fusarium spp. (1.7%) pen ...19968981776
influence of spices on the bacterial (enzyme) activity in experimental colon cancer.in the presence of a known colon carcinogen, 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (dmh), the activity of beta-glucuronidase was found to be significantly increased in the distal colon, distal intestine, liver and colon contents and the activity of mucinase was increased in both the colon and fecal contents when compared to control rats. chilli (capsicum annum l., solanaceae) administration also showed an increase when compared to control rats, whereas supplementation with cumin (cuminum cyminum l., apiaceae) ...19989720607
jamu gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct.an examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of jamu gendong (jg) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the department of health of indonesia in 1986. samples of jg and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of surabaya. the samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (tpc), mpn coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the pres ...199810030724
stimulation of mouse melanocyte proliferation by piper nigrum fruit extract and its main alkaloid, piperine.during a herbal screening programme to find potential repigmenting agents for the treatment of vitiligo, piper nigrum l. fruit (black pepper) extract was found to possess growth-stimulatory activity towards cultured melanocytes. its aqueous extract at 0.1 mg/ml was observed to cause nearly 300% stimulation of the growth of a cultured mouse melanocyte line, melan-a, in 8 days (p < 0.01). piperine (1-piperoylpiperidine), the main alkaloid from piper nigrum fruit, also significantly stimulated mela ...199910575373
comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant samples.in this paper, three dissolution methods using pressure digestion vessels (low-, medium-, and high-pressure vessels) for the determination of metals in plant samples are described. the plackett-burman saturated factorial design was used to identify the significant factors influencing wet ashing and to select optimized dissolution conditions. the three methods were statistically compared (on-way anova) on the same sample; no significant differences were obtained. in all cases the relative standar ...199910606575
antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils.the volatile oils of black pepper [piper nigrum l. (piperaceae)], clove [syzygium aromaticum (l.) merr. & perry (myrtaceae)], geranium [pelargonium graveolens l'herit (geraniaceae)], nutmeg [myristica fragrans houtt. (myristicaceae), oregano [origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (link) letsw. (lamiaceae)] and thyme [thymus vulgaris l. (lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. these included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacte ...200010736000
influence of intragastric perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats.the effect of spices on gastric acid secretion is variable. their mechanism of action is also not well established.200010812814
novel procedure for identification of compounds inhibitory to transcription of genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis.a novel assay is described for the identification and isolation of compounds that inhibit the transcription of genes involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis. the thin-layer chromatography-based assay was used to screen plant extracts for compounds that would inhibit the expression of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of an aflatoxin biosynthesis gene promoter in aspergillus parasiticus. the assay was used to track purification of an inhibitory compound, cp2, from extracts of blac ...200011052714
[essential oil analysis and trace element study of the roots of piper nigrum l].pepper roots contain 0.39% of essential oil. by gc-ms method, 44 peaks and 22 compounds were obtained and identified. the major component was trans-caryophyllene. the trace metal content analysis showed that the heavy metals were under the safety level.199811243157
[studies on the crude drugs used for the folk medicine described in "mimi-bukuro"]."mimi-bukuro" is a book written by moriyasu negishi in the edo period. m. negishi (1737-1815) was a magistrate in the town of edo. he was very much interested in listening and recording many kinds of stories, which were told by the various kinds of people, such as public officers, samurais, merchants, doctors, etc. among the stories of this book, some stories were found concerning folk medicine, medicinal substance and charms. in this report, i studied the medicines which were used in these stor ...199511613523
larvicidal activity of isobutylamides identified in piper nigrum fruits against three mosquito species.the insecticidal activity of materials derived from the fruits of piper nigrum against third instar larvae of culex pipiens pallens, aedes aegypti, and a. togoi was examined and compared with that of commercially available piperine, a known insecticidal compound from piper species. the biologically active constituents of p. nigrum fruits were characterized as the isobutylamide alkaloids pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide, and retrofractamide a by spectroscopic analysis. retrofractamide a was is ...200211902925
cyp3a4 inhibitory activity of new bisalkaloids, dipiperamides d and e, and cognates from white pepper.two new bisalkaloids, dipiperamides d and e, were isolated as inhibitors of a drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome p450 (cyp) 3a4 from the white pepper, piper nigrum. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. dipiperamides d and e showed potent cyp3a4 inhibition with ic(50) values of 0.79 and 0.12 microm, respectively, and other metabolites from the pepper were moderately active or inactive.200212110320
folklore information from assam for family planning and birth control.the author collected folklore information on herbal treatments to control fertility from different parts of assam, india. temporary methods of birth control include cissampelos pareira l. in combination with piper nigrum l., root of mimosa pudica l. and hibiscus rosa-sinensis l. plants used for permanent sterilization include plumbago zeylanica l., heliotropium indicum l., salmalia malabrica, hibiscus rosa-sinensis l., plumeria rubra l., bambusa rundinacea. abortion is achieved through use of ...198212266264
protection of stored maize against sitophilus zeamais (motsch.) by use of essential oils of spices from cameroon.in storage, maize as other cereals is currently attacked by insects. the main specie present in cameroon is sitophilus zeamais (coleop. curculionidae). the popular way to prevent its damages is the use of synthetic insecticides. these chemicals extend their activities to non target animals. they are potentially dangerous for consumers and are implicated in the pollution of the environment. the development of products killing pests which are consumer-friendly is to be improved. in this respect, t ...200112425068
antimutagenic properties of bell and black peppers.the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (smart) in drosophila melanogaster was used to study the modulating action of bell pepper (capsicum annuum) and black pepper (piper nigrum) in combination with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (mms) and the promutagen agent ethyl carbamate (ec). larvae trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare-3 [flr(3)] were fed genotoxins alone or in combination with each of the two spices. gene ...200312453727
effect of co-administration of piperine on pharmacokinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics in rats.co-administration of piperine, an alkaloid isolated from piper nigrum l. enhanced bioavailability of beta lactam antibiotics, amoxycillin trihydrate and cefotaxime sodium significantly in rats. the improved bioavailability is reflected in various pharmacokinetic parameters viz. tmax, cmax, t(1/2) and auc, of these antibiotics. the increased bioavailability could be attributed to the effect of piperine on microsomal metabolising enzymes or enzymes system.200212635696
[comparison of the chemical constituents and pharmacological action of piper nigrum linn. with p. methysticum forst]. 200212814095
screening of antagonistic bacteria for biological control of nursery wilt of black pepper (piper nigrum).bacterial antagonists of phytophthora capsici were isolated from underground shoot portions of rooted cuttings of black pepper. initially isolates were screened by dual culture on potato dextrose agar and carrot agar. further, a screening was done on black pepper shoots for supression of lesion caused by the pathogen. most of the antagonists showed varying levels of antagonism in the dual culture and the shoot assay. isolate pn-026, showing the highest suppression of lesion development in the sh ...200312906381
transmission by snails of the species of phytophthora which causes foot rot of piper nigrum l. in sarawak. 196414207224
piperine lowers the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, glucose and hepatic 5'd activity in adult male mice.piperine, the main alkaloid of piper nigrum fruits, was evaluated for its thyroid hormone and glucose regulatory efficacy in adult male swiss albino mice. its daily oral administration (2.50 mg/kg) for 15 days lowered the serum levels of both the thyroid hormones, thyroxin (t (4)) and triiodothyronine (t (3)) as well as glucose concentrations with a concomitant decrease in hepatic 5'd enzyme and glucose-6-phospatase (g-6-pase) activity. however, no significant alterations were observed in animal ...200314517767
element analysis and biological studies on ten oriental spices using xrf and ames test.ten oriental spices were analyzed for their element composition using x-ray fluorescence (xrf): nutmeg (myristica fragrans), coriander (coriandrum sativum), safflower (carthamus tinctorius), caraway (carum carvi), sicilian sumac (rhus coriaria), aniseed (anisum vulgare), black pepper (piper nigrum), cardamom (elettaria cardamomum), cumin (cuminum cyminum) and nigella (nigella sativum). the spices were found to contain the following elements: mg, al, si, p, s, cl, k, ca, ti, mn, fe, cu and zn, wi ...200314531636
botanical insecticides for controlling agricultural pests: piperamides and the colorado potato beetle leptinotarsa decemlineata say (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).the efficacy of extracts from two piperaceae species, piper nigrum l. and p. tuberculatum jacq. were evaluated using larvae and adults of the colorado potato beetle leptinotarsa decemlineata (say). young larvae and neonates were the most susceptible; a 24-h ld(50) of 0.064% extract of p. tuberculatum was determined for 4-day-old larvae, while 0.05% extract of p. nigrum reduced larval survival up to 70% within one week after treatment of potato solanum tuberosum l. (solanaceae) plants. when an in ...200314635182
mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. a large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. a novel, botanical formulation (aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including phyllanthus emblica, terminalia chebula, t. bellerica, albizia lebbeck, piper nigrum, zing ...200314708456
effects of piperine on gastric acid secretion in albino rats.piperine, the pungent principle in piper nigrum and piper guinensis was studied for its effect on gastric acid secretion in white albino rats. increasing the dose from 20 mg kg(-1) weight to 142 mg kg(-1) body weight produced dose dependent increases in gastric acid secretion. when compared with control basal acid secretion, these increases were significant (p<0.05). 20 mg kg(-1) produced a 22.2% (n=7) increase, while the highest dose employed in this study (142 mg kg(-1)) produced 334.6% (n=7) ...200215027765
pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on interaction of "trikatu" with diclofenac sodium."trikatu"-an ayurvedic formulation comprising of a 1:1:1 ratio of dried fruits of piper nigrum, piper longum and dried rhizomes of zingiber officinale is widely used to enhance the bioavailability of drugs, like vasicine, indomethacin, etc. the enhanced biological response might lead to alteration of therapeutic regimens of commonly prescribed drugs. the present work was aimed to study the effect of concomitant administration of trikatu on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diclofenac ...200415120451
new amide alkaloids from the roots of piper nigrum.seven new amide alkaloids, named n-isobutyl-4-hexanoyl-4-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-one (1), (+/-)-erythro-1-(1-oxo-4,5-dihydroxy-2e-decaenyl)piperidine (2), (+/-)-threo-1-(1- oxo-4,5-dihydroxy-2e-decaenyl)piperidine (3), (+/-)-threo-n-isobutyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2e-octaenamide (4), 1-(1,6-dioxo-2e,4e-decadienyl)piperidine (5), 1-[1-oxo-3(3,4-methylenedioxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-2z-propenyl]piperidine (6), and 1-[1-oxo-5(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2z,4e-pentadienyl]pyrrolidine (7), were isolated from the roots of ...200415217283
piptigrine, a new insecticidal amide from piper nigrum linn.a new insecticidal amide piptigrine (1) possessing highly extended conjugation was isolated from the dried ground seeds of piper nigrum linn. along with the known amides piperine and wisanine (hitherto unreported from this plant). the structure of 1 has been elucidated as 1-[9-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-4e,6e,8e-nonatrienoyl]piperidine through extensive 1d- and 2d-nmr (cosy-45, noesy, j-resolved, hmqc, hmbc and noesy studies. the known compounds have been identified through comparison of their ...200415248617
enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected piper species.piper species, commonly used in diet and traditional medicine were assessed for their antioxidant potential. catalase activity was predominated in piper longum, followed by piper cubeba, green pepper, piper brachystachyum and piper nigrum. p. nigrum was richest in glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, green pepper was richest in peroxidase and vitamin c while vitamin e was more in p. longum and p. nigrum. p. brachystachyum and p. longum were rich sources of vitamin a. all ...200315255605
antioxidant properties of aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes. a novel, safe polyherbal formulation (aller-7/nr-a2) has been developed for the tre ...200415366786
efficacy of piper (piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.extracts from three species of the plant family piperaceae, piper nigrum [l.], piper guineense [schum & thonn, and piper tuberculatum [jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. all three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. these materials are considered safe to mammals because piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. when 24-h p. nigrum lc50 values were compared between common insect p ...200415384353
new insecticidal amides from petroleum ether extract of dried piper nigrum l. whole fruits.the petroleum ether extract of dried ground whole fruits of piper nigrum l. afforded 20 compounds (1-20) including two new insecticidal amides named as pipnoohine (1), and pipyahyine (2), seven reported for the first time from this plant (12, 13, 15-17, 19, 20), and eleven known compounds (3-11, 14, 18). the structure of 1 has been elucidated as (2e,4e,12z)-n-(4-methylpentyl)octadeca-2,4,12-trienamide and that of 2 as (2e,4e,11e)-12-(benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-n-(3-methylbutyl)dodeca-2,4,11-trien-am ...200415516761
anti-inflammatory activities of aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. a novel, safe polyherbal formulation (aller-7/nr-a2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including phyllanthus emblica, terminalia chebula, terminalia bellerica, albizia lebbeck, piper ni ...200415573692
antibacterial constituents from the berries of piper nigrum.piper nigrum finds an extensive application in antibacterial preparations belonging to ayurvedic system of medicine. a bioguided extraction and fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the berries of p. nigrum afforded 2e, 4e, 8z-n-isobutyleicosatrienamide (1), pellitorine (2), trachyone (3), pergumidiene (4) and isopiperolein b (5). pergumidiene and trachyone are isolated for the first time from p. nigrum. all the isolated compounds were active against bacillus subtilis, bacillus sphaeri ...200415636188
nigramides a-s, dimeric amide alkaloids from the roots of piper nigrum.[structure: see text] fifteen novel dimeric amide alkaloids possessing a cyclohexene ring, nigramides a-o (1-15), as well as four novel dimeric amide alkaloids possessing a cyclobutane ring, nigramides p-s (17-20), have been isolated from the roots of piper nigrum. their structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data. the biosynthestic hypothesis of nigramides a-o (1-15) was proposed by an intermolecular diels-alder reaction from the corresponding monomeric amides. on the ba ...200515704948
insecticidal amides from fruits of piper nigrum linn.the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of dried ground seeds of piper nigrum linn. afforded sixteen compounds (1-16) including one new insecticidal amide, pipwaqarine (1) and six constituents (3,4,6,7,11,15) previously unreported from this plant. the structure of (1) has been elucidated through extensive 1d-, 2d-nmr spectral studies as, 1-[13-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2e,4e,12e-tridecatrienoyl]-n-isopentylamide, while those of known constituents through comparison of spectral data. 1 ...200515715258
effect of an indigenous herbal compound preparation 'trikatu' on the lipid profiles of atherogenic diet and standard diet fed rattus norvegicus.combating heart disease is one of the challenging problems of biomedical science today. towards this goal an indigenous preparation 'trikatu' (a herbal combination containing piper longum (fruit), piper nigrum (fruit) and zingiber officinale (rhizome) dry powder) was fed to normal and cholesterol fed male rattus norvegicus to ascertain its efficacy as a hypolipidaemic agent. its effects on body weight, blood and tissue (aortic, cardiac and hepatic) lipids--total, free and esterified cholesterol, ...200415742354
analysis of piperaceae germplasm by hplc and lcms: a method for isolating and identifying unsaturated amides from piper spp extracts.a method for extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (hplc-ms) analysis of the medicinally important genus piper (piperaceae) was developed. this allows for a rapid and accurate measure of unsaturated amides, or piperamides, in black pepper, piper nigrum l., and in wild species from central america. reflux extraction provided the highest recovery of piperine (>80%) from leaf and peppercorn material. hplc analysis using a binary gradient of acetonitrile and water s ...200515769112
protective effects of piper nigrum and vinca rosea in alloxan induced diabetic rats.in the present study aqueous extract of piper nigrum seeds and vinca rosea flowers were administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats once a day for 4 weeks. these treatments lead to significant lowering of blood sugar level and reduction in serum lipids. the levels of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in alloxan induced diabetic rats however these levels returned to normal in insulin, p. nigrum and v. rosea treated rats. there was no significant differenc ...200515881860
herb-drug interactions: a literature review.herbs are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential of herb-drug interactions. an extensive review of the literature identified reported herb-drug interactions with clinical significance, many of which are from case reports and limited clinical observations. cases have been published reporting enhanced anticoagulation and bleeding when patients on long-term warfarin therapy also took salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen). allium sativum (garlic) decreased the area u ...200515916450
efficacy of botanical insecticides from piper species (piperaceae) extracts for control of ruropean chafer (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).biopesticides, including botanicals, can offer a safe and effective alternative to conventional insecticides for controlling major insect pests within an integrated pest management program. the current study highlights the practical application of a botanical insecticide for controlling a major insect pest of turfgrass: european chafer, rhizotrogus majalis (razoumowsky). greenhouse and field trials were conducted to test the efficacy of a botanical formulation based on black pepper, piper nigrum ...200516022313
characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (piper nigrum l.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (fd) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. in addition, high fd factors and/or undesirable odor qualities suggested 3-methylphenol (phenolic), butanoic acid (cheese-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheese-like) as well as ...200516028994
phytochemical studies on the seed extract of piper nigrum linn.the petroleum ether extract of dried ground seeds of piper nigrum linn. and some column fractions of this extract were subjected to gc and gc-ms analysis, resulting in the identification of fourteen compounds (1-14) by using nist mass spectral search program 1998 and the kovat's retention indices. ten of the compounds (1, 2, 4-12) are reported for the first time from this plant. all the fractions showed insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of aedes aegypti and against the fourt ...200516076642
high-frequency plant regeneration through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper (piper nigrum l.).a high-frequency plantlet regeneration protocol was developed for black pepper (piper nigrum l.) through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. secondary embryos formed from the radicular end of the primary somatic embryos which were originally derived from micropylar tissues of germinating seeds on growth regulator-free sh medium in the absence of light. the process of secondary embryogenesis continued in a cyclic manner from the root pole of newly formed embryos resulting in clumps of somatic ...200616249871
cyp3a4 and cyp2d6 inhibitory activities of indonesian medicinal plants.thirty samples of indonesian medicinal plants were analyzed for their capacity to inhibit in vitro metabolism by human cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp3a4) and cyp2d6 with a radiometric assay. the meoh-soluble fractions of 25 samples, prepared from water extracts, demonstrated inhibitory activity more than 50% on the metabolism mediated by cyp3a4, and 21 samples on the metabolism mediated by cyp2d6. among the meoh-soluble fractions, piper nigrum leaf showed the highest inhibitory activity against cyp3a4 ...200616360935
mechanism-based inhibition of cyp3a4 and cyp2d6 by indonesian medicinal plants.thirty samples of indonesian medicinal plants were tested for their mechanism-based inhibition on cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp3a4) and cyp2d6 via erythromycin n-demethylation and dextromethorphan o-demethylation activities in human liver microsomes. from screening with 0 and 20min preincubation at 0.5mg/ml of methanol extracts, five plants (cinnamomum burmani bark, foeniculum vulgare seed, strychnos ligustrina wood, tinospora crispa stem, and zingiber cassumunar rhizome) showed more than 30% increas ...200616414224
gene expression profiles of drosophila melanogaster exposed to an insecticidal extract of piper nigrum.black pepper, piper nigrum l. (piperaceae), has insecticidal properties and could potentially be utilized as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. piperine extracted from p. nigrum has a biphasic effect upon cytochrome p450 monooxygenase activity with an initial suppression followed by induction. in this study, an ethyl acetate extract of p. nigrum seeds was tested for insecticidal activity toward adult musca domestica and drosophila melanogaster. the effect of this same p. nigrum extract up ...200616478250
the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (piper nigrum) seeds.water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (dpph) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. both water extract (webp) and ethanol extract (eebp) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. the 75 m ...200516503560
the effect of a synergistic concentration of a piper nigrum extract used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in drosophila melanogaster.an ethyl acetate extract of piper nigrum l. (piperaceae) peppercorns was tested as a synergist for the botanical insecticide pyrethrum. a high synergist ratio of 11.6 against drosophila melanogaster was obtained for the combination of pyrethrum supplemented with p. nigrum. the effect of this combination was investigated using cdna microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in d. melanogaster. treatment of d. melanogaster with pyrethrum alone resulted in a large number of differentially expr ...200616756552
effect of piperine on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in patients with epilepsy.piperine, the active principle of piper longum, piper nigrum and zingiber officinalis, has been reported to enhance the oral bioavailability of phenytoin in human volunteers. the objective of this study was to explore the effect of a single dose of piperine in patients with uncontrolled epilepsy on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. two groups of 10 patients each receiving either a 150 mg or 200 mg twice daily dose of phenytoin were selected. twelve hours after the night dose, venou ...200616767797
mechanism-based inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6) by alkamides of piper nigrum.nineteen alkamides isolated from piper nigrum l. were tested for their mechanism-based inhibition on human liver microsomal dextromethorphan o-demethylation activity, a prototype marker for cytochrome p450 2d6 (cyp2d6). all compounds increased their inhibitory activity with increasing preincubation time. among them, 15 and 17 showed more than 50 % decrease of the cyp2d6 residual activity after 20 min preincubation. further investigations on 15 and 17 showed that the characteristic time- and conc ...200616808005
piperine, an active principle from piper nigrum, modulates hormonal and apo lipoprotein profiles in hyperlipidemic rats.to study the effect of piperine, an alkaloid, on thyroid hormones and apolipoproteins in high-fat-diet (hfd) and antithyroid drug-induced hyperlipidemic rats.200616910313
efficacy of piperine, an alkaloidal constituent from piper nigrum on erythrocyte antioxidant status in high fat diet and antithyroid drug induced hyperlipidemic rats.the main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of piperine on erythrocyte antioxidant status in high fat diet (hfd) and antithyroid drug induced hyperlipidemic rats. male wistar rats were divided into eight groups. the first four groups were fed a control diet and in addition were given respectively 1% carboxymethyl cellulose (cmc); 10 mg/kg body weight carbimazole (cm); 10 mg cm + 40 mg/kg body weight piperine and 10 mg cm + 2 mg/kg body weight atorvastatin (atv). a similar pattern wa ...200616927417
effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.colon cancer is the second most common cancer among men and women worldwide. we investigated the effect of red chilli (capsicum annum l.), cumin (cuminum cyminum l.), and black pepper (piper nigrum l.) on colon cancer induced in rats by a colon-specific carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh). colon cancer was induced by subcutaneous injection of dmh at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight (15 doses, at 1-week intervals). the rats were continued with the standard pellet diet and supplemented red ...200616822210
interaction of potassium phosphonate fungicide in laterite soil.potassium phosphonate is a fungicide widely used to control phytophthora fungi species in many crops all over the world. in this paper, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of potassium phosphonate with soil under varying ph and calcium level. several reports available in literature indicate that the phosphonate in organic form adsorb strongly on almost all mineral surfaces and natural materials like soil and sediments. the present study conducted on laterite soil of kerala using 2 ...200517051913
[potential allelopathic effects of piper nigrum, mangifera indica and clausena lansium].with piper nigrum, mangifera indica and clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of zea mays, glycine max, cucurbita moschata, arachis hypogaea, raphanus sativus, echinochloa crusgalli, digitaria sanguinalis and stylosanthes guianensis. the results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of z. mays, g. max, c. moschata, e. crus-galli and d. sanguinalis at high concen ...200617147171
inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of piper longum and piper nigrum.pharmacological inhibition of acyl coa:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat, ec 2.3.1.20) has emerged as a potential therapy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. bioassay-guided isolation of chcl3 extracts of the fruits of piper longum and piper nigum (piperaceae), using an in vitro dgat inhibitory assay, lead to isolation of a new alkamide named (2e,4z,8e)-n-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (2), together with four known alkamides: retrofractamide c (1), p ...200617177498
acat inhibition of alkamides identified in the fruits of piper nigrum.in this study, via a bioactivity-guided fractionation of meoh extracts of the fruits of piper nigrum, alkamide (5) and five previously-identified alkamides were isolated. their structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis ((1)h, (13)c nmr and esi-ms), as follows: retrofractamide a (1), pipercide (2), piperchabamide d (3), pellitorin (4), dehydroretrofractamide c (5) and dehydropipernonaline (6). the ic(50) values determined for the compounds were 24.5 (1), 3.7 (2), 13.5 (3), 40.5 (4), 6 ...200717188313
uv irradiation affects melanocyte stimulatory activity and protein binding of piperine.piperine, the major alkaloid of black pepper (piper nigrum l.; piperaceae), stimulates melanocyte proliferation and dendrite formation in vitro. this property renders it a potential treatment for the skin depigmentation disorder vitiligo. however, piperine does not stimulate melanin synthesis in vitro, and treatments based on this compound may therefore be more effective with concomitant exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (uv) radiation or sunlight. the present study investigated the effect of ...200617387768
modulation of cadmium induced alterations in murine thymocytes by piperine: oxidative stress, apoptosis, phenotyping and blastogenesis.piperine, a main component of piper longum linn. and piper nigrum linn., is a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in indian medicine. it is known to exhibit a variety of biological activities which include anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, hepatoprotective and antitumor. its immunomodulatory role has so far been limited to humoral response. the influence of piperine on murine thymocytes, immunocompromised by cadmium has been reported by us in this investigation. t ...200616780805
antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction.a combination of spices (piper nigrum, piper longum and zingiber officinale), herbs (cyperus rotundus and plumbago zeylanica) and salts make up amrita bindu. the study was focused to evaluate the antioxidant property of individual ingredients in amrita bindu against the free radical 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (abts). the analysis revealed the antioxidant potential of the ingredients in the following order: piper nigrum>piper longum>cyperus rotundus>plumbago zeylanca> ...200616337350
in vivo effect of piperine on serum and tissue glycoprotein levels in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice.in recent years, considerable emphasis has been focused on identifying new cancer chemopreventive agents, which could be useful for the human population. piperine is a pure, pungent alkaloid constituent of black and long peppers (piper nigrum and piper longum), that acts as an antioxidant and anticancer agent by its numerous macromolecules associated with them. in the present study, piperine was found to suppress benzo(a)pyrene (b(a)p) induced lung cancer in swiss albino mice. in lung cancer bea ...200615975841
analysis of aromatic and terpenic constituents of pepper extracts by capillary electrochromatography.an original method based on cec has been developed for the determination of aromatic and terpenic compounds in extracts of spices obtained from piper nigrum. the method is based on the use of a fused silica capillary (effective length: 23.5 cm, internal diameter: 100 microm) packed with a c18 sorbent (packing length: 23 cm, particle size: 5 microm). the mobile phase is a 50 mm, ph 6.0 ammonium acetate/acn (10:90 v/v) mixture. applying a 30 kv voltage, the following 11 compounds were separated an ...200717444231
characterization and control of endophytic bacterial contaminants in in vitro cultures of piper spp., taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana, and withania somnifera.bacterial contamination is a serious problem that causes severe loss of in vitro grown cultures of a number of plants. this problem becomes even more acute if the bacterial contamination is of endophytic origin. in such cases, identification and characterization of the contaminants is essential for achieving specific control of the contaminants through selective use of antibiotic agents, especially if the routinely used contamination control methods practiced elsewhere in tissue culture studies ...200717496951
chemopreventive effect of piperine on mitochondrial tca cycle and phase-i and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice.piperine is a major component of black (piper nigrum linn) and long pepper (piper longum linn) used widely in various systems of traditional medicine. we have evaluated the effect of piperine on mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle and phase i and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes in benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice. lung cancer bearing mice showed a significant decrease in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes-isocitrate dehydrogenase (icdh), -keto ...200515881660
potential use of piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant aedes aegypti larvae.fractionation of piper nigrum ethanol extract, biomonitored by assays on pyrethroid-resistant aedes aegypti larvae yielded isolation of the larvicidal amides piperolein-a and piperine. comparing lc50 values, the ethanol extract (0.98 ppm) was the most toxic, followed by piperolein-a (1.46 ppm) and piperine (1.53 ppm).200717876460
repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (dictyoptera: blattidae, blattellidae, and blaberidae) in thailand.seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species boesenbergia rotunda (l.) mansf., citrus hystrix dc., curcuma longa l., litsea cubeba (lour.) pers., piper nigrum l., psidium guajava l. and zingiber officinale roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species periplaneta americana (l.), blattella germanica (l.) and neostylopyga rhombifolia (stoll) under laboratory conditions. the essential oil derived from citrus hystr ...200717883004
isolation and amplification of genomic dna from recalcitrant dried berries of black pepper (piper nigrum l.)--a medicinal spice.black pepper is an important medicinal spice traded internationally. the extraction of high quality genomic dna for pcr amplification from dried black pepper is challenging because of the presence of the exceptionally large amount of oxidized polyphenolic compounds, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. here we report a modified hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (ctab) protocol by incorporating potassium acetate and a final peg precipitation step to isolate pcr amplifiable genomic ...200717914177
black pepper and its pungent principle-piperine: a review of diverse physiological effects.black pepper (piper nigrum) is one of the most widely used among spices. it is valued for its distinct biting quality attributed to the alkaloid, piperine. black pepper is used not only in human dietaries but also for a variety of other purposes such as medicinal, as a preservative, and in perfumery. many physiological effects of black pepper, its extracts, or its major active principle, piperine, have been reported in recent decades. dietary piperine, by favorably stimulating the digestive enzy ...200717987447
oral supplementation of piperine leads to altered phase ii enzymes and reduced dna damage and dna-protein cross links in benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung carcinogenesis.in recent years, considerable emphasis has been focused on identifying new chemopreventive agents, which could be useful for the human population. piperine is a pure, pungent alkaloid constituent of black and long peppers (piper nigrum and piper longum), which is a most common spice used throughout the world. in the present study, we examined the protective role of piperine during experimental lung carcinogenesis with reference to its effect on dna damage and detoxification enzyme system. the ac ...200515724447
antimutagenic effects of piperine on cyclophosphamide-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells.piperine is a major pungent substance and active component of black pepper (piper nigrum linn.) and long pepper (piper longum linn.). both plants are used worldwide as household spices and condiments. they are also used as important ingredients in folklore medicine in many asian countries. therefore, it is of interest to study antimutagenic effects of piperine. in this study, its influence on chromosomes was investigated in rat bone marrow cells. male wistar rats were orally administered piperin ...200718260741
melanogenesis stimulation in murine b16 melanoma cells by piper nigrum leaf extract and its lignan constituents.a methanolic extract from the leaves of piper nigrum l. showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in cultured murine b16 melanoma cells. activity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract led to the isolation of two known lignans, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), together with a new lignan, (-)-3-desmethoxycubebinin (3). among these lignans, 1 and 2 showed a significant stimulatory activity of melanogenesis without any significant effect ...200415467205
in vitro antioxidant activity of three piper species.reactive oxygen species are known to play a role in numerous pathological conditions, and antioxidants from plant sources have been of great help in modulating this effect. this study assesses the methanolic extracts of the leaves of three piper species (piper guineense schum and thonn., piper nigrum l. and piper umbellatum l.) (piperaceae) for their polyphenolic concentration and free radical scavenging activity. the folin-ciocalteu method was used to assess the polyphenolic concentration while ...200718285307
antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.the present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. thirty male wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. they were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. signif ...200415231065
effect of storage on the essential oil composition of piper nigrum l. fruits of different ripening states.the qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil from black, green, and white pepper was determined by using a simultaneous distillation and extraction micromethod for oil isolation and gas chromatography (gc)/flame ionization detection (fid) and gc/mass spectrometry (ms) analysis techniques. the most abundant compounds in pepper oils were (e)-beta-caryophyllene (1.4-70.4%), limonene (2.9-38.4%), beta-pinene (0.7-25.6%), delta-3-carene (1.7-19.0%), sabinene (0-12.2%), alpha-pine ...200415113161
complete 1h and 13c nmr assignments of two phytosterols from roots of piper nigrum.using modern nmr techniques, including dqf-cosy, noesy, hetcor and hmbc, the full assignments of all 1h and 13c chemical shifts were made for stigmastane-3,6-dione and stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, isolated from the roots of piper nigrum (piperaceae). their stereochemistry was resolved by a combination of 2d noesy data and analysis of coupling constants. the two compounds were isolated from the genus piper for the first time.200414971021
[control in vitro tick (boophilus microplus; acari: ixodidae) through plant extracts].control in vitro tick (boophilus microplus; acari: ixodidae) through plant extracts. hydro-alcohol extracts of ten tropical plants were tested by the immersion method on mature ticks (boophilus microplus canestrini 1887). the biological evaluation was made with raw hydro alcoholic extracts (r-oh) to determine the most promissory compounds, which later were fractioned in their polar and non-polar parts. the polar parts showed a significantly inferior effect. the species that produced the highest ...200818624244
piperine, the potential functional food for mood and cognitive disorders.the effect of piperine, the main alkaloid from piper nigrum, on the central nervous system is not clearly known until now. in the present study, male wistar rats were administered piperine at various doses ranging from 5, 10 and 20mg/kg bw once daily for 4 weeks and the animals were determined the neuropharmacological activity after single, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. the results showed that piperine at all dosage range used in this study possessed anti-depression like activity and cogniti ...200818639606
screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in plants used in thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies.acetylcholinesterase (ache) inhibitor has been used as a drug for the symptomatic treatment of alzheimer's disease. in order to search for new ache inhibitors, 32 plants used in thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies were collected. the plant methanolic extracts were tested for ache inhibitory activity using ellman's colorimetric method in 96-welled microplates. the results showed that the methanolic extracts from roots of stephania suberosa forman. and tabernaemontana divaricata ...200314611889
effect of piperine on the inhibition of lung metastasis induced b16f-10 melanoma cells in mice.the effect of piperine on the inhibition of lung metastasis induced by b16f-10 melanoma cells was studied in c57bl/6 mice. simultaneous administration of the compound with tumor induction produced a significant reduction (95.2%) in tumor nodule formation. increased lung collagen hydroxyproline (22.37 microg/mg protein) in the metastasized lungs of the control animals compared to normal animals (0.95 microg/mg protein) was significantly reduced (2.59 microg/mg protein) in the piperine-treated ani ...200212553376
aroma compound analysis of piper nigrum and piper guineense essential oils from cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry.the investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (piper nigrum) and black and white "ashanti pepper" (piper guineense) from cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (spme) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. by means of gc-flame ionization detection (fid) and gc-ms (using different polar columns) the main compound ...200212462618
a new natural product and insecticidal amides from seeds of piper nigrum linn.studies on the petroleum ether soluble and insoluble fraction of ethanol extract of dried ground seeds of piper nigrum resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of 1 new and 11 known compounds which include 3 hitherto unreported constituents, namely, cinnamylideneacetone, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropiophenone and 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone from this plant.200818855209
endophytic bacterial flora in root and stem tissues of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) genotype: isolation, identification and evaluation against phytophthora capsici.to isolate and identify black pepper (piper nigrum l) associated endophytic bacteria antagonistic to phytophthora capsici causing foot rot disease.200919018963
effect of piperine on the inhibition of nitric oxide (no) and tnf-alpha production.effect of piperine which is an alkaloid present in plants such as piper nigrum and piper longum on the production of nitric oxide (no) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) level was analyzed using in vitro as well as in vivo systems. the level of nitrite in the lps stimulated balb/c mice (95.3 microm) was reduced in the piperine treated animals (25 microm) significantly. nitrite level in the concanavalin-a (con-a) treated control animals (83.1 microm) was also significantly reduced to 18. ...200319180797
biochemical properties of polysaccharides from black pepper.the purified polysaccharides from piper nigrum were prepared as follows: a hot water extract of pepper seeds was fractionated by ultrafiltration with a 5-kda-membrane cartridge. a fraction with 5 kda or bigger molecules was successively purified by open column chromatography on deae-toyopearl 650c and bio-gel p-60 with each active fraction, resulting in pn-ib and pn-iia, purified anti-complementary polysaccharides. none of the anti-complementary activity of any polysaccharide was changed by pron ...200212230118
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