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stability of human enteroviruses in estuarine and marine waters.studies of the effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of three enteric viruses (poliomyelitis type 1, echovirus-6, and coxsackievirus b-5) under controlled laboratory conditions and in situ indicate that temperature rather than salinity is the critical factor affecting their stability, in that the higher the temperature the more rapid was the loss of viral infectivity. in the laboratory studies, all three viruses were quite stable at 4 degrees c, with infectious virus still detectab ...1976184736
factors involved in enzyme-linked immunoassay of viruses and evaluation of the method for identification of enteroviruses.a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for identification of selected enteroviruses: poliovirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackievirus a type 9, and coxsackievirus b types 1 through 6. partially purified viral antigens or virus-specific antibodies were adsorbed to polystyrene spectrophotometer cuvettes, which permitted the assays to be reported and compared in terms of enzyme units specifically reacting. both the adsorbed antigen and the adsorbed antibody methods were approx ...1979229122
zoster-like eruption due to echovirus 6.a unilateral vesiculobullous eruption associated with fever was seen on the neck, shoulder, and upper part of the chest of a 7-year-old boy. although three dermatomes in all were involved, the lesions resembled herpes zoster. the patient had had varicella in infancy. culture of fluid from several bullae yielded echovirus 6; however, and serum neutralizing antibody to this virus rose in titer from 1:32 to 1:640. it is suggested that echovirus 6 and other enteroviruses may cause a number of vesicu ...1979371385
mesangiolytic glomerulonephritis in an infant with immune deficiency and echovirus infection.an unusual glomerulonephritis characterized by diffuse mesangial cell necrosis and lysis of mesangial areas was observed in a male infant who had a combined immune deficiency and systemic echovirus type 6 infection. the occurrence of glomerular disease in a patient with combined immune deficiency indicates that the glomerular injury can be inflicted without mediation of immune mechanisms, presumably by direct cytopathic effect of echovirus 6.1977576574
aseptic meningitis and orchitis associated with echovirus 6 infection. 1978621607
[epidemiologic appearance of echovirus type 6 infections]. 1975810706
[echo-6-virus as the pathogen of hand, foot and mouth exanthema].seven cases of typical hand-foot-mouth-disease are reported. as causative agent echovirus type 6 was isolated.1977845036
effect of enterovirus infection on susceptibility of hela cells to shigella flexneri invasivity.invasiveness of shigella flexneri m90t in hela cells was significantly increased when cells were preinfected with poliovirus 1, coxsackievirus b3 and echovirus 6. this effect was dependent on the dose of virus used, evident at early stages of viral infection and lasted hours before the appearance of a cytopathic effect. an increase of bacterial invasion ability was also noticed when hela cells were incubated with uv-inactivated enteroviruses. this enhancing effect obtained with both viable and u ...19921364020
construction of an infectious cdna clone of echovirus 6.a complete cdna copy of the echovirus 6 genome was constructed. complementary dna was reversed transcribed from viral rna. subgenomic cdnas were obtained by direct cloning and polymerase chain reactions. full length cdna was constructed into the bluescript ii vector (pbsii) using unique, overlapping, restriction sites of four clones. the cdna was infectious and produced echovirus 6 particles that behaved in the same manner as the parental virus.19921536091
influence of polyions on the early steps of enterovirus infection.the influence of electric charged molecules on the early phases of enterovirus infection was studied in order to select antiviral compounds able to prevent viral attachment. the effect of different polyelectrolytes on the multiplication of coxsackie virus b3, echovirus 6 and hepatitis a virus was investigated in susceptible cells by adding the drug before, during or after the viral adsorption period. among polyanions, the polysaccharides heparin and dextran sulfate inhibited viral infectivity, d ...19911663994
transmission of viral persistence by transfection of human cultured cells with rna of a persistent strain of echovirus 6.a cloned line of persistently infected (pi) human cells has been established with a strain of the normally lytic, echovirus 6. all of the cells contained non-lytic viral rna and synthesized defective viral particles. the present study was undertaken to determine whether replication of non-lytic viral rna occurred after transfection. uninfected human wish cells were transfected with viral rna recovered either directly from persistently infected pi cells or from virus particles produced by pi cell ...19911795628
early diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis by a solid-phase reverse immunosorbent test and virus isolation.45 cases of aseptic meningitis/meningoencephalitis were studied with regard to enteroviral etiology by virus isolation and solid-phase reverse immunosorbent test (sprist), a cross-reacting test for enterovirus igm. an etiological diagnosis was reached in 37/45 (82%) patients. etiological diagnoses other than enteroviruses were found in 8 patients: borrelia burgdorferi in 4, varicella-zoster virus in 2, herpes simplex virus in 1 and mumps virus in 1 patient. enteroviruses (echovirus 6, 21 and 30) ...19902175448
a monoclonal antibody specific for the cellular receptor for the group b coxsackieviruses.a 50-kilodalton receptor protein (rp-a) for the group b coxsackieviruses (cb) was isolated in a virus-receptor complex from detergent-solubilized hela cells (j. e. mapoles, d. l. krah, and r. l. crowell, j. virol. 55:560-566, 1985). it was used as an immunogen for preparation of a mouse monoclonal antibody (rmcb) which protected hela cells and buffalo green monkey kidney cells from infection by all six serotypes of cb. rmcb did not protect hela cells from infection by poliovirus, echovirus 6, or ...19882451756
isolation and characterization of hela cell lines blocked at different steps in the poliovirus life cycle.cotransfection of poliovirus rna and r1, a poliovirus subgenomic rna containing a deletion of nearly all of the capsid region, resulted in surviving cells, in contrast to the complete cell death observed after transfection with viral rna. cells that survived the cotransfection grew into colonies, produced infectious poliovirus, and underwent cycles of cell lysis (crisis periods) where less than 1% of the cells survived, followed by periods of growth. poliovirus evolved during the persistent infe ...19892535745
rhabdomyolysis associated with simultaneous epstein-barr virus infection and isolation of echovirus 6 from muscle: a dual infection. 19892538573
pig erythrocyte ghost cells used for concentration of enteric viruses from experimentally contaminated clinical specimens.a simple, rapid and efficient procedure of virus concentration from urine, cerebrospinal fluid (csf), and feces was developed. pig erythrocyte ghost cells were used to adsorb and elute such viruses as poliovirus lsc-1, echovirus 6, and human rotavirus (clinical isolate). in urine and csf, the adsorption efficiency range was 80-100% and elution was from 85% to greater than 100%. in addition, poliovirus lsc-1 was used as an experimental model to examine this procedure under various clinical condit ...19892559952
echovirus 6 encephalitis in a preterm baby. 19892567935
steady-state infection by echovirus 6 associated with nonlytic viral rna and an unprocessed capsid polypeptide.we established a human cell line which was persistently infected (pi) by the normally cytolytic echovirus 6. all of the cultured pi cells contained genome-size viral rna which was synthesized continuously and incorporated into virus particles. this steady-state infection has been maintained for more than 6 years. in contrast to rna of wild-type echovirus 6, the viral rna from pi cells was not lytic when transfected into uninfected, susceptible cells. the capsid polypeptides of the virus particle ...19892585604
monoclonal antibody that inhibits infection of hela and rhabdomyosarcoma cells by selected enteroviruses through receptor blockade.balb/c mice were immunized with hela cells, and their spleen cells were fused with myeloma cells to produce hybridomas. initial screening of culture fluids from 800 fusion products in a cell protection assay against coxsackievirus b3 (cb3) and the cb3-rd virus variant yielded five presumptive monoclonal antibodies with three specificities: protection against cb3 on hela, protection against cb3-rd on rhabdomyosarcoma (rd) cells, and protection against both viruses on the respective cells. only on ...19863003376
fatal pneumonitis from congenital echovirus type 6 infection. 19873431987
persistence of echovirus 6 in cloned human cells.establishment of a persistent infection by echovirus 6 in cloned human wish cells (pi) was demonstrated. the cloned human wish cells were maintained for 3.0 years (over 125 passages) and released virus continuously without cellular destruction. neither temperature-sensitive virus mutants nor interferon appears to play a role in either establishment or maintenance of viral persistence. the majority of the virus produced by cloned human wish cells is defective (2 x 10(6) particles per pfu) and dif ...19853973978
prevention of spread of echovirus 6 in a special care baby unit.a case of fatal neonatal infection with enteric cytopathogenic human orphan virus (echovirus) type 6 is presented. the measures taken to prevent further spread of infection with special reference to the use of human normal immunoglobulin are described.19854026369
prevention of spread of echovirus 6 in a special care baby unit. 19854091593
studies of echovirus type 6 antigens in immunodiffusion. 1. antigen composition of native and heated virus preparations. 19684190285
isolation of a specific enhancer for echovirus 6 from uninfected permissive host cells.a specific enhancer for the m+ variant of echovirus 6 was isolated from uninfected, permissive host cells. the enhancer transferred the susceptibility to virus infection from permissive cells to less susceptible cells. enhancer activity in cultured, human cells (wish) was released by these cells into extracellular fluids at a linear rate. maximal enhancer activity was recovered from cell monolayers that were extracted with buffered salt solutions (ph 6.6) for 5 h at 37 c. crude enhancer preparat ...19744202885
methods for detecting food-borne enteroviruses.a method previously reported for detecting virus in a model system composed of cottage cheese contaminated with coxsackievirus type a9 has been adapted to detecting selected strains of enteroviruses in a variety of foods. bentonite is omitted and serum is added for extracting virus from low-protein foods. samples of foods, usually 25 g, must contain at least 3 to 4 plaque-forming units for a 50% probability of detecting virus. sensitivity in detecting echovirus type 6 was lower than that for the ...19684300896
effect of anticellular serum on the attachment of enteroviruses to hela cells.anticellular serum (acs), in the absence of an active complement system, was shown to inhibit the attachment of poliovirus types 1 and 2, echovirus type 6, and coxsackievirus types a13, b1, and b3 to viral receptors of live hela cells. this is the first report to provide evidence that acs has an inhibitory effect on the interaction between host cells and coxsackieviruses of group b. the titer of inhibitory activity of acs varied inversely with the cell concentration used, the reaction being virt ...19684302746
differential inhibition of attachment and eclipse activities of hela cells for enteroviruses.receptor activities of hela cells were evaluated for ability to both attach and eclipse enteroviruses after exposure of cells to acid or heat. a modified procedure of acid (ph 1.5) elution of cell-associated virus, as compared with other procedures, provided a general method for the optimal recovery of receptor-bound enteroviruses. with this procedure, eclipse of virus operationally was considered to be that amount of virus infectivity which was determined initially to be cell-associated and whi ...19694306196
studies of echovirus type 6 antigens in immunodiffusion. 2. immunoelectrophoretic investigation. 19684313507
studies of echovirus type 6 antigens in immunodiffusion. 3. antibody response against echovirus 6 antigens in human infections with homologous and heterologous enteroviruses. 19684313508
relationship between poliovirus and echovirus 6 antigens. i. immunization experiments in guinea pigs. 19724344137
relationship between poliovirus and echovirus 6 antigens. ii. antibody patterns in sera from patients with poliovirus infections. 19724344138
inactivation of herpes simplex virus by concanavalin a.the infectivity of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) was inactivated after treatment with either concanavalin a (cona) or periodate. phytohemagglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and neuraminidase failed to inactivate the virus. the effect of cona could be specifically inhibited or reversed by the addition of alpha-methyl-d-glucoside or alpha-methyl-d-mannoside. evidence was obtained that hsv-1 inactivated by cona could adsorb to host cells. viral aggregation was not a major mec ...19744364903
[studies on enterovirus isolates using continuous cell lines. 1. experiments on the in vitro marker tests and plaque formation by poliovirus type 1 and echovirus type 6 strains (author's transl)]. 19744377354
experimental infection of mice with echo-6 virus. 19654379438
[studies on enterovirus isolates using continuous cell lines. iii. characteristics of echovirus type 6 isolated from different specimens of childhood-diseases (author's transl)]. 19744478238
intranuclear crystals in fl cells infected with echovirus type 6. 19734546198
in vitro interactions between virus and enhancer.cell-free supernatant fluids of permissive host cells contained an enhancer for the m+ variant of echovirus 6. the enhancer activity remained in supernatant fractions after centrifugation at 110,000 x g for 4 hr. under in vitro conditions, a complex between enhancer and virus formed rapidly. the complex was not dissociated by dilution and was sedimented by centrifugation. the effect of enhancer on the distribution of virus in cscl density gradients was determined. in the absence of enhancer, vir ...19724629208
[clinical aspects and histology of echo-6-virus-exanthema]. 19734697327
effect of host cell on distribution of a lysosomal enzyme during virus infection.the time of appearance of a lysosomal enzyme, beta-glucuronidase, in the medium of cells infected with either measles virus or echovirus 6 varied with the host cell system. replication and release of virus preceded leakage of beta-glucuronidase from green monkey kidney cells. in contrast, extracellular enzyme appeared before replication and release of virus in human amnion cells. hydrocortisone depressed enzyme leakage but did not retard replication of measles virus or viral-induced cytopatholog ...19715000115
aseptic meningitis, montreal, 1969: a clinical and laboratory study.during the summer and fall of 1969 an outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred in montreal and its environs. forty-four patients were admitted to the infectious disease ward of the montreal children's hospital in august, september and october. half of the patients were in the age group 6 to 10 years. the ratio of males to females was two to one. patients showed the typical signs and symptoms of aseptic meningitis, namely fever, vomiting, headache, neck stiffness and pleocytosis of the cerebrospin ...19715101641
echovirus type 6 meningitis. clinical and virological observations during an epidemic in turku in 1968. 19715123802
persistent echo 6 virus infection of fl cell cultures. 19715147361
an epidemic of echo 6 virus infection. 19705448374
enhanced efficiency of echovirus 6 by a transferable factor in cultured human cells. 19676024844
antiviral activity of aryl-furfurane derivatives.of 27 aryl-furfurane derivatives (afd) studied, 13 compounds were found to have antiviral activity against echo 6, herpes simplex, vaccinia, and influenza a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n2) viruses, the highest inhibition being observed with echo 6 virus. the maximum tolerated concentrations (matc) of afd inhibited the macromolecular syntheses in echo 6 virus-infected cell cultures.19846143495
[virological analyses of irradiated sewer sludge (author's transl)].the virus-inactivating effect of co60 irradiation was verified by a field test in the sewer sludge irradiation plant at geiselbullach near munich. the following samples were tested: 16 waste water inlets 15 waste water outlets 32 fresh sludge samples 62 sewer sludge samples prior to irradiation 52 sewer sludge samples and 9 fresh sludge samples after irradiation. we supplemented these analyses by inoculating sewer sludge samples with polio inoculation virus type 1 before irradiation and by the a ...19806254288
viruses in sewage as an indicator of their presence in the community.the results of a three year study of the viruses isolated from sewage by means of five tissue culture types are reported. the enteroviruses identified demonstrated a seasonal pattern which was similar to that of clinical isolates. echoviruses and coxsackieviruses displayed a changing pattern of dominant serotypes in both sewage and clinical isolates; echovirus 6, 19, 3 and coxsackievirus b4, b5, a9 successively became the most common serotypes. the poliovirus in sewage was all vaccine-like in ch ...19816257783
virological study of idiopathic cardiomyopathy: serological study of virus antibodies and immunofluorescent study of myocardial biopsies.in 113 patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy paired sera obtained 2--4 weeks apart were examined for neutralizing antibody to coxsackie b 1--6, and echo 4, 6, 7, 9 and 11 viruses. only eight cases (6.9 per cent) showed a significant change in titer, indicating a virus infection during or shortly before the study. complement-fixing antibody titers were measured in 126 patients and neutralizing antibodies in 116 patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy. more patients had complement-fixing antibod ...19816259384
a mixed epidemic associated with echovirus types 6 and 11: virologic, clinical and epidemiologic studies.during 1979, an outbreak of mixed enterovirus infections occurred in kansas city and adjacent communities. sixty-six enteroviruses and 7 adenoviruses were recovered from 73 persons in a survey hospital population. twenty-eight persons yielded echovirus type 11, 22, echovirus type 6, and 16 either echovirus type 9 or coxsackieviruses group b, types 2 and 3. this study describes some of the clinical, virologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreak. a major finding relates to the recove ...19816272570
cv-1 cells release proteins that facilitate infection by simian virus 40 and echovirus 6.uninfected simian cells (cv-1) produce two different proteins, one of which enhances the infectivity of echovirus 6 and the other enhances the infectivity of sv40 in less susceptible cells. the enhancers are released by metabolizing cells into the culture medium. the sv40 enhancer protein is larger and less acidic than the echovirus enhancer. the sv40 enhancer protein can be dissociated into 2 subunits with apparent molecular weights of 42,000 and 24,000. the echovirus enhancer protein consists ...19826285865
[infections of the central nervous system caused by enterovirus: 223 cases seen at a pediatric hospital between 1973 and 1981].between 1973 and 1981, 223 patients were seen at hôpital sainte-justine in montreal for enteroviral infection of the nervous system. in 161 the cause was documented by isolation of an enterovirus from the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). the viruses most frequently isolated were echovirus 11 (36 isolates), echovirus 30 (24), coxsackievirus b2 (23), coxsackievirus b3 (19), echovirus 6 (18), coxsackievirus b5 (16), coxsackievirus a9 (15), echovirus 9 (13), echovirus 7 (12) and coxsackievirus b1 (11). as ...19826291736
[mass incidence of aseptic meningitis in the north moravian region caused by echovirus type 6 (author's transl)]. 19806446977
broad-spectrum antiviral activity of 2-beta-d-ribofuranosylselenazole-4-carboxamide, a new antiviral agent.the relative in vitro antiviral activities of three related nucleoside carboxamides, ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), tiazofurin (2-beta-d-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide), and selenazole (2-beta-d-ribofuranosylselenazole-4-carboxamide), were studied against selected dna and rna viruses. although the activity of selenazole against different viruses varied, it was significantly more potent than ribavirin and tiazofurin against all tested representatives of the ...19836615611
[an epidemic of lymphocytic meningitis caused by echovirus 6]. 19836664186
[fundamental study on hepatitis induced by echo 6 virus (author's transl)]. 19806768817
effect of chloro-, cyano-, and amidino-substituted flavanoids on enterovirus infection in vitro.synthetic flavans, isoflavans and isoflavenes substituted with chloro, cyano and amidino groups were tested for their in vitro activity against poliovirus type 2, coxsackie virus b4, echovirus type 6 and enterovirus 71. plaque-reduction assays showed that substituted 3-(2h)-isoflavenes, carrying a double bond in the oxygenated ring, possess antiviral activity higher than that of the corresponding isoflavans. the most effective compounds were 4'-chloro-6-cyanoflavan and 6-chloro-4'-cyanoflavan. s ...19957486950
[epidemic of aseptic meningitis with echovirus type 6 in gifu prefecture in 1992].from january to december in 1992, an epidemic of aseptic meningitis occurred in gifu prefecture in children. epidemiological, virological and serological investigations were performed. the results are as follows: 1) cases involved ranged from 0 to 15 years of age, and 75.9% of them were in the 3 to 7 year of age group. 2) six types of viruses were isolated from 73 of 108 cases (67.6%), and the echovirus 6 was recovered from 68 cases (93.2%). 3) in 1992 by the cross neutralizing test between the ...19947963796
detection of hepatitis a virus in environmental samples by antigen-capture pcr.the efficacy of the antigen-capture pcr (ac-pcr) method for the detection of hepatitis a virus (hav) in environmental samples was demonstrated. hav was captured from a seeded liquid waste or a shellfish sample with homologous antibody and then heat denatured and subjected to reverse transcription and the pcr, all in the same tube. subsequently, the ac-pcr products were analyzed by oligonucleotide probe hybridization in solution, agarose gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography. the ac-pcr detect ...19948031088
construction of a recombinant cdna of echovirus 6 that established a persistent in vitro infection.cdna clones of lytic acute and nonlytic persistent strains of echovirus 6 were used to construct a recombinant cdna. the 3' region of the infectious wild-type cdna genome, which extended from vpg to the end of the noncoding region, was exchanged with the cdna fragment representing the same region of the persistent viral genome. sequence analyses indicated that there was one mutation in the 3c protease and eight mutations in the 3d polymerase. transfection of the recombinant cdna into wish cells ...19948184543
chiral discrimination and antipicornavirus activity of 6-oxazolinylisoflavan.racemic 6-oxazolinylisoflavan, a highly effective inhibitor of rhinovirus serotype 1b in vitro, was resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral stationary phase in order to study the activity of the enantiomers against picornaviruses. the absolute configuration of the two isomers was determined by circular dichroism curves. the antipicornavirus activity of each isomer, separately collected, was evaluated in vitro against human rhinovirus serotype 1b, enterovirus 71, echovirus ...19938398593
comparison of glass wool and glass powder methods for concentration of viruses from treated waste waters.enumeration of cultivable virus particle in sewage requires the samples to be concentrated. two adsorption-elution methods, the glass wool cartridge method and the glass powder fluid layer method were compared. firstly, it was demonstrated that virus could be readily recovered from the head, first 25 ml, of eluate of glass wool rather than from a reconcentration of the entire eluate, either by organic flocculation: 83% of positivity vs 44% respectively or double precipitation by peg: 85% of posi ...19938476496
suspension culture of hela cells in protein-free medium: sensitivity to human pathogenic viruses.human adherent hela-pf cells grown for 5 years in a protein-free 1:1 nutrient mixture of dulbecco's modified mem and ham's f12 (dmem-f12) were established in suspension culture. the cells grew in protein-free dmem-f12 (using magnetically stirred flasks) as a monodisperse suspension with a population doubling time of 28 h. the cells were infected with poliovirus types 2 and 3, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (hsv-1 and hsv-2), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), echovirus 6 and adenoviruses 3 a ...19948586536
viral meningitis due to echovirus types 6 and 9: epidemiological data from western australia.during the autumn of 1992, western australia experienced a large viral meningitis outbreak of dual aetiology. of the 161 cases, 64% were children under 15 years of age, with the highest notification rate being in children less than 5 years of age. echovirus 9 caused 41% of cases and occurred mainly in the metropolitan areas of western australia whereas echovirus 6, which caused 37% of cases, was more widespread. an enterovirus was cultured from 70% of csf specimens, 88% of faecal specimens and 6 ...19968972676
intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis in an echovirus 6 and echovirus 4 nursery outbreak. 19979239781
[viral meningoencephalitis caused by enterovirus in cuba from 1990-1995].the results of a study on enterovirus as causal agents of viral meningoencephalitis from 1990 to 1995 are described. from the 1458 samples of patients studied, 586 were from feces, 108 from cerebrospinal fluid and 1095 were paired sera. the samples for viral isolation were inoculated in two different cellular systems. a total of 225 samples (32.42%) were found to be positive; the highest number of isolations (n = 217) was found in feces and in diploid human lung fibroblast cells (phue-1). antibo ...19979472139
[intrathecal interferon therapy in chronic echovirus meningoencephalitis in bruton type agammaglobulinemia].a 9-year-old body with x-linked agammaglobulinemia developed chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis (cema) caused by echovirus type 6. intravenous treatment with selected immunoglobulin charges containing high titers against echovirus type 6 or combination with beta-interferon did not result in improvement. after implantation of a rickham reservoir and periodical administration of intraventricular and intravenous immunoglobulin the virus recurred rapidly each time treatment was stopped. after 2 ...19989561956
simultaneous onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in identical infant twins with enterovirus infection.this report describes classical type 1 insulin deficient diabetes mellitus (dm) arising in twins aged 14 months, both of whom had evidence of enterovirus infection. the diagnosis of type 1 dm was made in the second twin within 12 days of the first. enterovirus infection was detected in each twin at diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). both twins were negative for enterovirus by pcr 5 months following diagnosis, although both were then positive for islet cell antibodies. sequencing of th ...19989632128
enterovirus associated neurological disease in an hiv-1 infected man.we report a case of relapsing multifocal neurological disease associated with cns echovirus 6 infection in an hiv-1-infected individual with no evidence of immunoglobulin deficiency. the illness was initially characterized by optic and cranial neuropathies and myelopathy; concurrent granulomatous hepatitis suggested disseminated viral infection. treatment with combination nucleoside analogues led to partial remission, but a demyelinating polyneuropathy subsequently developed. there was improveme ...19989839655
[the importance of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of enterovirus infections of the central nervous system in children. clinico-epidemiologic characteristics].to compare the diagnosis utility of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for detection of enteroviral rna in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) in comparison to viral culture for central nervous system infections in pediatric population and to know the clinic epidemiological characteristics of this infection.199910396087
intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins in neisseria meningitidis and echovirus 6 meningoencephalitis.infectious diseases of the central nervous system (cns) constitute the main cause of death amidst the neurological diseases in pediatric patients in cuba. this factor, among others, made us study the immune response in children with such disorders. cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum samples were collected from 69 patients: 26 with neisseria meningitidis meningoencephalitis, and 43 with echovirus 6. iga, igm, igg, and albumin were measured by immunodiffusion in serum and csf. local synthesis of ...199910527452
enteroviruses in spain: virological and epidemiological studies over 10 years (1988-97).a total of 15,662 clinical samples were analysed for enterovirus (ev) isolation in cell cultures during a 10-year period (1988-97). furthermore, 210 isolates of ev obtained in primary laboratories within spain from patients with meningitis were characterized. the total number of ev typed was 758, including 727 non-polio ev and 31 sabin-like (sl) polioviruses. twenty-eight ev serotypes were represented. echoviruses comprised 90% (653/727) of fully typed non-polio ev. the four most prevalent serot ...200010982074
neonatal type i diabetes associated with maternal echovirus 6 infection: a case report.neonatal diabetes mellitus is rare, and it has not been associated with beta-cell autoimmunity. enteroviral infections during pregnancy have been implicated as a risk factor for the later development of type i (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. we now report of a baby girl who was born severely growth-retarded with neonatal insulin-deficient diabetes, and look for evidence of intrauterine enteroviral infections and beta-cell targeted autoimmunity.200011079741
outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by echovirus type 6 in an orphanage in japan. 200011120625
fatal neonatal echovirus 6 infection: autopsy case report and review of the literature.a full-term, healthy male neonate was delivered by caesarian section to a 26-year-old primigravida woman who had a history of fever and upper respiratory tract infection. on the fourth day of life, the neonate developed a sepsis-like syndrome, acute respiratory and renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. he died 13 days after birth. postmortem examination revealed jaundice, anasarca, massive hepatic necrosis, adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis, renal medullary hemorrhage, hemorrhag ...200111235909
detection of infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses in tap water in urban areas in korea.we investigated the viral contamination of tap water at 11 urban sites in korea between 1997 and 1998 over a period of 11 months. a total of 23 tap water samples were examined for infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses by a cell culture technique followed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification. to identify the recovered viruses, sequence analysis of pcr products was performed. infectious enteroviruses and adenoviruses were detected in 11 (47.8%) and 9 (39.1%) of the samples, respect ...200211766801
[acute motor axonal neuropathy, enterovirus and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: can there be a link?].amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als) is a neurodegenerative disorder of both upper and lower motor neurons. acute motor axonal neuropathy (aman) affects only the lower motor neuron and occurs, in the majority of cases, after an infection. to date, the etiology of als remains unknown but seems multifactorial. a 60 year-old man with a past medical history of aman developed als 9 years later. at that time, genomic sequences of enterovirus (echovirus 6 and 7) were detected in cerebrospinal fluid by r ...200312618659
three echovirus serotypes responsible for outbreak of aseptic meningitis in rhône-alpes region, france.during the year 2000 in the rhône-alpes region of france, 559 cases of aseptic meningitis due to enterovirus infection were recorded (approximate incidence, 10 cases per 100,000 population compared with a mean of 0.3 cases during endemic years in this region; p<0.001). cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from all 559 patients and processed for enterovirus rna detection using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay only. in addition to the cerebrospinal fluid samples, 40 st ...200312649719
impaired glutamate uptake and eaat2 downregulation in an enterovirus chronically infected human glial cell line.rapid and efficient uptake of glutamate via the high-affinity glutamate transporter eaat2 is important for limiting glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involved in neuronal death. furthermore, there is evidence of altered glutamate uptake and catabolism in motor neuron diseases. such a defect has been reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the major motor neuron disease, and was associated with impairment in eaat2 processing. we recently reported the presence of enterovirus genome specifically ...200312752781
molecular typing and epidemiology of enteroviruses identified from an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in belgium during the summer of 2000.non-polio enteroviruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis worldwide. from may to september 2000, a major outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred in belgium. cerebrospinal fluid samples (csf) of 122 patients were found to contain enterovirus rna using diagnostic rt-pcr that targeted a 231-bp gene fragment in the 5' noncoding region. in addition, a molecular typing method was developed based on rt-nested pcr and sequencing directly from csf(a) 358-bp fragment in the aminoterminal par ...200312767006
antiviral activity of betulin, betulinic and betulonic acids against some enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.antiviral properties of betulin, betulinic and betulonic acids were investigated in cell cultures infected with herpes simplex type i, influenza fpv/rostock and echo 6 viruses. all studied triterpenes were active against herpes simplex virus. betulin and especially betulinic acid also suppressed echo 6 virus reproduction.200312837369
hepatic failure in a newborn with maternal peripartum exposure to echovirus 6 and enterovirus 71. 200312851816
the infection of chimpanzees with echo viruses.the oral and parenteral infections of chimpanzees receiving echo types 6 and 4 viruses successively are described. the two infections, spaced 2(1/2) months apart, and given by the same route in each animal, failed to induce overt disease. the inapparent infections were demonstrated by virus excretion in the throat and the stools and the development of neutralizing antibodies. complement-fixing antibodies also appeared after type 6 infection, but fell more rapidly than the neutralizing antibodies ...195713475623
the growth of echo 6 virus in human amnion cells. 196113758309
studies on intratypic variants of echoviruses. i. separation of haemagglutinating and non-haemagglutinating virus particles from echovirus type 6. 196314108403
studies of mutants of echovirus 6. 3. behavior in monkey and human cell culture. 196514294412
studies of mutants of echovirus 6. i. biologic and serologic characteristics. 196514294416
studies of mutants of echovirus 6. ii. isolation from human alimentary tract. 196514294417
[behavior of complement-fixing antibodies for adenovirus and echo 6 virus in a closed community and in a free environment]. 196514343240
["biak fever", an echo-6 virus infection]. 195914426312
landry-guillain-barre syndrome--the isolation of an echovirus type 6. 196014430511
assessment of an enterovirus sewage surveillance system by comparison of clinical isolates with sewage isolates from milwaukee, wisconsin, collected august 1994 to december 2002.the quantity and serotypes of enteroviruses (evs) in the influent of a local sewage treatment plant were compared to local clinical ev cases to determine if testing of sewage is adequate for an ev surveillance system. the study was carried out from august 1994 to december 2002. monthly influent specimens were processed by organic flocculation, and dilutions of concentrate were inoculated onto a number of different cell types for virus isolation. evs were detected in 88 of 100 monthly influent sa ...200314660364
analysis of the serotype and genotype correlation of vp1 and the 5' noncoding region in an epidemiological survey of the human enterovirus b species.the sequence identity of the enterovirus vp1 gene has been shown to correlate with the serotype concept. enterovirus molecular typing methods are therefore often based on sequencing of the vp1 genomic region and monophyletic clustering of vp1 sequences of a homologous serotype. for epidemiological surveillance, 342 enterovirus samples obtained from patients with aseptic meningitis in belgium from 1999 to 2002 were first diagnosed as being enterovirus positive by amplification of the 5' noncoding ...200415004039
cumulative mutations in the genome of echovirus 6 during establishment of a chronic infection in precursors of glial cells.although enteroviruses are mainly described as responsible for acute diseases, their role in severe chronic pathology has been also established. echovirus 6-like sequences have been detected by pcr analysis in central nervous system specimens from patients presenting with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. these findings suggested a persistent infection with viruses that underwent, genetic changes precluding viral particle release. to support this hypothesis, we developed a model system of echovirus ...200515744568
characterization of nonpolio enteroviruses recovered from patients with aseptic meningitis in korea.we attempted to characterize nonpolio enteroviruses recovered from korean patients with aseptic meningitis.200515812181
inhibitory activity of bovine lactoferrin against echovirus induced programmed cell death in vitro.lactoferrin is a glycoprotein and plays an important role in defence against pathogens. although the antiviral activity of lactoferrin is one of the major biological functions of such protein, the mechanism of action is still under debate. the effect of lactoferrin on echovirus 6 infection in vitro was analysed and results showed that (i) cells infected with echovirus 6, died as a result of apoptosis and that (ii) programmed cell death was inhibited by lactoferrin treatment. in this report, we d ...200515848300
epidemiological study of non-polio enterovirus neurological infections in children in the region of monastir, tunisia.the epidemiological, virological, and clinical syndromes of 86 children younger than 13 years suspected of having neurological diseases and admitted to fattouma bourguiba hospital of monastir from january 2002 to november 2003 were analyzed. the presence of enterovirus was studied in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and by isolation on cell culture. sixty-one (71%) specimens were positive by rt-pcr, whereas 45 (52.3%) were detected by ...200616290030
enterovirus meningitis in brazil, 1998-2003.acute viral infections of the central nervous system (cns) such as acute flaccid paralysis, meningitis, and encephalitis, are responsible for a high morbidity, particularly in children. non-polio enteroviruses (npev) are known to be responsible for over 80% of viral meningitis in which the etiologic agent is identified. in the present study, we show the frequency of enterovirus meningitis in brazil from december 1998 to december 2003. enterovirus were isolated from 162 (15.8%), of a total of 1,0 ...200616299728
bovine lactoferrin peptidic fragments involved in inhibition of echovirus 6 in vitro infection.bovine lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein folded in two symmetric globular lobes (n- and c-lobes), each being able to bind one ferric ion. we have previously demonstrated that this protein is able to prevent echovirus-induced apoptosis. in the present study, we have investigated both the role of tryptic fragments of bovine lactoferrin and the mechanism of lactoferrin effect on echovirus infection. results obtained showed that bovine lactoferrin inhibits echovirus-induced cytopathic ef ...200616386316
distribution of echovirus antibody in serum, nasopharynx, rectum, and spinal fluid after natural infection with echovirus type 6.by employing the techniques of radioimmunodiffusion and autoradiography and by using (32)p-labeled echovirus 6 as the antigen, the distribution of echovirus 6 antibody in serum, nasopharynx, rectum, and spinal fluid was studied in a group of children with naturally acquired echovirus type 6 infection, with or without meningeal involvement. the response in serum was characterized by sequential appearance of gammam, gammag, and rarely of gammaa antibody. the secretory response in the nasopharynx a ...197016557813
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