detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus antigen in tissues by immunohistochemistry.formalin fixed liver, spleen, kidney, heart, lung, duodenum and appendix tissues from nine rabbits, experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv), were investigated for evidence of rhdv antigen by the direct avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical method. in all the rabbits examined, rhdv antigen was detected in degenerative and necrotic hepatocytes of the liver tissues. the area involved coincided with histopathological lesions on serial liver sections. the ...19921320285
immunohistological diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd).in the present study the diagnostic use of a biotinylated serum from an immune rabbit was investigated by means of an avidin-biotin-complex (abc)-peroxidase method on paraffin sections. 15 cases of rhd which had been verified histologically and/or by haemagglutination test (ha), 4 suspected cases and 3 cases without history of rhd were included (cases 1 to 22). from 5 prospective cases a wider tissue range was examined (cases 23 to 25 and 29 to 30). furthermore lungs, liver and placenta of 3 fet ...19921325718
detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus particles in the rabbit liver tissues.liver tissues from rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) were studied electron microscopically. the earliest change in hepatocytes of the rabbits infected with rhdv was hydropic degeneration. rough endoplasmic reticulum was dilated with a mild increase in polysomes and cytoplasmic cisternae in degenerated hepatocytes. characteristic cytopathological changes of necrotic hepatocytes included shrinkage of the cell body, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles, vacu ...19921334982
disseminated intravascular coagulation (dic) in rabbit haemorrhagic rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus were examined haematologically and histologically. haematologically, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time were markedly prolonged in the terminal phase of the disease, just prior to death (all the animals died between 27 and 40 hr after inoculation with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus). there was an increase in the titre of fibrin degradation products and a decrease in antithrombin iii activity d ...19921338394
immunoelectron microscopy of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus using monoclonal antibodies.five monoclonal antibodies (moabs) to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv), prepared and tested in elisa, immunoperoxidase (ip) and immunofluorescence (if) test previously, reacted specifically in immunoelectron microscopy (iem), too. no differences in binding of individual moabs with full or empty rhdv particles were found by iem.19921363994
in vitro translation of a subgenomic mrna from purified virions of the spanish field isolate ast/89 of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv).purified preparations of the spanish field isolate of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus ast/89 were found to contain the plus-stranded genomic rna of more than 7.4 kilobases (kb) and large amounts of a subgenomic mrna of 2.4 kb. the smaller rna was translated in vitro and shown to code for a 60 kda protein which was immunoprecipitated using anti-rhdv as well as anti-vp60 sera.19921441736
[a new virus of rabbit. iii. study on morphological superstructure and antigenicity of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv)].in the spring 1986, an acute infectious disease occurred in wuhan second producing medical manufactory, and the rabbit almost died. we tested the mortal symptom and confirmed rabbit hemorrhagic disease (rhd) as same as huang yinyao report. hubei traditional chinese medicine institute appear this rhd also. after we purified virus of above two source by low speed, high speed and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, they can react with antiserum of rhdv from nanjing agricultural university in a ...19921481531
genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. a virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in china. we have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent european isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in ...19921497750
[a new virus of rabbit. ii. study on morphological structure and some physicochemical properties of a strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus].in this paper a strain of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) was isolated and purified from the diseased rabbit livers with a method of using chloroform, two-phase of polyethylene-glycol-dextran sulfate sodium and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. purified virus was nonenveloped, icosahedeal symmetry with a triangulation number of 3, and 33-37 nm in diameter. the capsid was composed of 32 capsomeres with central holes in an outer diameter of about 9nm. two types of viral particles ha ...19921502818
the complete nucleotide sequence of a feline calicivirus.we have determined the complete sequence of a feline calicivirus. the virus genome is 7690 bases long and contains two large open reading frames. proteins specified by these have similarity to those encoded in the corresponding regions of a candidate calicivirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, but are distinctly different from those specified by another such virus, hepatitis e virus. a third, small open reading frame at the 3' end of the genome is present in both feline and rabbit viruses but ...19921529544
nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus: identification of conserved and non-conserved amino acid sequences among calicivirus capsid proteins.the san miguel sea lion viruses, members of the calicivirus family, are closely related to the vesicular disease of swine viruses which can cause severe disease in swine. in order to begin the molecular characterization of these viruses, the nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two san miguel sea lion viruses (smsv), serotypes 1 and 4, was determined. the coding sequences for the capsid precursor protein were located within the 3' terminal 2620 bases of the genomic rnas of both viru ...19921529644
identification of the viral haemorrhagic disease virus of rabbits as a calicivirus.liver tissue from rabbits which had died of viral haemorrhagic disease (vhd) was used to identify the causative agent of the disease. after extraction of liver homogenates and density gradient ultracentrifugation, viral particles with buoyant densities between 1.32 to 1.38 g/ml and estimated sedimentation coefficients between 100 s and 175 s were obtained. the isolated virions were determined to have a diameter of 40 nm. the particles morphologically resembled those of the caliciviridae family, ...19911662097
pulmonary intravascular macrophages in rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease.attention has already been drawn to the presence of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (pims) in species in which the lung plays an important part in the removal of particles from the bloodstream. the stimulation of pims under certain conditions has been related to pulmonary oedema and congestion. in order to ascertain whether these cells are found in rabbits, healthy animals were inoculated with a liver homogenate obtained from animals which had died of rabbit haemorrhagic disease, a condition ...19911662238
rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus--molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of a calicivirus genome.the rna genome of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) was molecularly cloned. the 5' terminal sequence of the genomic rna was determined after pcr amplification of a g-tailed first strand cdna template. the cloned cdna allowed determination of the first complete caliciviral sequence encompassing 7437 nucleotides without poly(a) tail. the rhdv genome contains one long open reading frame of 2344 codons which in the 5' region encodes the nonstructural proteins. sequence comparison studies revea ...19911840711
genomic and subgenomic rnas of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus are both protein-linked and packaged into particles.the major subgenomic rna of the calicivirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus which codes for the viral capsid protein has been cloned as cdna. the nucleotide sequence of this mrna was shown to be identical to the 3' terminal region of the genomic rna. the 5' end of the mrna corresponds to position 5296 of the genomic sequence; except for two differences the first 16 nucleotides of genomic and subgenomic rnas are identical. after isolation from liver tissue viral genomic and subgenomic rnas were ...19911887589
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus and determination of its major structural elisa was developed for the determination of antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) in whole blood and blood serum of rabbits. naturally acquired antibodies were detected in 19.4% of blood samples collected from 1461 rabbits in 43 farms apparently free of the disease, 19.7% samples were doubtful and 60.9% of the rabbits were free of antibodies to rhdv. their presence has a considerable effect on the resistance of rabbits to infection with rhdv. antibodies were also found in ra ...19902161044
electron and immunoelectron microscopy of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv).rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) had a calicivirus-like structure and a diameter of 31.5-33.0 nm. antigenic relationship between the investigated rhdv strain and the causal agent of rhd in china was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy.19902198858
monoclonal antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus and their use in the diagnosis of infection.hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) were prepared. using western blot (wb) analysis, the mabs obtained were divided into two groups, one reacting with the major structural proteins of mr 61k and 38k, and the other giving negative reactions. both groups of mabs, however, reacted specifically with rhdv in elisa and by immunoperoxidase (ip) and immunofluorescence (if) tests with infected cells. as demonstrated by wb using rhdv-specific mabs ...19902254752
3c-like protease of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: identification of cleavage sites in the orf1 polyprotein and analysis of cleavage specificity.rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, a positive-stranded rna virus of the family caliciviridae, encodes a trypsin-like cysteine protease as part of a large polyprotein. upon expression in escherichia coli, the protease releases itself from larger precursors by proteolytic cleavages at its n and c termini. both cleavage sites were determined by n-terminal sequence analysis of the cleavage products. cleavage at the n terminus of the protease occurred with high efficiency at an eg dipeptide at positio ...19957474137
pathogenesis of acute necrotic hepatitis in rabbit hemorrhagic disease. 19957474890
european brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses.monoclonal antibodies directed against the capsid protein of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) were used to identify field cases of european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) and to distinguish between rhdv and the virus responsible for ebhs. western blot (immunoblot) analysis of liver extract of an ebhs virus (ebhsv)-infected hare revealed a single major capsid protein species of approximately 60 kda that shared epitopes with the capsid protein of rhdv. rna isolated from the liver of an ebhsv-in ...19947518531
self-assembly, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (czechoslovakian strain v-351) capsid protein expressed in baculovirus.rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) capsid protein was expressed in a baculovirus system. analysis of the expressed product showed that the recombinant protein, which is 60 kda in size, was antigenic as revealed by its reactions in elisa and western blot with the antibodies raised against rhdv. direct electron microscopy of the cell culture supernatant and the purified protein demonstrated that the capsid protein expressed in insect cells self-assembled to form empty virus-like particles (v ...19957541982
rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. 19947598767
two independent pathways of expression lead to self-assembly of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein was expressed in insect cells either as an individual protein species, from a mrna analogous to the viral subgenomic rna, or as part of a polyprotein that included the viral 3c-like protease and the rna polymerase. both pathways of expression led to the assembly of viruslike particles morphologically and antigenically similar to purified virus.19957637026
viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits. 19957650929
a competition elisa for the detection of antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were raised to a preparation of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) purified from the livers of experimentally infected rabbits. rabbit antisera to rhdv significantly blocked the binding of two mabs (2d3(3) and 2d4(5)) to rhdv-coated microplate wells in a competition elisa. the virus-specific nature of these mabs was confirmed by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence assays on formalin-fixed and fresh infected liver tissue. utilization of one of these mabs (2d ...19957716886
rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus. 19947726768
sequence and genomic organization of a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus isolated from a wild rabbit.rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) is a member of the caliciviridae family. the nucleotidic sequence of a full-length cdna of one rhdv isolate (rhdv-sd) is reported. the genome is 7437 bases long and includes two orfs, orf1 (7034 b) and orf2 (353 b), coding for the polyprotein and the vp12, respectively. the coding sequence for the second structural protein (the capsid protein, vp60) is located at the 3' end of orf1. comparison of rhdv-sd with the german rhdv isolated revealed 470 nucleotid ...19957732658
partial characterization of the human erythrocyte receptor for rabbit haemorrhagic disease important, well known property of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus is its ability to agglutinate human red blood cells. accordingly, red cells from human adult donors were agglutinated despite their blood group abo status, and treatments with proteases or glycosidases did not prevent agglutination. however, we discovered that the cells from human umbilical cords or foetuses were not agglutinated. in order to identify the viral receptor on human erythrocytes, glycolipids and glycoproteins ...19957754234
detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus isolates and sequence comparison of the n-terminus of the capsid protein gene by the polymerase chain present there is no sensitive method for the detection of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv), a calicivirus causing high mortality in rabbit populations. for this purpose a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was established in the n-terminal portion of the rhdv capsid region. the rt-pcr was 10(4)-fold more sensitive than elisa testing for the detection of the virus and was able to detect as few as 12 copies of template cdna. by using the rt-pcr test and sequencing, ...19957761690
genetic relatedness of the caliciviruses: san miguel sea lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses constitute a single genotype within the caliciviridae.the san miguel sea lion viruses (smsv) and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses (vesv) are related morphologically and antigenically, but little has been done to determine their genotypic relationship to each other and to other caliciviruses. to examine this relationship, reverse transcriptase pcrs were performed by using oligonucleotide primer sets designed to amplify portions of the 2c rna helicase-like and rna-dependent rna polymerase regions with total cellular rna purified from virus-infect ...19957769708
an alternative method for direct sequencing of pcr products, for epidemiological studies performed by nucleic sequence comparison. application to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.a sequencing strategy based on the use of commercially available fluorescent-labeled universal primers for directly sequencing polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified material has been developed. the pcr reactions were performed with hybrid primers, specific to the viral sequence and possessing the sequence of the standard sequencing primers at their 5' end (m13 and reverse primers). these amplified fragments were sequenced by a classical dye-primer kit on an automated sequencer. as opposed to ...19957795668
[recombinant vaccine against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus]. 19957795676
[experimental study of kangli san in treating viral hyperpyrexia].the hypothermic effect of kangli san (kls) on the model of rabbit viral hyperpyrexia caused by rabbit hemorrhagic fever virus was studied. intraperitoneal injection of 200% kls (4g/kg) could inhibit the pyrogenic action of the virus efficiently. the results showed that kls could decrease the function of pyrogenic transmitters such as pge2 and camp etc. in cerebrospinal fluid.19947866004
possible origin of rabbit haemorrhagic disease in the united kingdom.rabbit haemorrhagic disease was reported for the first time in the united kingdom in 1992, and there followed four further small localised outbreaks, all in the south of england. investigation has revealed no definitive mechanism for the introduction of the disease but it is considered that it probably originated from the near continent. the possibility of the transmission of the virus across the channel by aerosol, birds and south coast ferry traffic is discussed, particularly with respect to t ...19947871688
[viral hemorrhagic disease in a rabbit, a case report].the clinical signs and pathological anatomical findings at post-mortem examination of two rabbits are characteristic of those of 'viral haemorrhagic disease'. because of the very high mortality, the clinical signs, and the acute course, this viral disease, which has only recently been reported in europe, could be mistaken for poisoning.19947940466
control of viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits in poland.the authors present an epizootiological analysis of viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits in poland. the biological, physical and chemical properties of virus isolates used for the production and control of the vaccine 'cunivac' (produced in poland) are also presented. the safety and efficacy of this vaccine are demonstrated. laboratory experiments and large-scale field observations yielded satisfactory results.19947949360
predicted stem-loop structures and variation in nucleotide sequence of 3' noncoding regions among animal calicivirus genomes.caliciviruses are nonenveloped with a polyadenylated genome of approximately 7.6 kb and a single capsid protein. the "rna fold" computer program was used to analyze 3'-terminal noncoding sequences of five feline calicivirus (fcv), rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv), and two san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) isolates. the fcv 3'-terminal sequences are 40-46 nucleotides in length and 72-91% similar. the fcv sequences were predicted to contain two possible duplex structures and one stem-loop st ...19947975270
rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus: a calicivirus with differences. 19947986193
first epizootic of rabbit hemorrhagic disease in free living populations of oryctolagus cuniculus at doñana national park, spain.the first known epizootic of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (rhd) occurred in two free-living wild rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) populations at doñana national park, spain. rabbit population density was not correlated to rhd mortality. only adult animals were affected; males and females had similar mortality rates.19948028101
morphologic and immunohistochemical characterization of the hepatic lesions associated with european brown hare syndrome.liver lesions were studied in 40 free-living adult european brown hares (lepus europaeus) and varying hares (lepus timidus) of both sexes that had died in sweden with the viral infection european brown hare syndrome (ebhs). the lesions were characterized by their histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings. periportal to massive coagulation necrosis was a distinctive feature of ebhs. lytic necrosis, inflammation, fatty degeneration, and cholangitis occurred variably. ...19948053127
molecular cloning, sequencing and expression in escherichia coli of the capsid protein gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (spanish isolate ast/89).we describe the cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression in escherichia coli of the major capsid component (vp60) from the spanish field isolate ast/89 of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv). the sequence of the 3'-terminal 2483 nucleotides of the genome was found to be 95.4% identical to the german rhdv strain, showing ten changes in the deduced vp60 amino acid sequence. the gene coding for this structural polypeptide has been expressed in bacteria as a beta-galactosidase fusion prote ...19948077941
identification and characterization of a 3c-like protease from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, a calicivirus.expression studies conducted in vitro and in escherichia coli led to the identification of a protease from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv). the gene coding for this protease was found to be located in the central part of the genome preceding the putative rna polymerase gene. it was demonstrated that the protease specifically cuts rhdv polyprotein substrates both in cis and in trans. site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the rhdv protease closely resembles the 3c proteases o ...19948083986
recombinant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein expressed in baculovirus self-assembles into viruslike particles and induces protection.vp60, the unique component of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid, was expressed in the baculovirus system. the recombinant vp60, released in the supernatant of infected insect cells, assembled without the need of any other viral component to form viruslike particles (vlps), structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virion. intramuscular vaccination of rabbits with the vlps conferred complete protection in 15 days; this protection was found to be ...19948084017
rabbit haemorrhagic disease in the united april 1992, an investigation of sudden, increased mortality among adult rabbits on two premises in the south of england revealed clinical and pathological findings consistent with rabbit haemorrhagic disease. virus particles morphologically resembling caliciviruses were detected in the livers of affected rabbits, and further studies confirmed the first recorded cases of rabbit haemorrhagic disease in the united kingdom.19938128550
rabbit haemorrhagic disease. 19948171774
rabbit haemorrhagic disease. 19948171775
clinical evolution and diagnosis of an outbreak of european brown hare syndrome in hares reared in captivity.the authors studied an outbreak of an acute form of european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) in captive hares. the farm involved had shown negative results in a previous serological test for ebhs conducted on approximately 8% of the animals. hares which succumbed during the outbreak were submitted to an anatomo-pathological examination and the livers of these animals were collected for laboratory analysis. examination by immunoelectron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed the di ...19938219343
the occurrence of european brown hare syndrome in finland. 19938266901
electron- and immunoelectron-microscopic investigation on the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.electron- and immunoelectron-microscopic methods were used for detection and investigation of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv). the observed virus particles were uncoated, with an icosahedral symmetry, with a 35-40 nm dia and capsids built up by 32 capsomers with a central hollow part and a 3.5-5 nm dia. particles with empty capsids could also be seen among them. single virions visible in 5-fold symmetry, exhibited 10 projections on the surface. virions with a 33-34 nm dia and cup-shaped ...19938382590
sequence and genomic organization of norwalk virus.a library of overlapping cdnas obtained from norwalk virus purified from stools of human volunteers (jiang et al., 1990, science 250, 1580-1583) was used to obtain the nucleotide sequence of the viral genome. the sequence has a total of 7642 nucleotides, excluding the 3' poly(a) tail, and has a base composition of 48% g + c. three open reading frames (orf) are predicted in the sequence. the longest orf (orf1, nucleotides (nt) 146 to 5359) is predicted to encode a polyprotein precursor to nonstru ...19938391187
rabbit hemorrhagic disease (rhd): characterization of the causative calicivirus.rabbit hemorrhagic disease (rhd) which was first recognized in china in 1984 spread via eastern europe to many countries of western europe and other parts of the world. the analysis of the virus outlined in this review comprises: 1) physico-chemical properties, 2) electron microscopy including immunoelectron microscopy, 3) demonstration of capsid protein, 4) in vivo neutralization with monoclonal antibodies (mabs), 5) infectivity of purified rna, and 6) characterization of the viral genome. also ...19938393721
the amino terminal sequence of vp60 from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus supports its putative subgenomic determination of the amino acid sequence of vp60 from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus is impeded by the presence of a blocked n-terminus. chemical cleavage of vp60 using cyanogen bromide allowed the identification and purification of two oligopeptides showing identical amino acid composition, one of which had its amino terminus blocked. automated sequential degradation of the unblocked cnbr- peptide yielded the amino acid sequence egkartapqgeaa. this sequence is identical to the deduced ...19938488721
antigenicity of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus studied by its reactivity with monoclonal antibodies.a panel of anti-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (anti-rhdv) monoclonal antibodies was produced and characterized. the ability of the mabs to recognize epitopes present on rhdv capsids, european brown hare syndrome virus capsids and rhdv subunits was determined. preliminary results on the neutralizing capacity of the mabs were obtained by in vivo protection experiments. the antigenic map of rhdv obtained by this study is consistent with the current models of the calicivirus structure.19958533459
detection of antibodies to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus: an immunoblotting method using virus-coated human erythrocyte membranes.the virus of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhdv) was purified from infected rabbit liver homogenate by using its property to bind to human red blood cells. lysates from virus coated cells contained a 60 kda protein identified as the major viral protein. immunoblots prepared with that preparation were proved to be useful for immunochemical analysis since the 60 kda component was intensively stained by subsequent incubation with rabbit sera from infected rabbits and with a secondary labelled antibo ...19958546017
processing of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus polyprotein.expression of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) cdnas in vitro with rabbit reticulocyte lysates and in escherichia coli have been used to study the proteolytic processing of rhdv polyprotein encoded by orf1. an epitope tag was used for monitoring the gene products by a specific antibody. we have identified four gene products with molecular masses of 80, 43, 73, and 60 kda, from the amino to the carboxy terminus of the polyprotein. the amino-terminal sequences of the 43- and 73-kda products ...19968551592
development of a diagnostic approach to the identification of rabbit haemorrhagic disease.haemagglutination and elisa tests, and negative contrast electron microscopy, have been used to identify rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in naturally occurring cases of the disease and in experimentally infected rabbits in the united kingdom. haemagglutination tests alone are not satisfactory for the diagnosis because non-haemagglutinating isolates of the virus, otherwise indistinguishable from others, have been found in some outbreaks. haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that a prop ...19958553522
a conserved sequence motif at the 5' terminus of the southampton virus genome is characteristic of the caliciviridae.we have determined the 5'terminal cdna sequence for the genome of southampton virus, a recently characterized, human, small round-structured virus (srsv). genomic rna was extracted directly from a stool sample and amplified by rt-pcr by homopolymer tailing of the 3' terminus of the cdna. the additional sequence increases the overall length of the southampton virus genome by 12 nucleotides, resulting in a significant change to the genome organization by extending the first large open reading fram ...19958560774
rabbit haemorrhagic disease in scotland. 19958588282
antibody response to rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease virus in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) consuming livers of infected rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus).six red foxes (vulpes vulpes) were given oral doses of homogenized liver from rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) that died from rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease (rvhd) and four control foxes were given liver from uninfected rabbits. antibodies to rvhd virus were monitored over 6 months. there was a pronounced antibody response 7 days after exposure which persisted to 14 days and then diminished. low titers still were evident in three foxes at the end of the experiment. based on these results, fox s ...19958592388
rabbit haemorrhagic disease in ireland. 19958592820
diagnostic survey of viral haemorrhagic disease in wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) in four regions of spain.samples of organs and serum were obtained from wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) found dead in the field, shot or captured by hunters, or introduced for repopulation in various provinces of spain over a two-year period, for the purposes of an epidemiological study of viral haemorrhagic disease (vhd) of rabbits. the efficacy of the haemagglutination test and the direct immunofluorescence test for the diagnosis of vhd was also examined.19958593410
surveillance of wild animal diseases in europe.a study of the methods and personnel involved in general surveillance of wild animal diseases in europe was conducted by correspondence and personal interview in 1993-1994. twenty-seven of the thirty-six countries contacted participated in the study. a great range was observed in the intensity of surveillance programmes and the details of their organisation. programmes of comprehensive general surveillance were present in four countries, while eleven countries had general surveillance programmes ...19958593412
australia fends off critic of plan to eradicate rabbits. 19968602500
serologic comparison of four isolates of rabbit hemorrhagic disease acute, fatal disease of rabbits, termed rabbit hemorrhagic disease (rhd), has occurred in asia, europe, and north america since 1984. the clinical signs, pathologic lesions, and epidemiologic features seen in the various outbreaks were very similar. although rhd virus (rhdv) was initially characterized as a picornavirus or a parvovirus, it is now proven to be a calicivirus. this study compared the immune responses generated following the vaccination and challenge inoculation of rabbits with i ...19958604547
rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease in northern ireland. 19968629325
identification of the virus of rabbit haemorrhagic disease in tunisia.during 1992 and 1993, outbreaks of an acute, highly fatal disease mainly affecting adult rabbits were observed in tunisia. the clinical and pathological findings were consistent with rabbit haemorrhagic disease. a monoclonal antibody designated pg4g3 specific for surface determinants of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus was used to identify the aetiological agent by elisa and by colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy; a haemagglutination test and conventional immunoelectron microscopy were ...19968650904
release of rhd virus in australia. 19968658183
release of rhd virus in australia. 19968658184
[viral hemorrhagic disease: an overview and personal data].a review is given of current knowledge of taxonomy, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis and pathology, diagnosis, epizootiology and prevention of viral haemorrhagic disease (vhd). we also report our own experiences with the (histo)pathology, laboratory diagnosis, and epizootiology of this disease. the frequency of other diagnoses in an eighteen months period.19968658494
early stages of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus infection monitored by polymerase chain order to define more accurately the initial events that take place during rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) infection, different organs of experimentally infected rabbits were analysed for the presence of the virus and correlated with histopathological observations. a total of 24 rabbits were intranasally inoculated with a viral suspension, and tissue samples were taken from the liver, spleen, kidney, lung, thymus, lymph node and tonsil at different intervals post-inoculation (2, 4, 6, ...19968693842
european brown hare syndrome in free-ranging hares in poland.a study of european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) was conducted in poland (czempin). from april 1993 until february 1994, 100 blood and 78 spleen samples of european brown hares (lepus europaeus) were tested for prevalence of ebhs and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (rhdv) antibodies and ebhs virus antigen with two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) test kits. thirty-eight of 100 serum samples were positive for ebhs, and six (7.6%) of 78 of the spleen materials were-antigen positive for ebhs viru ...19968722266
rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv): ultrastructure and biochemical studies of typical and core-like particles present in liver homogenates.calicivirus particles isolated from rabbits suffering from acute rhd were compared with virions found in rabbits with chronic disease. liver homogenates of rabbits with the protracted disease display no hemagglutinating activity and contain viral particles with diameters of 25-27 nm. these virions contain only one structural protein of 30 kda and are distinctly smaller than intact rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) (32-40 nm). to prove the rhdv identity of the smaller virions, their reactiv ...19968738175
rabbit haemorrhagic disease in ireland. 19958748179
european brown hare syndrome virus: molecular cloning and sequencing of the genome.the genome of the european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv), a calicivirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv), was fully sequenced. it was 7442 bases long and contained two orfs. in rhdv, the 5' large orf (orf1) is predicted to encode a polyprotein precursor to the non-structural and capsid proteins. the small orf (orf2) encodes a predicted protein of 12 kda. alignment of sequences of ebhsv and rhdv showed 71% nucleotide identity; the changes were uniformly scattered over the w ...19968760416
protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) recombinant viruses were constructed with the sg33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. these recombinant viruses expressed the rhdv capsid protein (vp60). the recombinant protein, which is 60 kda in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against rhdv. both recombinant viruses induced high levels of rhdv- and myxoma virus- ...19968764013
preliminary characterization of a non-haemagglutinating strain of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus from the united kingdom.a variant strain of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, designated "rainham', originally isolated from a small localized outbreak of the disease in southern england, has been further examined and compared with conventional reference strains. the virus originally failed to haemagglutinate in standard conditions at normal temperature and consistently lacked ha activity after two passages in experimental rabbits. it did haemagglutinate at 4 degrees c. it reacted with hyperimmune sera to normal isola ...19968767770
protection of rabbits against rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease with a vaccinia-rhdv recombinant order to protect domestic and wild rabbits against rvhd, we constructed a recombinant vaccinia-rhdv virus, using the copenhagen strain of the vaccinia virus. this recombinant virus expressed the rhdv capsid protein (vp60). analysis of the expressed product showed that the recombinant protein, which is 60 kda in size, was antigenic as revealed by its reactions in immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence with the antibodies raised against rhdv. the recombinant virus induced high leve ...19968782348
presence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus antigen in rabbit tissues as revealed by a monoclonal antibody dependent capture elisa.the production of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to a common antigenic region on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) has enabled the development of a capture elisa for virus detection. the assay was shown to detect reliably the presence of viral antigen in crude homogenates of a range of rabbit tissues and has provided the first evidence for the presence of rhdv in blood, serum and heart tissue. a limited time course study of the progression of virus infection revealed viral antigen is first ...19968783160
immunogenic properties of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus structural protein vp60 expressed by a recombinant baculovirus: an efficient vaccine.we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus containing the gene encoding the structural protein vp60 from the spanish field isolate ast/89 of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv). infection of cultured spodoptera frugiperda sf9 cells with this recombinant virus resulted in the production of high yields of vp60 protein which did not seem to assemble to form virus like particles, but was antigenically similar to the corresponding viral protein obtained from purified virions. a vp60-dose stud ...19958837879
oral immunization of rabbits with vp60 particles confers protection against rabbit hemorrhagic disease.rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) causes more than 90% mortality in adult rabbits. in this study, the cdna of the vp60 coding sequence of rhdv was cloned under the control of the polyhedrin and p10 promoters of baculovirus to be expressed in insect cells. the expression of rhdv vp60 under the control of the p10 promoter was 5-10 times higher than using the polyhedrin promoter. the p10-derived vp60 was able to assemble into virus-like particles (vlps). rhdv vlps were successfully used to pr ...19968856024
microheterogeneity of p60 capsid protein and the encoding gene among contemporary isolates of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.the gene encoding the p60 capsid protein from a spanish isolate of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) has been cloned and sequenced. both cdna and the derived protein sequences have been compared with those from several contemporary european rhdv isolates. genetic heterogeneity among co-circulating viruses is nearly constant along the p60-encoding gene, around 0.034 substitutions per nucleotide, and it does not allow prediction of the preferential regions for long-term fixation of mutat ...19968879136
polylinker-encoded peptides can confer toxicity to recombinant proteins produced in escherichia coli.three dna segments encoding fragments of the p60 capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) have been cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. the cdnas were placed under the control of the t7 promoter in a pet-derived expression vector designed to produce c-terminal histidine tail fusions. by using different cloning strategies, cell toxicity exhibited by some of the expressed products was dramatically affected, coincident with minor modifications in the carboxy terminus sequenc ...19968879160
diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd) and european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) by indirect sandwich polyclonal elisa.the establishment of two indirect sandwich polyclonal elisas for the virological diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd) and european brown hare syndrome (ebhs) is described. each assay uses rabbit and guinea pig antisera raised to rhd or ebhs purified virus particles. the tests are sensitive and specific, but cross-reactions between rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) and european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv) are observed. most rabbit liver homogenates identified as rhdv-positi ...19968885704
susceptibility of hares and rabbits to the european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) under experimental conditions.the european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv) and the rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhdv) virus were inoculated in hares and rabbits to discover whether the homologous and heterologous host could be infected. the aims were to confirm the results of previous studies that showed the existence of antigenic differences between these two viruses, and also to define the role attributed to the hare in transmission to rabbits of a disease, ebhs, initially mistaken for rhd. during the trials, clinical sy ...19968885705
genetic map of the calicivirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus as deduced from in vitro translation studies.the 7.5-kb plus-stranded genomic rna of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus contains two open reading frames of 7 kb (orf1) and 351 nucleotides (orf2) that cover nearly 99% of the genome. the aim of the present study was to identify the proteins encoded in these open reading frames. to this end, a panel of region-specific antisera was generated by immunization of rabbits with bacterially expressed fusion proteins that encompass in total 95% of the orf1 polyprotein and almost the complete orf2 polyp ...19968892921
demonstration of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus antigen by staphylococcus protein a coagglutination test.the staphylococcus protein a coagglutination test (sp a coat) was developed for the diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd). liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys from 176 rabbits dead from viral haemorrhagic disease as well as the same organs from 64 healthy animals were examined by sp a coat and haemaglutination test (hat). the sp a coat was specific and considerably more simple to carry out than the hat, which made it very useful for rapid identification of rhd.19968919820
viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits. 19968923720
statutory controls on viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits to be removed. 19968934432
detection and preliminary characterization of a new rabbit calicivirus related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus but nonpathogenic.a new rabbit calicivirus related to the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) was identified. the new virus contains significant differences from the previously characterized rhdv isolates in terms of pathogenicity, viral titer, tropism, and primary sequence of the structural protein. cross-protection experiments, antigenic data, and sequence comparisons demonstrate that the new virus is more closely related to rhdv than to the european brown hare syndrome virus, another member of the calicivi ...19968970986
wide use of rabbit virus is good news for native species. 19978999544
a new variant of the viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits virus.a new variant of viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits (vhd) virus, recently detected in poland and called blaszki (bla), gives positive results in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and exhibits viral protein of 60 kilodaltons (vp 60), as detected by western blot analysis. this bla variant of vhd virus has caused high morbidity and mortality in rabbits, as have other reported variants with similar clinical signs and pathological lesions, but-in contrast to other variants-the bla variant ...19969025148
the complete nucleotide sequence of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (czech strain v351): use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect replication in australian vertebrates and analysis of viral population sequence variation.the complete nucleotide sequence of the czech strain of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) was determined to be 7437 nucleotides in length with a 5-terminal non-coding region of 9 nucleotides and a 3'-terminal non-coding region of 59 nucleotides. two open reading frames (orfs) were found within this sequence coding for polypeptides of 2344 (nucleotides 10-7044) and 117 amino acids (nucleotides 7025-7378). the sequence of this isolate was approximately 1% different from that reported by mey ...19979037732
a recombinant canarypox virus protects rabbits against a lethal rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) alvac (canarypox)-based recombinant virus alvac-rhdv (vcp309) expressing a native rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) capsid protein was derived and assessed for its protective efficacy in rabbits. protection against a lethal rhdv challenge was demonstrated in rabbits inoculated twice with either high (10(7) p.f.u.) or low (10(5) p.f.u.) doses of vcp309. however, animals in the high dose group developed significantly higher antibody response. these results have implications that are relev ...19979041672
rabbit haemorrhagic disease: the new scourge of oryctolagus cuniculus.a new, widespread and important disease of rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd), is concisely reviewed and discussed. rhd is an acute, infectious condition of adult rabbits and morbidity and mortality, after a relatively short incubation period, can be very high. the disease appears typically as a necrotizing hepatitis with associated haemorrhaging, and death occurs as a result of generalized organ dysfunction. rhd is caused by a calicivirus, antigenically related to a similar virus found ...19979121106
rabbit control in new zealand. 19979122698
rabbit control in new zealand. 19979122699
phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease and european brown hare syndrome viruses by comparison of sequences from the capsid protein gene.a 398 bp fragment of the capsid protein (vp60) gene of 39 clinical samples of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) and 17 of european brown hare syndrome virus (ebhsv), collected between 1981 and 1995 from 17 countries, was amplified by pcr and directly sequenced. the alignment of the nucleotide sequences and the subsequently constructed phylogenetic tree clearly separated rhdv from ebhsv as phylogenetic entities. the nucleotide homology rates between the rhdv and ebhsv groups ranged between ...19979170495
susceptibility of wild rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) in the united kingdom to rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd).adult wild rabbits from the southern uk, previously unexposed to rabbit haemorrhagic disease (rhd), were experimentally challenged with a uk strain of the virus in laboratory conditions. initial serum antibodies were measured by an haemagglutination inhibition test and all seropositive rabbits, with reciprocal titres > 10, were protected against fatal infection. these results are consistent with the behaviour of laboratory and commercially bred rabbits in similar circumstances, and are relevant ...19979208447
seroconversion in an industrial unit of rabbits infected with a non-pathogenic rabbit haemorrhagic disease-like virus.a serological survey of 238 rabbits for antirabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv) antibodies was made in an industrial rabbitry where no signs of the disease had been reported for four years. seroconversion was repeatedly detected and was due to a calicivirus antigenically related to rhdv but without its pathogenicity. there was a seroprevalence of 33.3 per cent among young animals at weaning at 31 days old, 27.6 per cent at five to seven days after weaning, 56.1 per cent at 13 to 14 days aft ...19979226848
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