experimental hazara virus infection in mice.reproduction of hazara virus in intracerebrally (ic) inoculated newborn white mice was studied by virological, serological and histological methods, electron microscopy and the direct fluorescent antibody technique. in the course of infection the virus was detectable in the blood, brain and some viscera, the largest amounts of virus occurring in the brain and liver. pathomorphological lesions were localized in the brain and consisted of foci of neuronal destruction and marked oedema of the tissu ...197717280
a comparative study of the crimean hemorrhagic fever-congo group of viruses.twelve strains of the crimean hemorrhagic fever (chf)-congo group of viruses the bunyaviridae family were investigated with respect to sensitivity to lipid solvents and temperature, pathogenicity for animals, interactions with cell cultures and antigenic relationships. complement fixation, agar gel diffusion and precipitation, immunofluorescence and neutralization tests showed hazara virus to have a number of features distinguishing it from the other antigenic type of the chf-congo group.197994536
ticks associated with macquarie island penguins carry arboviruses from four genera.macquarie island, a small subantarctic island, is home to rockhopper, royal and king penguins, which are often infested with the globally distributed seabird tick, ixodes uriae. a flavivirus, an orbivirus, a phlebovirus, and a nairovirus were isolated from these ticks and partial sequences obtained. the flavivirus was nearly identical to gadgets gully virus, isolated some 30 year previously, illustrating the remarkable genetic stability of this virus. the nearest relative to the orbivirus (for w ...200919194498
inhibition of hazara nairovirus replication by small interfering rnas and their combination with ribavirin.abstract: background: the genus nairovirus in the family bunyaviridae contains 34 tick-borne viruses classified into seven serogroups. hazara virus (hazv) belongs to the crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) serogroup that also includes cchf virus (cchfv) a major pathogen for humans. hazv is an interesting model to study cchfv due to a close serological and phylogenetical relationship and a classification which allows handling in a bsl2 laboratory. nairoviruses are characterized by a tripartite ...201121600011
the crystal structure of the hazara virus nucleocapsid protein.hazara virus (hazv) is a member of the bunyaviridae family of segmented negative stranded rna viruses, and shares the same serogroup as crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv). cchfv is responsible for fatal human disease with a mortality rate approaching 30 %, which has an increased recent incidence within southern europe. there are no preventative or therapeutic treatments for cchfv-mediated disease, and thus cchfv is classified as a hazard group 4 pathogen. in contrast hazv is not asso ...201526715309
tofla virus: a newly identified nairovirus of the crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever group isolated from ticks in japan.ixodid ticks transmit several important viral pathogens. we isolated a new virus (tofla virus: tflv) from heamaphysalis flava and heamaphysalis formsensis in japan. the full-genome sequences revealed that tflv belonged to the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae. phylogenetic analyses and neutralization tests suggested that tflv is closely related to the hazara virus and that it is classified into the crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever group. tflv caused lethal infection in ifnar ko mice. the tflv ...201626863911
genetic characterization of erve virus, a european nairovirus distantly related to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.erve virus (ervev) is a european nairovirus that is suspected to cause severe headache (thunderclap headache) and intracerebral hemorrhage. the mode of transmission to humans (ticks or mosquitoes) is still unknown. currently, no standardized testing method for ervev exists and only a small partial sequence of the polymerase gene is available. here, we present the first complete genome sequence of ervev s, m, and l segments. phylogenetic comparison of the amino acid sequence of the l-protein (rna ...201222864548
tick-borne viruses of west pakistan. ii. hazara virus, a new agent isolated from ixodes redikorzevi ticks from the kaghan valley, w. pakistan. 19705458947
modulation of potassium channels inhibits bunyavirus infection.bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare, and economics. there are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus inf ...201626677217
Hazara virus infection is lethal for adult type I interferon receptor-knockout mice and may act as a surrogate for infection with the human pathogenic Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus.Hazara virus (HAZV) is closely related to Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV). HAZV has not been reported to cause human disease; work with infectious material can be carried out at containment level (CL)-2. By contrast, CCHFV causes a haemorrhagic fever in humans and requires CL-4 facilities. A disease model of HAZV infection in mice deficient in the type I interferon receptor is reported in this study. Dose response effects were seen, with higher doses resulting in a shorter time to ...201122090213
development of a one step real time rt-pcr assay to detect and quantify dugbe virus.a one-step real time quantitative rt-pcr (qrt-pcr) assay was developed to detect all published dugbe virus (dugv) genomes of the nairovirus genus. primers and probes were designed to detect specific sequences on the most conserved regions of the s segment. the limit of detection of the assay was 10 copies per reaction which is an improvement of 3 log(10)ffu/ml over the sensitivity of conventional rt-pcr. the specificity of the primers and probe was confirmed with the closely related nairoviruses ...201121703306
nairovirus rna sequences expressed by a semliki forest virus replicon induce rna interference in tick cells.we report the successful infection of the cell line ise6 derived from ixodes scapularis tick embryos by the tick-borne hazara virus (hazv), a nairovirus in the family bunyaviridae. using a recombinant semliki forest alphavirus replicon that replicates in these cells, we were able to inhibit replication of hazv, and we showed that this blockage is mediated by the replication of the semliki forest alphavirus replicon; the vector containing the hazv nucleoprotein gene in sense or antisense orientat ...200515994788
detection of human antibodies to crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus using expressed viral nucleocapsid protein.diagnosis of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus infections is hampered by the problems of handling this human pathogen, which requires the highest levels of biological containment. recombinant antigens were examined for their potential as non-hazardous diagnostic reagents. the nucleocapsid (n) gene of the greek ap92 isolate of cchf virus was sequenced from cloned pcr products and the open reading frame was identified by homology to the n protein of a chinese isolate of cchf virus. the ...19948077915
nairobi sheep disease virus, an important tick-borne pathogen of sheep and goats in africa, is also present in asia.nairobi sheep disease (nsd) virus is the prototype of the tick-borne nsd serogroup, genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae. it is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats, causes disease in humans, and is widespread throughout east africa. ganjam virus has caused disease in goats and humans in india. due to their occurrence on different continents and association with different ticks, these viruses were considered distinct despite serologic cross-reactivity. their s rna genome segments and encoded n ...200212482666
preparation and use of monoclonal antibodies for identifying crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever monoclonal antibodies were prepared against a south african strain of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus and were found to be directed against viral nucleocapsid protein. five of the monoclonal antibodies reacted to high titer in indirect immunofluorescence (if) tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) with 22 strains of cchf virus and failed to cross-react with the closest antigenic relative of cchf, hazara virus, or with 4 other nairoviruses which need to be disting ...19873116871
[taxonomy of previously unclassified tamdy virus (tamv) (bunyaviridae, nairovirus) isolated from the hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum schülce et schlottke, 1929 (ixodidae, hyalomminae) in the middle east and transcaucasia].complete genome sequencing of three tamdy (tamv) virus strains was carried out. the prototype strain tamv/leiv-1308uz was isolated for the very first time from the hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum schülce et schlottke, 1929 (ixodidae, hyalomminae) collected in the august 1971 from sheep in the arid area near namdybulak town (41 degrees 36' n, 64 degrees 39' e) in the tamdinsky district of the bukhara region (uzbekistan). tamv was revealed to be a prototype member of the new phylogenetic group within ...201625069280
[characteristics of the monoclonal antibodies induced by the crimean hemorrhagic fever virus].twelve lines of hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (mca) have been generated by fusion of spleen lymphocytes of balb/c mice immunized with crude crimean hemorrhagic fever virus (chf). the hybridomas multiply actively in vitro (over 50 passages) and as ascitic tumors in the abdominal cavity of balb/c mice. mca were characterized by indirect immunofluorescence (if), complement fixation (cf), biological neutralization test (nt), agar gel diffuse precipitation tests, and by the type of immun ...19892503939
structural and functional diversity of nairovirus-encoded nucleoproteins.the nairoviruses include assorted tick-borne bunyaviruses that are emerging as causative agents of infectious diseases among humans and animals. as negative-sense single-stranded rna (-ssrna) viruses, nairoviruses encode nucleoprotein (np) that encapsidates the genomic rna and further forms ribonucleoprotein (rnp) complex with viral rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp). we previously revealed that the monomeric np encoded by crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) presents a racket-shaped s ...201526246561
protective role of host aquaporin 6 against hazara virus, a model for crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes infectious disease with severe hemorrhagic manifestations in vascular system in humans. the proper function of the cells in the vascular system is critically regulated by aquaporins (aqp), water channels that facilitate fluxes of water and small solutes across membranes. with hazara virus as a model for cchfv, we investigated the effects of viruses on aqp6 and the impact of aqp6 on virus infectivity in host ...201626976854
heat shock protein 70 family members interact with crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and hazara virus nucleocapsid proteins and perform a functional role in the nairovirus replication cycle.the nairovirus genus of the bunyaviridae family contains serious human and animal pathogens classified within multiple serogroups and species. of these serogroups, the crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) serogroup comprises sole members cchfv and hazara virus (hazv). cchfv is an emerging zoonotic virus that causes often-fatal hemorrhagic fever in infected humans for which preventative or therapeutic strategies are not available. in contrast, hazv is nonpathogenic to humans and thus rep ...201627512070
structural polypeptides of hazara virus.four structural polypeptides of hazara virus, an agent closely related to the crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (c-chf) viruses, were resolved by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. three glycoproteins were identified (mol. wt. 84,000, 45,000 and 30,000) and were found to be associated with the virion envelope. a fourth polypeptide (mol. wt. 52,000) was non-glycosylated and associated with the nucleocapsid. the structural proteins of hazara virus differ markedly from those reported for other ...19817276913
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