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echo 9 infection in pregnant women with suspected rubella.both rubella virus and echovirus 9 (echo 9) were epidemic in scotland during the summer of 1973; both viruses can cause a mild febrile illness with rash. sera from 286 rubella-negative pregnant women were tested for neutralizing antibodies to echo 9 virus; 40 women had antibody titres suggestive of recent infection. prospective studies on the outcome of these pregnancies are in progress but preliminary results suggest no connexion between fetal damage and echo 9 infection.19751127119
[b and t lymphocytes in peripheral blood of children with infections caused by echovirus 9]. 1977304572
nuclear abnormalities in muscle regenerating after echo 9 virus infection in mice. 1978203663
[studies on echo 9 virus. 3. studies on the genetic stability of serological properties of echo 9 "hot" mutant]. 19684970249
epidemic of echovirus type 9 infection. certain clinical and epidemiologic features. 19734510097
genetic characteristics of echovirus type 9 strains: selection and characterization of variants. 19684971355
koplik spots and echo 9 virus. 19873481055
[[(4,5-dihydro-2-oxazolyl)phenoxy]alkyl]isoxazoles. inhibitors of picornavirus uncoating.a series of [[(4,5-dihydro-2-oxazolyl)phenoxy]alkyl]isoxazoles has been synthesized and evaluated as antipicornavirus agents. the effect of alkyl groups in the 4- and 5-position of the oxazoline ring, as well as the alkyl chain length, on antiviral activity was examined. compound 14 was evaluated in vivo and was found to significantly reduce mortality at an oral dose of 4 mg/kg in mice infected intracerebrally with poliovirus-2. compound 14 was also effective in preventing paralysis when adminis ...19852999407
acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis associated with echovirus 9 infection: a case report and review of literature.the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure associated with viral infections is uncommon. we report a case of a 17-year-old female suffering from rhabdomyolysis caused by echovirus 9 in which the patient recovered after being treated for acute renal failure with hemodialysis. among 42 cases of virus-induced rhabdomyolysis review in japanese and english literatures, influenza virus is the most common cause of rhabdomyolysis, coxsackie virus tends to be next most common cause. renal f ...19892659856
in vitro and in vivo activities of win 54954, a new broad-spectrum antipicornavirus drug.win 54954 (5-[5-[2,6-dichloro-4-(4,5-dihydro-2-oxazolyl)phenoxy]pentyl]-3- methylisoxazole) is a new member of the class of broad-spectrum antipicornavirus compounds known to bind in a hydrophobic pocket within virion capsid protein vp1. in plaque reduction assays, win 54954 reduced plaque formation of 50 of 52 rhinovirus serotypes (mics ranged from 0.007 to 2.2 micrograms/ml). a concentration of 0.28 microgram/ml was effective in inhibiting 80% of the 52 serotypes tested (ec80). win 54954 was a ...19892559655
morphological changes and membrane potential of human granulocytes under influence of chemotactic peptide and/or echo-virus, type 9.the membrane potential, em, of human granulocytes (pmns), was recorded using glass microelectrodes. the membrane potential em exhibited potential fluctuations accompanied by characteristic changes of cell shape. the periodic potential fluctuations (7-s, 70-s, and 260-s periodicities) ascertained by the autocorrelation technique, suggested the existence of an internal clock. the chemoattractant f-met-leu-phe (fmlp) had no influence on the periodicities, whereas the amplitudes of the fluctuations ...19883398429
[epidemics of echo-9 virus meningitis in avignon region]. 19705470843
acute ascending polyradiculomyelitis. associated with echo 9 virus. 19674292732
a study of infections and illnesses in a day nursery based on inclusion-bearing cells in the urine and infectious agent in faeces, urine and nasal secretion.during an epidemic-free period of nearly 2 years infections and illnesses were followed in a group of small children (2-3 1/2 years) in a day nursery. the incidence of illness was fairly low, 6.3 per child and year. the viral infections were followed by means of the inclusion reaction in the urine and isolation of virus, and the bacterial by culture of nasal secretion. in 60% of the cases the viral infection was accompanied by illness. in 57 cases of illness there were 27 (47%) with merely virus ...1979231298
[studies on echo 9 virus. ii. biological properties of the "cold" mutant]. 19684969559
echovirus-associated polyarthritis. report of a case with synovial fluid and synovial histologic characterization.a patient with fever, myalgias, and acute polyarthritis in whom echovirus 9 was isolated from throat and rectal swab specimens is described. all symptoms resolved spontaneously over a one week period except for the arthritis which required three months for complete recovery. a mildly inflammatory synovial fluid and histologic picture were observed. attempts to isolate the virus from synovial fluid and synovium during acute illness were unsuccessful.1978737022
use of win 51711 to prevent echovirus type 9-induced paralysis in suckling mice.the systemic efficacy of the antipicornavirus agent win 51711 was assessed in suckling mice infected with echovirus type 9 (barty strain). single, daily intraperitoneal doses of win 51711 as low as 10 mg/kg significantly (p less than .01) slowed the rate of onset of echovirus-induced paralysis and reduced the number of paralyzed animals. intraperitoneal administration beginning 2 hr before infection or 48 hr after infection was equally effective in preventing paralysis. oral administration of wi ...19863745975
[summer epidemic of an exanthematous disease induced by echo 9 virus in infants]. 19665909653
biochemistry and pathogenicity of echovirus 9. iii. thermosensitive mutants of echovirus 9, strain barty, with reduced pathogenicity for newborn mice.different clinical isolates of echovirus 9 are known to vary strikingly with regard to pathogenicity. prototype strain hill and strain barty have previously been shown to differ not only in paralytogenic potency for newborn mice but also in a number of in vitro characteristics related to virus capsid structures. a series of mutants of strain barty, thermosensitive for replication at 40 degrees c, was isolated after mutagenization with 5-fluorouracil. for all mutants the virus dose required to pa ...19883362095
molecular cloning and sequence determination of the genomic regions encoding protease and genome-linked protein of three picornaviruses.to investigate the degree of similarity between picornavirus proteases, we cloned the genomic cdnas of an enterovirus, echovirus 9 (strain barty), and two rhinoviruses, serotypes 1a and 14lp, and determined the nucleotide sequence of the region which, by analogy to poliovirus, encodes the protease. the nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the genome-linked protein vpg, immediately adjacent to the protease, was also determined. comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences with ...19863512851
echovirus type 9 meningitis epidemic in kyushu during the summer of 1967. 19684973508
design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants.we have built a series of vectors to allow the constitutive or light-regulated expression of foreign genes in plants. these vectors carry expression cassettes consisting of either the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter or the pea rbcs-e9 promoter, a multiple cloning site derived from m13um20, and the rbcs-e9 polyadenylation site. these cassettes have been incorporated into pbr322-based or rk2-based replicons to facilitate direct dna uptake or agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. ...19873443303
biochemistry and pathogenicity of echovirus 9. ii. mutants of echovirus 9, strain hill, with altered capsid surface properties.the two echovirus 9 strains hill and barty have been shown previously not only to differ in pathogenicity for newborn mice but also in a number of in vitro characteristics which depend on viral capsid structure. three spontaneously occurring mutants of the mouse-apathogenic echovirus 9 prototype strain hill being resistant to an inhibitor of plaque formation present in agar were isolated and compared biochemically and biophysically to their parent strain and to the mouse-pathogenic echovirus 9 s ...19863739228
mutational analysis of the genome-linked protein vpg of poliovirus.using a mutagenesis cartridge (r. j. kuhn, h. tada, m. f. ypma-wong, j. j. dunn, b. l. semler, and e. wimmer, proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 85:519-523, 1988), we have generated single and multiple amino acid replacement mutants, as well as a single amino acid insertion mutant in the genome-linked protein vpg of poliovirus. moreover, we constructed three different 5-amino-acid insertion mutants that map close to the c terminus of 3a, a viral polypeptide whose coding sequence is adjacent to vpg. tran ...19882845132
acid stability of hepatitis a virus.the acid stability of unpurified and highly purified hepatitis a virus (hav) was tested and compared with that of poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus types a9 and b1 and echovirus type 9. only hav had a high residual infectivity after 2 h of exposure to ph 1 at room temperature, remaining infectious for up to 5 h. at 38 degrees c, ph 1, hav remained infectious for 90 min. highly purified hav was found to be infectious for 8 h at ph 1 and room temperature. this indicates that the increased stabilit ...19892550575
development and application of rna probes for the study of picornaviruses.single-stranded rna probes were developed from cloned cdna fragments derived from four picornaviruses; poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus b3, echovirus 9 and theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. in comparative testing with a nick-translated cdna probe, the rna probe was found to be 10-100-fold more sensitive. hybridization conditions were optimized for rna probes to picornavirus targets. longer hybridization times gave an improved signal, as did a temperature of 50 degrees c. formamide conce ...19883380106
an epidemic of echo 9 virus meningitis in auckland. 19665225621
clinical observations and virological study of aseptic meningitis in the kaohsiung area.during 1988, an endemic outbreak of aseptic meningitis was noted in the kaohsiung area. throughout the year, a total of 89 cases were identified by cerebrospinal fluid (csf) examination at the pediatric department of kaohsiung medical college. the peak incidence was from june to october. scattered cases still occurred during november and december. the male to female ratio was 1.7:1 and the age distribution ranged from 1 month to 15 years old. two peaks of age distribution were observed; one in i ...19901981774
[echo-9 virus infections in the records of the provincial hospital for infectious diseases of the mecidal academy in gdaƄsk]. 19751178566
fatal neonatal pneumonia caused by echovirus type 9. 1977910771
vinyl versus latex gloves as barriers to transmission of viruses in the health care setting.one type of vinyl and seven types of latex gloves without visual defects were tested with respect to their barrier function against high concentrations of three viruses of varying size: herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1, 180 nm), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1, 100 nm), and echovirus type 9 (echo 9, 25 nm). viral suspensions of hsv-1 (10(8) tcd50/ml), hiv-1 (10(5) tcd50/ml), and echovirus type 9 (10(7.5)tcd 50/ml) were placed in an inverted glove finger immersed in media and maintai ...19892703958
seed-transmissible expression of mammalian metallothionein in transgenic tobacco.a binary plasmid was constructed to contain the mouse metallothionein c-dna, the constitutive 35s promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus, the polyadenylation signal from the pea rbcs-e9 gene and several selectable markers. the plasmid was transferred to agrobacterium tumefaciens and the leaf disc method was used to transform tobacco. callus and shoots were regenerated in the presence of kanamycin and transformed plants were obtained. southern, northern and western blot analysis demonstrated inte ...19882829879
antiviral activity of a pyrazino-pyrazine derivative.the 2,3-dihydroxy-6-bromo-pyrazino-[2,3-beta]-pyrazine is a substance selected during the antiviral screening of pyrazino-pyrazine derivatives. the compound shows antiviral activity in vitro against measles, ndv, some influenza viruses and against herpes simplex and zoster, infectious canine hepatitis and vaccinia viruses. it had no effect on echo 9 virus. therapeutic trials showed activity also on herpetic keratoconjunctivitis experimentally induced in rabbits.1975169110
change in chang liver cells from virus susceptibility to resistance mediated by persistent infection with echovirus type 9. 19664960050
[a case of paralytic disease caused by echo 9 virus]. 19655827616
[studies on echo-9 virus. i. serological variation of echo-9 (hill) virus under the influence of temperature]. 19665933500
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia associated with echo 9 virus infection. 19676024218
severe neonatal illness associated with echo 9 virus infection. 19734700731
epidemics of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus 30 in japan. a report of the national epidemiological surveillance of infectious agents in japan.two rages of epidemic of aseptic meningitis (am) due to echovirus 30 (e30) in japan were analyzed with respect to two sources of information, am incidence and e30 isolation, both gathered through the national epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases. the first e30 epidemic spread throughout japan in 1983 and ceased within the year. the second epidemic, starting in 1989, continued for the three successive years, and in the last year, 1991, the total e30 reports numbered 4,061, the larg ...19947715095
echovirus 9 meningoencephalitis in infants and children. 19695818907
glomerulonephritis induced in mice by echo 9 virus. 19684881780
ultrastructural degenerative changes of age-dependent echo 9 virus-induced polymyositis in infant mice.experimental inoculation of newborn nmri mice with echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty *echo 9 virus ab) resulted in diffuse polymyositis 4 days later. the disease, after a delay of 1 day, increased in intensity and was accompanied by a rapid, progressive paresis leading to death 7-11 days following infection. as early as 24-48 h after inoculation, we detected initial ultrastructural degenerative changes, characterized by segmental dilation fo the sarcoplasmic reticulum. disruption and breakage ...19816112816
a mixed epidemic associated with echovirus types 6 and 11: virologic, clinical and epidemiologic studies.during 1979, an outbreak of mixed enterovirus infections occurred in kansas city and adjacent communities. sixty-six enteroviruses and 7 adenoviruses were recovered from 73 persons in a survey hospital population. twenty-eight persons yielded echovirus type 11, 22, echovirus type 6, and 16 either echovirus type 9 or coxsackieviruses group b, types 2 and 3. this study describes some of the clinical, virologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreak. a major finding relates to the recove ...19816272570
genetic characteristics of echovirus type 9 strains: association of mouse virulence with other genetic markers. 19694977661
virus infection of endothelial cells.endothelial injury is important in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, atherosclerosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and vasculitis. the ability of several common human viruses to infect cultures of endothelial cells obtained from human umbilical veins or bovine thoracic aorta was demonstrated. indicators of infection included cytopathology, viral growth curves, and antigen detection by immunofluorescence. herpes simplex virus type 1, adenovirus type 7, measles virus, and parainfluenza vi ...19816260874
effect of echo 9 virus infection on tuberculin sensitivity. 19694987091
[changes in the membrane fluidity of human neutrophilic granulocytes under the effect of a chemoattractant (fmlp) and of echo virus, type 9, a. barty strain].preincubation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmns) with different concentrations of echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty results in viral dose- and time-dependent inhibition of chemotactic cellular response to chemoattractant (n-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine = fmlp). in the present experiments, by means of biophysical methods using excimer forming lipids (pyrendecanoic acid) the influence of fmlp and echo 9 virus on membrane fluidity of pmns was investigated. it is shown that the inc ...19836412297
aseptic meningitis due to echovirus type 9. 19725026336
epidemiologic, clinical and virological findings of exanthematous summer grippe due to echo 9 virus in tokushima district, japan. 19705489630
central nervous system disease in humans due to simultaneous epidemics of echovirus type 9 and western encephalomyelitis virus infection in alberta. 19685657183
an outbreak among children of aseptic meningitis caused by echovirus type 9. a clinical and serological study. 19685706051
acute rhabdomyolysis associated with an echovirus 9 infection.a 28-year-old long-distance runner experienced fever, chills, and brown urine 24 hours after a six-mile run. this was accompanied by a large rise in the creatine phosphokinase level and a rise in echovirus 9 titers from 1:16 to greater than 1:256 during a two-week period. a muscle biopsy specimen showed acute rhabdomyolysis, but no viral inclusion particles. muscle energy metabolism analysis demonstrated no abnormalities. the patient was treated with forced saline diuresis, and he maintained nor ...19807458499
[effect of tannin, saponin and guanidine on the replication of echovirus 9 and its mutants]. 19807464352
processing of the envelope glycoprotein gp160 in immunotoxin-resistant cell lines chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.we describe the isolation and characterization of variant cell lines which are chronically infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and resistant to the action of immunotoxins directed against the hiv envelope protein. these variants all produce normal levels of hiv proteins, budding virions, and the envelope protein precursor gp160. two of the variants, 10e and 11e, contain a mutation within the env gene which results in the production of a truncated precursor and altered processing ...19957474132
[epidemiologic study of an outbreak of echovirus type-9 meningitis].several agents are able to produce lymphocytic meningitis, but sometimes it's not possible their identification. the viruses are the etiological agents more frequently found, especially enteroviruses, mumps virus and herpes simplex virus, with different epidemiological patterns depending on time and geographic location. most of the infections caused by enteroviruses are asymptomatics. in general the viral meningitis have a good prognostic with an acute benign course and serious signs of neurolog ...19947618039
in vivo efficacy of sdz 35-682, a new picornavirus capsid-binding agent.sdz 35-682 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of members of the picornavirus group. it belongs to the group of uncoating inhibitors binding to the hydrophobic pocket in the capsid of the virion. in cell culture it inhibits several rhinovirus serotypes and echovirus 9 at concentrations as low as 0.1 micrograms/ml. in the echovirus 9 animal model the protective effect of sdz 35-682 was found to be dependent on both, dose of drug and duration of treatment. significant protection ...19957741521
sdz 35-682, a new picornavirus capsid-binding agent with potent antiviral activity.sdz 35-682 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of members of the picornavirus group. it inhibits several rhinovirus serotypes and echovirus 9 at concentrations as low as 0.1 micrograms/ml, without exerting any effect on cell proliferation up to 30 micrograms/ml. as observed with other capsid-binding antipicornavirus compounds, there is a wide variation in sensitivity of the different serotypes within the rhinovirus group. the point of interference of sdz 35-682 in a single cyc ...19957741522
unique insertion sequence and pattern of cd4 expression in variants selected with immunotoxins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected t cells.to study the variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1), we used immunotoxins to select for variants within a population of h9 cells persistently infected with a molecular clone of hiv-1 designated nl4-3. chimeric immunotoxin cd4-pe40 (a chimeric fusion protein consisting of the amino-terminal two domains of cd4 and the carboxy-terminal domains of pseudomonas exotoxin a) was used to select for cells lacking cell surface expression of hiv env (envelope proteins gp160, gp120, and g ...19957983770
pustulotic arthroosteitis triggered by echovirus 9? 19938308799
laboratory studies of epidemic strains of echovirus 9. 19714996500
outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echo-9 in northern kyushu island in the summer of 1997.an outbreak of aseptic meningitis caused by echovirus type 9 (echo-9) occurred between june and august 1997 in the chikugo area, fukuoka, japan. clinical manifestations and laboratory data of 317 children with aseptic meningitis were analyzed. the age of the patients ranged from 1 month to 12 years with the highest incidence in 4 years old children. the male: female ratio was 2.0:1.0. symptoms of the meningitis included fever (100%), headache (89.5%) and nausea and/or vomiting (85.6%). skin rash ...199910410528
complete nucleotide sequence and biological properties of an infectious clone of prototype echovirus 9.the prototype hill of echovirus 9, a human enterovirus, exhibits no pathogenicity for newborn mice in contrast to some other echovirus 9 strains isolated subsequently during epidemics. in this communication we report the first complete nucleotide sequence and construction of an infectious clone of echovirus 9. aside from the 3' poly(a)-tract, the rna genome is 7420 nucleotides (nt) in length and encodes a single polyprotein of 2193 amino acids (aa). the open reading frame extends from position 7 ...19958837893
outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echo-9 virus. 19676047550
molecular cloning and sequence determination of the complete genome of the virulent echovirus 9 strain barty.as part of a study of the molecular basis of pathogenicity of echovirus 9, the complete nucleotide sequence of the mouse-virulent echovirus 9 strain barty was determined. excluding the poly(a) tail, the complete rna genome is composed of 7451 bases. the postulated open reading frame extends from nucleotide (nt) 741 to 7349 and predicts a polyprotein of 2203 amino acids (aa). as compared with the sequence of the echovirus 9 prototype strain hill, which is apathogenic for newborn mice, 1492 nt are ...19968879131
sch 38057: a picornavirus capsid-binding molecule with antiviral activity after the initial stage of viral uncoating.the activity of a new water-soluble molecule, sch 38057, against picornaviruses is described. sch 38057 inhibited plaque formation of selected entero- and rhinoviruses in a range of 10.2 to 29.1 microm (50% endpoint) and had a therapeutic index of 10 against poliovirus type 2 (polio 2) in hela cells. when administered orally or subcutaneously, sch 38057 protected mice infected with either coxsackievirus b3 (cvb3) or echovirus-9 from mortality. the molecule provided a low level of protection agai ...19938391247
echovirus 9 strain barty non-structural protein 2c has ntpase activity.non-structural protein 2c is known to play a fundamental role in the replication of picornaviruses. sequence analyses revealed that 2c belongs to a rapidly expanding group of proteins containing a consensus sequence for nucleotide binding (ntb). we report that echovirus 9 polypeptide 2c displays ntpase activity in vitro. in our experiments, several p2 genes were expressed in escherichia coli as fusion proteins linked to glutathione s-transferase (gst) prior to purification close to homogeneity. ...199910581388
nonpolio causes of polio-like paralytic syndromes.in a study of patients with suspected poliomyelitis, but from whom poliovirus was not isolated, a variety of causes of the paralysis was found. injury of the spinal column sometimes followed by periostitis or osteomyelitis was relatively common. exotic causes included paralysis due to snake bite, spider bite, scorpion sting, and tick bite and schistosomiasis involving the spinal cord. chemical poisons, such as arsenic, triorthocresyl phosphate, and organophosphorus insecticides, were responsible ...19846740077
[infections of the central nervous system caused by enterovirus: 223 cases seen at a pediatric hospital between 1973 and 1981].between 1973 and 1981, 223 patients were seen at hôpital sainte-justine in montreal for enteroviral infection of the nervous system. in 161 the cause was documented by isolation of an enterovirus from the cerebrospinal fluid (csf). the viruses most frequently isolated were echovirus 11 (36 isolates), echovirus 30 (24), coxsackievirus b2 (23), coxsackievirus b3 (19), echovirus 6 (18), coxsackievirus b5 (16), coxsackievirus a9 (15), echovirus 9 (13), echovirus 7 (12) and coxsackievirus b1 (11). as ...19826291736
f-met-leu-phe and echo 9 virus interaction with human granulocytes. changes of cell membrane structure.biophysical and biochemical methods were applied for investigation of cell membrane properties of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) exposed to the chemotactic peptide n-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (f-met-leu-phe) and echovirus type 9, strain a, barty. steady-state fluorescence depolarization with diphenylhexatriene demonstrated no gross changes of the total membrane fluidity under the different experimental conditions. however, by means of the monomer-excimer technique with pyren ...19846742107
echo 9 virus-induced order-disorder transition of chemotactic response of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: phenomenology and molecular biology.by means of functional, morphological, and biophysical methods the in vitro interaction of echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty with human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (pmns) was investigated and analyzed by statistical methods. control cells and virus-treated pmns (15 min, 37 degrees c; pmn: virus (pfu)-ratio ranging from 1:1 to 1:50) were exposed to a chemotactic gradient (n-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine = f-met-leu-phe, 10(-8) m/mm) in a zigmond chamber. whereas the track velocity of the ...19846487817
selective inhibition of human neutrophilic chemotaxis by echo virus, type 9. virus-induced changes in membrane fluidity.by means of the excimer-forming lipid technique changes of membrane fluidity of human pmns exposed to a chemoattractant (fmlp) and/or echo virus, type 9, strain a. barty has been investigated. it was shown that preincubation of pmns with echo 9 virus results in a viral dose-dependent decrease of membrane fluidity of granulocytes exposed to fmlp. the virus-induced rigidity of cell membrane causes obviously a disturbance in the aggregation of membrane particles to form receptors, and thus can lead ...19827182838
cell attachment and mouse virulence of echovirus 9 correlate with an rgd motif in the capsid protein vp1.the recently analyzed sequences of the nonpathogenic prototype strain hill and the mouse-virulent strain barty of the human echovirus 9 differ particularly in an insertion coding for an rgd motif at the c-terminus of the capsid protein vp1 in the genome of strain barty. to investigate molecular determinants of virulence, we generated a panel of recombinant viruses derived from cdna clones of strains hill and barty. in this communication, we show that the mouse-pathogenic character of strain bart ...19979201224
neuroepithelial cells downregulate their plasma membrane polarity prior to neural tube closure and neurogenesis.cell differentiation often involves changes in cell polarity. in this study we show that neuroepithelial cells, the progenitors of all neurons and macroglial cells of the vertebrate central nervous system, downregulate the polarized delivery to the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains during development. upon infection of the neuroepithelium of mouse embryos with fowl plague virus (fpv), polarized delivery of the viral envelope hemagglutinin, an apical marker, occurred at the neural pl ...19979486532
coxsackievirus b1 infection in infants less than 2 months of age.most of the neonatal enteroviral infections reported in the literature are associated with coxsackievirus b2-b5 and echovirus 9 and 11. we report a retrospective coxsackievirus b1 (cb1) infection in infants less than 2 months of age. seventeen patients had aseptic meningitis and 8 had systemic sepsis (multi-organ involvement including meningitis, impaired liver function, and abnormality in coagulation). the symptoms and signs were nonspecific and could not be distinguished with bacterial infecti ...19989572369
[pathogenicity, for newborn mice, of echovirus type 9 samples isolated from cases of meningitis during an outbreak in rio de janeiro]. 19836645951
biochemistry and pathogenicity of echovirus 9. i. characterization of the virus particles of strains barty and hill. 19827147713
[an epidemic of aseptic meningitis caused by echoviruses in fukuoka prefecture during april 1997 to august 1998].an epidemic of aseptic meningitis in fukuoka prefecture during april 1997 to august 1998 was studied to determine the serotype of viruses isolated in fukuoka prefecture. in fukuoka prefecture, bimodal peaks were seen in july and december 1997. monthly changes of reported aseptic meningitis patients and period of virus isolation revealed that epidemics of the earlier part in 1997 was caused by echovirus 9 (e 9) and the latter part due to echovirus 30 (e 30). e 9 was isolated mainly in chikugo are ...199910213990
fatal case of echovirus type 9 encephalitis.enteroviruses are rare causes of acute focal encephalitis. a fatal case of echovirus type 9 infection is reported in a 9 month old boy who presented with a fever and a macular rash followed by two focal seizures. echovirus type 9 was isolated from lung tissue after seven days.19938227440
rapid subgrouping of nonpolio enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis by rflp (restriction fragment length polymorphism) assay.in korea, there was a big outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to enterovirus infection in 1993. since virus isolation and neutralizing tests are too laborious and time-consuming for the detection of enterovirus from clinical specimen, we have developed a new molecular identification method for rapid subgrouping of isolates from patients with aseptic meningitis. for the rapid subgrouping of isolates, rt-pcr (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and rflp (restriction fragment length pol ...19989666471
determinants of pathogenicity of echovirus 9 in men: significance of a functional rgd-motif.in this study, we investigated nine independent echovirus 9 isolates obtained from sick children in 1995. it is discovered that these isolates differ in respect to their pathogenicity for newborn mice indicating that the degree of human pathogenicity of an echovirus 9 variant does not necessarily correlate with mouse pathogenicity. nevertheless, all virus variants are found to code for an rgd-motif within their vp1 protein. hence, the rgd-motif and its highly conserved flanking regions are the c ...199910467665
laboratory surveillance of viral meningitis by examination of cerebrospinal fluid in cape town, 1981-9.nine years accumulated laboratory data derived from the culture of the cerebrospinal fluid of 11,360 aseptic meningitis cases were retrospectively reviewed to establish the epidemiology of viral meningitis in cape town. virus was isolated from 3406 of the cases (91% enteroviruses and 9% mumps). five major summer viral meningitis episodes were documented: two of echovirus 4 (706 and 445 cases), echovirus 9 (223), coxsackie a9 (104) and one of unidentified enterovirus (324 cases--probably echo 9). ...19938405162
echovirus type 9 epidemic in kagoshima, southern japan: seroepidemiology and clinical observation of aseptic meningitis.an outbreak of aseptic meningitis caused by echovirus type 9 occurred between march and october, 1990, in kagoshima, southern japan. clinical manifestations and laboratory data of 259 children with aseptic meningitis who were admitted to the outpatient clinic of pediatrics in the kagoshima city hospital were analyzed (other diseases caused by echovirus type 9 were not investigated). the patients' age ranged from 1 month to 15 years and the highest incidence was in 4-year-old children. the male:f ...19958559629
spontaneous activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in an immunotoxin-resistant variant t cell line.we have previously used immunotoxins to select for hiv-1 variant cells that transcribe hiv at extremely low levels and fail to produce hiv proteins. further observation of one of these variants (e9) demonstrated spontaneous in vitro activation of hiv production. the mechanism of activation is different from that of u1 and ach-2, two other cell lines that can be activated to express hiv in vitro.199910515150
dependence of echovirus 9 on the enterovirus rna replication inhibitor 2-(alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole maps to nonstructural protein 2c.hbb [2-(alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole] selectively inhibits rna synthesis of most enteroviruses. however, isolation of hbb-dependent variants is possible. sequence analysis and characterization of recombinant viruses revealed that hbb dependence maps to the nonstructural protein 2c. a single point mutation at position c(4782)u is sufficient to establish the hbb-dependent phenotype in our echovirus 9 model.199910559374
viral meningitis due to echovirus types 6 and 9: epidemiological data from western australia.during the autumn of 1992, western australia experienced a large viral meningitis outbreak of dual aetiology. of the 161 cases, 64% were children under 15 years of age, with the highest notification rate being in children less than 5 years of age. echovirus 9 caused 41% of cases and occurred mainly in the metropolitan areas of western australia whereas echovirus 6, which caused 37% of cases, was more widespread. an enterovirus was cultured from 70% of csf specimens, 88% of faecal specimens and 6 ...19968972676
enteroviruses in spain: virological and epidemiological studies over 10 years (1988-97).a total of 15,662 clinical samples were analysed for enterovirus (ev) isolation in cell cultures during a 10-year period (1988-97). furthermore, 210 isolates of ev obtained in primary laboratories within spain from patients with meningitis were characterized. the total number of ev typed was 758, including 727 non-polio ev and 31 sabin-like (sl) polioviruses. twenty-eight ev serotypes were represented. echoviruses comprised 90% (653/727) of fully typed non-polio ev. the four most prevalent serot ...200010982074
echovirus-9 protein 2c binds single-stranded rna unspecifically.polypeptide 2c is essential for picornavirus replication. although many data on multiple functions of this highly conserved protein are available, the mechanism of rna binding is still obscure. in this work, protein 2c of echovirus-9 strain barty was expressed as a histidine-tagged protein in e. coli followed by nondenaturing purification to homogeneity. after incubation of 2c protein with different kinds of rna fragments, binding was shown in gel retardation assays. competition experiments reve ...200010993936
analysis of the directed and nondirected movement of human granulocytes: influence of temperature and echo 9 virus on n-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine-induced chemokinesis and chemotaxis.the directed movement of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) in a plane (zigmond chamber assay) is described by a statistical model. we demonstrate that (a) the movement of a single cell is a superposition of a directed and a random movement, and (b) the degree of orientation, p1, of moving cells in a chemotactic gradient can be determined either by the time average of a single cell or by the average of movement of multiple cells at a fixed time (ergoden hypothesis). however, an homogeneous ...19836853601
detection of enterovirus by polymerase chain reaction and culture in cerebrospinal fluid of children with transient neurologic complications associated with acute febrile illness.cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from 23 children with neurologic symptoms, such as febrile seizures, status epilepticus, and transient altered states of consciousness, associated with acute febrile illness, were examined for infectious virus by cell culture. enteroviruses (echovirus type 9 and coxsackievirus b3) were isolated from 2 of the cerebrospinal fluid samples. the samples were also examined for enterovirus by use of the polymerase chain reaction, which could detect nearly the whole ...19979041348
nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 5'-noncoding region of echovirus type 9 and rapid virus detection during the acute phase of aseptic meningitis.a part of the 5'-noncoding region of echovirus type 9 isolates was sequenced, and an attempt was made for rapid virus detection in clinical samples obtained from 22 subjects hospitalized with aseptic meningitis. the sequence identity of 440-bp products amplified from the region by rt-pcr was 87.7% between the standard echovirus type 9(hill strain) and the isolates. specific igm antibodies to hill strain were positive in 45.5% by immunofluorescent antibody staining of virus-infected cells. a high ...19979170510
echovirus 4 and type 1 diabetes mellitus.to determine the association between exposure to enteroviruses and type 1 diabetes.200111905853
molecular and biological analysis of echovirus 9 strain isolated from a diabetic child.the full-length infectious cdna clone was constructed and sequenced from the strain dm of echovirus 9, which was recently isolated from a 6-week-old child at the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes. parallel with the isolate dm, the full-length infectious cdna clone of the prototype strain echovirus 9 barty (barty-inf), was constructed and sequenced. genetic relationships of the sequenced echo 9 viruses to the other members of the human enterovirus type b species were studied by phylogenetic analy ...200312601761
[on the problem of the neuropathogenicity of enteroviruses. experimental studies on the neuropathogenicity of various strains of echo-9 virus]. 196113735034
integrin alpha(v)beta3 (vitronectin receptor) is a candidate receptor for the virulent echovirus 9 strain barty.the enterovirus echovirus 9 strain barty (e9/barty) is pathogenic for newborn mice as well as for humans. in contrast to the apathogenic prototype strain hill, strain barty encodes an rgd motif in the c-terminal part of the structural protein vp1. data are presented that show that e9/barty binds its target cells via contact of the rgd motif to the alpha(v)beta3 integrin (vitronectin receptor), whereas prototype hill uses a different, still unidentified receptor site. furthermore, virus titres of ...199910501481
acute onset of type i diabetes mellitus after severe echovirus 9 infection: putative pathogenic pathways.enterovirus infections have been implicated in the development of type i diabetes mellitus. they may cause beta cell destruction either by cytolytic infection in the pancreas or indirectly by contributing to autoimmune reactivity. we sought evidence for these 2 mechanisms in a case of acute-onset diabetes mellitus that occurred during severe echovirus 9 infection. the virus was isolated and administered to cultured human beta cells. no viral proliferation was observed, and no beta cell death was ...200011049787
host selenium status selectively influences susceptibility to experimental viral myocarditis.the purpose of the present work was to determine whether dietary selenium (se) deficiency could influence the injurious effect of human viruses other than coxsackie virus b3 (cvb3) on mouse heart. weanling c3h/hen mice were fed a se-deficient or se-adequate diet for 4 wk and then were inoculated intraperitoneally with one of the following viruses: coxsackie virus b1 (cvb1), echovirus 9 (ev9), coxsackie virus a9 (cva9), or herpes simplex 1 (hsv1). polio virus 1 (pv1) was employed as a negative co ...200111393307
clustered charge-to-alanine mutagenesis of the vaccinia virus a20 gene: temperature-sensitive mutants have a dna-minus phenotype and are defective in the production of processive dna polymerase activity.although the vaccinia virus dna polymerase is inherently distributive, a highly processive form of the enzyme exists within the cytoplasm of infected cells (w. f. mcdonald, n. klemperer, and p. traktman, virology 234:168-175, 1997). in the accompanying report we outline the purification of the 49-kda a20 protein as a stoichiometric component of the processive polymerase complex (n. klemperer, w. mcdonald, k. boyle, b. unger, and p. traktman, j. virol. 75:12298-12307, 2001). to complement this bi ...200111711621
age dependence of paralysis induced by echovirus type 9 in infant mice.newborn mice of different strains (including nmri) infected with 2-5 x 10(6) pfu of echovirus type 9 strain a. barty developed progressive flaccid paralysis five days after inoculation, followed by death. suckling mice injected with the same infective dose two, four, or six days after birth disclosed at most transient paresis and survived. infectivity titrations revealed in all groups a similar rate of virus multiplication exceeding 10(8) 50% tissue culture infective doses per mouse four days af ...19836854075
a genotypic characterization of enteroviral antigenic variants isolated in eastern canada.antigenic variation within serotypes of enteroviruses can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of routine diagnosis by neutralization assays. the focus of this particular study was to initiate a genetic characterization of echovirus type 9 (e9) antigenic variants and nontypeable strains isolated in canada from 1991 to 1993. all variant strains were initially identified by the serological parameter of neutralization 'breakthrough' during conventional serotyping using the lim-benyesh-mel ...199910082385
molecular biological characterization of enterovirus variant isolated from patients with aseptic meningitis.in korea, there was a big outbreak of aseptic meningitis in 1993. six clinical isolates of enterovirus were obtained from patients with aseptic meningitis and were identified as echovirus type 9 by serotyping with a pool of neutralizing antisera. for molecular characterization of the isolates, the nucleotide sequences of 5'-noncoding region (ncr), vp4, vp2, vp1, 2a and 2c regions of the isolates were compared with the corresponding regions of echovirus type 9 hill and barty strains. unlike hill ...19989873830
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