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cell-free translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna into identifiable non-capsid and capsid proteins.foot-and-mouth disease virus (a member of the picornavirus group) rna could be translated effectively in an s-30 extract from ehrlich ascites tumour cells. this translation was inhibited by aurintricarboxylic acid, cycloheximide, puromycin and rnase. cell-free products of translation were identified by disc gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation with specific antisera. gel electrophoresis of the products without prior immunoprecipitation suggested the synthesis of some of the non-capsid pro ...197661250
[radial immunodiffusion study of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a].the radial immunodiffusion(ri), was used to study f. m. d. viruses, type a. it was found that the specific linkage between f. m. d. antigens and antibodies could be demonstrated through ri with the formation of precipitation circles. it was demonstrated that specific reactions were produced when homologus or heterologus antigens and sera of one and the same f. m. d. virus type interacted. the size of the precipitation circles proved inversely proportional to the concentration of antibodies in th ...1978219587
[subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a. genetic markers of clones obtained from 4 strains isolated in argentina between 1961 and 1970].the results obtained studying the genetic markers g, t and rtc of different clones of subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a are presented in this paper. the subtypes were isolated during outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in argentine. no significative differences among the subtypes were observed with the t marker. for the other markers, the results seem to indicate a gradual change related with the serological variation. because of their sensibility to guanidine hidrochloride, it is ...1979231800
a study of antigenic variants of foot and mouth disease virus type a in india between 1977 and 1985.the structural polypeptides of thirty-three field isolates of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) collected in india between 1977 and 1985 were analysed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. they were placed in eleven groups based on their patterns and compared with results of conventional serological (virus neutralisation and complement fixation) tests. variation occurred in the structural proteins of the viruses isolated between 1977 and 1981; however, the polypeptide patterns of viruses ...19901966752
gene encoding capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a quasispecies model of molecular evolution.a phylogenetic tree relating the vp1 gene of 15 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of serotypes a, c, and o has been constructed. the most parsimonious tree shows that fmdv subtypes and isolates within subtypes constitute sets of related, nonidentical genomes, in agreement with a quasispecies mode of evolution of this virus. the average number of nucleotide replacements per site for all possible pairs of vp1 coding segments is higher among representatives of serotype a than serotype ...19882842792
sequence variation in the gene for the immunogenic capsid protein vp1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a.the nucleotide sequences have been determined and compared from cloned cdna genes coding for the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) immunogenic capsid protein, vp1, from eight different a subtypes: a5 westerwald/58, a12 119ab (large plaque variant), a22 550 ussr/65, a24 cruzeiro brazil/55, a27 cundinamarca colombia/76, a32 venezuela/70, a venceslau brazil/76, and a argentina/79. we have also found sequence variations among different cdna clones of the a5 and a24 subtypes. there are regions of n ...19852986125
interferons of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a new assay for interferon. 19704315825
quantitation of the antigenicity and immunogenicity of purified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine for swine and steers.the antigenicity and immunogenicity of a purified preparation of foot-and-mouth disease virus [type a(12), strain 119 (fmdv a-119)] inactivated with 6.0 mmn-acetylethylenimine at 37 c were compared in swine and steers. three antigen doses were tested, 640, 160, and 40 ng. in accordance with findings for guinea pigs, as previously determined by dose-response curves, as little as fourfold changes in antigen in the region of the minimum effective dose produced marked differences in the serological ...19704320865
chemical and physical properties of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a comparison with maus elberfeld virus. 19724341052
complement-fixation analysis of four subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a.complement-fixation patterns were established for four subtypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus by block assays against homologous and heterologous antiserum. inhibition of fixation by excess antigen was observed in most homologous systems but rarely in the heterologous systems. the heterologous antibody titers were, in all instances, considerably lower than those for the homologous systems. although relatively high dilutions of antiserum may be desirable for subtyping, higher concentrations of ...19734356470
[antigenic structure of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (a review of the foreign literature)]. 19734361327
[isolation and study of foot and mouth disease virus type a during the epizootic of 1973]. 19744377474
the molecular basis of the antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we have cloned and sequenced the viral protein (vp1)-coding regions of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes (c1 and a5). comparison of the derived amino acid sequences with the known vp1 sequence of fmdv o1k and the two fmdv a subtypes a10 and a12 shows two highly variable regions in the protein, at positions 40-60 and 130-160, as possible antigenic sites. in both variable regions, several sites could be detected where all three sequences of the a subtypes are identical but the thre ...19836194987
a serological and biochemical study of new field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a in peru, 1975 to 1981.three foot-and-mouth disease virus type a isolates recovered from field outbreaks in the department of san martin, peru, during the period 1975 to 1981 were compared with each other, and the south american vaccine strains a24 and a27, by complement fixation (cf), virus neutralization (vn) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). complement fixation and vn tests gave comparable results distinguishing the field isolates from each other and from the vaccine strains. analysis of the structural ...19836318421
need for cellular and humoral immune responses in bovines to ensure protection from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)--a point of view.the published studies on immunization of experimental animals, cattle, and sheep with synthetic peptides containing the antigenic domains in fmdv structural protein vp1 were analyzed. the results obtained with various fmdv synthetic peptides designed to stimulate the humoral immune response in bovines were compared to the current knowledge on mhc class i and class ii, and the properties of the peptide binding grooves in each of them. x-ray crystallography of mhc class i proteins provided the thr ...19947975267
cross-reactive idiotopes among anti-foot and mouth disease virus neutralizing antibodies.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) viral protein 1 is the only one of the four viral proteins (vp) that induces neutralizing antibodies as an isolated protein. a 32 amino acid (aa) residue (32dimer) of fmdv subtype a12 lp ab vp1 (aa 137-168) was immunogenic against the a12 subtype. three antibody populations each recognizing different epitopes on 32dimer were isolated by affinity chromatography (afc) from the serum of a steer which had been immunized with the 32dimer. the 32dimer contains an aa ...19938406565
characteristic in vitro evolution pattern of foot and mouth disease virus a81/castellanos/arg/87.the in vitro evolution of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) a/81/castellanos/arg/87 (a/castellanos/87) was studied by partial biological and biochemical characterization of viral populations selected after 25 passages on secondary fetal bovine kidney cell monolayers. these passages were performed in the presence or absence of immune pressure exerted in the form of antiviral polyclonal serum. while the viral populations passaged in the absence of immune pressure acquired characteristics such as ...19979175254
antigenic variation among foot-and-mouth disease virus type a field isolates of 1997-1999 from iran.the sequences of the antigenically relevant capsid proteins vp1-3 of 10 isolates obtained during an epizootic of serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus in iran, and collected within two and a half years, were found to be highly similar. however, each isolate differed by at least one amino acid from all others. this prompted us to analyze the immunological reactivity of the isolates. to this end, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against one isolate were generated and characterized with regard to neu ...200010831859
carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a review.this review describes current knowledge about persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infections, the available methods to detect carrier animals, the properties of persisting virus, the immunological mechanisms, and the risk of transmission. in particular, knowledge about the carrier state, the period in which virus can be isolated from animals 28 days or longer post infection, is important, because the risk that animals may carry the virus will influence the diagnostic and preventive me ...200011087128
foot-and-mouth disease virus: a long known virus, but a current threat.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) was the first animal virus identified. since then, fmdv has become a model system in animal virology and a considerable amount of information on its structure, biology and vaccinology has been obtained. however, the disease that this virus produces (fmd) still constitutes one of the main animal health concerns. in this review, we have attempted to summarise the state of the knowledge in different basic and applied areas of fmdv research, with emphasis on those ...200111254174
pressure-inactivated fmdv: a potential vaccine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of the foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). alternative fmd vaccines have been pursued due to important disadvantages of the one currently in use. high hydrostatic pressure (hp) has been observed to inactivate some viruses. here, we investigated the effects of hp on fmdv o1 campos-vallée (cva) infectivity. a treatment consisting of 2.5 kbar at -15 degrees c and 1m urea, completely abolished fmdv infectivity, maintaining the integrity of its cap ...200415149793
detection of carriers of foot-and-mouth disease virus among vaccinated cattle.to investigate and optimise detection of carriers, we vaccinated 15 calves with an inactivated vaccine based on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a turkey strain and challenged them and two further non-vaccinated calves with the homologous virus four weeks later. to determine transmission to a sensitive animal, we put a sentinel calf among the infected cattle from 60 days post-infection until the end of the experiment at 609 days post-infection. samples were tested for the presence of fmdv, vi ...200415504586
phylogeny, genome evolution, and antigenic variability among endemic foot-and-mouth disease virus type a isolates from india.the capsid-coding (p1) and 3a regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a field isolates including two vaccine strains collected during 1977-2000 were analyzed. in the phylogenies, the isolates were distributed into two previously identified genotypes vi and vii, with multiple sub-genotypes that are temporally clustered. comparison of the antigenic relationships of field isolates with the two vaccine strains (ind 17/77 and ind 490/97) and the reference strains of the genotypes vi (ind ...200515662482
antigenic and genetic analyses of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a isolates for selection of candidate vaccine strain reveals emergence of a variant virus that is responsible for most recent outbreaks in india.recent reports indicated presence of two antigenic and genetic groups (genotypes vi and vii) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a in india and are divergent from the vaccine strains. in order to choose suitable field isolate as candidate vaccine strain, anti-sera against representative isolates from both the genotypes and two in-use vaccine strains are tested in neutralization assay. two candidate vaccine strains from both the genotypes are selected with close antigenic match to the fie ...200516022900
microarray-based identification of antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: a bioinformatics quality assessment.the evolution of viral quasispecies can influence viral pathogenesis and the response to antiviral treatments. mutant clouds in infected organisms represent the first stage in the genetic and antigenic diversification of rna viruses, such as foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), an important animal pathogen. antigenic variants of fmdv have been classically diagnosed by immunological or rt-pcr-based methods. dna microarrays are becoming increasingly useful for the analysis of gene expression and s ...200616709242
foot-and-mouth disease virus: a first inter-laboratory comparison trial to evaluate virus isolation and rt-pcr detection methods.five european reference laboratories participated in an exercise to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of their routinely employed rt-pcr tests and cell cultures for the detection and isolation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus. five identical sets of 20 coded samples were prepared from 10 vesicular epithelia, which were derived from submissions from suspect cases of fmd or swine vesicular disease (svd). sixteen samples were derived from six fmd virus positive epithelia representing fo ...200616846700
inhibition of the secretory pathway by foot-and-mouth disease virus 2bc protein is reproduced by coexpression of 2b with 2c, and the site of inhibition is determined by the subcellular location of 2c.infection of cells with picornaviruses can lead to a block in protein secretion. for poliovirus this is achieved by the 3a protein, and the consequent reduction in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class i proteins may inhibit host immune responses in vivo. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), another picornavirus, can cause persistent infection of ruminants, suggesting it too may inhibit immune responses. endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...200717121791
foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant with decreased sensitivity to ribavirin: implications for error catastrophe.the nucleoside analogue ribavirin (r) is mutagenic for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). passage of fmdv in the presence of increasing concentrations of r resulted in the selection of fmdv with the amino acid substitution m296i in the viral polymerase (3d). measurements of progeny production and viral fitness with chimeric viruses in the presence and absence of r documented that the 3d substitution m296i conferred on fmdv a selective replicative advantage in the presence of r but not in the a ...200717151116
rate of foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission by carriers quantified from experimental data.upon infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) a considerable number of animals become carriers of the virus. these carriers are considered to be a risk for new outbreaks, but the rate at which these animals can transmit the infection has not been quantified. an analysis was carried out using data from previously published experiments in order to quantify the transmission rate parameter beta of fmdv infection from carriers to susceptible animals. the parameter beta was estimated at 0.02 ...200818419650
serotype-specific differences in antigenic regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv): a comprehensive statistical analysis.although vaccines are available for prophylaxis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), few cases of escape mutants have been reported. to develop serotype-specific fmdv vaccination strategies it is imperative to understand how host selection has influenced evolution of fmdv. this study identified several possible targets for serotype-specific fmdv vaccines using a novel statistical approach. pairs of closely related fmdv genomes identified in a phylogenetic analysis representing all seven serot ...200818790086
recent spread of a new strain (a-iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a in the middle east.this report describes the characterization of a new genotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a responsible for recent fmd outbreaks in the middle east. initially identified in samples collected in 2003 from iran, during 2005 and 2006 this fmdv lineage (proposed to be named a-iran-05) spread into saudi arabia and jordan and then further west into turkey reaching european thrace in january 2007. most recently a-iran-05 has been found in bahrain. to the east of iran, it has been recogni ...200919432637
differences in the virulence of two strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a with the same spatiotemporal distribution.during the 2000-2001 epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in argentina, two fmdv serotype a viruses were identified among others. since different pathogenic properties between these virus strains were noticed in cattle, we evaluated several biological properties and features of fmdv a/arg/00 and fmdv a/arg/01 in order to compare these viruses in terms of virulence and pathogenicity. our results indicate that fmdv a/arg/00 grows less efficiently than fmdv a/arg/01, exemplified by small ...201019883705
use of a baculovirus-expressed structural protein for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a by a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with a baculovirus-expressed structural protein was developed for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus type a. it exhibited 99% specificity with a cutoff of 53% inhibition. its sensitivity was comparable to the sensitivities of the virus neutralization test and the liquid-phase blocking elisa, indicating its potential as an alternative assay.201019889938
phylogenetic analysis of 3c protease (3c(pro)) coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a.nucleotide sequence analysis of the 3c protease (3c(pro)) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a (fmdv-a) isolates from india has revealed incongruous phylogenetic grouping between 3c(pro) and vp1 region possibly due to the genetic recombination or independent evolution of non-structural and structural protein coding regions. similar to the vp1 region, the emerging vp3(59)-deletion group maintained its genetic distinctiveness at 3c(pro) region and was found to be diverging with time. two ...200919941399
structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant polymerases with reduced sensitivity to ribavirin.passage of poliovirus (pv) or foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in the presence of ribavirin selected for viruses with decreased sensitivity to r, which included different mutations in their polymerase (3d): g64s located in the finger subdomain in the case of pv and m296i located within loop beta9-alpha11 at the active site in the case of fmdv. to investigate why disparate substitutions were selected in two closely related 3ds, we constructed fmdvs with a 3d that included either g62s (the equi ...201020392853
baculovirus treatment fully protects mice against a lethal challenge of fmdv.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cattle, swine, goat and sheep among others. fmdv is able to overcome the initial host innate immune response by inhibiting the induction of antiviral molecules at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. it has been demonstrated that fmdv a/arg/2001 causes the death of adult c57bl/6 mice within 72h. we evaluated the capacity of autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis ...201020580746
characterisation and epitope mapping of neutralising monoclonal antibodies to a24 cruzeiro strain of fmdv.characterisation of seven neutralising monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced against foot-and-mouth disease virus a(24) cruzeiro revealed three reactivity groups. gr-i recognised linear epitopes where as gr-ii was conformation-dependent and trypsin-insensitive. the gr-iii was also conformation-dependent, but trypsin-sensitive. mar (mab neutralisation resistant)-mutants could only be produced against gr-i and gr-iii mabs. capsid sequence comparison of gr-i mar-mutants with parent virus revealed c ...201021144677
differential effects of viral vectors on migratory afferent lymph dendritic cells in vitro predicts enhanced immunogenicity in vivo.targeting dendritic cells (dc) is key to driving effective immune responses. lymphatic cannulation provides access to the heterogeneous populations of dc draining peripheral sites in rodents and ruminants. afferent lymph dec-205(+)cd11c(+)sirpa(+) dc were preferentially infected ex vivo with three vaccine viral vectors: replication defective human adenovirus-5 (rhuadv5); modified vaccinia virus ankara (rmva) and fowlpox virus (rfpv) all expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). the rhuadv5 inf ...201121752909
develope monoclonal antibody against foot-and-mouth disease virus a type.in order to develop an anti-fmdv a type monoclonal antibody (mab), babl/c mice were immunized with fmdv a type. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) 7b11 and 8h4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype a were produced by fusing sp2/0 myeloma cells with splenocyte from the mouse immunized with a/av88. the microneutralization titer of the mabs 7b11 and 8h4 were 1024 and 512, respectively. both mabs contain kappa light chains, the mabs were igg1. in order to define the mabs binding epitopes, t ...201121847759
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