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transmembrane protein oligomers of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus are immunodominant in goats with progressive arthritis.to dissect mechanisms of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus-induced arthritis, an undefined immunodominant viral glycoprotein, gp90 (g. c. johnson, a. f. barbet, p. klevjer-anderson, and t. c. mcguire, infect. immun. 41:657-665, 1983), was characterized. monoclonal antibody to gp90 and specific antiserum to env gene products demonstrated that gp90 was a transmembrane protein (tm) dimer. goats with progressive arthritis had high antibody titers to oligomeric and monomeric (38-kda) tm.19921313930
prevalence of antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goats in the united states.goats from 28 states were tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. of 3,790 goats, 1,175 (31%) tested positive, and of 196 herds tested, 143 (73%) had 1 or more seropositive members. this prevalence, based on serum samples from all goats in the participating herds, was lower than most rates reported in other studies. such studies were based on fewer samples, incomplete sampling of herds, or smaller geographic base. prevalence was highest in western pacific and northern plai ...19921314795
[the lymphocytes of the milk of ewes infected by the maedi-caev virus at the moment of lambing]. 19921329606
evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goat serum.an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), was evaluated for its ability to detect serum antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev). the elisa was compared to three other serological immunoassays, agar gel immunodiffusion test (agidt), immunoblot assay (iba), and a fixed-cell immunoperoxidase assay (fcipa). a total of 511 samples, from 40 farms representing a variety of goat breeds and ages were tested. an estimate of the elisa sensitivity and specificity was made ...19921330278
caprine arthritis-encephalitis control in france. 19921335189
cohort study of natural transmission and two methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on a california dairy.a prospective observational cohort study of 361 dairy goat kids was conducted to compare 2 methods of controlling caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection under commercial dairy conditions. to compare effectiveness of feeding kids pasteurized milk vs serologic testing and segregation in addition to pasteurized milk feeding, goats were monitored up to the age of 30 months by use of monthly agar gel immunodiffusion testing. survival analysis methods were used to determine whether age at sero ...19921335709
risk factors associated with the incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goats on california dairies.incidence of seroconversion to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was determined for 1,194 goats on 11 dairies, using 2 repeated annual herd tests for caev. current life table methods were used to compare age-specific incidence of seroconversion for pasteurized milk-raised and unpasteurized milk-raised goats. logistic regression models were used to determine the risk factors associated with caev seroconversion, and to estimate odds ratios for seroconversion for various factor levels. go ...19921335710
pestivirus is a common contaminant in maedi-visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus stocks.eight different laboratory stocks of maedi-visna or caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus were examined for the presence of pestiviruses by a fixed-cell immunoperoxidase assay with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. all of the viral stocks examined were found to contain noncytopathic pestivirus contaminants. the panel of monoclonal antibodies could not type the isolates as being more related to bovine virus diarrhea virus or border disease virus. however, the results did indicate that all isol ...19921335836
genomic heterogeneity of small ruminant lentiviruses detected by pcr.in order to detect a large spectrum of small ruminant lentiviruses, primers for pcr were chosen in conserved parts of the ltr and gag genes of icelandic visna virus 1514 and of the pol gene of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. this set of primers was tested in six different caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev)- and maedi-visna virus isolates of dutch, american and swiss origin. the ltr primers allowed the detection of the corresponding fragments of all isolates. the gag primers allowe ...19921336245
identification and evaluation of new primer sets for the detection of lentivirus proviral dna.we have developed sets of degenerate oligonucleotides designed to detect pol gene sequences from any member of the lentivirus subfamily when used as primers in amplification techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). this pan-lentivirus-specific primer set (plsps) consists of primers, lv1, lv2, and lv3, based on conserved regions common to lentiviruses only. our protocol is based on primary amplification with lv1 and lv2 followed by secondary amplification with a nested primer set b ...19921337258
caprine arthritis-encephalitis (cae). occurrence of positive sera in goats raised in brazil. 19921339003
lentiviral arthritis and encephalitis in goats in north-west syria.a survey for antibodies against caprine arthritis and encephalitis (cae) virus was undertaken in north-west syria. out of 72 sera, using agar immuno-diffusion test, 12.5% showed a positive reaction. despite the seropositiveness, no clinical evidence of the infection was found in the tested animals. the findings indicate that the infection is endemic in the area studied.19921339988
neurological aspects of lentiviral infections in animals. 19921344653
mononuclear phagocytes as targets, tissue reservoirs, and immunoregulatory cells in human immunodeficiency virus disease.we have presented evidence in this review for the following: 1. macrophages are likely the first cell infected by hiv. studies document recovery of hiv into macrophages in the early stages of infection in which virus isolation in t cells is unsuccessful and detectable levels of antibodies against hiv are absent. 2. macrophages are major tissue reservoirs for hiv during all stages of infection. unlike the lytic infection of t cells, many hiv-infected macrophages show little or no virus-induced cy ...19921424782
lessons from caprine and ovine retrovirus infections.two lentiviruses that infect sheep and goats have been shown to be closely related to the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). these ungulate lentiviruses cause a spectrum of diseases, including arthritis in their natural hosts. the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses as well as possible pathogenic mechanisms is compared to hiv-1 in order to identify common features and significant differences between the human and animals pathogens.19911645879
expression in escherichia coli and sequencing of the coding region for the capsid protein of dutch maedi-visna virus strain zzv 1050: application of recombinant protein in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of caprine and ovine lentiviruses.maedi-visna in sheep and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in goats are caused by two closely related and widespread lentiviruses. the infections are characterized by life-long virus persistence and slow induction of antiviral antibodies. the diagnosis is based on the detection of antiviral antibodies. we have used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to amplify a part of the gag gene coding for the entire capsid protein and for parts of the matrix and nucleocapsid proteins. sequencing of the pcr fr ...19911653261
neutralization-resistant antigenic variants of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus associated with progressive arthritis.fifteen newborn saanen goats were orally infected with a biologically cloned isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev-63). at 33.5 months after infection, 8 of 12 seropositive goats had caev-63-specific neutralizing antibody. five neutralization-positive goats developed clinically apparent arthritis of carpal joints, three of which had periarticular swelling indicating severe synovitis. arthritis was not evident in age-matched controls or infected goats without neutralizing antibody ...19911654355
structure and genetic variability of envelope glycoproteins of two antigenic variants of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus.to define the structure of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) env gene and characterize genetic changes which occur during antigenic variation, we sequenced the env genes of caev-63 and caev-co, two antigenic variants of caev defined by serum neutralization. the deduced primary translation product of the caev env gene consists of a 60- to 80-amino-acid signal peptide followed by an amino-terminal surface protein (su) and a carboxy-terminal transmembrane protein (tm) separated by an ...19911656067
neurobiology of simian and feline immunodeficiency virus infections.experimental and clinical evidence indicates that all lentiviruses of animals and humans are neurotropic and potentially neurovirulent. the prototypic animal lentiviruses, visna virus in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in goats have been known for decades to induce neurologic disease. more recently, infection of the brain with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) has been linked to an associated encephalopathy and cognitive/motor complex. while the visna virus and caprine arthri ...19911669709
epitope analysis of capsid and matrix proteins of north american ovine lentivirus field isolates.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against two phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus (ovlv) strains were generated by fusion of balb/c sp2/0-ag 14 myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with purified ovlv. hybridomas were selected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and analysis of reactivity on immunoblots. the majority (17 of 21) of the mabs recognized the gag-encoded capsid protein, ca p27, of both strains. four other mabs recognized a smaller structural p ...19911715884
recombinant gp135 envelope glycoproteins of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus variants inhibit homologous and heterologous variant-specific neutralizing antibodies.the envelope (env) genes of two antigenic variants of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev), defined by serum neutralization, were expressed in vaccinia virus. recombinant gp135 envelope glycoprotein competitively inhibited neutralizing activity of serum from caev-infected goats, indicating gp135 is a dominant target antigen of caev neutralizing antibody. in addition, type-specific neutralizing activity of goat serum directed against one variant was inhibited by both homologous and heterol ...19911718084
genetic structure of the pol-env region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus genome.the nucleotide sequence of the pol-env intergenic region of two isolates of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was determined. two open reading frames (orfs) were identified, designated q and s by homology with visna virus. caev orf s is a single exon encoding a deduced 87-amino acid gene product sharing 36 amino acid identities with the visna trans-acting transcriptional activator (tat). ten of these identities comprise a conserved cgcrlcnpgw sequence similar to a cysteine-rich domain ...19911845832
risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on california dairies.log-linear methodology was used to examine relations among caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) seroreactivity and host/management factors in a cross-sectional study of 2,826 goats on 13 california dairies. the caev serologic status was associated with age and feeding method (pasteurized/unpasteurized milk), but not with breed. data from a prevalence survey of 321 goats from 2 additional dairies demonstrated very good fit of the selected log-linear model (p = 1.00), indicating that the mo ...19911852145
animal diseases caused by retroviruses: enzootic bovine leukosis, equine infectious anaemia and caprine arthritis-encephalitis.this article presents the essential features of three retroviral infections of animals: enzootic bovine leukosis, equine infectious anaemia and caprine arthritis-encephalitis. a unique feature of these diseases is persistent infection, maintained throughout the life of the host animal by the presence of a provirus integrated into the cells of the host, thereby making an infected animal a continuous source of the pathogen. information currently available on the epidemiology and detection of these ...19901966754
caprine arthritis-encephalitis antibodies in indigenous sheep in saudi arabia.a serological survey was conducted in indigenous sheep from saudi arabia for detection of antibodies against the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. only 0.8% of the sera examined were positive. epizootiological considerations of the disease in the country are discussed.19901966759
a highly divergent proviral dna clone of siv from a distinct species of african green monkey.simian immunodeficiency viruses from african green monkeys (sivagm) are the most genetically heterogeneous type of non-human primate lentivirus. to further examine the extent of genetic divergence within the sivagm type, we generated and sequenced a biologically active proviral dna clone representing a lentivirus isolated from a distinct african green monkey species (grivet). overall, this clone (gri-1/lambda ii) was highly divergent from previously characterized sivagm clones. specifically, the ...19912024476
[responses of kids to monocytes infected in vitro by the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus].retroviruses from small ruminants are spread between susceptible animals by mononuclear phagocytes which are also virus targets. young seronegative goats were inoculated with in vitro infected monocytes producing caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (10(5) cells/animal) by intravenous route corresponding to 10(5) syncytia forming units. after 3 months the same goats received dexamethasone treatment (5 mg/animal each 2 days over a 10-day period). the observed immune response differed if the anima ...19902167626
[caprine arthritis-encephalitis in switzerland: epidemiologic and clinical studies].the prevalence of infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus was assessed using an indirect elisa. antiviral antibodies could be detected in 42% of 5974 goat serum specimens included in this study (switzerland except ticino and graubünden 61%). infected animals were found in all breeds of goats and in all regions of the country, with the lowest prevalence in the canton ticino in southern switzerland. a comparison of clinical and serological data showed that only 20-30% of the infected a ...19902171140
nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of molecular clones of caev which generate infectious virus.the lentivirus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) is closely related by nucleotide sequence homology to visna virus and other sheep lentiviruses and shows less similarity to the other animal and human lentiviruses. the genomic organization of caev is very similar to that of visna virus and the south african ovine maedi visna virus (sa-omvv) as well as to those of other primate lentiviruses. the caev genome includes the small open reading frames (orf) between pol and env which are the ha ...19902171210
blood leukocyte infection rates in caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats. 19902171480
ovine progressive pneumonia, caprine arthritis-encephalitis, and related lentiviral diseases of sheep and goats.history and syndromes of pneumonia, encephalitis, arthritis, and mastitis are reviewed. occurrence, etiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases are discussed.19902173967
analysis of binding of a technetium-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody to lentivirus-infected cells.caprine arthritis-encephalitis (cae) is a model for the study of lentiviral infections. the authors' hypothesis is that radioimmunodetection has the potential to detect lentiviral proteins at the surface of infected cells. a monoclonal antibody (caev92a1) specific for a cae virus (caev)-associated glycoprotein and a control antibody were radiolabeled with technetium-99m (99mtc) using the pretinning method. cell binding assays were used to evaluate immunoreactivity and binding properties of 99mtc ...19902174835
presence of virus particles in neural cells of goats with caprine arthritis encephalitis.the possible neurotropism of ungulate lentivirus was examined in clinical cases. brain and ganglion tissue samples were examined from six female goats with caprine arthritis encephalitis and from six healthy controls. ultrastructural examination revealed typical cytoplasmic a type retrovirus particles in the neural tissue of the diseased does. none were seen in the respective controls. furthermore, no budding or extracellular retrovirus particles were seen in any of the neural tissue samples exa ...19902176339
inhibition of caev expression in goats experimentally and naturally infected. 19902178122
role of mononuclear phagocytes in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.we have presented evidence in this review for the following: (a) macrophages are likely the first cell infected by hiv. recovery of hiv from macrophages has been documented in the early stages of infection in which virus isolation in t cells is unsuccessful and detectable levels of antibodies against hiv are absent. (b) macrophages are major reservoirs for hiv during all stages of infection. unlike the lytic infection of t cells, hiv-infected macrophages show little or no virus-induced cytopathi ...19902188662
the viral hypothesis of alzheimer's disease. absence of antibodies to lentiviruses.to evaluate the possible role of lentiviruses in alzheimer's disease we searched for cross-reactive antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, and equine infectious anemia virus in alzheimer's disease, down's syndrome, and related dementing illnesses in serum samples and cerebrospinal fluid samples and in healthy age-matched control subjects. no cross-reactive antibodies were detected.19902302089
severity of arthritis is predicted by antibody response to gp135 in chronic infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.antibody titers to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus surface glycoprotein gp135 and core protein p28 in synovial fluid and serum from 35 goats infected for 3 years were compared with the histologic severity of arthritis in these animals. anti-gp135 antibody titers in synovial fluid and serum directly reflect the severity of carpal arthritis in chronically infected goats.19902325206
pathogenesis of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. cellular localization of viral transcripts in tissues of infected goats.pathologic specimens of 18 goats with classical lesions of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (cae) virus infection were examined morphologically and by in situ hybridization using molecularly cloned caev deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) to determine which tissues and cells of naturally infected goats supported virus replication. large numbers of cells with viral transcripts were detected in inflamed brain, spinal cord, lung, joints, and mammary gland. these cells were morphologically compatible with mac ...19902327471
retroviruses and multiple sclerosis. i. analysis of seroreactivity by western blot and radioimmune assay.we were unable to identify an antibody to either htlv-i or hiv-1 in patients with multiple sclerosis (ms) by elisa, by radioimmune assay, or by radioimmune precipitation techniques. immunoblot studies for htlv-i-specific antibodies revealed faintly reactive bands in 2 of 44 ms patients but not in patients with other neurologic diseases. we did not find seroreactivity to hiv-1 or to the distantly related retrovirus, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev). these findings suggest that ms is no ...19902381534
studies with canine sera that contain antibodies which recognize human immunodeficiency virus structural proteins.in a serological survey, using the immunoblotting technique, we found that substantial numbers of dog sera from both normal and diseased dogs, including dogs with neoplasia, reacted with one or more human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) recombinant proteins. a total of 144 dog sera were tested, and 72 (50%) of them reacted with one or more hiv recombinant structural proteins. ten dog sera were also tested for reactivity with simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), ...19902386966
the mammary gland as a target organ for infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.a herd of 15 dairy goats with a previous history of neurological disease in kids was screened for caprine arthritis-encephalitis (cae) virus infection. virus was isolated from the pbl of all animals as well as milk from lactating does. all animals had antibody detected by elisa and gel immuno-diffusion. two animals from this herd were examined for responses to infection. one was an adult female with poor milk production and the other was a 3-month-old female kid which developed acute neurologica ...19852415560
characteristics of a novel lentivirus derived from south african sheep with pulmonary adenocarcinoma (jaagsiekte).a novel lentivirus was isolated from south african sheep with experimentally transmitted lung adenocarcinoma. similar to visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, this new strain induced cytopathic effects on ovine plexus choroid cultures. in contrast to a recent israeli isolate from sheep with adenocarcinoma, the south african lentivirus could not transform fibroblast cultures. the antigenic relatedness between the new isolate and visna virus was assessed by immunoprecipitation of r ...19872437695
lav/htlv-iii gag gene product p24 shares antigenic determinants with equine infectious anemia virus but not with visna virus or caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.antigenic cross-reactivity of the human acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome virus lav/htlv-iii with the lentiviruses visna virus, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev), and equine infectious anemia virus (eiav) was determined with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblot analysis, and virus-specific polyclonal antisera. nonreciprocal cross-reactivity was seen between the gag gene products p24 of lav/htlv-iii and p28 of eiav. reciprocal cross-reactivity was seen betwee ...19862438251
antigenic and structural variation of the p28 core polypeptide of goat and sheep retroviruses.the p28 core polypeptides of four isolates of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) from goats was compared with those of visna virus (vv) and progressive pneumonia virus (ppv) from sheep. monoclonal antibodies recognized p28 epitopes common to all six retrovirus isolates, a p28 epitope on four caev isolates, but not vv and ppv isolates, a p28 epitope on four caev isolates and vv, but not ppv and a p28 epitope unique to the caev isolate used for immunizing the mouse spleen donor. compariso ...19872440985
high levels of interferon in synovial fluid of retrovirus-infected goats.a high level of interferon (ifn) was found in the synovial fluid of goats with naturally acquired caprine arthritis-encephalitis (cae), a disease caused by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev), a nononcogenic retrovirus of the lentivirus group. intraarticular injection of caev or control inoculum in the joints of affected goats caused increased amounts of ifn production in synovial fluid.19882452849
antigenic variation of neutralization-sensitive epitopes of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus during persistent arthritis.caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev), a naturally occurring lentivirus of goats, causes disease characterized by virus persistence and recurrent arthritis. these studies demonstrate in vitro neutralization of caev infectivity by serum from goats infected with caev. serum neutralizing activity was not detectable until 10 to 36 months postinfection, and titers were relatively low (less than or equal to 1:8). serum neutralization was caused by antibody and was virus specific. antigenic varia ...19882457116
lentivirus-induced interferon inhibits maturation and proliferation of monocytes and restricts the replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.in this study, we investigated the effect of a lentivirus-induced interferon (lv-ifn) on the interaction of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and its host cell, the monocyte-macrophage. lv-ifn was produced in culture supernatant 48 h after adding fresh goat lymphocytes to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goat macrophages. the culture supernatant contained ifn activity at a titer of 1:360 as assayed by inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus-induced lysis of fibroblasts. lv-ifn i ...19892470918
[the mammary gland: target organ for infection with the caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus].fifteen goats, culled from herds in which infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was important, were studied. eleven animals presented, at clinical examination, the signs ('hard udder' and lymphoid nodes hyperplasia) of a subclinical viral mammary infection confirmed by the interstitial accumulation of lymphocytes and the presence of caev in the mammary gland. lactation induced in 2 goats suggests that the viral expression depends on the physiological status of the udder. thi ...19892539038
detection of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus by protein g enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting.sera from goats suffering from caprine arthritis-encephalitis contained antibodies to virus proteins of 15, 17, 28, 40, and 130 kilodaltons in immunoblots of maedi-visna virus. we propose to use immunoblotting as a validation test for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and demonstrate that the specificity of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be improved by replacing second antibody by a protein g-avidin-biotin conjugate.19892541170
[syncytia formation in cultures and analysis of the protein composition of various strains of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev)].the syncytia forming activity of 9 caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) strains isolated from lesions or normal goat tissue was evaluated in vitro. no discrepancies were seen between the structural proteins of the 9 strains by gel electrophoresis. goat synovial membrane cells were the most susceptible to the 9 caev strains. goat monocytes in culture were susceptible to all the strains tested. at 39 degrees c, all the strains produced more syncitial lesions. in nasal turbinate cells, 2 str ...19892546478
modulation of lentivirus replication by antibodies. non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do not cause increased production of virions.non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) enhance the early stages of the virus life cycle but do not potentiate enhanced production of virus particles by macrophages. in primary macrophages used for these studies, there was enhancement in binding, internalization and uncoating of virus pretreated with non-neutralizing sera in comparison to virus pretreated with a non-immune serum. however, this did not lead to enhanced production of virus particles. failure of n ...19892549189
evidence for interference, coinfections, and intertypic virus enhancement of infection by ovine-caprine lentiviruses.the ovine-caprine lentiviruses share nucleotide homology and serological properties in their gag-pol genes and gene products but constitute two distinct biological groups represented by ovine visna virus of icelandic origin and by caprine arthritis-encephalitis and ovine progressive pneumonia viruses of u.s. origin. two members of each group, visna 1514 and its antigenic variant lv1-1 in the first group and caev/co and s93, a field isolate virus from a local arthritic sheep, in the second group, ...19892552145
analysis of regulatory elements of the equine infectious anemia virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus long terminal repeats.we analyzed the equine infectious anemia virus (eiav) long terminal repeat (ltr) for sequences that influence its promoter activity and ability to be trans-activated by the eiav tat gene product. a series of ltr deletion mutants and recombinants between ltr and simian virus 40 (sv40) regulatory sequences were used for these studies. we were able to identify the eiav promoter region and showed that sequences within the u3 region significantly inhibited ltr-directed transcription. however, when pl ...19892552171
augmentation of lymphocyte and macrophage proliferation by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus contributes to the development of progressive arthritis.infection by the lentivirus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev), may lead to an intermittent arthritis due to the presence of lymphocytes and macrophages in synovial membranes. we have observed that the presence of caev increases the division of lymphocytes and macrophages. in association, antigen-induced arthritis is more severe in goats concurrently infected by caev than in noninfected goats. from these observations we propose that infection by this lentivirus increases reactivity of ...19892558408
retroviruses and chronic arthritis. possible significance of some recent observations.retroviruses have been proposed as etiologic agents for the development of chronic arthritis in humans. the arthritis seen in goats infected by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and the spontaneous arthritis of inbred mrl/l mice illustrate how retroviruses may cause the development of a disorder closely resembling human rheumatoid arthritis. several investigators have searched for evidence of retrovirus infection in patients with chronic arthritis, but in most cases the results have been disa ...19892559478
lentivirus infection augments concurrent antigen-induced arthritis.experimental antigen-induced arthritis was compared in normal goats and goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. although acute arthritis was the same in infected and uninfected animals, the disease lasted 16 weeks longer in the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goats. our findings suggest that the arthritis caused by this virus is due to events other than, or in addition to, the immune reaction to viral antigens.19872822053
antigenic variation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus during persistent infection of goats.six caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev)-free goats kept in strict isolation were inoculated intravenously with a cloned caev isolate (virus 020). at 78 weeks post-infection a virus (virus 095) isolated from one of the goats was shown to have the characteristics of caev, but was antigenically distinct from virus 020 and two other caev isolates by serum neutralization tests. serum from the goat that had the variant virus neutralized the inoculum virus and the variant virus but serum from o ...19872826652
caprine arthritis-encephalitis. virus isolation and identification in goat herds in italy.caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was isolated by explant cultures of carpal synovial membrane, udder, lymph-nodes, lung and choroid plexus from six goats in two different herds with histories of arthritis-encephalitis. the virus was also isolated from milk, heparinized blood and carpal synovial fluid, using secondary goat synovial membrane cells. virus identification was made by means of cytopathology, agar gel immunodiffusion test, immunofluorescence, in vitro host range and electron ...19872826971
[inhibitory activity of sera from infected goats on syncitia formation due to caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus (caev)].a very small number of goat positive for caprine arthritis encephalitis virus are also capable of in vitro inhibition of specific tissue culture lesions. this neutralizing activity for apparition of multinucleated cells is present in sera at low dilutions. we found this seric activity under natural conditions in young goats and in culled animals. under experimental conditions the inhibitory activity was shown in the serum in a goat infected during gestation and in two animals infected when treat ...19872827558
caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection of goats in south australia.caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) infection of dairy goats was shown by virus isolation and serology to be widespread in south australia. caev was isolated at necropsy from 24 of 27 dairy goats with swollen joints from 13 herds, and from 9 of 30 liver dairy goats in 7 herds. virus was isolated most frequently from synovial membranes, and occasionally from mammary glands, mammary lymph nodes, choroid plexus, lungs, spleen, bone marrow, salivary glands, leucocytes, synovial fluid and mil ...19872827619
lentivirus-host interactions: lessons from visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses.the biological properties of the ruminant animal lentiviruses, visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses, closely resemble those of their human counterparts, the human immunodeficiency viruses (hiv). all of these viruses are morphologically identical and are disseminated from host to host in nature during exchange of body fluids. artificial conditions that favor excess exchange of such fluids precipitate epidemics by these viruses. the strategy of replication of the animal viruses in tiss ...19882831808
sialic acids on the surface of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus define the biological properties of the virus.the lentivirus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) is a pathogen of goats. it is transmitted in milk and causes a persistent infection in goats, which often fail to produce neutralizing antibodies to the virus. native caev particles are remarkably resistant to digestion with proteinase k and are neutralized extremely slowly by immune sera. our studies showed that the virus particles are heavily sialylated. studies with highly specific sialyltransferase enzymes identified penultimate carb ...19882835502
chronic disease in goats orally infected with two isolates of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus.newborn saanen goats were orally infected with two distinct biologically cloned isolates of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus (caev), designated caev(63) (crawford tb, adams ds, cheevers wp, cork lc: science 207:997, 1980) and caev (co) (cork lc, hadlow wj, crawford tb, gorham jr, piper rc: j infect dis 129:134, 1974; narayan o, clements je, strandberg jd, cork lc, griffin de: j gen virol 50:69, 1980). all infected goats seroconverted for antibodies to caev, and there were no serolog ...19882835548
increased macrophage division in the synovial fluid of goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.macrophages are a major component of the arthritic lesions induced by the lentivirus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev). using autoradiography and the appearance of mitotic figures to detect dividing macrophages, we found that 2.1% +/- 0.2% of synovial fluid macrophages from uninfected goats are dividing and that after infection with caev the percentage increases three- to sixfold. the enhanced macrophage division was not associated with increased dividing of blood monoblasts. the amoun ...19882836521
[caprine enzootic arthritis-encephalitis in france: epidemiological and experimental studies].in an epidemiological study on caev-induced caprine arthritis, the elisa carried out on mixed sera appeared to be an efficient pointer to viral articular pathology in flocks; the breed and origin of goats, the selection of flocks with high milk production proved to be factors which favour viral arthritis, the serological diagnosis of which remains a flock diagnosis. in addition, in an experimental infection, only one type ii caprine strain induced significant cases of arthritis; the disease coul ...19882838219
development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.because relatively few caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev)-infected animals exhibit clinical signs of illness, efforts to control and eradicate this virus will depend heavily on a sensitive diagnostic test that can be easily carried out. the currently utilized tests are of limited usefulness because of relatively low sensitivity or because of incomplete cross-reactivity of goat sera with heterologous test antigens. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with purified caev antigen a ...19882838510
effects of infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus on milk production in goats.a recently assembled commercial herd of alpine goats was studied. milk production criteria--305-day milk production (m), butter fat content (bf), and solids nonfat content (snf)--and somatic cell counts (linear score) were monitored by dairy herd improvement association test records. milk samples from all milking goats in the herd were obtained for bacteriologic culture for mastitis organisms on 2 occasions; the infection rate ascribed to major pathogens was 3%. in november 1985, serum specimens ...19882843492
comparison of caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses from goats with arthritis and goats with chronic interstitial pneumonia. 19882847700
enzootic ataxia and caprine arthritis/encephalitis virus infection in a new england goat herd [corrected].ataxia was diagnosed in kids from a new england goat herd. concurrent infection with the caprine arthritis/encephalitis (cae) virus contributed to the development of hind limb ataxia and weakness in one of the kids. six kids from this herd had signs of hind limb ataxia and paralysis. detailed evaluation of 2 of the affected kids revealed low liver and serum copper concentrations and spinal cord demyelination. one kid also had histologic changes in the cns and lungs, compatible with a diagnosis o ...19882849600
hyaluronidase enhances cell fusion and synthesis of viral dna during infection with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) is a lentivirus which infects goats and causes chronic progressive arthritis after a prolonged incubation period. caev replicates productively in cultures of goat synovial membrane cells and causes cytopathic effects characterized by multinucleated giant cell formation. the enzyme hyaluronidase was found to accelerate this virus induced fusion of gsm cells. hyaluronidase treatment also resulted in synthesis of increased levels of unintegrated viral dna ...19882854188
molecular cloning of feline immunodeficiency virus.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) is a t-lymphotropic retrovirus associated with immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in cats. the discovery of fiv provides an opportunity for the development of a small animal model for aids. to initiate the molecular and biological characterization of fiv, cdna clones were synthesized and used to isolate a proviral clone of fiv. molecular cross-hybridization analysis of fiv with five lentiviruses revealed that nucleotide-sequence similarities exist b ...19892928341
infection of lambs with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus by feeding milk from infected goats. 19852983483
molecular cloning of integrated caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.a full-length dna clone of the exogenous retrovirus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev), was isolated from high molecular weight dna of caev-infected himalayan tahr ovary cells. although other restriction maps of caev have been published, this is the first time that the proviral dna has been cloned. the restriction enzyme map of the clone was determined and found to be identical to that of unintegrated linear caev dna except for the presence of cellular flanking sequences. these finding ...19852992157
rev-like transcripts of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.the pattern of expression of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus genome (caev) in acutely infected tahr lung cells was found to be complex and temporally regulated. employing northern analysis, five caev-specific transcripts, 9, 6.5, 5.0, 2.5, and 1.4 kb, were detected. nucleotide sequence analysis established the genetic structure of two species of cdna, isolated from a library of caev-infected tahr cells, and suggested that they represent rev-like transcripts. one of these cdna species wa ...19911649509
defective viral particles in caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection.attempts to isolate full-length unintegrated circular forms of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) genome yielded only a large number of molecules with deletions. the 3' borders of most of these deletions were near the u3 region of the long terminal repeat whereas the 5' edges were found at various upstream sites within pol or env. with one exception, gag sequences were always present. analysis of molecular clones derived from integrated proviral caev genomes from the same infected c ...19921318611
human t-cell lymphotropic virus type iii shares sequence homology with a family of pathogenic lentiviruses.the etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, human t-cell lymphotropic virus type iii (htlv-iii), has recently been shown to morphologically resemble and share sequence homology with visna virus, a pathogenic lentivirus. molecular hybridization, heteroduplex mapping, and dna sequence analyses were used to compare htlv-iii to other lentiviruses of domestic animals, including visna, caprine arthritis encephalitis, and equine infectious anemia viruses. hybridization results showe ...19862424014
infection of monocyte/macrophages by human t lymphotropic virus type iii.normal blood-derived monocyte/macrophages were found to be susceptible to infection in vitro by human t lymphotropic virus type iii (htlv-iii), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. in addition, htlv-iii was recovered from monocyte/macrophages of patients infected with this virus. the above findings raise the possibility that htlv-iii-infected monocyte/macrophages may serve as a vehicle for the dissemination of virus to target organs and as a reservoir for viral persiste ...19862422213
comparative features of retroviral infections of livestock.retroviral infections of livestock have become of increasing importance due to their usefulness as comparative models for human retroviral infections and their effects upon animal health and marketability of animals and animal products nationally and internationally. this paper presents a perspective on the retroviruses of economic concern in veterinary medicine with emphasis on the importance of understanding the modes of virus transmission and the species specificity of the viruses. the retrov ...19901963391
nucleotide sequence evidence for relationship of aids retrovirus to lentiviruses.lentiviruses are a subfamily of retroviruses which have been aetiologically linked to the induction of arthritis, encephalitis, progressive pneumonia and slow neurological diseases in certain species. relatively little is known about their genome structure, mechanisms of pathogenesis or evolutionary relationships with other retroviral subfamilies. in an effort to understand better the mechanisms by which these viruses induce such a variety of chronic diseases, we have molecularly cloned and phys ...19852995822
characteristics of cell fusion induced by a caprine retrovirus.the mechanism of cell-fusion induced by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was investigated. following infection with concentrated caev, cell fusion occurred prior to the production of infectious progeny virus. the time of initial detection of cell fusion was dependent on the multiplicity of infection and was not detected until 5 hours after infection. the virus-induced cell fusion was only partially inhibited by ultraviolet irradiation of the virus and was not inhibited by cytosine ara ...19852998302
isolation and identification of a south african lentivirus from jaagsiekte lungs.in the course of attempts to grow the jaagsiekte retrovirus in cell culture, a typical lentivirus was isolated for the first time in south africa from adenomatous lungs. morphologically the virus could not be distinguished from other lentiviruses, but serologically it was shown to be more closely related to visna virus than to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. however, a preliminary restriction enzyme analysis of the linear proviral dna of this new lentivirus (sa-dmvv) revealed that it is si ...19863008059
acute arthritis in caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus challenge exposure of vaccinated or persistently infected goats.goats vaccinated with inactivated caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) developed more severe arthritis after infectious caev challenge exposure than did goats vaccinated with tissue culture medium. arthritis also developed more rapidly in the group vaccinated with inactivated virus. in another experiment, goats with persistent caev infection developed acute arthritis after at least 2 injections of infectious caev at monthly intervals. in this experiment, the control group consisted of goa ...19863008599
sequence homology between cloned caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and visna virus, two neurotropic lentiviruses.caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (caev) is an exogenous, nononcogenic retrovirus which causes neurological disease and crippling arthritis in goats. a complete caev genome was cloned from unintegrated viral dna in two fragments of 9.4 and 0.4 kilobases in length, respectively. the biological activity of these clones was tested by ligation of the fragments followed by transfection onto goat synovial membrane cells; infectious virus was recovered. cloned caev and visna virus, a related neurotr ...19863009878
the gp135 of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus affords greater sensitivity than the p28 in immunodiffusion serology.the 135,000 mw glycoprotein (gp135) and the 28,000 mw internal protein (p28) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus are major viral constituents in precipitin lines formed between crude antigen preparations and sera from infected goats. in testing 307 goat and sheep sera, 118 samples were positive in a gp135 assay and only 82 were positive in a p28 assay. however, some goat sera were found which reacted only with the p28 and therefore testing for antibody against both proteins may be necessary ...19863010411
serological surveillance for maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in northern ireland.the results of serological testing for maedi-visna virus infection in indigenous and non-indigenous sheep in northern ireland, over a five year period (1980 to 1984) are presented. in tests carried out in 1980 and 1981 on pedigree breeds, 10 reactors were identified on seven farms and maedi-visna virus was isolated on three occasions from leucocyte cultures. none of the animals showed clinical signs of maedi-visna and all the reactors were subsequently destroyed. nine of the reactors were import ...19863010539
nucleotide sequence and transcriptional activity of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus long terminal repeat.caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) and visna virus are pathogenic lentiviruses of goats and sheep which share morphologic features and sequence homology with human t-cell lymphotropic virus type iii (htlv-iii), the etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. the nucleotide sequence of the caev long terminal repeat (ltr) was determined, and it was found to be 450 base pairs long, with u3, r, and u5 regions of 287, 85, and 78 base pairs, respectively. portions of the caev ...19863021973
caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection: from recognition to eradication. 19863024611
the effect of colostrum-derived antibody on neo-natal transmission of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection.two groups of 6 newborn goat kids were artificially fed colostrum containing antibody to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (cae) virus, obtained from clinically affected does. kids in group a were fed the colostrum from birth until 7 days of age, while kids in group b were fed colostrum from 1 to 3 days after birth for 7 days. kids were fed cow's milk at all other times. serum antibody resulting from the consumption of colostrum, detected by agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) tests, lasted for up to 8 ...19863024612
caprine retrovirus infection in new south wales: virus isolations, clinical and histopathological findings and prevalence of antibody.caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was isolated by explant cultures of carpal synovial membranes and lung from 7 goats in new south wales. these goats were clinically affected with the arthritic, neurologic, and pneumonic forms of caev infection either singly or in combination. caev antibody was detected by the gel immunodiffusion precipitin (gdp) test in 5 of the 7 goats. serum samples from 2,708 goats, from 115 herds, were examined for caev antibody using the gdp test. approximately o ...19863024613
comparison of two gel diffusion precipitin tests in the serodiagnosis of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection in goats. 19863026297
serologic prevalence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in california goat dairies.fifty-three percent of goats in 13 california goat dairies had antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev), as determined by agar-gel immunodiffusion. those goat dairies that reared kids on pasteurized milk had a lower seroprevalence than those that did not. age, rearing kids on unpasteurized milk, and the presence of large joints were associated with antibodies to caev. breed was associated with seroreactivity, but the association was confounded by other factors. sex was not assoc ...19873029000
pathogenesis of visna/maedi and caprine arthritis-encephalitis: new leads on the mechanism of restricted virus replication and persistent inflammation.lentiviruses are unique retroviruses which cause diseases with long incubation periods and prolonged clinical courses. the prototype lentiviruses, visna/maedi of sheep and arthritis-encephalitis virus of goats (caev), infect cells of the monocyte-macrophage system and replicate at a restricted level in these cells. the virus life cycle is closely associated with maturational factors in the cells; monocytes support the early stages of the replication cycle which goes to completion only when the c ...19873039719
caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus: an efficient method for the large scale production of serological antigens.caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) was grown on a large scale in lamb corneal cell cultures. antigens for use in two different caev agar gel immuno-diffusion tests were prepared from the same culture fluid. these antigens were separated on the basis of size by membrane filtration.19873117827
evidence for linkage between the caprine leucocyte antigen (cla) system and susceptibility to cae virus-induced arthritis in goats.the distribution of caprine leucocyte antigens (cla) in goats from four different breeds (n = 546) affected by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev)-induced arthritis were determined and compared breed for breed with those of infected but clinically healthy controls (n = 402). differences in frequencies of some of the cla specificities between the affected and control groups were found, but after correction of the ordinary p values for number of observed alleles, only the cla be7 specifici ...19883169879
antiviral, anti-glycoprotein and neutralizing antibodies in foals with equine infectious anaemia virus.equine infectious anaemia virus is related by genome sequence homology to human immunodeficiency virus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and visna virus. failure of the host to mount a strong neutralizing response detectable in vitro or to eliminate persistent infection in vivo characterizes lentivirus infections in the natural host. in this study the specificities and neutralizing activity of antibodies induced during experimental infection with equine infectious anaemia virus were investig ...19883351480
precursor polypeptides of caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus structural proteins.the synthesis of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus structural proteins was analysed in infected cells labelled with [35s]methionine and [3h]glucosamine and by translation of virion rna in vitro. viral polypeptides were isolated from infected cell lysates or from in vitro translation products by immunoprecipitation with specific antisera and resolved by sds-page. results indicated that the gag gene-encoded p28, p19 and p16 virion core proteins were formed by cleavage processing of a 55k mr pre ...19883351481
virus-specific polypeptides of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus recognized by monoclonal antibodies to virion proteins p24 and p14.the proteins of an isolate of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev) were analysed by sds-page and western blotting. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) produced to the main core protein p24 and the small structural protein p14 also recognized two major polypeptides of mr 41k and 55k in infected cell material, consistent with a precursor role for these gag polypeptides. in addition, the p24 mabs detected a 33k polypeptide in extracellular virus preparations, while the p14 mabs reacted strongly wit ...19883373182
the pathology and aetiology of lung lesions in goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.fifty dairy goats, of various ages, sexes and breeds were selected for examination on the basis of positive serological reactions to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (caev). thirty-one had lung lesions including chronic interstitial pneumonia of caudal or cranioventral lobes, bronchopneumonia, verminous pneumonia, pulmonary cryptococcosis or combinations of these. the only infective agent recovered from all the chronic interstitial pneumonia cases examined was caev, which was also recovered ...19883401145
the immune response to viral antigens as a determinant of arthritis in caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection.evidence is reviewed which indicates that caev persists in infected goats with variable and restricted expression. immunosuppression prevents the lesions caused by caev. arthritis is enhanced in caev-challenged goats that have been immunized with inactivated caev or are persistently infected with caev. a large part of the synovial fluid immunoglobulin is antibody against virion surface glycoproteins. these observations support the hypothesis that the immune response to viral antigens is a major ...19873433669
molecular cloning and physical characterization of integrated equine infectious anemia virus: molecular and immunologic evidence of its close relationship to ovine and caprine lentiviruses.molecular clones of the integrated form of the genome of equine infectious anemia virus (eiav), the etiologic agent of a naturally occurring, worldwide disease of horses, were obtained. the restriction map of a full-length genome was determined. additional evidence for the close evolutionary relationship between eiav and a prototype lentivirus (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) was acquired by southern blotting and immunological analyses. an interspecies radioimmunoassay was developed in whi ...19863750842
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