protection against detrimental effects of potyvirus infection in transgenic tobacco plants expressing the papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene.we obtained transgenic tobacco plants expressing the papaya ringspot virus (prv) coat protein (cp) gene by transformation via agrobacterium tumefaciens. expression was effectively monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) of crude tissue extracts. subcloned plants derived from eight original ro transformants were inoculated with potyviruses: tobacco etch (tev), potato virus y (pvy), and pepper mottle (pemv). plants that accumulated detectable levels of the prv cp showed significant ...19911367635
complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of papaya ringspot virus rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the rna genome of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) was determined from four overlapping cdna clones and by direct sequencing of viral rna. the genomic rna is 10326 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(a) tract, and contains one large open reading frame that starts at nucleotide positions 86 to 88 and ends at positions 10118 to 10120, encoding a polyprotein of 3344 amino acids. the highly conserved sequence aaauaaaanancucaacacaacaua at the 5' end of the rna of ...19921402799
nucleotide sequence comparison of the 3'-terminal regions of severe, mild, and non-papaya infecting strains of papaya ringspot virus.the 3'-terminal 2,561 nucleotide residues of the severe ha strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) was determined. comparison with the published sequence of the mild strain prsv ha 5-1 showed that they shared a 99.4% identity in their 3'-terminal 2,235 residues. there were ten residues different at the nib gene, resulting in five amino acid changes, and two residues different in the coat protein gene, resulting in two amino acid changes. the 3'-untranslated regions were identical, but ha containe ...19921456896
nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of potato virus a rna.the sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the genome of the potato virus a (pva) was obtained from two independent cdna clones. this sequence is 1383 nucleotides long and contains an open reading frame of 1178 nucleotides, ending with the translation termination codon taa and followed by untranslated region of 205 nucleotides. since the n-terminal amino acid of the coat protein of pva was blocked, the position of the putative coat protein cleavage site has been deduced by searching for consensus ...19921604933
establishment and characterization of sv40 t-antigen immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells.normal human esophageal autopsy tissue was explanted in serum-free medium. the epithelial outgrowths were subcultured and then transfected by strontium phosphate coprecipitation with plasmid prsv-t consisting of the rsv-ltr promoter and the sequence encoding the simian virus 40 large t-antigen. the transfected cells, but not the sham-transfected controls, formed multilayered colonies within 3-4 weeks, after which the colonies were transferred and cell strains (he-451 and he-457) developed. both ...19911703038
genetic structure of the pol-env region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus genome.the nucleotide sequence of the pol-env intergenic region of two isolates of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was determined. two open reading frames (orfs) were identified, designated q and s by homology with visna virus. caev orf s is a single exon encoding a deduced 87-amino acid gene product sharing 36 amino acid identities with the visna trans-acting transcriptional activator (tat). ten of these identities comprise a conserved cgcrlcnpgw sequence similar to a cysteine-rich domain ...19911845832
malignant transformation of human endometrial stromal cells by transfection of c-myc: effects of prsvneo cotransfection and treatment with mnng.stromal cells isolated from normal human endometrium were cotransfected in primary culture with psvc-myc, a plasmid containing a truncated c-myc gene regulated by simian virus 40 promoter, and prsv neo, a plasmid containing a neomycin resistance gene regulated by rous sarcoma virus (rsv) promoter. these cells demonstrated properties of transformed cells in vitro, including altered morphology, focus formation, anchorage-independent growth, chromosomal alterations, and tumor formation in athymic m ...19902171549
the nucleotide sequences of the 3'-terminal regions of papaya ringspot virus strains w and p.the sequences of cdna clones encoding most of the nib protein, the coat protein and the 3' untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus (prv) strains w and p have been determined. the open reading frame of p strain prv was confirmed by amino acid analysis. nucleotide sequence comparisons of these strains show that they share a 98.2% identity in their nib gene regions and a 97.7% identity in their coat protein genes. the sequences of these two strains are distinct from other potyvirus types, conf ...19902303800
isolation and serological comparison of virus-coded proteins of three potyviruses infecting cucurbitaceous plants.cylindrical inclusion proteins (cips), amorphous inclusion proteins (aips), and virus particles were partially purified from cucurbita maxima leaves infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), watermelon mosaic virus 2 (wmv2), and the watermelon mosaic virus 1 strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w). antisera to these individual antigens, except aips of zymv and wmv2, were prepared and used to determine with electroblot-elisa the serological differentiation indices (sdis) between homolog ...19902338401
gene transfer, expression and inheritance of prsv-rainbow trout-gh cdna in the common carp, cyprinus carpio (linnaeus).a recombinant plasmid containing the rous sarcoma virus-long terminal repeat (rsv-ltr) promoter linked to rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri) growth hormone (gh) cdna was microinjected into fertilized carp eggs. genomic dna extracted from pectoral fin of individual presumptive transgenic fish was analyzed by dot blot and southern blot hybridization, using the rsv-ltr and/or the gh cdna sequences as probes. out of 365 presumptive transgenic fish analyzed, 20 individuals were found to contain prsv-rtg ...19902393581
prenatal lethality in a transgenic mouse line is the result of a chromosomal translocation.we have produced a line of transgenic mice that is characterized by prenatal lethality. these mice bear a chimeric plasmid containing the long terminal repeat of the rous sarcoma virus linked to the coding region of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (prsv-cat). mice heterozygous for the prsv-cat integration site are semisterile, producing litters approximately equal to 40% of the average size when crossed to normal mice. approximately 50% of the progeny from such a cross bear the prsv-c ...19882829218
the herpes simplex virus type 1 alpha protein icp27 can act as a trans-repressor or a trans-activator in combination with icp4 and icp0.the herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) alpha proteins icp4, icp0, and icp27 are trans-acting proteins which affect hsv-1 gene expression. to investigate potential interactions between these alpha products and to determine the specificity of action of the alpha proteins in combination with each other compared with their activities individually, we performed a series of transient-expression assays. in these assays we used plasmids containing the alpha genes encoding icp4, icp0, and icp27 either s ...19882846867
complementary dna cloning and expression of the papaya ringspot potyvirus sequences encoding capsid protein and a nuclear inclusion-like protein in escherichia coli.three cdna clones that express viral gene products in escherichia coli jm83 were derived from a watermelon mosaic virus-1 strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w). dnas complementary to portions of the viral rna were inserted into the puc8 and puc9 plasmids, and the expressed polypeptides were fusion products with the amino terminus of beta-galactosidase. clones w1-77 and w2-1 expressed fusion products with apparent molecular weights of 40,000 (40k) and 14k, respectively, which were serologicall ...19852998020
tissue-specific expression in transgenic mice of a fused gene containing rsv terminal sequences.transgenic mice were generated with prsv-cat, a chimeric gene construct containing the long terminal repeat of rous sarcoma virus (rsv) linked to the bacterial gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat). cat expression, detected in adult animals of five independent strains, was preferentially directed to organs rich in tendon, bone, and muscle. this pattern reflects the disease specificity of the intact virus and suggests that the tissue tropism of rsv is determined at least in part b ...19863006249
expression of human argininosuccinate synthetase after retroviral-mediated gene transfer.the cdna sequence for human argininosuccinate synthetase (as) was introduced into plasmid expression vectors with an sv40 promoter or rous sarcoma virus promoter to construct psv2-as and prsv-as, respectively, and human enzyme was synthesized after gene transfer into chinese hamster cells. the functional cdna was inserted into the retroviral vectors pzip-neosv(x) and pzip-neosv(b). ecotropic as retrovirus was produced after calcium-phosphate-mediated gene transfer of these constructions into the ...19863020714
wind effects on spread of watermelon mosaic virus 1 from local virus sources to watermelon. 19744839221
papaya ringspot potyvirus: isolate variability and the origin of prsv type p (australia).we have sequenced the coat protein gene of nine isolates of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) including six australian and three asian isolates and compared these with four previously reported sequences of prsv. there was up to 12% sequence variation between isolates at the nucleotide level. however, there was no significant difference between the sequences obtained from australian isolates irrespective of whether they were prsv type p (cucurbit or papaya infecting) or prsv type w (cucurbit infecting ...19947996146
nucleotide sequence of johnsongrass mosaic potyvirus genomic rna.the complete nucleotide sequence of the rna genome of johnsongrass mosaic virus (jgmv), which infects monocotyledonous plant species, has been determined from cloned viral cdnas. the jgmv genomic rna is 9,766 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly (a) tail, and contains a large open reading frame that codes for a polyprotein of 3,052 amino acids. the open reading frame is flanked by a 5' untranslated region of 135 and a 3' untranslated region of 475 nucleotides. a comparison of the jgmv polyp ...19938150599
watermelon mosaic virus-morocco is a distinct potyvirus.the relationship of the morocco isolate of watermelon mosaic virus (wmv) to wmv2, soybean mosaic virus (a virus closely related to wmv2) and the w strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w), formerly wmv1, was examined by comparing tryptic peptide profiles using high performance liquid chromatography. the profiles indicated that the coat protein sequence of wmv-morocco differed substantially from those of the other potyviruses. this conclusion was supported by sequence data from five tryptic pepti ...19938347085
identification of zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus by rt-pcr and analysis of sequence variability.a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) method was used to identify zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) in leaves of infected cucurbits. oligonucleotide primers which annealed to regions in the nuclear inclusion body (nib) and the coat protein (cp) genes, generated a 300-bp product from zymv and also from the closely related watermelon mosaic virus type 2 (wmv-2). however, no product was obtained from papaya ringspot potyvirus which also infects cucurbits. zymv and wmv-2 were ...19958576311
nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of papaya leaf-distortion mosaic potyvirus.the dna complementary to the 3'-terminal 1 404 nucleotides [excluding the poly(a) tail] of papaya leaf-distortion mosaic potyvirus (pldmv) rna was cloned and sequenced. the sequence starts within a long open reading frame (orf) of 1 195 nucleotides and is followed by a 3' non-coding region of 209 nucleotides. capsid protein (cp) is encoded at the 3' terminus of the orf. the cp contains 293 residues and has a mr of 33 277. the cp of pldmv exhibits 49 to 59% sequence similarity at the amino acid l ...19968629948
effects of mitogens on androgen receptor-mediated transactivation.the effects of mitogens and agents affecting tyrosine phosphorylation signaling on androgen-regulated transcription were investigated. cv-1 and hela cells were cotransfected with an androgen receptor (ar) expression vector and an androgen-responsive chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. growth factors [epidermal growth factor (egf) and insulin-like growth factor i] that activate receptor tyrosine kinases, an inhibitor of phosphoty ...19968828495
transcriptional activation of the interleukin-8 gene by respiratory syncytial virus infection in alveolar epithelial cells: nuclear translocation of the rela transcription factor as a mechanism producing airway mucosal inflammation.the most common cause of epidemic pediatric respiratory disease, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), stimulates interleukin-8 (il-8) synthesis upon infecting airway epithelium, an event necessary for the development of mucosal inflammation. we investigated the mechanism for enhanced il-8 production in human a549 type ii pulmonary epithelial cells. infection with sucrose-purified rsv (prsv) produced a time-dependent increase in the transcriptional initiation rate of the il-8 gene. transient transf ...19968971006
divergence and conservation of the genomic rnas of taiwan and hawaii strains of papaya ringspot potyvirus.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a taiwan isolate of papaya ringspot potyvirus (prsv yk) was determined from three overlapping cdna clones and by direct rna sequencing. comparison was made with the reported hawaii isolate of prsv ha. both genomes are 10,326 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(a)-tail. they encode a polyprotein of 3344 amino acids with a 5' leader of 85 nucleotides and a 3' non-translated region of 209 nucleotides. the two genomes share an overall nucleotide ide ...19979125043
stable expression of anti-hpv 16 e7-ribozyme in cv-1 cell lines.the hpv16 (human papilloma virus type 16) e7 gene product, an oncoprotein, has been considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of anogenital cancer, particularly of cervical cancer. in order to evaluate the effect of suppression of the expression of the e7 gene in cv-1 cells by ribozyme, rz523 with a transacting ribozyme targeted to the e7 rna and two processing ribozyme genes at the 5' and 3' flank was cloned into the eukaryotic expression plasmid prep9 under the control of rsv-ltr promoter. ...19969187492
ultrastructural localization of nonstructural and coat proteins of 19 potyviruses using antisera to bacterially expressed proteins of plum pox potyvirus.antisera to the bacterially expressed nonstructural proteins (nsp) hc-pro, ci, nia, and nib and the coat protein (cp) of plum pox potyvirus (ppv) were used for analysing the composition of virus-induced cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions by electron microscopy. the antisera reacted with nsp and cp of ppv on immunogold-labelled ultrathin sections. antiserum to cp reacted with virions of seven out of 18 other potyviruses. cp was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of infected cells. antisera to p ...19989856098
affinity purification of hc-pro of potyviruses with ni2+-nta resin.the hc-pro of zucchini yellow mosiac virus (zymv) was found to bind to ni2+-nta resin with or without his-tagging. the binding stringency was similar to that observed in proteins with a zinc finger motif like the hc-pro. using this characteristic we developed an efficient and rapid method (2-3 h) for purification of the hc-pro of several potyviruses. a dominant protein of about 150 kda was extracted and identified as the hc-pro of zymv by means of immunoblotting. about 150 microg of hc-pro were ...19989923736
cloning and expression of bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein c.glycoprotein c (gc) of bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) is expressed at high levels on surface of infected cells and on virus envelope. it is relatively immunodominant in antibody response to bhv-1 infection and protective in immunized bovines against bhv-1 challenge. in an attempt to express gc in mammalian cells, the 2.4 kb bamhi-ecori fragment, containing complete coding sequence of the gc gene was excised from a recombinant plasmid and cloned under the control of rsv-ltr. the resultant plasmid p ...199910205673
molecular characterization and coat protein serology of watermelon leaf mottle virus (potyvirus).a cdna library was generated from purified rna of watermelon leaf mottle virus (wlmv) (genus potyvirus). two overlapping clones totaling 2,316 nucleotides at the 3' terminus of the virus were identified by immunoscreening with coat protein antiserum. the sequence analyses of the clones indicated an open reading frame (orf) of 2,050 nucleotides which encoded part of the replicase and the coat protein, a 243-nucleotide non-coding region (3'utr), and 23 adenine residues of the poly (a) tail. the ta ...200010795529
coat protein sequence comparisons of three medican isolates of papaya ringspot virus with other geographical isolates reveal a close relationship to american and australian isolates.the coat protein gene of the papaya ringspot virus was cloned and sequenced in three mexican isolates (two from veracruz, and one from chiapas). the sequences of these viral isolates were compared to those of eleven isolates from other parts of the world. they had higher similarity to isolates from australia and the united states than to asian isolates. a region of about one hundred nucleotides neighboring the putative aphid transmission triplet of the coat protein, contained repeats of an ek (g ...200010893161
a genetic map of cucumber composed of rapds, rflps, aflps, and loci conditioning resistance to papaya ringspot and zucchini yellow mosaic viruses.the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) are potyviruses that cause significant disease losses in cucumber. resistances have been identified primarily in exotic germplasm that require transfer to elite cultivated backgrounds. to select more efficiently for virus resistances, we identified molecular markers tightly linked to prsv-w and zymv resistances in cucumber. we generated f6 recombinant inbred lines (rils) from a cross between cucumis s ...200011195331
smokeless tobacco extracts modulate exogenous gene expression in early passage cultured human oral epithelial cells: an in vitro system to study chemical and viral enhancer/promoter interaction.the increased risk for cancers of the oral cavity from smokeless tobacco use may reflect the interaction of tobacco with genetic factors, such as oncogenes, and other exogenous factors, such as viruses. an in vitro system was developed based on expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene to study interactions of chemical treatments with viral enhancer/promoters in early passage cell cultures of oral cavity-derived epithelial cells. expression of cat in transfected cel ...200011395331
comparative reactions of recombinant papaya ringspot viruses with chimeric coat protein (cp) genes and wild-type viruses on cp-transgenic papaya.transgenic papaya cultivars sunup and rainbow express the coat protein (cp) gene of the mild mutant of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) ha. both cultivars are resistant to prsv ha and other hawaii isolates through homology-dependent resistance via post-transcriptional gene silencing. however, rainbow, which is hemizygous for the cp gene, is susceptible to prsv isolates from outside hawaii, while the cp-homozygous sunup is resistant to most isolates but susceptible to the yk isolate from taiwan. to i ...200111602796
coat protein transgenic papaya: "acquired" immunity for controlling papaya ringspot virus. 200212014204
resistance gene homologues in melon are linked to genetic loci conferring disease and pest resistance.genomic and cdna fragments with homology to known disease resistance genes (rgh fragments) were cloned from cucumis melo using degenerate-primer pcr. fifteen homologues of the nbs-lrr gene family have been isolated. the nbs-lrr homologues show high divergence and, based on the partial nbs-fragment sequences, appear to include members of the two major subfamilies that have been described in dicot plants, one that possesses a tir-protein element and one that lacks such a domain. genomic organizati ...200212582612
nucleotide sequence of a thai isolate of papaya ringspot virus type w.the complete nucleotide sequence of a thai isolate of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) type w (prsv-w) was determined. the viral genome is 10,323 nucleotides (nts) long and contains an orf encoding polyprotein 3,343 amino acids (aa) long, flanked with 5'- and 3'-non-coding regions (ncrs) of 85 and 206 nts, respectively. out of the ten putative proteins p1 is the most variable (73.9% similarity) as compared to the prsv type p (prsv-p) sequences, while the ci protein is most conserved (99.1% similarit ...200212693861
electron microscopic demonstration of papaya ringspot virus. 196213953999
control of papaya ringspot virus in papaya: a case study.the papaya crop is severely affected by papaya ringspot virus (psrv) worldwide. this review focuses on efforts to control the destructiveness of the disease caused by psrv in hawaii, starting from the use of cross protection to parasite-derived resistance with transgenic papaya expressing the psrv coat protein gene. a chronology of the research effort is given and related to the development of technologies and the pressing need to control psrv in hawaii. the development of commercial virus-resis ...199815012507
comparative development and impact of transgenic papayas in hawaii, jamaica, and venezuela.we present data concerning the creation of transgenic papayas resistant to papaya ringspot virus (prsv) and their adoption by three different countries: the united states (e.g., hawaii), jamaica, and venezuela. although the three sets of transgenic papayas showed effective resistance to prsv, the adoption rate in each country has varied from full utilization in hawaii to aggressive testing but delay in deregulating of the product in jamaica to rejection at an early stage in venezuela. factors th ...200515310936
variability in the coat protein gene of papaya ringspot virus isolates from multiple locations in india.the coat protein (cp) sequences of eleven papaya ringspot virus (prsv) isolates originating from different locations in india were determined, analysed and compared with the sequences of other isolates of prsv. the virus isolates from india exhibited considerable heterogeneity in the cp sequences. the cp-coding region varied in size from 840-858 nucleotides, encoding protein of 280-286 amino acids. comparative sequence analysis revealed that the prsv isolates originating from india were divergen ...200415338325
molecular markers linked to papaya ring spot virus resistance and fusarium race 2 resistance in melon, the fom-1 gene confers monogenic resistance against the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, races 0 and 2, while the closely linked prv gene specifies resistance against the papaya ring spot virus. markers linked to these resistance (r) genes were identified using two recombinant inbred line populations, derived from crosses between cucumis melo vedrantais and c. melo pi 161375, and between c. melo vedrantais and c. melo pi 414723, respectively. using bulked segregant ...200515551034
[analyses of virus resistance and transgenes for transgenic papaya].virus resistance in field and molecular biological characterizations of the transgenes were analyzed for two lines of t(1) generation of transgenic papaya with the replicase mutant gene from papaya ringspot virus (prv). the transgenic plants showed highly resistant or immune against prv. results indicated that the transgenes inherited to and expressed at rna level in the progenies.200315639849
detection of tomato yellow leaf curl thailand virus by pcr without dna extraction.we report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl thailand virus (tylcthv) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) tube. this method allowed pcr without the time-consuming procedures of dna extraction from infected plant tissue. a small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. the constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit p ...200516230773
daphne mosaic virus (dapmv), a new potyvirus from daphne mezereum in the czech republic.daphne shrubs with light green rings and mosaic on leaves contained flexuous filamentous virions (696 x 13 nm) and cylindrical inclusions typical of the subdivision iii of edwardson's classification for inclusions induced by members of the family potyviridae. decoration tests using antisera to 67 potyviruses revealed distant serological relations among chilli veinal mottle virus, colombian datura virus, papaya ringspot virus, tobacco vein mottling virus and yam mosaic virus. the 3' terminal regi ...200616292598
influence of planting papaya ringspot virus resistant transgenic papaya on soil microbial investigate the influence of papaya ringspot virus resistant transgenic papaya on soil microorganisms, upper (0-15 cm) and lower layers (15-30 cm) of soil samples were collected around transgenic papaya planting area and nontransgenic papaya planting area and from soils in which plants had not been grown. the moisture content, ph value, total organic carbon content, and total nitrogen content were not significantly different among groups. the populations of total count, fungi, and actinomycet ...200616390189
papaya ringspot virus coat protein gene for antigen presentation in escherichia coli.the coat protein (cp) of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) was analyzed for presentation of the antigenic peptide of animal virus, canine parvovirus (cpv), in escherichia coli (e. coli). the 45 nucleotides fragment coding for the 15-aa peptide epitope of the cpv-vp2 protein was either inserted into the prsv-cp gene at the 5', 3' ends, both 5' and 3' ends or substituted into the 3' end of the prsv cp gene. each of the chimeric prsv cp genes was cloned into the prset b vector under the control of the t ...200616466633
development of genetically engineered resistant papaya for papaya ringspot virus in a timely manner: a comprehensive and successful approach.papaya orchards throughout most of the world are severely damaged by the destructive disease caused by the papaya ringspot virus (prsv). prsv-resistant papaya expressing the coat protein gene (cp) of prsv have been used in hawaii to control prsv since 1998. this chapter presents the experimental steps involved in the development of transgenic papaya, including transgene construction, transformation, and analysis for virus resistance of the transformed papaya. we also describe the important facto ...200717172756
complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya ringspot virus from india. 200717180625
autocrine regulation of interleukin-8 by interleukin-1alpha in respiratory syncytial virus-infected pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro.respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) produce interleukin-8 (il-8); however, the mechanisms of rsv-induced regulation of il-8 are poorly understood. in the present study, the regulation of il-8 by rsv was evaluated using pulmonary type ii-like epithelials (a549). live purified rsv (prsv) induced a significant increase in il-8 after 8 hr of exposure, while conditioned supernatants from prsv-infected a549 cells (crsv) induced il-8 production in fresh a549 cul ...19989893037
the major component of ikappabalpha proteolysis occurs independently of the proteasome pathway in respiratory syncytial virus-infected pulmonary epithelial cells.previously we showed that infection of human type ii airway epithelial (a549) cells with purified respiratory syncytial virus (prsv) induced interleukin-8 transcription by a mechanism involving cytokine-inducible cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of the rela transcription factor. in unstimulated cells, rela is tethered in the cytoplasm by association with the ikappab inhibitor and can be released only following ikappab degradation. in this study, we examined the spectrum of ikappab isoform expre ...19989573251
modulation of glutathione peroxidase expression by selenium: effect on human mcf-7 breast cancer cell transfectants expressing a cellular glutathione peroxidase cdna and doxorubicin-resistant mcf-7 cells.we have studied the effect of selenium on the expression of a cellular glutathione peroxidase, gshpx-1, in transfected mcf-7 cells and in doxorubicin-resistant (adrr) mcf-7 cells. a gshpx-1 cdna with a rous sarcoma virus promoter was transfected into a human mammary carcinoma cell line, mcf-7, which has very low endogenous cytosolic glutathione (gsh) peroxidase activity and no detectable message. the transfectant with the highest gsh peroxidase activity among the isolates, mcf-7h6, was character ...19902158080
complete genomic sequence of a papaya ringspot virus isolate from hainan island, china. 200818357409
algerian watermelon mosaic virus (awmv): a new potyvirus species in the prsv cluster.a potyvirus was isolated from a naturally infected squash plant in algeria in 1986. biological and serological data have revealed that the virus, initially described as h4, is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, particularly moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (mwmv) and papaya ringspot virus (prsv). to establish unequivocally the taxonomic status of h4, its full-length genome sequence was established. h4 shared identities of 70% and 65% at the amino acid level with mwmv and prsv, resp ...200818484176
[sequence analysis of the complete genome of papaya ringspot virus hainan isolate].total rna was extracted from infected papaya (carica papaya l.) leaves in hainan province, and the full-length sequences of papaya ringspot virus were amplified by rt-pcr and race, and its complete genomic sequence was assembled, named hainan-p isolate. the rna genome sequence of hainan-p isolate was 10323 nucleotides (nts)in length,excluding the 3'-terminal poly(a) tail. and it was composed of a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3343 amino acids.. the result of homology analys ...200818533348
occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in guilan province, iran.during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (cucumis melo l.), cucumber (c. sativus l.), squash (cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (citrulus lanatus l.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of guilan province in iran. symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich elisa (das-elisa) or rt-pcr to detect zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), watermelon mosaic virus (wmv), cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (cab ...200818564898
evidence for defective repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers with normal repair of other dna photoproducts in a transcriptionally active gene transfected into cockayne syndrome cells.cockayne syndrome (cs) and xeroderma pigmentosum (xp), autosomal recessive diseases with clinical and cellular hypersensitivity to uv radiation, differ in ability to repair uv dna photoproducts in their overall genome: normal repair in cs, defective repair in xp. in order to characterize a dna repair defect in an active gene in cs, we measured the capacity of cells from patients with cs and xp to reactivate 2 major types of uv-induced dna damage, photoreactivatable (i.e., cyclobutane pyrimidine ...19911719400
recent advances in the development of transgenic papaya technology.papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (prsv) is the first genetically modified tree and fruit crop and also the first transgenic crop developed by a public institution that has been commercialized. this chapter reviews the different transformation systems used for papaya and recent advances in the use of transgenic technology to introduce important quality and horticultural traits in papaya. these include the development of the following traits in papaya: resistance to prsv, mites and ...200818606373
in vitro transfection of fresh thymocytes and t cells shows subset-specific expression of viral promoters.we describe conditions under which exogenous dna templates can be introduced for transient expression into primary murine t lymphocytes. t cells at various stages of development, including concanavalin a-activated splenic t cells, immature pre-t cells, and even small cortical thymocytes, could be successfully transfected. a variety of model dna constructs were compared in which different viral promoter regions were used to drive expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter ...19921312665
isolation and partial characterization of the amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions associated with infections caused by two potyviruses.the potyviruses pepper mottle (pemv) and watermelon mosaic virus-1, a strain of papaya ringspot (prsv-w), induce the formation of a second type of cytoplasmic inclusion in addition to cylindrical (pinwheel) inclusions. the conspicuous aggregates of electron-dense material with imperfect spherical shapes have been called amorphous inclusions (ai). the ai were isolated from extracts of infected tissue using a combination of clarification with triton x-100 and low-speed centrifugations through sucr ...198518639842
identification of potyviral amorphous inclusion protein as a nonstructural, virus-specific protein related to helper component.antisera to amorphous inclusion (ai) proteins associated with infections by pepper mottle virus (pemv) and the watermelon mosaic virus-1 strain of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w) were used to probe in vitro translation products of the viral rnas. the major translation product of pemv rna in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (rrl) system was a previously reported polypeptide of apparent molecular weight 78,000 (mr 78k). it reacted with anti-ai serum, whereas the major translation product in the wheat ...198518639843
translation of papaya ringspot virus rna in vitro: detection of a possible polyprotein that is processed for capsid protein, cylindrical-inclusion protein, and amorphous-inclusion protein.the genomic rna of papaya ringspot virus (prv), a member of the potyvirus group, was translated in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system as an approach to determining the translation strategy of the virus. the rna directed synthesis of more than 20 distinct polypeptides ranging from apparent molecular weight of 26,000 (26k) to 220k. antiserum to prv capsid protein (cp) reacted with a subset of these polypeptides, including a 36k protein that comigrated with prv cp during electrophoresis. immuno ...198518639851
simulated lung transfection by nebulization of liposome cdna complexes using a cascade impactor seeded with 2-cfsme0-cells.the aim of this study was to devise a simulation aerosol system for quasirealistic gene transfection that could eventually be used to study the characteristics of aerosol delivery, stability, delivery efficiency, and expression efficacy of gene products. it consisted of (1) a pari aerosol generator and pari ll jet; (2) an andersen cascade impactor with a calibrated vacuum pump, fitted with a glass "throat," nebulizer in which stages were seeded with pulmonary cells of interest (e.g., 2-cfsme0-); ...199810177217
intramuscular injection of plasmid dna expressing mrna7 coding the nucleocapsid protein of jhmv partially protected mice against acute infection with jhmv.we constructed a plasmid expressing mrna7 coding the nucleocapsid (n) protein of jhm strain of mouse hepatitis virus (jhmv) under the control of rous sarcoma virus ltr, referred to as prsv-mrna7. when c57bl/6 mice injected intramuscularly (i.m.) with control plasmid dna which contained no viral sequence were infected with jhmv, necrotic figures of neural cells and diffuse immersion of lymphatic cells in the pedunculus cerebri were observed. in the hypothalamus, vascular cuffing consisting of lym ...19989782346
control of insulin gene expression by glucose.northern-blot analysis was used to demonstrate that an increase in extracellular glucose concentration increased the content of preproinsulin mrna 2.3-fold in the beta-cell line hit t15. a probe for the constitutively expressed glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used as a control. mannoheptulose blocked this effect of glucose. a stimulatory effect on preproinsulin mrna levels was also observed in response to mannose and to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate. however, galactose and arginine were ...19921322137
potential threat of a new pathotype of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus.a virus identified as a new pathotype of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (pldmv, p-tw-wf) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to papaya ringspot virus (prsv) were evaluated. the infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. this virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the ...200818943262
cytolytic activity induced by intramuscular injection of plasmid dna expressing the nucleocapsid protein of the jhm strain of mouse hepatitis virus into c57bl/6 mice.we constructed plasmids expressing mrna7 coding the nucleocapsid (n) protein of jhm strain of mhv (jhmv) under the control of rous sarcoma virus (rsv) ltr or human elongation factor (ef) 1a promoter, referred to as prsv-mrna7 and pef-mrna7, respectively. although only a slight level of cytolysis was observed by the spleen cells from c57bl/6 mice injected intramuscularly with pef-mrna7, the spleen cells from the mice administered with prsv-mrna7 showed a significant level of cytolytic activities ...19968877970
biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a tunisian isolate of moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.during a survey conducted in october 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in tunisia. das-elisa showed the presence of moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (mwmv, potyvirus), detected for the first time in tunisia, in samples from the region of cap bon (northern tunisia). mwmv isolate tn05-76 (mwmv-tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. mwmv-tn was found to have biological propert ...200817978887
induction of rna-mediated resistance to papaya ringspot virus type w.transformation of cantaloupes with the coat protein (cp) gene of papaya ringspot virus type w (prsv-w), thai isolate, was used to introduce virus resistance. binary vectors containing either the full length coat protein coding region under control of the 35s camv promoter(psa1175), or the inverted-repeat of a coat protein coding region (psa1304), were constructed and used for agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotyledonary explants of the cantaloupe cultivar sun lady. four independent tran ...200717562292
ambient temperature perception in papaya for papaya ringspot virus interaction.temperature dramatically affects the host-virus interaction. outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the ambient temperature required for host development. using papaya as a host and papaya ringspot virus (prsv) as a pathogen, we studied the effect of temperature on the intensity of disease symptoms and virus accumulation. the phenotypic expression of symptoms and viral accumulation were found to be maximum at ambient temperature (26-31 degrees c) of papaya cultivation. howeve ...200919247826
comparative genomics of papaya ringspot virus pathotypes p and w from india. 200919319652
n-terminal of papaya ringspot virus type-w (prsv-w) helper component proteinase (hc-pro) is essential for prsv systemic infection in zucchini.the papaya ringspot virus (prsv) is one of the limiting factors affecting papaya and cucurbits production worldwide. prsv belongs to the potyvirus genus which consists of 30% of known plant viruses. two serological closely related strains, namely type-p and -w, have been reported. prsv type-p infects both papaya and cucurbits, while type-w infects only cucurbits. the genome of prsv thailand isolate consists of a (+) rna molecule of 10323 nucleotides, which is first translated into a single polyp ...200919322647
transgene-specific and event-specific molecular markers for characterization of transgenic papaya lines resistant to papaya ringspot virus.the commercially valuable transgenic papaya lines carrying the coat protein (cp) gene of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) and conferring virus resistance have been developed in hawaii and taiwan in the past decade. prompt and sensitive protocols for transgene-specific and event-specific detections are essential for traceability of these lines to fulfill regulatory requirement in eu and some asian countries. here, based on polymerase chain reaction (pcr) approaches, we demonstrated different detectio ...200919526355
a physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence.papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. the papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. as a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a bac-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting app ...200919664231
the complete nucleotide sequence and biotype variability of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus.abstract the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (pldmv) was determined. the viral rna genome of strain ldm (leaf distortion mosaic) comprised 10,153 nucleotides, excluding the poly(a) tail, and contained one long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,269 amino acids (molecular weight 373,347). the polyprotein contained nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and some motifs conserved in other potyviral polyproteins with 44 to 50% identitie ...200518943981
study on replicase (subunit) gene of papaya ringspot virus cloning, sequencing and construction of higher plant expression vector.the ds-cdna was synthesized using genomic rna of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) as template. the blunt-ended cdna was cloned into the ecorv site of vector pbluescript sk. from the recombinants, the nib gene of prsv was obtained, and its complete sequence was also determined. after the nib gene was modified through pcr, a binary vector of prsv-nib gene was constructed for its expression in higher plants.19947893943
lentivirus production.rna interference (rnai) is a system of gene silencing in living cells. in rnai, genes homologous in sequence to short interfering rnas (sirna) are silenced at the post-transcriptional state. short hairpin rnas, precursors to sirna, can be expressed using lentivirus, allowing for rnai in a variety of cell types. lentiviruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus, are capable to infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. we will describe a procedure which to package lentiviruses. packagin ...200919801965
screening of transgenic proteins expressed in transgenic food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences identical to potential, ige - binding linear epitopes of allergens.transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified food crops are evaluated for their potential allergenic properties prior to marketing, among others by identification of short identical amino acid sequences that occur both in the transgenic protein and allergenic proteins. a strategy is proposed, in which the positive outcomes of the sequence comparison with a minimal length of six amino acids are further screened for the presence of potential linear ige-epitopes. this double track approach ...200212477382
a single amino acid of niapro of papaya ringspot virus determines host specificity for infection of papaya.most strains of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) belong to type w, causing severe loss on cucurbits worldwide, or type p, devastating papaya in tropical areas. while the host range of prsv w is limited to plants of the families chenopodiaceae and cucuribitaceae, prsv p, in addition, infects plants of the family caricaceae (papaya family). to investigate one or more viral genetic determinants for papaya infection, recombinant viruses were constructed between prsv p-yk and prsv w-ci. host reactions to ...200818616401
toward a quarter century of pathogen-derived resistance and practical approaches to plant virus disease control.the concept of pathogen-derived resistance (pdr) describes the use of genetic elements from a pathogen's own genome to confer resistance in an otherwise susceptible host via genetic engineering [j. theor. biol. 113 (1985) 395]. illustrated with the bacteriophage qbeta in escherichia coli, this strategy was conceived as a broadly applicable approach to engineer resistance against pathogens. for plant viruses, the concept of pdr was validated with the creation of tobacco plants expressing the coat ...201020109666
protein interaction matrix of papaya ringspot virus type p based on a yeast two-hybrid system.comprehensive analysis of the interactions between 10 mature proteins of papaya ringspot virus type p (prsv-p) was carried out based on a yeast two-hybrid system assay (yths). we detected 6 interactions between different viral proteins (vpg-p1, vpg-p3, vpg-ci, vpg-cp, niapro-ci, and nib-p3) and 4 self-interactions (hc-pro, vpg, niapro, and cp). these interactions did not show the same directionality as corresponding interactions detected in other potyviruses and consequently, a protein interacti ...201020201614
simple construction of chimeric hairpin rna for virus resistance in plants.rna silencing has been adopted to develop virus-resistant plants through expression of virus-derived hairpin rnas. due to the high sequence specificity of rna silencing, this technology has been limited to the targeting of single viruses. simultaneous targeting of multiple viruses or plant genes can be achieved by using a chimeric cassette. in this study, a simple method was developed to construct chimeric hairpin rna rapidly and efficiently. this method splices two dna fragments from viruses or ...201020307576
the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene and 3' untranslated region of papaya ringspot virus type w (aust).the nucleotide sequence of the 3' terminal region of the australian isolate of papaya ringspot virus type w [prsv-w (aust)] was determined. an open reading frame (864 bp), encoding the putative coat protein gene, occurs upstream of the putative 3' untranslated region (206 bp) and poly(a) tail. a 23 amino acid sequence was obtained from n-terminal analysis of the coat protein from purified virions. this sequence has 100% homology with a region of the amino acid sequence inferred from the nucleic ...19921550490
[construction of sirna lentiviral expressing vector targeting pleiotrophin gene and its impact on growth and apoptosis in h446 cells of human small cell lung cancer].to construct a sirna lentiviral expressing vector targeting ptn (pleiotrophin) gene in human small cell lung cancer h446 cells and to study the rnai effect on tumor growth and apoptosis.201020646462
distribution of four viruses in single and mixed infections within infected watermelon plants in florida.whitefly-transmitted squash vein yellowing virus (sqvyv) and cucurbit leaf crumple virus (culcrv) and aphid-transmitted papaya ringspot virus type w (prsv-w) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central florida in the past 5 years. tissue-blot nucleic acid hybridization assays were developed for simple, high-throughput detection of these three viruses as well as cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (cysdv), which was first reported in florida in 2008. to dete ...201020649418
generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus and papaya ringspot virus type w.zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv) and papaya ringspot virus type w (prsv w) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. for the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated zymv coat protein (cp) and prsv w cp genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cul ...201021079966
the impact of transgenic papaya (tpy10-4) fruit supplementation on immune responses in ovalbumin-sensitised mice.a transgenic papaya line (tpy10-4) that is resistant to both papaya ringspot virus (prsv) and papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (pldmv) has been developed in taiwan. this study investigated the immunomodulatory properties of transgenic tpy10-4 and its native (tck) papaya fruits using an ovalbumin (ova)-sensitised mouse model. both green and ripe papaya fruits at low (0.2 g powder kg(-1) body weight (bw)) and high (1.6 g powder kg(-1) bw) doses were administered to experimental mice by intragas ...201021218490
varying genetic diversity of papaya ringspot virus isolates from two time-separated outbreaks in jamaica and venezuela.coat protein sequences of 22 papaya ringspot virus isolates collected from different locations in jamaica and venezuela in 1999 and 2004, respectively, were determined and compared with sequences of isolates from earlier epidemics in 1990 and 1993. jamaican isolates collected in 1999 exhibited nucleotide sequence identities between 98 and 100% but shared lower identities of 92.2% with an isolate collected in 1990. isolates from the 2004 epidemic in venezuela exhibited more heterogeneity, with id ...200717668274
phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of papaya ringspot virus.papaya ringspot virus (prsv) is the most important virus affecting papaya and cucurbit plants in tropical and subtropical areas. prsv isolates are divided into biotypes p and w: both the p and w types naturally infect plants in the family cucurbitaceae, whereas the p type naturally infects papaya (carica papaya). understanding the origin and nature of the prsv genetic diversity and evolution is critical for the implementation of control strategies based on cross-protection and the deployment of ...201121549774
molecular characterization of a severe isolate of papaya ringspot virus in mexico and its relationship with other isolates.the virus most often reported in papaya (carica papaya l.) is papaya ringspot (prsv). the aim of this work was the molecular genomic characterization of a mexican severe isolate of prsv-p "mex-vrpo" (isolate from the state of veracruz in paso de ovejas) as well as its comparison with other isolates from other world regions. the linear, assembled, single-strand positive sense rna genome of prsv-p mex-vrpo was 10320 nt in length (excluding the poly(a) tail) and contained a single large predicted o ...200717082995
genome analysis of a severe and a mild isolate of papaya ringspot virus-type w found in brazil.papaya ringspot virus-type w (prsv-w) is one of the most economically threatening viruses of cucurbits in brazil. premunization is one of the most effective prsv control measures currently applied in squash and zucchini crops. prsv-w-1, a mild and premunizing strain of prsv has been successfully used to protect cucurbits against both the severe prsv-w-c strain and other brazilian prsvs. to aid in understanding the mechanism by which prsv-w-1 premunization operates, the complete genome sequences ...200717024323
molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.zucchini yellow fleck virus (zyfv, genus potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. biological and serological data tend to indicate that zyfv is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (prsv) and moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (mwmv). in order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of zyfv, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the cp coding region ...200716969629
genetic diversity in the 3'-terminal region of papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w) isolates from watermelon in oklahoma.the 3'-terminal region (1191 nt) containing part of the nib gene, complete coat protein (cp) and poly-a tail of 64 papaya ringspot virus (prsv-w) isolates collected during 2008-2009 from watermelon in commercial fields of four different counties of oklahoma were cloned and sequenced. nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities ranged from 95.2-100% and 97.1-100%, respectively, among the oklahoman prsv-w isolates. phylogenetic analysis showed that prsw-w isolates clustered according to the loca ...201122160129
[construction and expression of dual promoter lentiviral vector containing tfr and vegf genes].to construct a dual promoter lentivira vector containing tfr and vegf gene, and detect the expression of tfr and vegf genes in mscs of chinese mini-swine.201122152815
combining ability of summer-squash lines with different degrees of parthenocarpy and prsv-w resistance.the aim was to assess heterosis in a set of 16 summer-squash hybrids, and evaluate the combining capacity of the respective parental lines, which differed as to the degree of parthenocarpy and resistance to prsv-w (papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain). the hybrids were obtained using a partial diallel cross design (4 × 4). the lines of parental group i were 1 = abx-037g-77-03-05-01-01-bulk, 2 = abx-037g-77-03-05-03-10-bulk, 3 = abx-037g-77-03-05-01-04-bulk and 4 = abx-037g-77-03-05-05-01-bul ...201122215966
development of a codominant caps marker linked to prsv-p resistance in highland papaya.development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type p (prsv-p). several species of "highland papaya" from the related genus vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to prsv-p, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in carica papaya. the objectives of this study were two fold; to identify molecular markers linked to a previously characterised prsv-p resistance gene in v. ...200616932884
transmission efficiency of papaya ringspot virus by three aphid species.the transmission efficiency of papaya ringspot virus (prsv) by three aphid vectors (i.e., aphis gossypii, a. craccivora, and myzus persicae) was studied. efficiency was measured by single-aphid inoculation, group inoculation (using five aphids), duration of virus retention, and the number of plants following a single acquisition access period (aap) to which the aphids could successfully transmit the virus. single-aphid inoculation studies indicated that m. persicae (56%) and a. gossypii (53%) we ...200818943221
inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor hcpro.the ubiquitin/26s proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20s proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of argonaute proteins, affecting the rna interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and rnase activity of t ...201223300704
high-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.a high-density genetic map of papaya (carica papaya l.) was constructed using 54 f(2) plants derived from cultivars kapoho and sunup with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. these markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a lod score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. the 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cm, with an ave ...200415020433
next-generation sequencing and genome editing in plant sequencing (ngs) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. ngs provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost dna, or rna high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small rnas generated during the infection process. these small rnas, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsrnas for viruses and vd-srnas for viroids. ngs has been used in a number of studies in plant virolo ...201627617007
on the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus papaya ringspot virus.the potyvirus papaya ringspot virus (prsv) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. its p biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its w biotype of cucurbits. prsv-p is thought to arise by mutation from prsv-w. however, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of prsv populations is not well characterized. to investigate this, we have determined the coat protein sequences of isolates of both biotypes of prsv from vietnam (50), thailand (13), india (1) and ...200212237441
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