a zucchini yellow mosaic virus coat protein gene mutation restores aphid transmissibility but has no effect on aphid-transmissible (at) and two non-aphid-transmissible (nat) isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) were studied. the predicted amino acid sequences of the coat protein (cp) of the three virus isolates were analysed and compared. the nat isolates differed from the at isolate in having a thr instead of an ala residue at position 10 in the conserved asp-ala-gly triplet in the n-terminal region of cp. aphid transmissibility was restored in a progeny virus derived from an infectious cl ...19921402810
biological variability of potyviruses, an example: zucchini yellow mosaic virus.potyviruses present an important variability which may affect biological properties such as host range, symptomatology, virulence towards resistance genes, and transmissibility by vectors. a brief account of this potential is presented and illustrated by some aspects of the biological variability of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv).19921450743
coat protein of potyviruses. 7. amino acid sequence of peanut stripe virus.the amino acid sequence of the 287-residue coat protein of peanut stripe virus (pstv) was determined from the sequences of overlapping peptide fragments. results indicated that the amino terminus was blocked by an acetyl group, as has previously been found for the coat protein of johnsongrass mosaic potyvirus. comparison of the pstv sequence with coat proteins of 20 distinct potyviruses gave sequence identities of 47-57%, except for zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), passionfruit woodiness vir ...19911863222
infectious in vitro rna transcripts derived from cloned cdna of the cucurbit potyvirus, zucchini yellow mosaic virus.a full-length cdna clone of the rna genome of the cucurbit potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) was constructed downstream from a bacteriophage t7 rna polymerase promoter. a single extra guanosine residue not present in zymv rna was added to the 5' and 3' ends. capped (m7gpppg) zymv rna transcripts were infectious in 10 of 91 cucurbita pepo test plants; uncapped rna transcripts were not infectious. the appearance of symptoms in plants inoculated with the infectious transcript was delaye ...19911940860
nucleotide sequence of the zucchini yellow mosaic virus capsid-encoding gene and its expression in escherichia coli.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) rna was purified and used as a template for the synthesis of cdna. a partial restriction map covering 9.4 kb of the zymv genome was constructed from three clones designated zyks-22, zyks-16 and zyks-3. sequencing the 3'-end region of the zymv genome indicates the presence of (a)48 chain. this is followed by an untranslated region of 210 nucleotides (nt) and a coding region of 837 nt corresponding to the putative virus coat protein (cp) gene (cp). the predicted ...19902185142
isolation and serological comparison of virus-coded proteins of three potyviruses infecting cucurbitaceous plants.cylindrical inclusion proteins (cips), amorphous inclusion proteins (aips), and virus particles were partially purified from cucurbita maxima leaves infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), watermelon mosaic virus 2 (wmv2), and the watermelon mosaic virus 1 strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w). antisera to these individual antigens, except aips of zymv and wmv2, were prepared and used to determine with electroblot-elisa the serological differentiation indices (sdis) between homolog ...19902338401
watermelon mosaic virus ii and zucchini yellow mosaic virus: cloning of 3'-terminal regions, nucleotide sequences, and phylogenetic comparisons.the 3'-terminal genomic regions of an isolate of watermelon mosaic virus ii (wmvii) and a florida isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-f) have been cloned. the nucleotide sequence of the wmvii cdna clone shows the presence of the large nuclear inclusion protein gene, the coat protein gene and 3' untranslated region. the nucleotide sequence of a zymv-f cdna clone shows the presence of the coat protein gene and 3' untranslated region. comparisons of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid s ...19902374006
cdna cloning and sequence analysis of the 3'-terminal region of zucchini yellow mosaic virus rna.the 3' half of the rna of the cucurbit potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) was genetically cloned and the cdna sequence of a portion of the putative rna polymerase gene, the complete coat protein gene and the 3' untranslated region was determined. the coat protein and putative polymerase genes are both part of a continuous open reading frame as is the case for other potyviruses whose genomes are expressed as polyproteins. the q/s protease cleavage site for the n terminus of the coat pr ...19902374012
characterization of the p1 protein and coding region of the zucchini yellow mosaic virus.the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-terminal p1 coding region of an aphid-transmissible isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv; strain fl/at), a mild isolate (strain md) and a severe isolate (strain sv), all from florida, were compared with two other zymv isolates. the zymv md and sv isolates and an isolate from california (zymv ca) had 95-98% sequence similarities to fl/at, whereas an isolate from reunion island (zymv ru) had a 60% sequence similarity to fl/at. zymv md had an 18 nucleotide ...19957844540
cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus-morocco and south african passiflora virus are strains of the same potyvirus.high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) profiles of tryptic peptides and partial amino acid sequence analysis have been employed to establish the taxonomic status of the moroccan isolate of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (cabmv). some previous reports have suggested cabmv to be very closely related to blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (b1cmv) while other reports have concluded that this relationship is distant. in this report a tryptic digest of the coat protein of cabmv-morocco was compared w ...19948002788
nucleotide sequence of a singapore isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus coat protein gene revealed an altered dag motif.a cdna clone of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) rna was mapped to the 3' terminal region. the nucleotide sequence revealed a single open reading frame of 1035 nucleotides followed by a 3' noncoding region of 215 nucleotides. the putative protease cleavage site for the release of coat protein (cp) was deduced to be between glu-ser (at amino acid position 66-67), which would result in a protein of 279 amino acids. this non-aphid-transmissible singapore isolate of zymv showed a change of dag to ...19938122397
mutations in the helper component protease gene of zucchini yellow mosaic virus affect its ability to mediate aphid transmissibility.the nucleotide sequence of the helper component protease (hc-pro) genes of three zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) strains has been compared with that of a helper-deficient strain of zymv-hc. the comparisons revealed three unique deduced amino acid differences. two of these mutations were located in regions which are conserved in other potyviruses. the role of these mutations in aphid transmissibility was examined by exchanging dna fragments of part of the deficient hc-pro gene with the respec ...19948207404
mutational analysis of the helper component-proteinase gene of a potyvirus: effects of amino acid substitutions, deletions, and gene replacement on virulence and aphid transmissibility.we have previously provided evidence that amino acid substitutions within the n-terminal portion of the helper component-proteinase (hc-pro) from tobacco vein mottling virus (tvmv), in particular at lys-307, not only affect the aphid transmission activity of hc-pro but also have a significant effect on tvmv virulence. in the present study amino acids which differ in their charge properties were substituted at position 307. a highly basic residue was required to retain helper component activity a ...19938265648
mutations in zucchini yellow mosaic virus helper component protein associated with loss of aphid transmissibility.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) is a potyvirus transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. isolates having partially or totally lost their ability to be transmitted by aphids have been isolated and found to be affected in their helper component activities. we have sequenced the helper component coding region of poorly aphid-transmissible (pat) variants of two strains of zymv, e15 and r5a. mutations have been identified at the nucleotide level leading to two amino acid changes in the e1 ...19938277279
genetic engineering of potyvirus resistance using constructs derived from the zucchini yellow mosaic virus coat protein gene.three versions of the zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) coat protein gene were engineered for expression in plants: the full-length coat protein sequence, the conserved core portion of the gene, and an antisense version. these constructs were introduced into muskmelon (cucumis melo) and tobacco plants (nicotiana tabacum) via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation; gene expression was verified by northern and western analysis. transgenic r0 and r1 muskmelon plants expressing the full ...19938324251
nucleotide sequence of the 3' half of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (singapore isolate) genome encoding the 4k protein, protease, polymerase and coat protein. 19938464715
rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (rbdv) and zucchini yellow mosaic (zymv). for both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplifi ...19958576302
identification of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus by rt-pcr and analysis of sequence variability.a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) method was used to identify zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) in leaves of infected cucurbits. oligonucleotide primers which annealed to regions in the nuclear inclusion body (nib) and the coat protein (cp) genes, generated a 300-bp product from zymv and also from the closely related watermelon mosaic virus type 2 (wmv-2). however, no product was obtained from papaya ringspot potyvirus which also infects cucurbits. zymv and wmv-2 were ...19958576311
study of the three-dimensional images of potyvirus-induced cytoplasmic inclusions using confocal laser scanning microscopy.the three-dimensional structure of the cytoplasmic inclusions in leaves of cucurbita pepo l. infected with a singapore isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-s) was studied using a confocal laser scanning microscope. the cytoplasmic inclusions were found to be linear filamentous structures that varied in thickness and length. the formation of the inclusions probably begins when finely-pointed linear filamentous structures aggregate into bundles forming flat parallel arrays, or diverge int ...19968844619
particle bombardment drastically increases the infectivity of cloned dna of zucchini yellow mosaic infectious full-length cdna clone of the rna genome of the potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) was constructed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter. all squash, cucumber, melon and watermelon plants inoculated with the cloned cdna of zymv by particle bombardment become infected. bombardment technology is 10(6)-fold more effective than mechanical inoculation. due to the great increase in efficiency, ineffective constructs now became infective (i.e. cdna unde ...19958847534
analysis of the sequence diversity of the p1, hc, p3, nib and cp genomic regions of several yam mosaic potyvirus isolates: implications for the intraspecies molecular diversity of potyviruses.partial sequences from serologically characterized yam mosaic potyvirus (ymv) isolates were determined in conserved (helper-component proteinase, hc; nuclear inclusion b, nib) and variable (first protein, p1; third protein, p3; and coat protein, cp) regions of the potyviral genome in order to investigate the intraspecies molecular diversity of ymv. multiple sequence alignments and pairwise comparisons were used to quantify the sequence polymorphism in these regions. two levels of diversity were ...19979191916
sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the cytoplasmic inclusion protein gene of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus: its role in classification of the potyviridae.the cytoplasmic inclusion (ci) gene of a singapore isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-s) was sequenced and compared with ci of 14 other potyviruses. in addition to the consensus sequence gavgsgkst of nucleotide binding motif (ntbm) which is implicated as a membrane-binding component of the rna helicase complex, five other conserved motifs were found. phylogenetic trees were constructed from sequence data for the ci and the coat protein. similar branching patterns obtained from both ci ...19979208454
characterization of epitopes on zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus coat protein permits studies on the interactions between strains.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) raised against the coat protein of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (zymv) were characterized by epitope mapping using synthetic oligopeptides. two mutant viruses with a mutation in the amino acid sequence important for epitope recognition in vitro were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of a full-length cdna of zymv. two mabs, cc11 and dd2, could distinguish specifically between these mutants in mixed infections, or after sequential inoculations of muskmelons. se ...19979267009
mutations in the hc-pro gene of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus: effects on aphid transmission and binding to purified virions.transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) by aphids was examined by introducing mutations within the highly conserved proline-threonine-lysine (ptk) motif of the helper component proteinase (hc-pro) using a cdna full-length clone. replacement of proline by alanine (atk) in the ptk motif abolished transmission almost completely both from plants and from membranes. substitution of the basic lysine by glutamic acid (pte) did not reduce the rate of transmission compared with the wild-type. ...19989568986
nucleotide sequences of the coat protein genes of two japanese zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates.the nucleotide (nt) sequences of the coat protein (cp) genes of two japanese zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) isolates (zymv-169 and zymv-m) were determined. the cp genes of both isolates were 837 nt long and encoded 279 amino acids (aa). the nt and deduced aa sequence similarities between the two isolates were 92% and 94.6%, respectively. the deduced aa sequences of cps of the japanese isolates were compared with those of previously reported zymv isolates by phylogenetic analysis. this compa ...19979607085
use of modified plum pox virus coat protein genes developed to limit heteroencapsidation-associated risks in transgenic plants.aphid transmission of a non-aphid-transmissible strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-nat) occurs in transgenic plants expressing the plum pox potyvirus (ppv) coat protein (cp) gene. heteroencapsidation has been shown to be responsible for this modification in the epidemiological characteristics of the infecting virus. in order to prevent this biological risk, several modified ppv cp constructs were produced that were designed to interfere with heteroencapsidation itself or to block aphid ...19989634095
comparison of coat protein epitopes of two zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates.serological differences between two zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) isolates (zymv-169 and zymv-m) obtained from two distinct geographical locations in japan were determined by mapping epitopes on the coat proteins (cps) of the two isolates. a total of 45 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the two isolates were produced and the epitopes on the cps were delineated by reacting these mabs with trypsin-treated zymv particles and escherichia coli-expressed zymv cp fragments. six mabs of groups ...19989842446
affinity purification of hc-pro of potyviruses with ni2+-nta resin.the hc-pro of zucchini yellow mosiac virus (zymv) was found to bind to ni2+-nta resin with or without his-tagging. the binding stringency was similar to that observed in proteins with a zinc finger motif like the hc-pro. using this characteristic we developed an efficient and rapid method (2-3 h) for purification of the hc-pro of several potyviruses. a dominant protein of about 150 kda was extracted and identified as the hc-pro of zymv by means of immunoblotting. about 150 microg of hc-pro were ...19989923736
high resistance and control of biological risks in transgenic plants expressing modified plum pox virus coat protein.transgenic plums transformed with the plum pox virus coat protein (ppv cp) gene displayed a resistance to the sharka disease (ravelonandro et al., 1997). however, the expression of ppv cp in transgenic plants may lead to complementation of deficient characteristic of an incoming potyvirus. indeed, an aphid-intransmissible strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-nat) could be transmitted when encapsidated by the engineered ppv cp (lecoq et al., 1993). to control such a risk, new ppv cp const ...199810073226
variability of p1 protein of zucchini yellow mosaic virus for strain differentiation and phylogenetic analysis with other potyviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of a singapore isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (zymv-s) was determined from viral cdna clones. the complete genome is 9603 nucleotides in length excluding the poly (a) tail. computer analysis of the sequence revealed a single large open reading frame (orf) that presumably encodes a polyprotein of 3082 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 350 kda. analysis of the helper component (hc) protein showed that the highly conserved motif k-i-t-c ...199810524755
reciprocal assistance for aphid transmission between non-transmissible strains of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus in mixed infections. brief report.several aphid non-transmissible strains of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (zymv) have been described, in relation with mutations in the two viral proteins required for transmissibility, coat protein and helper component. assistance mechanisms were previously shown to allow transmission of such strains when functional proteins are provided in trans. in this paper, we used monoclonal antibodies to allow a specific detection of two aphid non-transmissible strains of zymv and we revealed that reci ...199910603175
nucleotide sequences of the cylindrical inclusion protein genes of two japanese zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates.the nucleotide sequences of the cylindrical inclusion protein (cip) genes of two japanese zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) isolates (zymv-169 and zymv-m) were determined. the cip genes of both isolates comprised 1902 nucleotides and encoded 634 amino acids containing consensus nucleotide binding motif. the sequence similarities between the two isolates at the nucleotide and amino acid levels were 91% and 98%, respectively. when the cip gene sequences of the japanese zymv isolates were compare ...199910672346
identification of a novel plant virus promoter using a potyvirus infectious clone.a putative promoter from the strawberry vein banding caulimovirus (svbv) genome was identified by its ability to drive infection with full-length cdna of the zucchini yellow mosaic rna potyvirus (zymv). a high rate of infection was obtained with the cdna under control of the svbv promoter using particle bombardment technology. the svbv promoter shows 60% homology to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter in the domain spanning the conserved motifs of ccact (at -83) and the tata box (at -31), ...200010766302
molecular characterization and coat protein serology of watermelon leaf mottle virus (potyvirus).a cdna library was generated from purified rna of watermelon leaf mottle virus (wlmv) (genus potyvirus). two overlapping clones totaling 2,316 nucleotides at the 3' terminus of the virus were identified by immunoscreening with coat protein antiserum. the sequence analyses of the clones indicated an open reading frame (orf) of 2,050 nucleotides which encoded part of the replicase and the coat protein, a 243-nucleotide non-coding region (3'utr), and 23 adenine residues of the poly (a) tail. the ta ...200010795529
transgenic or plant expression vector-mediated recombination of plum pox virus.different mutants of an infectious full-length clone (p35ppv-nat) of plum pox virus (ppv) were constructed: three mutants with mutations of the assembly motifs rq and df in the coat protein gene (cp) and two cp chimeras with exchanges in the cp core region of zucchini yellow mosaic virus and potato virus y. the assembly mutants were restricted to single infected cells, whereas the ppv chimeras were able to produce systemic infections in nicotiana benthamiana plants. after passages in different t ...200010906199
cross-reactive and major virus-specific epitopes are located at the n-terminal halves of the cylindrical inclusion proteins of turnip mosaic and zucchini yellow mosaic investigate the antigenic nature of cylindrical inclusion proteins (cips) of the potyviruses turnip mosaic virus (tumv) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the two cips were produced and epitopes on the cips were localized using escherichia coli-expressed cip fragments in western blot analysis. all 23 mabs against zymv cip reacted only with zymv cip. in contrast out of the 18 mabs produced against tumv cip, 14 mabs were tumv cip-specific while the rem ...200010963347
interaction between zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus rna-dependent rna polymerase and host poly-(a) binding protein.viral replication depends on compatible interactions between a virus and its host. for rna viruses, the viral replicases (rna-dependent rna polymerases; rdrps) often associate with components of the host translational apparatus. to date, host factors interacting with potyvirus replicases have not been identified. the potyviridae, which form the largest and most economically important plant virus family, have numerous similarities with the animal virus family, the picornaviridae. potyviruses have ...200010998341
cucurbit protoplast isolation for the study of plant virus replication.a cucurbit protoplast isolation protocol was established for the study of plant virus replication in vivo. this protocol is applicable to both cucumber and squash leaf tissue with significant increases in yields of viable protoplasts suitable for electroporation, compared to other published methods. a combination of cellulase rs, macerozyme r10 and mannitol was used as digestion enzymes and osmoticum. an average of 1.7x10(7) protoplasts per gram of fresh leaf tissue were obtained from cucumber c ...200111164482
a genetic map of cucumber composed of rapds, rflps, aflps, and loci conditioning resistance to papaya ringspot and zucchini yellow mosaic viruses.the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) are potyviruses that cause significant disease losses in cucumber. resistances have been identified primarily in exotic germplasm that require transfer to elite cultivated backgrounds. to select more efficiently for virus resistances, we identified molecular markers tightly linked to prsv-w and zymv resistances in cucumber. we generated f6 recombinant inbred lines (rils) from a cross between cucumis s ...200011195331
a nonviral peptide can replace the entire n terminus of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus coat protein and permits viral systemic infection.systematic deletion and peptide tagging of the amino-terminal domain (nt, ~43 amino acids) of an attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (zymv-agii) coat protein (cp) were used to elucidate its role in viral systemic infection. deletion mutants truncated by 8, 13, and 33 amino acid residues from the cp-nt 5' end were systemically infectious and produced symptoms similar to those of the agii virus. tagging these deletion mutants with either human c-myc (myc) or hexahistidine peptides maintain ...200111413299
ribozyme genes protecting transgenic melon plants against potyviruses.potyviruses are the most important viral pathogens of crops worldwide. under a contract with gene shears pty limited, we are using ribozyme genes to protect melon plants against two potyviruses: wmv2 and zymv. different polyribozyme genes were designed, built and introduced into melons plants. transgenic melon plants containing a resistance gene were obtained and their progeny was challenged by the appropriate virus. most of the genes tested conferred some degree of resistance to the viruses in ...200111471972
a new approach for weed control in a cucurbit field employing an attenuated potyvirus-vector for herbicide resistance.expression of bar, a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, in plant tissues, leads to resistance of these plants to glufosinate ammonium based herbicides. we have created a bar expressing, attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus-vector, agii-bar, to enable herbicide use in cucurbit fields. the parental vector, zymv-agii, has been rendered environmentally safe by both disease-symptom attenuation and aphid-assisted virus transmission abolishment. the recombinant agii-bar virus-encoding cdna, whe ...200111604171
production of antiviral and antitumor proteins map30 and gap31 in cucurbits using the plant virus vector zymv-agii.zymv-agii (zucchini yellow mosaic virus-agii) is a recombinant nonpathogenic potyvirus-based vector system for the expression of foreign genes in cucurbit plants and their edible fruits, including squash, cucumber, melon, watermelon, and pumpkin. map30 (momordica anti-hiv protein, 30 kda) and gap31 (gelonium anti-hiv protein 31 kda) are multifunctional plant proteins with activity against hiv-1 virus. these proteins are also effective against other viruses, tumor cells, and microbes. we report h ...200211906182
biological and serological variability, evolution and molecular epidemiology of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv, potyvirus) with special reference to caribbean islands.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv, potyvirus) emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last 20 years. its origins and mechanisms for evolution and worldwide spread represent important questions to understand plant virus emergence. sequence analysis on a 250 nucleotide fragment including the n-terminal part of the coat protein coding region, revealed one major group of strains, and some highly divergent isolates from distinct origins. within the major group, three subsets of stra ...200211955634
phylogeny and geographical differentiation of zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates (potyviridae) based on molecular analysis of the coat protein and part of the cytoplasmic inclusion protein genes.dna sequences for the coat protein (cp) and part of the cytoplasmic inclusion (ci) protein genes after reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) were reported for the first time for isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) from austria, germany, italy and slovenia. comparison of the dna sequences of 30 isolates from different geographical regions worldwide revealed highest similarities of the austrian isolates to those from slovenia and hungary. isolates from germany and it ...200212181678
systemic movement of a movement-deficient strain of cucumber mosaic virus in zucchini squash is facilitated by a cucurbit-infecting potyvirus.zucchini squash (cucurbita pepo) is a systemic host for most strains of the cucumovirus cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), although the long-distance movement of the m strain of cmv (m-cmv) is inhibited in some cultivars. however, co-infection of zucchini plants with m-cmv and the potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain a (zymv-a) allowed m-cmv to move systemically, as demonstrated by tissue-print analysis. these doubly infected plants exhibited severe synergism in pathology. infection of zucchi ...200212466495
characterization of hungarian isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv, potyvirus) transmitted by seeds of cucurbita pepo var styriaca.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) has emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last few years in hungary. the hungarian isolates show a high biological variability, have specific nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the n-terminal region of coat protein and form a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree. the virus is spread very efficiently in the field by several aphid species in a non-persistent manner. it can be transmitted by seed in holl-less seeded oil pumpkin (cucurbi ...200312701712
cytological modifications in zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv)-infected styrian pumpkin plants.the present research demonstrates severe ultrastructural changes induced by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) within the cells of older and younger leaves of styrian pumpkin plants (cucurbita pepo l. subsp. pepo var. styriaca greb.). cylindrical inclusions (pinwheels), proliferated endoplasmatic reticulum and filamentous viral particles were found throughout the cytoplasm of zymv-infected cells and within sieve elements. zymv-infection also induced severe modifications in the number and ultras ...200312756618
molecular analysis of the 3' terminal region of the genome of beet mosaic virus and its relation with other potyviruses.a1633 nucleotides long 3'-terminal sequence of genome of the beet mosaic virus (btmv) ren1 isolate from slovakia, spanning a part of the nib gene, complete capsid protein (cp) gene and a 3'non-coding region was determined. computer-assisted translation resulted in a polypeptide encompassing typical conserved potyviral amino acid (aa) motifs. homology blast search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that btmv was closest to bean common mosaic virus, soybean mosaic virus and zucchini yellow mosaic ...200314505096
breakage of resistance to cucumber mosaic virus by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus: enhancement of cmv accumulation independent of symptom expression.resistance to the cucumovirus cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in cucumber cv. delila was manifested as a very low level of accumulation of viral rna and capsid protein, and an absence of cmv-induced symptoms. in addition, resistance was observed at the single cell level, with a reduction in accumulation of cmv rnas, compared to accumulation in cells of the susceptible cucumber cv. bet alpha. resistance to cmv in cv. delila was broken by co-infection with the potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus (z ...200414745602
durable virus resistance in plants through conventional approaches: a challenge.breeding for virus resistance is often considered the most efficient and simplest way to avoid the losses due to plant virus diseases. resistance mechanisms are very diverse and interact with various stages of the virus cycle in the host plant. resistances may also differ in their specificity, stability and durability. breeding for resistance is a long and costly process, therefore to be cost effective it should provide durable protection. three pathosystems are discussed to illustrate some of t ...200415036833
oral administration of a mite allergen expressed by zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucurbit species downregulates allergen-induced airway inflammation and ige synthesis.sublingual-swallow immunotherapy in house dust mite-related asthma has a good safety profile and improves respiratory function and bronchial hyperreactivity. zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) is envisaged as a promising viral vector for expressing large quantity of foreign proteins in cucurbit species.200415208588
comparative mapping of zymv resistances in cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) and melon (cucumis melo l.).zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( cucumis sativus l.) and melon ( cucumis melo l.). zymv resistances from the cucumber population 'tmg1' and the melon plant introduction (pi) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. we used molecular markers tightly linked to zymv resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. a 5-kb genomic region (ycz-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber ...200415340688
functional analysis of the cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein: pathogenicity and nuclear localization.the 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) has been shown to be a silencing suppressor and pathogenicity determinant in solanaceous hosts, but a movement determinant in cucumber. in addition, synergistic interactions between cmv and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) have been described in several cucurbit species. here, it was shown that deletion of the 2b gene from cmv prevented extensive systemic movement of the virus in zucchini squash, which could not be complemented by co-infec ...200415448377
inheritance of resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus and watermelon mosaic virus in watermelon.high resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus-china strain (zymv-ch) and moderate resistance to watermelon mosaic virus (wmv) were found in a selection of pi 595203 (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus), an egusi type originally collected in nigeria. mixed inoculations showed primarily that these two viruses have no cross-protection. this fact may explain the high frequency of mixed infection often observed in commercial fields. when plants were inoculated with a mixture of the two viruses, the fre ...200415475395
maintenance of coat protein n-terminal net charge and not primary sequence is essential for zucchini yellow mosaic virus systemic infectivity.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) surface exposed coat protein (cp) n-terminal domain (nt) is 43 aa long and contains an equal number of positively and negatively charged amino acid residues (cp-nt net charge = 0). a zymv-agii truncation mutant lacking the first 20 aa of its cp-nt (agii-cp delta 20; cp-nt net charge = +2) was found to be systemically non-infectious even though agii mutants harbouring larger cp-nt deletions were previously demonstrated to be fully infectious. nevertheless, agii ...200415483260
aphid transmission of a potyvirus depends on suitability of the helper component and the n terminus of the coat protein.the present study investigates the specificity of potyviruses for aphid species. two potyviruses differing in their host range were used: zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) mainly infecting cucurbits and turnip mosaic virus (tumv) mainly infecting crucifers. two sets of aphids species were used as vectors, one polyphagous (myzus persicae and aphis gossypii) and the other from crucifers (brevicoryne brassicae and lipaphis erysimi). evidence is provided that the specificity between a vector and a ...200515503223
movement of coat protein genes from a commercial virus-resistant transgenic squash into a wild relative.we monitored pollen-mediated transgene dissemination from commercial transgenic squash czw-3 into its wild relative cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera var. texana (c. texana). transgenic squash czw-3 expresses the neomycin phosphotransferase ii (nptii) gene and the coat protein (cp) genes of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv); thereby, it is resistant to these three aphid-borne viruses. the rate of npt ii and cp transgene introgression in ...200415612351
comparative fitness of a wild squash species and three generations of hybrids between wild x virus-resistant transgenic squash.we compared some fitness components of the wild squash species cucurbita pepo spp. ovifera var. texana (c. texana) and three generations of hybrids (f1, bc1, and bc2) between c. texana and commercial transgenic squash czw-3 over three consecutive years under field conditions of low (ldp) and high disease pressure (hdp) by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv). transgenic squash czw-3 expresses the coat protein (cp) genes of cmv, zymv, ...200415612352
changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during virus infection in cucurbita pepo (l.).changes in the subcellular distribution and quantification of glutathione were studied with electron microscopic immunogold cytochemistry in zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv)-infected styrian pumpkin plants (cucurbita pepo l. ssp. pepo var. styriaca greb.) two weeks after inoculation. the amount of gold particles bound to glutathione was statistically evaluated for different cell structures, including mitochondria, plastids, nuclei, peroxisomes, and cytosol. in general, zymv-infected plants sh ...200515666214
reactions of some cucurbitaceous species tozucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv).zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) is a widespread serious pathogen of cucurbitaceous plants. zymv was first detected in hungary in 1995. since then it has become one of the most dangerous viruses of the cucurbitaceae family causing serious epidemics. the virus has many hosts, which - particularly perennial ones - may play important role as virus reservoirs and infection sources in virus epidemiology. on the other hand wild weed species maybe sources of resistance to viruses. our research was c ...200415756830
occurrence, distribution and relative incidence of mosaic viruses infecting field--grown squash in tehran province, iran.squash (cucurbita pepo) belongs to cucurbitaceae family. every year cucurbitaceae are planted world wide. they are one of the most important economic crops. cucurbitaceae are threatened by viruses. many viruses damage the plants of this family. since nine viruses have been reported on squash from iran. in this survey, during 2002--2003, to determine the distribution of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv), 466 samples were collected f ...200415756831
experimental and natural weed host-virus relations.weeds, as alternative hosts of plant viruses and nutrient plants of virus vectors play important role in virus ecology and epidemiology. the aim of our study was to discover new weed-virus relations. therefore some weed species were mechanically inoculated with 28 viruses (strains or isolates) maintained in our glasshouse. different weed species with and without visible symptoms were collected from agro-, water ecosystems and wastelands of hungary between 1997 and 2003. virus infections were eva ...200415759395
[cloning, expression of the cp gene and antiserum preparation of zucchini yellow mosaic virus infecting benincasa hispida cogn. var. chieh-qua how].a guangzhou isolate of zymv infecting benincasa hispida cogn. var. chieh-qua how was identified by indicator tests and partial sequence amplification. the coat protein (cp) gene of this virus was amplified by rt-pcr, and ligated to the expression vector pet-22b(+). the recombinant plasmid pet-zcp was transformed into e. coli bl21 (de3) and then induced to express by iptg. it was shown that the cp gene was highly expressed by sds-page and western blot analysis. the molecular weight of the recombi ...200515847180
purification and serological analyses of tospoviral nucleocapsid proteins expressed by zucchini yellow mosaic virus vector in squash.a plant viral vector engineered from an in vivo infectious clone of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) was used to express the nucleocapsid proteins (nps) of tospoviruses in planta. the open reading frames (orfs) of nps of different serogroups of tospoviruses, including tomato spotted wilt virus, impatiens necrotic spot virus, watermelon silver mottle virus, peanut bud necrosis virus, and watermelon bud necrosis virus (wbnv), were in frame inserted in between the p1 and hc-pro genes of the zymv ...200515992936
effects of different fixation and freeze substitution methods on the ultrastructural preservation of zymv-infected cucurbita pepo (l.) leaves.different fixation protocols [chemical fixation, plunge and high pressure freezing (hpf)] were used to study the effects of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) disease on the ultrastructure of adult leaves of styrian oil pumpkin plants (cucurbita pepo l. subsp. pepo var. styriaca greb.) with the transmission electron microscope. additionally, different media were tested for freeze substitution (fs) to evaluate differences in the ultrastructural preservation of cryofixed plant leaf cells. fs was ...200516123060
detection of tomato yellow leaf curl thailand virus by pcr without dna extraction.we report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl thailand virus (tylcthv) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) tube. this method allowed pcr without the time-consuming procedures of dna extraction from infected plant tissue. a small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. the constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit p ...200516230773
[sequence diversity of the 3' end genome for zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates].the present study analyzed the 3' end sequence of nine mainland isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) genome including the coat protein (cp) gene and 3' end un-translated region (utr). obtained sequence data was compared with previously reported sequences of 16 zymv isolates from other regions of the world. in a certain degree, similarity of nucleic acid sequence for cp gene was found being related with the host origin and geological distribution, but not very obvious. similarity of th ...200316279207
viral suppressors of rna interference impair rna silencing induced by a semliki forest virus replicon in tick was recently shown that infection of ise6 tick cells by a recombinant semliki forest virus (sfv) expressing a heterologous gene induced small interfering rnas (sirnas) and silencing of the gene. to gain information on rna interference (rnai) in ticks, three known viral inhibitors that act in different ways, the ns1 protein of influenza virus, nss of tospovirus tomato spotted wilt virus and hc-pro of zucchini yellow mosaic virus were expressed and investigated to determine if they antagonize i ...200616760400
comparative spatial spread overtime of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv) in fields of transgenic squash expressing the coat protein genes of zymv and wmv, and in fields of nontransgenic squash.the spatial and temporal patterns of aphid-vectored spread of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv) were monitored over two consecutive years in plantings of nontransgenic and transgenic squash zw-20h (commercial cv. freedom ii) and zw-20b, both expressing the coat protein genes of zymv and wmv. all test plants were surrounded by nontransgenic plants that were mechanically inoculated with zymv or wmv, and served as primary virus source. across all trials, none of ...200616838196
characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene from cucumber required for trichoderma-conferred plant resistance.the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma asperellum has been recently shown to induce systemic resistance in plants through a mechanism that employs jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways. mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) proteins have been implicated in the signal transduction of a wide variety of plant stress responses. here we report the identification and characterization of a trichoderma-induced mapk (tipk) gene function in cucumber (cucumis sativus). similar to its h ...200616950863
artificial elevation of glutathione affects symptom development in zymv-infected cucurbita pepo l. plants.styrian oil pumpkin seedlings (cucurbita pepo l. subsp. pepo var. styriaca greb: .) were treated for 48 h with 1 mm otc (l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) in order to artificially increase cellular glutathione content. they were inoculated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) 10 days later. the effects of otc treatment and zymv infection on glutathione levels were examined at the subcellular level by immunogold labeling of glutathione using a transmission electron microscope (tem). thes ...200717143780
virus-induced changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione precursors in cucurbita pepo (l.).changes in glutathione contents occur in plants during environmental stress situations, such as pathogen attack, as the formation of reactive oxygen species leads to the activation of the antioxidative defence system. as glutathione is synthesized out of its constituents cysteine, glycine, and glutamate the availability of these components will limit glutathione synthesis in plants especially during stress situations and therefore the ability of the plant to fight oxidative stress. to gain a dee ...200717143806
in vitro association between the helper component-proteinase of zucchini yellow mosaic virus and cuticle proteins of myzus persicae.potyviruses, as typical non-persistently transmitted viruses, are carried within the stylets of aphids. cuticle proteins (cups), which are a major component of the insect cuticle, were examined for in vitro binding to the potyviral helper component-proteinase (hc-pro). proteins in 8 m urea extracts from myzus persicae were separated by sds-page, electroblotted onto membranes and identified as cups by using specific antibodies to m. persicae cup. blotted m. persicae protein extracts were overlaid ...200717412993
physiological and metabolic changes of cucurbita pepo leaves in response to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) infection and salicylic acid treatments.the changes of some physiological and biochemical parameters in pumpkin (cucurbita pepo cv eskandarani) leaves associated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) infection and the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid (sa) were studied in this paper. in comparison to the untreated leaves, zymv infected leaves showed many symptoms, including severe mosaic, size reduction, stunting and deformation. results from analysis of physiological parameters indicated that viral infection and sa ...200717466528
highly sensitive fluorescent-labeled probes and glass slide hybridization for the detection of plant rna viruses and a this study, a modified method of the conventional rna dot-blot hybridization was established, by replacing (32)p labels with cy5 labels and replacing nylon membranes with positive-charged glass slides, for detecting plant rna viruses and a viroid. the modified rna dot-blot hybridization method was named glass slide hybridization. the optimum efficiency of rna binding onto the surfaces of activated glass slide was achieved using aminosilane-coated glass slide as a solid matrix and 5xsaline sod ...200717492129
analysis of the molecular and biological variability of zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates from slovakia and czech republic.the diversity of zymv isolates was analysed by the biological and molecular characterisation of 11 isolates sampled from cucumber, squash and zucchini between 2001 and 2006 in various localities of slovakia and czech republic. analysis of the molecular variability targeting three separate genomic regions of the zymv genome [p1, p3 and (cter)nib-(nter)cp] revealed a remarkable low level of nucleotide variability between isolates, despite their temporal and spatial distinction. phylogenetic analys ...200717497214
flowering locus t protein may act as the long-distance florigenic signal in the cucurbits.cucurbita moschata, a cucurbit species responsive to inductive short-day (sd) photoperiods, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) were used to test whether long-distance movement of flowering locus t (ft) mrna or ft is required for floral induction. ectopic expression of ft by zymv was highly effective in mediating floral induction of long-day (ld)-treated plants. moreover, the infection zone of zymv was far removed from floral meristems, suggesting that ft transcripts do not function as the f ...200717540715
synergy between cucumber mosaic virus and zucchini yellow mosaic virus on cucurbitaceae hosts tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) are two principal viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops, and their synergy has been repeatedly observed. in our present work, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction procedure was established to study the accumulation kinetics of these two viruses in single and combined infections at the molecular level. the accumulations of open reading frames (orfs) for 1a, 2a, 3a and coat protein (cp) of cmv and cp of zym ...200717558448
the conserved frnk box in hc-pro, a plant viral suppressor of gene silencing, is required for small rna binding and mediates symptom development.the helper component-proteinase (hc-pro) protein of potyviruses is a suppressor of gene silencing and has been shown to elicit plant developmental-defect-like symptoms. in zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), a mutation in the highly conserved fr180nk box of hc-pro to fi180nk causes attenuation of these symptoms. at 5 days postinoculation and before symptoms appear, virus accumulation, hc-pro protein levels, and viral short interfering rna (sirna) levels are similar for the severe (frnk) and att ...200717898058
two biologically distinct isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus lack seed transmissibility in cucumber.the seed transmission of the zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) was studied in cucumber using two isolates unrelated in their biological characteristics. although the virus could be readily detected in mature seeds harvested from infected cucumbers, the seedlings obtained from infected germinated seeds tested negative for zymv using both elisa and rt-pcr assays. no evidence was obtained for transmission of two zymv isolates through seeds.200717900220
identification and sequence analysis of potyviruses infecting crops in vietnam.fifty-two virus isolates from 13 distinct potyvirus species infecting crops in vietnam were identified and the 3' region of each genome was sequenced. the viruses were: bean common mosaic virus (bcmv), potato virus y (pvy), sugarcane mosaic virus (scmv), sorghum mosaic virus (srmv), chilli veinal mottle virus (chivmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), leek yellow stripe virus (lymv), shallot yellow stripe virus (sysv), onion yellow dwarf virus (oydv), turnip mosaic virus (tumv), dasheen mosa ...200817906829
intraspecific variation in zucchini yellow mosaic virus transmission by myzus persicae and the impact of aphid host plant.three isofemale lines of myzus persicae (sulzer), two lines collected from and reared on a brassicaceous host, and one line collected from and reared on a malvaceous host, were evaluated for their efficiency of transmitting zucchini yellow mosaic virus (family potyviridae, genus potyvirus, zymv). in the first experiment, the transmission efficiencies of two clones from brassicaceae (b1 and b2) were 52.0 and 60.8%, respectively, and these transmissions were not significantly different. in a secon ...200718232392
construction of a fosmid library of cucumber (cucumis sativus) and comparative analyses of the eif4e and eif(iso)4e regions from cucumber and melon (cucumis melo).a fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as an unrestricted resource for researchers and used for comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes, both members of the genus cucumis and the two most economically important plants in the family cucurbitaceae. end sequencing of random fosmids produced over 680 kilobases of cucumber genomic sequence, of which 25% was similar to ribosomal dnas, 25% to satellite sequences, 20% to coding regions in other plants ...200818273646
rapid evolutionary dynamics of zucchini yellow mosaic virus.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) is an economically important virus of cucurbit crops. however, little is known about the rate at which this virus has evolved within members of the family cucurbitaceae, or the timescale of its epidemiological history. herein, we present the first analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of zymv. using a bayesian coalescent approach we show that the coat protein of zymv has evolved at a mean rate of 5.0 x 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year. notabl ...200818343852
occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in guilan province, iran.during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (cucumis melo l.), cucumber (c. sativus l.), squash (cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (citrulus lanatus l.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of guilan province in iran. symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich elisa (das-elisa) or rt-pcr to detect zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), watermelon mosaic virus (wmv), cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (cab ...200818564898
increase in zucchini yellow mosaic virus symptom severity in tolerant zucchini cultivars is related to a point mutation in p3 protein and is associated with a loss of relative fitness on susceptible plants.abstract zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv, potyvirus) is a very damaging cucurbit virus worldwide. interspecific crosses with resistant cucurbita moschata have led to the release of "resistant" zucchini squash (c. pepo) f(1) hybrids. however, although the resistance is almost complete in c. moschata, the commercial c. pepo hybrids are only tolerant. zymv evolution toward increased aggressiveness on tolerant hybrids was observed in the field and was obtained experimentally. sequence comparisons ...200318943611
modifications of the helper component-protease of zucchini yellow mosaic virus for generation of attenuated mutants for cross protection against severe infection.abstract a nonpathogenic mild strain is essential for control of plant viruses by cross protection. three amino acid changes, arg(180)-->ile(180) (ga mutation), phe(205)-->leu(205) (gb mutation), and glu(396)-->asn(396) (gc mutation), of the conserved motifs of the helper component-protease (hc-pro) of a severe strain tw-tn3 of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), a member of the genus potyvirus, were generated from an infectious cdna clone that carried a green fluorescent protein reporter. the ...200718943647
identification of common epitopes on a conserved region of nss proteins among tospoviruses of watermelon silver mottle virus serogroup.abstract the nss protein of watermelon silver mottle virus (wsmov) was expressed by a zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) vector in squash. the expressed nss protein with a histidine tag and an additional nia protease cleavage sequence was isolated by ni(2+)-nta resins as a free-form protein and further eluted after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for production of rabbit antiserum and mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs). the rabbit antiserum strongly reacted with the ns ...200618943661
characterization of synergy between cucumber mosaic virus and potyviruses in cucurbit hosts.abstract mixed infections of cucurbits by cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) and potyviruses exhibit a synergistic interaction. zucchini squash and melon plants coinfected by the potyvirus zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and either fny-cmv (subgroup ia) or ls-cmv (subgroup ii) displayed strong synergistic pathological responses, eventually progressing to vascular wilt and plant death. accumulation of fny- or ls-cmv rnas in a mixed infection with zymv in zucchini squash was slightly higher than infe ...200218944139
a point mutation in the frnk motif of the potyvirus helper component-protease gene alters symptom expression in cucurbits and elicits protection against the severe homologous virus.sequence comparison had previously shown three amino acid changes in conserved motifs in the 455-amino acid sequence of the helper component-protease (hc-pro) between a severe field strain of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv-nat) and a mild field strain of zymv (zymv-wk). in this study, exchange of fragments and site-directed mutagenesis within the hc-pro gene in an infectious clone of zymv enabled the effects of the mutations on symptom expression to be mapped. the substitution of ile for arg ...200018944551
heteroduplex mobility and sequence analyses for assessment of variability of zucchini yellow mosaic virus.abstract a heteroduplex mobility assay (hma) was used to analyze the variability among five isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv; tw-tc1, tw-cy2, tw-tn3, tw-tnml1, and tw-nt1) collected from cucurbit fields in different areas of taiwan. a cdna fragment of 760 bp covering the variable region of the n terminal half of the coat protein (cp) gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and subsequently subjected to hma analysis for sequence variation. when ...200018944613
population size and incidence of virus infection in free-living populations of cucurbita pepo.impact assessments of virus resistance transgene introgression into wild, free-living populations are important for determining whether these transgenes present a risk to agriculture or the environment. transgenic virus-resistant cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera var. ovifera l. (squash) cultivars have been commercialized, and may be cultivated in close proximity to cross-compatible wild, free-living relatives (c. pepo subsp. pepo vars. ozarkana and texana). therefore, the potential impact of these vi ...200819081007
molecular epidemiology of zucchini yellow mosaic virus in france: an historical overview.cucurbit viruses are involved in complex and changing pathosystems in france, with new virus strains or species regularly reported. zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) is an archetypal emerging virus that was reported in france in 1979. it has since caused sporadic but occasionally very severe economic losses and its epidemiology still remains poorly understood. partial sequencing of the viral genome has been used to characterize zymv isolates that occurred over a 29-year period in experimental ...200919152815
generation of transgenic oriental melon resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus by an improved cotyledon-cutting method.production of melon (cucumis melo l.) worldwide is often limited by the potyvirus, zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv). in order to engineer melon lines resistant to zymv, a construct containing the translatable coat protein (cp) sequence coupled with the 3' non-translatable region of the virus was generated and used to transform an elite cultivar of oriental melon (silver light) mediated by agrobacterium using an improved cotyledon-cutting method. removal of 1-mm portion from the proximal end o ...200919479262
development of a short oligonucleotide microarray for the detection and identification of multiple potyviruses.the genus potyvirus is the largest and one of the most economically important virus genera infecting plants. however, current diagnostic techniques are limited in their ability to identify multiple potyvirus infections. an assay that can identify multiple potyviruses simultaneously, with good specificity and sensitivity, is therefore highly desirable. to determine the feasibility of simultaneous detection of multiple potyviruses a 25-mer oligonucleotide microarray was developed targeting four di ...200919654025
rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases by transmission electron microscopy.a clear and rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases is of great importance for agriculture and scientific experiments in plant phytopathology. even though negative staining and transmission electron microscopy (tem) are often used for detection and identification of viral particles and provide rapid and reliable results, it is necessary to examine ultrastructural changes induced by viruses for clear identification of the disease. with conventional sample preparation for tem it can take several d ...200919665483
risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: fitness effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild cucurbita pepo.the development of crops genetically engineered for pathogen resistance has raised concerns that crop-to-wild gene flow could release wild or weedy relatives from regulation by the pathogens targeted by the transgenes that confer resistance. investigation of these risks has also raised questions about the impact of gene flow from conventional crops into wild plant populations. viruses in natural plant populations can play important roles in plant fecundity and competitive interactions. here, we ...200919688918
non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the watermelon eif4e gene are closely associated with resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic virus.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced eif4e and eif(iso)4e gene segments in watermelon. analysis of the nucleotide sequences between the zymv-resistant watermelon plant introduction pi 595203 (citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the zymv-susceptible watermelon cultivar 'new hampshire midget' ('nhm') showed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms ...200919820912
indirect costs of a nontarget pathogen mitigate the direct benefits of a virus-resistant transgene in wild cucurbita.virus-resistant transgenic squash are grown throughout the united states and much of mexico and it is likely that the virus-resistant transgene (vrt) has been introduced to wild populations repeatedly. the evolutionary fate of any resistance gene in wild populations and its environmental impacts depend upon trade-offs between the costs and benefits of the resistance gene. in a 3-year field study using a wild gourd and transgenic and nontransgenic introgressives, we measured the effects of the tr ...200919858473
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