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[epidemiological characterization of a pestivirus isolate from a viremic pig out of a mixed pig-cattle herd].a pestivirus isolated from a healthy pig out of a mixed pig-cattle holding was identified by use of monoclonal antibodies as a porcine virus related or identical to bovine viral diarrhoea (bvd) virus. about 7% of the pigs of this herd showed neutralizing antibodies (nab) against bvd and border disease (bd) virus and against the homologous porcine nonclassical swine fever (csf) pestivirus isolate 10421/han94. the nab titres against this virus were clearly higher than against csf virus strain alfo ...19958593767
identification of a porcine pestivirus as a border disease virus from naturally infected pigs in spain. 201424285010
feral swine virome is dominated by single-stranded dna viruses and contains a novel orthopneumovirus which circulates both in feral and domestic swine.feral swine are known reservoirs for various pathogens that can adversely affect domestic animals. to assess the viral ecology of feral swine in the usa, metagenomic sequencing was performed on 100 pooled nasal swabs. the virome was dominated by small, ssdna viruses belonging to the families circoviridae, anelloviridae and parvovirinae. only four rna viruses were identified: porcine kobuvirus, porcine sapelovirus, atypical porcine pestivirus and a novel orthopneumovirus, provisionally named swin ...201627417702
recent emergence of a novel porcine pestivirus: interference with classical swine fever diagnosis? 201728400592
frequent infection of wild boar with atypical porcine pestivirus (appv).the recently identified atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) was demonstrated to be the causative agent of the neurological disorder "congenital tremor" in newborn piglets. despite its relevance and wide distribution in domestic pigs, so far nothing is known about the situation in wild boar, representing an important wild animal reservoir for the related classical swine fever virus. in this study, 456 wild boar serum samples obtained from northern germany were investigated for the presence of appv ...201829527814
prevalence and genetic diversity of atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) detected in south korean wild boars.atypical porcine pestivirus (appv), currently classified as pestivirus k, causes congenital tremor (ct) type a-ii in piglets. eighteen appv strains were identified from 2297 south korean wild boars captured in 2019. phylogenetic analysis of the structural protein e2 and nonstructural proteins ns3 and npro classified the appv viruses, including reference strains, into clades i, ii and iii. clade i was divided into four subclades; however, the strains belonging to the four subclades differed sligh ...202032599836
discovery of a novel putative atypical porcine pestivirus in pigs in the usa.pestiviruses are some of the most significant pathogens affecting ruminants and swine. here, we assembled a 11 276 bp contig encoding a predicted 3635 aa polyprotein from porcine serum with 68 % pairwise identity to that of a recently partially characterized rhinolophus affinis pestivirus (rapv) and approximately 25-28 % pairwise identity to those of other pestiviruses. the virus was provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus (appv). metagenomic sequencing of 182 serum samples identified fo ...201526219947
identification of a divergent lineage porcine pestivirus in nursing piglets with congenital tremors and reproduction of disease following experimental inoculation.congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. a majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. the objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. the vi ...201626909691
high prevalence of highly variable atypical porcine pestiviruses found in germany.recently, a novel atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) with significant distribution was described in the usa. subsequent screening of the german pig sector showed a high prevalence of appv with high variability among strains. first indication of a cell culture isolate is provided which will allow further investigations like pathogenesis studies.201627297961
atypical porcine pestivirus: a possible cause of congenital tremor type a-ii in newborn piglets.congenital tremor type a-ii in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (appv). here, we describe several strains of appv in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were pcr-negative for the virus. to demonstrate a causal relationship between appv and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramusc ...201627782037
congenital infection with atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) is associated with disease and viral persistence.in 2013, several austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. histological examination of the cns of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal c ...201728057061
disease surveillance in england and wales, december 2016.current and emerging issues: avian influenza and schmallenberg virushighlights from the scanning surveillance networkupdate on international disease threatscongenital tremor associated with atypical porcine pestivirus these are among matters discussed in the animal and plant health agency's (apha's) disease surveillance report for december 2016.201728082698
congenital tremor associated with atypical porcine pestivirus.this article has been prepared by susanna williamson and colleagues from the pig expert group at the apha.201728082699
identification of atypical porcine pestivirus infection in swine herds in china.atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) have been detected in swine herds from the usa, germany, the netherlands, spain and most recently in austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. here, for the first time, we reported appv infection in swine herds in china. newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in july and august 2016. rt-pcr, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed appv infection occurred ...201728497656
atypical porcine pestivirus as a novel type of pestivirus in pigs in china.pestiviruses are highly variable rna viruses. a growing number of novel pestiviruses has been discovered in domestic and wild species in the last two decades. recently, a novel atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) linked with the development of congenital tremor (ct) in neonatal pigs was described in europe and the americas. here, the first asian appv complete polyprotein coding sequence was assembled from serum samples from newborn piglets affected with ct in southern china, and termed appv_gd. 1 ...201728553280
novel pestivirus species in pigs, austria, 2015.a novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. the emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management.201728628456
phylogenetic and genomic characterization of a novel atypical porcine pestivirus in china.atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) has been considered a novel pestivirus and causative agent of congenital tremor type a-ii. an appv ch-gx2016 strain was characterized from newly born piglets with clinical symptoms of congenital tremor in guangxi, china. the genome of appv ch-gx 2016 strain was 11,475 bp in length and encoded a polyprotein composed of the 3,635 amino acids. this genome sequence exhibited 88.0% to 90.8% nucleotide sequence homology with other appv reference sequences in genbank. ...201728710801
viral metagenomic analysis displays the co-infection situation in healthy and pmws affected pigs.the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed the possibility to investigate and characterise the entire microbiome of individuals, providing better insight to the complex interaction between different microorganisms. this will help to understand how the microbiome influence the susceptibility of secondary agents and development of disease. we have applied viral metagenomics to investigate the virome of lymph nodes from swedish pigs suffering from the multifactorial dis ...201627907010
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (mek2), a novel e2-interacting protein, promotes the growth of classical swine fever virus via attenuation of the jak-stat signaling pathway.mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (mek1/2/erk1/2) cascade is involved in the replication of several members of the flaviviridae family including hepatitis c virus and dengue virus. the effects of the cascade on the replication of classical swine fever virus (csfv), a fatal pestivirus of pigs, remain unknown. in this study, mek2 was identified as a novel binding partner of the e2 protein of csfv using yeast two-hybrid screening. the e2-mek2 interaction was con ...201627605672
classical swine fever virus npro interacts with interferon regulatory factor 3 and induces its proteasomal degradation.viruses have evolved a multitude of strategies to subvert the innate immune system by interfering with components of the alpha/beta interferon (ifn-alpha/beta) induction and signaling pathway. it is well established that the pestiviruses prevent ifn-alpha/beta induction in their primary target cells, such as epitheloidal and endothelial cells, macrophages, and conventional dendritic cells, a phenotype mediated by the viral protein n(pro). central players in the ifn-alpha/beta induction cascade a ...200717215286
atypical porcine pestivirus-a widespread virus in the swedish wild boar population.the recently identified causative agent of congenital tremor in domestic piglets, atypical porcine pestivirus (appv), was detected in serum from swedish wild boar. a previous study from sweden described appv in domestic piglets suffering from congenital tremor, but the appv situation in the wild boar population was unknown. in this study, 595 serum samples from wild boar originating from 13 counties in the south and central parts of sweden, collected between 2000 and 2018, were analysed for the ...202134331830
atypical porcine pestivirus in wild boar (sus scrofa), spain. 201830201807
atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) as a new species of pestivirus in pig production.the genus pestivirus, which belongs to the family flaviviridae, includes ssrna+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic and wild animals. recently, several putative pestiviruses species have been discovered and characterized in mammalian species (giraffe pestivirus, antelope pestivirus, hobi virus, bungowannah virus, and linda virus); one of these is a genetically distinct pestivirus, named atypical porcine pestivirus (appv), discovered usin ...201930847345
molecular survey and phylogenetic analysis of atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) identified in swine and wild boar from northern italy.atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) is a newly recognized member of the flaviviridae family. this novel porcine pestivirus was first described in 2015 in the usa, where it has been associated with congenital tremor type a-ii in new-born piglets. appv is widely distributed in domestic pigs in europe and asia. in this study, a virological survey was performed in northern italy to investigate the presence of appv using molecular methods. testing of 360 abortion samples from pig herds revealed two ap ...201931835549
new leaves in the growing tree of pestiviruses.pestiviruses are a group of viruses of veterinary importance infecting livestock animals like pigs, cattle, and sheep, and also wildlife animals like wild boar and different deer species. while for decades only four classical species (classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, border disease virus), and a few so-called atypical pestiviruses were known (e.g., giraffe virus, pronghorn virus, hobi virus), a series of novel pestiviruses was identified in the last years ( ...201729029724
proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus pestivirus, family flaviviridae.we propose the creation of seven new species in the genus pestivirus (family flaviviridae) in addition to the four existing species, and naming species in a host-independent manner using the format pestivirus x. only the virus species names would change; virus isolates would still be referred to by their original names. the original species would be re-designated as pestivirus a (original designation bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), pestivirus b (bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), pestivirus c (clas ...201728786787
presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (appv) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor.pestiviruses are highly variable rna viruses belonging to the continuously growing family flaviviridae. a genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the usa, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (appv). here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of appv in germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. additionally, appv genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor ( ...201627292119
detection of a novel sapelovirus in central nervous tissue of pigs with polioencephalomyelitis in the usa.an approximately 3,000 finishing swine operation in the united states experienced an outbreak of an atypical neurologic disease in 11-weeks-old pigs with an overall morbidity of 20% and case fatality rate of 30%. the clinical onset and progression of signs in affected pigs varied but included inappetence, compromised ambulation, ataxia, incoordination, mental dullness, paresis, paralysis and decreased response to environmental stimuli. tissues from affected pigs were submitted for diagnostic inv ...201728160432
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