interferon-producing capacity of human tonsil cells and properties of interferon produced by these cells.tonsils excised from human beings for chronic tonsillitis have been shown to be an accessible and sufficiently rich source of human lymphocytes. tonsil cells produced interferon as intensively as blood leukocytes and the properties of this interferon were similar to those of leukocyte interferon. the optimal conditions for interferon production by tonsil cells were established.19765865
characterization of whitney's clethrionomy gapperi virus isolates from massachusetts.six strains of virus were recovered from the blood and/or liver of five clethrionomys gapperi ochraceus trapped in southeastern massachusetts during 1969. biological, antigenic and physiochemical properties of these isolates are reported. usa m-2268a was selected as the reference strain. this strain was identical by complement-fixation and neutralization tests to whitneys c. gapperie virus (usa 64-7855) from new york state and was related to, but distinct from, an unpublished agent (johnson's mi ...19766801
concentration and purification of enteroviruses by membrane chromatography.a simple procedure for the concentration and partial purification of enteroviruses from tissue culture harvests is described. after removal of acid-precipitating components with a cationic detergent, the detergent and most membrane-coating components were removed by treatment with a cationic-exchange resin. the resin effluent was then acidified, and the virus was adsorbed to epoxy-fiberglass membranes. virus was then eluted with ph 11.5 glycine-naoh buffer. since this eluate contains no orgcentr ...197610843
physico-chemical properties of swine vesicular disease virus.titration of svdv on primary pig kidney cell cultures revealed a plating efficiency of less than or equal to 0,9 x 10(-3). concentration and purification of the svd-virus propagated on pig kidney cell cultures were done by chloroform treatment, adsorption, differential- and density gradient centrifugation. the following physical parameters were found: svdv is an isometrical rna-virus having a diameter of 25,1 +/- 1,0 nm. it is resistent to the action of chloroform, ether and ph. the virus has a ...197610872
virus inactivation by grapes and wines.infusions and extracts of different grapes inactivated poliovirus; agents responsible for this property resided in the skin of the grape. commercial grape juice at both natural and neutral ph inactivate various enteric viruses and herpes simplex virus; a 1,000-fold reduction in poliovirus infectivity occurred after incubation with grape juice, ph 7.0, for 24 h at 4 degrees c. a variety of wines were antiviral but to a lesser extent than grape juice; red wines were more antiviral than white. anti ...197612719
ionic bonding, the mechanism of viral uptake by shellfish investigation was conducted to determine the processes involved in the contamination of shellfish by viruses. results of binding-release studies show that the process involves the attachment of viruses to mucus secreted, and then ingested, by shellfish during feeding. analysis of the mucus-virus bond involved selective degradation of the mucus and use of chemical agents to block carboxyl and sulfate groups on the mucus. results obtained indicate that the attachment of virus to mucus is primar ...197713712
effect of acid ph, salts, and temperature on the infectivity and physical integrity of 2 degrees and 30 degrees c, enteroviruses are more stable on the acid than on the alkaline side of neutrality. in the range from ph 3 to 9, temperature is so influential that the fastest inactivation rate at 2 degrees c is slower than the slowest inactivation rate at 30 degrees c. specific ions or salts also affect the rate of inactivation of enteroviruses. nacl and other chloride salts enhance the inactivation of poliovirus at ph 3. nacl is considerably less effective against poliovirus in t ...197613766
stability in drinking and surface water of nine virus species from different genera (author's transl).the stability of nine viruses, aujeszky, sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, newcastle disease, vaccinia, fmd, hcc, reo and teschen virus in drinking and surface water was investigated comparatively at temperatures of 9 and 15 degrees c as well as the influence of water factors like seasonal difference in temperature, ph value, hardness and sort of water. the results can be summarized as follows: 1. at temperatures of 9 to 15 degrees c the majority of the viruses remained stabil in natural water for ...197714460
pathogenic factors in viral diseases of the central nervous system.the possible immunological significance of the different kinds of cells participating in the inflammatory reaction in cerebrospinal infections is to be considered. presence of plasma cells and occasional perivenous microglial seams in early stages of the neurotropic virus diseases must be regarded as immunological manifestations. the brainstem nuclei are sites of predilection both in entero- and in arbovirus diseases. the aetiologically different neurotropic virus diseases obtain their individua ...197515392
reproduction of coxsackievirus a 5 in human embryo skin-muscle explants. 197715445
selective inhibiton of uncoating of echovirus 12 by rhodanine. a study on early virus-cell interactions. 197716383
serotyping of coxsackieviruses by immune electron microscopy.coxsackieviruses b1, b2 and b3 were identified by immune electron microscopy. the results were in good agreement with those of virus neutralization tests in cell cultures.197717287
identification of the virucidal agent in wastewater sludge.anaerobically digested sludge contains an agent that causes irreversible inactivation of poliovirus. it has now been shown that the agent responsible for this activity is ammonia. the effect of ammonia on poliovirus appears to be typical for picornaviruses, but reovirus, an enteric virus of another group, is quite resistant to this compound. because ammonia is not virucidal in its charged state, it expresses significant activity only at ph values greater than 8. therefore, increasing the ph of s ...197717367
concentration of enteroviruses from large volumes of turbid estuary water.a method is described for the efficient concentration of viruses from large volumes of highly turbid estuary water. virus in acidified seawater in the presence of aluminum chloride is adsorbed to a 10-in. (about 25.4 cm) fibreglass depth cartridge and 2- and 0.65-micron epoxy-fibreglass filters in series. this filter series is capable of efficiently adsorbing enteroviruses from 50 u.s. gallons (about 190) of estuary water of varying salinity and turbidity. adsorbed viruses were eluted from the f ...197717465
concentration of enteroviruses from estuarine water.pleated cartridge filters readily adsorb viruses in estuarine water at low ph containing aluminum chloride. adsorbed viruses are efficiently recovered by treating filters with glycine buffer at high ph. by using these procedures, it was possible to recover approximately 70% of the poliovirus added to 400 liters of estuarine water in 3 liters of filter eluate. reconcentration of virus in the filter eluate in small volumes that are convenient for viral assays was more difficult. reconcentration me ...197718088
development of a quantitative method for detecting enteroviruses in estuarine sediments.several investigators have reported on the detection of enteric viruses in marine sediments, but none determined the efficiency of their methods and only limited volumes of sediment were sampled. the purpose of this investigation was to develop a quantitative method for detecting enteroviruses in marine sediments so that their relative proportion to viruses freely suspended in estuarine water could be more accurately determined. poliovirus was found to adsorb readily to natural marine sediments ...197720839
the direct anti-viral activity of single stranded polyribonucleotides. i. potentiation of activity by mixtures of polymers which do not anneal. 197721397
the direct anti-viral activity of single stranded polyribonucleotides. ii. the effect of molecular size and the involvement of cellular receptors. 197721398
effect of suspending media on the freeze-drying and subsequent storage of ecbo virus serotype vg(5) 27 proceedings. 197722638
mechanism of thermal inactivation of freeze-dried ecbo virus serotype vg (5)27 proceedings. 197722639
the complex reaction kinetics of echo-1 virus with chlorine in water. 197722871
application of a tricin-buffered modification of the cmrl-1969 medium in cell and virus cultivation (author's transl).cmrl-1969 medium (healy et al., 1971) was modified by using 0.02 molar n-tris-(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-glycin (= tricin) instead of bicarbonate as the buffer substance. several permanent cell lines and primary cell cultures did not show growth differences in the two medium variants. like other non volatile buffers tricin abolishes the initial increase of the ph in freshly split or newly fed closed vessel cultures, but in 0.02 m concentration maintains the same buffering capacity of the medium as c ...197724962
effect of 3-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino-acetophenone-4.5-diphenyl-oxazolyl-(2)-hydrazone (imet 98/69) on lethal mengo virus encephalitis.3-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino-acetophenone-4.5-diphenyl-oxazolyl-(2)-hydrazone (imet 98/69) was found to afford maximum "rates of protection" in intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intranasally (i.n.) induced mengo virus encephalitis in mice when administered once daily at doses of 1 mmole/kg (456.5 mg/kg) subcutaneously (s.c.) or 4 mmoles/kg (1 826 mg/kg) perorally (p.o.). three days of treatment were sufficient if started on the day before or at the time of virus inoculation. initiation of treatment 6 ...197825008
concentration of poliovirus from tap water onto membrane filters with aluminum chloride at ambient ph levels.a method is described for the concentration of an enterovirus from large volumes of tap water by addition of small amounts of aluminum chloride to enhance virus removal by membrane filters. tap water treated with 2 x 10(-5) m aluminum chloride showed a slight decrease in ph (less than 0.5), a slight increase in turbidity, and enhanced removal of poliovirus by membrane filters. virus was quantitatively recovered by treating the filters with a basic buffer, and this eluate was reconcentrated to a ...197825048
role of lime treatment in the removal of bacteria, enteric viruses, and coliphages in a wastewater reclamation plant.lime flocculation/sedimentation in the first process unit of a 4,500-m3/day wastewater reclamation plant reduced numbers of microorganisms extensively when operated at ph 11.2. the efficiency was much less at lower ph values, and some bacteria even multiplied at ph 9.6. data on reduction in the number of microorganisms in the lime treatment and subsequent units indicate that inactivation by hydroxide alkalinity plays an important role in the efficiency of lime treatment. reductions in the number ...197825621
biochemical and biophysical characterization of light and heavy density hepatitis a virus particles: evidence hav is an rna virus.heavy density hav was also shown to be sensitive to low concentrations of rnase. the results of these biophysical and biochemical studies strongly support the notion hav is an enterovirus.197827576
field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. in this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the united states and canada were examined for enteric viruses. the sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. enteric ...197828677
antiviral activity of dipyridamole derivatives.among 46 novel pyrimido 5.4-d pyrimidine derivatives, 26 compounds were found to exhibit antiviral activity as revealed in a test programme against mengo, coxsackie b1, fowl plague, vaccinia and pseudorabies viruses, as concerns inhibition of plaque formation and of infectious virus yield. attempts to disclose structure-activity relationships by discriminant analysis pointed to a possible importance of hydrophobic substitution for the antiviral effectiveness against mengo virus of the derivative ...197829467
isolation of encephalomyocarditis virus from the pheasant (phasianus colchicus) in czechoslovakia.the first isolation of encephalomyocarditis (emc) virus from the blood and brain of a pheasant (phasianus colchicus) captured in moravia is reported. complement-fixation (cf) tests with reference antisera revealed no relationship to any of a wide range of known arboviruses.197829473
improved methods for detecting enteric viruses in and improved methods for concentrating enteroviruses, reoviruses, and adenoviruses from oysters have been developed and evaluated. viruses are efficiently adsorbed to homogenized oyster meat by adjusting the homogenate to ph 5.0 and a conductivity of less than or equal to 2,000 mg of nacl per liter. after low-speed centrifugation, the virus-free supernatant is discarded and the viruses are eluted from the sedimented oyster solids with ph 7.5 glycine-nacl having a conductivity of 8,000 mg of ...197829555
inactivation of enteroviruses by ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite.poliovirus type 1, coxsackievirus type a9, and echovirus type 7 were inactivated by sodium bisulfite and ascorbic acid. inactivation rates depended upon concentration, temperature, and ph. rna infectivity was lost during inactivation; the capsid was also altered by these inactivating agents, as determined by enzyme sensitivity assays and by tests of adsorption to cells. structural modifications of the virus particles were not identical, suggesting that the mechanism of inactivation by ascorbic a ...197829558
development of quantitative methods for the detection of enteroviruses in sewage sludges during activation and following land disposal.the development and evaluation of methods for the quantitative recovery of enteroviruses from sewage sludge are reported. activated sewage sludge solids were collected by centrifugation, and elution of the solid-associated virus was accomplished by mechanical agitation in glycine buffer at ph 11.0. eluted viruses were concentrated either onto an aluminum hydroxide floc or by association with a floc which formed de novo upon adjustment of the glycine eluate to ph 3.5. viruses which remained in th ...197829559
antiviral effect of apple beverages.a variety of apple beverages were tested for antiviral activity against poliovirus 1 or coxsackievirus b5. freshly prepared apple juice was particularly antiviral, but its activity declined more readily than that of commercial juice in response to heat and storage. the component responsible for activity was located both in the pulp and skin; after ultrafiltration, activity was present in fractions greater and less than molecular weight 10,000. virus infectivity was not restored from virus-apple ...197832832
[visualization by electronmicroscopy of 28 nm virusparticles (astroviruses) in faeces of newborns with acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis (author's transl)].on occasion of an epidemic of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis virus particles were visualized by electronmicroscopy in the faeces of 76 newborns; these particles had the following properties: mean diameter 28 nm; ether-resistent, stable at ph 3.0; buoyant density 1.33--1.34 g/ml in cscl. about 10% of these particles had a definite star-like structure on their surface. due to these properties the virusparticles were considered to be astroviruses. the virus was not cytopathogenic for cell cultu ...197834952
sikhote-alin virus, a new member of the cardiovirus group (picornaviridae) isolated from ixodes persulcatus ticks in primorie region.a virus, designated sikhote-alin, was isolated in 1970 from ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from a wild boar in the primorie region (u.s.s.r.) sikhote-alin virus showed no haemagglutinating activity and no antigenic relationships with arboviruses of 12 antigenic groups, 17 ungrouped tick-borne arboviruses, porcine enteroviruses and coxsackie a (types 1-18) viruses. an one-way antigenic relationship was demonstrated by complement fixation with cardioviruses (mengo and columbia-sk strains). the ...197835943
antiviral activity of certain isatinisothiosemicarbazones against mengo and vaccinia virus infections in mice.among eleven isatinisothiosemicarbazones (iits) examined only 1-ethylisatin-s-n-butylisothiosemicarbazone (zimet 189/69) proved to be significantly effective against lethal mengo and neurovaccinia virus-induced encephalitis in mice when administered subcuaneously (s.c.) in doses of 1 mmole/kg body weight per day. with peroral (p.o.) administration all the drugs failed to prevent mortality in mengo virus-infected mice. against this virus zimet 189/69 was effective over a concentration range from ...197935958
development of a quantitative method for the detection of enteroviruses in soil.a method is described for efficiently concentrating enteroviruses from soil. viruses were eluted from soil by mechanical agitation in high ph glycine buffer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. the eluted viruses were concentrated on a floc that formed de novo upon adjustment of the soil eluate to 0.06 m aluminum chloride and ph 3.5. viruses not pelleted with the floc were concentrated by adsorption to and elution from membrane filters. this method yielded an average efficiency of 66% rec ...197936845
partial reactivation of chlorine-treated echovirus.after treatment of a dispersed suspension of echovirus with hocl, much of the lost plaque titer was restored if the treated virus was induced to aggregate by adjustment of the suspending medium to ph 4.5. this did not appear to be a repair of individual virions but rather a special kind of multiplicity-related increase in plaquing efficiency which occurred when the host cell received several of the damaged virions in a clump.197936850
comparison of antiviral properties in mice of bis-pyrrolidinoacetamido-fluorenone (mlu-b75), bis-dipropylaminoacetamido-fluorenone (mlu-b76), and tilorone tilorone . hcl, its analogues, bis-pyrrolidinoacetamido-fluorenone (mlu-b75), and bis-dipropylaminoacetamido-fluorenone (mlu-b76), significantly protected mice against intraperitoneal challenge with a lethal dose of mengo virus when administered prophylactically in a single oral dose of 250 mg per kg body weight. at lower doses the antiviral activity of mlu-b75 and mlu-b76 decreased more rapidly than that of tilorone. hcl. at the dose of 250 mg per kg the degree of antiviral protection and ...197939439
survival of coxsackievirus b3 under diverse environmental conditions.the survival of coxsackievirus b3 was studied under various conditions of incubation. the comparative study demonstrated that coxsackievirus b3 was stable for 24h (less than 0.4-log decrease in titer) when suspended at neutral ph (6 or 23 degrees c) in the presence of 0.25% bovine serum albumin in saline regardless of whether the preparations were subjected to evaporation. bovine serum albumin provided increased stability to the virus for each of the conditions tested. at 37 degrees c, evaporati ...197939495
method for salmonella concentration from water at ph 3.5, using micro-fiber glass filters.a method is described for the concentration of salmonella from water. as is done with enterovirus, salmonella bacteria were concentrated from water in two steps: by ph 3.5 adsorption on and ph 9.5 elution from 8-micron porosity micro-fiber glass filter tubes. this method worked in less than 30 min, and salmonella typhimurium was inactivated only slightly in spite of rapid ph variations (ph 3.5 to 9.5). it was demonstrated that the retention by the filters stems from two phenomena: a low retentio ...197939501
influence of ph, salinity, and organic matter on the adsorption of enteric viruses to estuarine sediment.this study was designed to determine the degree of adsorption of enteric viruses to marine sediment and factors controlling this association. adsorption and elution characteristics of several enteroviruses and one rotavirus to estuarine sediments were studied under varying conditions of ph, salinity, and presence of soluble organics. greater than 99% of the added poliovirus type 1 (lsc), coxsackievirus type b3 (nancy), echovirus type 7 (wallace), and rotavirus (sa-11) adsorbed to sediment. echov ...197939508
concentration of viruses from water by membrane chromatography. 197940529
comparative adsorption of human enteroviruses, simian rotavirus, and selected bacteriophages to soils.virus adsorption to soils is considered to be the most important factor in removing viruses after land treatment of wastewater. most of the studies on virus adsorption to soils have utilized poliovirus as the model system. in the present study, comparative adsorption of a number of different types and strains of human enteroviruses and bacteriophages to nine different soil types was studied. under the experimental conditions of this study, greater than 90% of all viruses adsorbed to a sandy loam ...197942350
ph modification of the effects of detergents on the stability of enteric viruses.the effect of detergents on the stability of enteric viruses was found to be highly dependent on ph. this was demonstrated primarily with two ionic detergents, sodium dodecyl sulfate (an anionic detergent) and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (a cationic detergent). both detergents were shown to be potent virucidal agents for reovirus, but the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate were minimal near neutrality and much more pronounced at low than at high ph values. dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride ...197942351
enterovirus inactivation in soil.the inactivation of radioactively labeled poliovirus type 1 and coxsackievirus b 1 in soils saturated with surface water, groundwater, and septic tank liquor was directly proportional to temperature. virus persistence was also related to soil type and the liquid amendment in which viruses were suspended. at 37 degrees c, no infectivity was recovered from saturated soil after 12 days; at 4 degrees c, viruses persisted for at least 180 days. no infectivity was recovered from dried soil regardless ...197944178
low molecular weight substitutes for beef extract as eluents for poliovirus adsorbed to membrane filters.basic solutions of beef extract and casein were able to elute poliovirus adsorbed to four membrane filters with different chemical compositions. hydrolyzed protein and individual amino acids were able to elute virus adsorbed to certain filters but were unable to elute virus adsorbed to other filters efficiently. a solution of 4 m urea buffered at ph 9 with 0.05 m lysine was able to elute greater than 60% of the virus adsorbed to each of the filters tested. certain solutions of amino acids were c ...197944223
antiviral effect of 3-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-acetophenone-[4,5-diphenyl-oxyazolyl-(2)]hydrazone (imet 98/69) in mice.the potential in vivo antiviral activity of 3-[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-amino]-acetophenone-[4,5-diphenyl-oxazolyl-(2)]-hydrazone (imet 98/69) was evaluated on model infections in mice. animals treated subcutaneously (s.c.) with 1 mmole of the drug per kg body weight once daily for five days were significantly protected against a lethal infection with cardioviruses, semliki forest virus and vaccinia virus. in influenza a and b virus models no antiviral activity was observed either after s.c. or oral ...197944666
the latex agglutination test in virus diagnostic: identification of poliomyelitis and coxsackie viruses.we examined the practical value of the latex agglutination test (la test) in diagnostic virology. viruses isolated from 125 specimens were identified in the la test. all results were in agreement with those observed by a neutralization test. the la test appears to be superior to conventional methods because of its easy handling and a rapid and reliable identification.197944781
course of coxsackie b antibodies during juvenile diabetes.sera of 83 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes of early onset were tested for latex agglutination-inhibiting antibodies to coxsackie virus types b1-b5. we could not find any evidence of a causal association between coxsackie b virus infection and diabetes.197845604
fatal echo 30 virus infection and amyloidosis in x-linked hypogammaglobulinemia. 197545851
importance of a new virus in acute sporadic enteritis in a year-long survey of children admitted with acute enteritis to hospital in melbourne, australia, an aetiological agent was found in approximately 75% of patients. during most months of the year a newly described virus belonging to the family reoviridae was detected by electron microscopy of faecal extracts from more than 50% of patients. recovery of this virus reached a peak (73%) during the winter. all age-group up to five years of age were susceptible to infection, which was occasionally f ...197546387
a virological and epidemiological study of patients with acute hearing loss.virological and epidemiological data were examined in thirty-nine patients with acute hearing loss. the hearing loss was unilateral in thirty-one patients and bilateral in eight. there was a history of upper-respiratory-tract infection before onset of deafness in ten of the patients. cases were more common in the autumn, with nineteen of the cases occurring in the 3 months from september to november. about half of the patients were 20-40 years old and half 46-73 years old; only one patient w ...197546953
letter: viruses in water. 197548791
lack of causal association between coxsackie b4 virus infection and epidemic of coxsackie b4 virus infection in an isolated group of islands in the bering sea in 1967 provided an opportunity to test the suggestion that infection with this virus might be associated with an increased incidence of diabetes. in 1973 islanders were tested by glucose-tolerance tests and their two-hour plasma glucose levels were analysed in the light of serological evidence of cb4 infection five years earlier. there was no evidence of any increased prevalence of diabetes in those wh ...197549517
letter: coxsackie b4 virus infection and diabetes. 197549616
effect of experimental duck virus hepatitis infection on some biochemical constituents and enzymes in the serum of white pekin ducklings.experimental duck virus hepatitis infection of 11-day-old white pekin ducklings having specific maternal antibodies revealed significant changes in some biochemical constituents and enzymes of the serum during the 3 weeks following exposure. these changes included a marked decrease in the total proteins and the albumin fraction, together with a significant elevation in levels of alkaline phosphatase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, bilirubin, and creatinine. most of these changes were attributed ...197550840
[leukocyte migration inhibition test as an indicator of viral allergy in systemic lupus erythematosus]. 197551126
editorial: neuronal loss in infancy. 197553440
[content of antibodies to certain cardiotropic strains of enteral viruses in commercial gamma-globulin preparations]. 197553971
letter: duovirus in schoolchildren with gastroenteritis. 197655628
[the use of rivanol for the removal of echo virus hemagglutination inhibitors from immune sera]. 197555945
comparison of swine vesicular disease virus and coxsackie b5 virus by serological and rna hybridization methods.the relatedness of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and coxsackie b5 virus has been studied by virus neutralization and immunodiffusion tests and by hybridization of the virus rnas. clearly defined differences between the two viruses were found by the three methods. isolates of svdv from several countries were very closely related but could be differentiated. recent isolates of coxsackie b5 virus also appeared to be similar but clear differences could be detected between these and the protot ...197658963
recurrent haemolytic uraemic syndrome.two children are described with frequent relapsing haemolytic uraemic syndrome. in the first child, the disease reoccurred twice and in the second three times. in both, relapses could be related to a viral infection, as well as to a preceding inoculation for diphtheria--pertussis--tetanus--poliomyelitis in the second patient. recurrent haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (h.u.s.) may constitute a discrete clinical form of h.u.s.197659334
the surface nature of proteins of a bovine enterovirus, before and after neutralization.the surface nature of the proteins of a bovine enterovirus have been determined by using 125i and pyridoxal phosphate-sodium borohydride labelling techniques. as found previously, 125i labels only vp1 in intact capsid particles, whereas reaction with pyridoxal phosphate followed by reduction with tritiated sodium borohydride labels vp1, vp2 and vp3. only vp4 is found to have no surface tyrosine, histidine or lysine available for reaction. after neutralization with homologous antisera, however, v ...197660463
a study of possible biohazards in the fluorescent antibody test using adenovirus, coxsackievirus, herpesvirus, and respiratory syncytial virus as antigens.infectious adenovirus type 5 and coxsackievirus type b5, both nonlipid-containing viruses, were isolated from cells fixed in acetone at 22 degrees c for 15 min, from acetone used for fixation, from the solution used for washing slides during the fluorescent antibody procedure, and after complete processing of antigen preparations with serial twofold dilutions of human antisera and fluorescein-labeled goat anti-human immunoglobulin g. lipid-containing herpes simplex virus type 1 and respiratory s ...197661971
antiviral activity in milk of possible clinical human and in cow's milk an antiviral activity has been detected which does not seem to be related to antibodies or other known virus inhibitors. the antiviral activity lay in a relatively heat-stable macromolecule belonging to the non-fatty part of milk.197663853
simultaneous infection of the meninges by coxsackie b virus and neisseria meningitidis in an elderly female. 197663876
[transmission of enteroviruses and their antigenic variation due to antibody (author's transl)]. 197564015
[characteristics of encephalomyocarditis virus isolated from sick monkeys].a cytopathic filterable agent designated emc-70 was isolated in 1970 from macaca rhesus monkeys with encephalomyocarditis. its biologic and physico-chemical properties were studied. a number of primary and continuous cell cultures were found to be susceptible to the virus, and it was pathogenic for monkeys and small laboratory animals but did not multiply in chick embryos. the virus was stable to chlorofrom, thermolabile, stable to acids, and agglutinated group o erythrocytes of man, sheep, guin ...197664027
the inactivation of polio-, coxsackie- and semliki forest viruses by a tri-iodinated benzamido-derivative of glucose. 197664225
coxsackievirus a24 and acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in sri lanka. 197764877
simultaneous bacterial and viral infections of meninges. 197764898
aetiology of juvenile-onset diabetes. a prospective study.110 people in whom insulin-dependent diabetes developed when they were less than 30 years old were studied as soon as possible after diagnosis. there was evidence for clustering of cases with bw15-positive phenotypes during the winter peak (1976) but not during the autumn peak (1975). subjects who were bw15-positive, and in particular those who were both b8 and bw15-positive, had higher neutralising antibody titres to coxsackle virus types b1-b4 58% of cases had islet-cell antibodies (i.c.a.), b ...197765509
picornaviral structure and protein synthesis. 197665981
the effect of sodium metrizoate, d-glucosamine and n-acetylglucosamine on the infectivity of polio-, coxsackie, semliki forest- and measles virus in vitro [proceedings]. 197666022
replication of coxsackie b3 virus in mouse organ cultures [proceedings]. 197666025
[results of treatment of rheumatic fever with gama globulin titrated to exoenzymes of beta-hemolytic streptococcus and coxsackie viruses a13, a18 and b3]. 197666767
characterization of three antigenic particles of swine vesicular disease virus.three distinct particles were isolated from cell culture harvests of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) by sucrose and cscl gradient centrifugation. virions (148s), rna-free empty capsids (81s), and a third particle (49s) also free of rna showed immune reactivity with svdv antiserum. the 81s and 49s particles had polypeptides typical of naturally occurring empty capsids. injection of purified antigens into guinea pigs produced antisera which distinguished empty capsids from virions on immunodi ...197767181
coxsackie virus infection in acute myocardial infarction.of 38 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction 10 had serologial evidence of recent coxsackie b virus infection.197767289
sewage worker's syndrome. 197767447
coxsackie b neutralisation titres in polymyositis/dermatomyositis. 197768375
moleculas aspects of the antigenic variation of swine vesicular disease and coxsackie b5 viruses. 197769012
[use of the immunoperoxidase method for the identification of enteroviruses]. 197772858
enhancement of antiviral protection against encephalomyocarditis virus by a combination of isoprinosine and interferon.the antiviral effect of interferon against encephalomyocarditis (emc) virus infection in mice was enhanced by isoprinosine. however, the enhancement was only obtained when both interferon and the virus were inoculated into the peritoneum; the inoculation route of isoprinosone did not modify significantly the final results. in addition, the time sequence of injections was of great importance; generally the injection of isoprinosine had to precede that of interferon by a few hours.197774245
orchitis caused by coxsackie a9. 197774747
conjugation of coxsackievirus type b1-b6 immunoglobulins with fluorescein isothiocyanate by a "reversed" dialysis method.immunoglobulins from antisera to coxsackievirus b types 1--6 were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate by a "reverse" dialysis method of conjugation. conjugates thus obtained were labeled at reproducible ratios of fluorescein to protein with weight-weight ratios ranging from 5.0 to 7.1 and estimated molar ratios ranging from 2.1 to 2.9. conjugates were tested on cover-slip hela cell cultures by the direct method of staining. two types of specific immunofluorescence were observed: intensely fl ...197877886
[microfluorometric method of determining the quality of reference sera labelled with fitc].a microfluorimetric method for the determination of the quality of fitc-labeled antisera with the determination of the titer and the optimal working dilution in the fa test is described. besides, the method permits to determine the confidence factor for any dilution of fitc-antiserum and to compare different lots.197878590
fatal echovirus 11 infections in outbreak in special-care baby december, 1977, an outbreak of echovirus 11 infection occurred in the special-care baby unit of the cambridge maternity hospital. 3 neonates died, and of 24 infants on the ward during the epidemic 6 others were infected, 3 with symptoms. 3 infants had similar symptoms but virus could not be isolated. the pathological changes in the 3 fatal infections, have not previously been reported for echovirus 11; nor have fatal infections occurred in an epidemic in a special-care baby unit.197880644
viruses in water. 197882852
coxsackie b antibodies in "rheumatic" valvular heart-disease. 197985028
virucidal effect of alcohols against echovirus 11. 197985084
beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaricaciduria, reye's syndrome, and echovirus 11. 197986872
[use of the precipitation reaction for studying viral antibodies in blood sera]. 197989261
virus, immunology and the heart. 197991842
[echovirus encephalitis during bruton disease. favorable development. therapeutic problems].a 16 year old boy with bruton type agammaglobulinaemia developed acute encephalitis. echo virus type 3 was isolated on two occasions from the same sample of csf. clinical improvement occured after treatment with gammaglobulin with high anti-echo virus titers given intramuscularly and intrathecally. however the c.s.f. protein is still raised so that it is not certain he has been completely cured.197993470
antigenic analysis of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis viruses (enterovirus type 70).the antigenic characteristics of enterovirus type 70 (ev 70) were investigated by means of cross and kinetic neutralization tests (nt). twelve strains of ev 70 isolated in a period from 1971 to 1976 were analyzed using seven rabbit and one monkey hyper-immune sera. all the strains investigated were found to possess a common and prime variant antigens in varying proportions. accordingly, ev 70 isolates were devided intratypically into three antigenic sub groups; (1) prototype-like (four strain fr ...197994146
effect of specific antibodies on chronic echovirus type 5 encephalitis in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia.the effects of specific antibodies in chronic echovirus type 5 (echo 5) encephalitis were investigated in a patient with x-linked hypogammaglobulinemia. virus was detected in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and blood despite treatment with commercial human gammaglobulin that contained low titers of antibodies to echo 5 (0.6 x 10(4) units per injection). virus disappeared from blood and csf when plasma containing high concentrations of antibodies (total dose, 1--4 x 10(4) units/kg) was administered int ...197994337
biophysical and serological characteristics of some new zealand bovine enteroviruses.five previously reported new zealand bovine enteroviruses are further characterised with regard to their biophysical and serological properties. characteristics studied included heat stability, buoyant density, virus replication, plaque production and thin section electron microscopy. serological tests indicated the isolates belonged to two different serogroups which showed only limited relationships with u.s. serotypes bes 1, 3 and 4. a correlation was noted between 2(alpha-hydroxybenzyl) benzi ...197994546
laboratory investigations of an epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in bombay and poona in 1975. 197896187
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