a trypsin-like serine protease activity on activated human b cells and various b cell lines.we have studied the trypsin-like serine protease activity of human tonsillar b lymphocytes. the lysate of the low-density, in vivo activated b cells as well as the lysate of cells stimulated with anti-human igm f(ab')2 show elevated trypsin-like serine protease activity compared to the resting subset as monitored by the cleavage of tos-gly-pro-arg-pna. the cleavage is sensitive to n-tosyl-l-lysyl-chloromethyl ketone and benzamidine but not to iodoacetamide. experiments with intact cells give sim ...19921396962
sandfly fever among swedish tourists.all clinical and serologically confirmed cases of sandfly fever among swedish tourists during 1986-1989 were investigated. a total of 37 cases of sicilian virus sandfly fever and 1 case of naples virus sandfly fever were recorded from cyprus. one case of toscana virus infection was documented from spain. the clinical and laboratory findings did not differ from those in previous reports, except for elevated aminotransferase levels. a questionnaire, that offered a possibility to estimate the numbe ...19911659738
sequences and coding strategies of the s rnas of toscana and rift valley fever viruses compared to those of punta toro, sicilian sandfly fever, and uukuniemi viruses.the sequences and coding strategies of the s rnas of two viruses, toscana (tos) and the m12 derivative of rift valley fever zh-548 (rvf, phlebovirus genus, bunyaviridae) have been determined from cdna clones and compared to the previously published sequences of punta toro (pt), sandfly fever sicilian (sfs), and uukuniemi (uuk) viruses. all five viruses exhibit an ambisense coding strategy for their small (s) rna species, i.e., one gene product (the nss protein) is encoded in the 5' half of the v ...19911846496
central nervous system involvement during infection by phlebovirus toscana of residents in natural foci in central italy (1977-1988).central nervous system (cns) involvement was detected during infection caused by the sand fly-transmitted phlebovirus toscana. one hundred fifty-five cases of toscana virus-associated meningitis or meningoencephalitis were identified in a survey that lasted ten years, conducted in two regions of central italy. diagnosis was performed by different serologic tests. a combination of hemagglutination-inhibition and plaque-reduction neutralization or indirect immunofluorescence for igm, and enzyme-li ...19911951851
development of an enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the sand fly fever viruses enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa) was recently established for the detection of sandfly naples and sicilian viruses (sfn and sfs) from laboratory infected as well as wild caught sandflies in egypt. optimal dilutions of the reactants including the coating antibodies (rabbit antiserum), detecting antibodies (mouse antiserum), conjugate and the time used for incubation of the substrate (abts) were determined for both sfn and sfs viruses. the elisa test showed to be highly specific and se ...19892562441
neurovirulent toscana virus (a sandfly fever virus) in swedish man after visit to portugal. 19852860406
toscana virus infection in united states citizen returning from italy. 19872880004
transmission of toscana virus by sandflies in italy. 19872882214
[virus transmission to man from phlebotomus flies: role of the tuscany virus (bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) in the etiology of infections of the central nervous system].during field studies on the ecology of arboviruses in italy, strains of a new virus were isolated from sand flies, mostly females, of a pure colony of phlebotomus perniciosus collected in a central italian region (tuscany). the prototype was named toscana (tos) virus, assigned to the phlebotomus fever serogroup of arboviruses (family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus) and registered in 1980 in the international catalogue of arboviruses. neutralizing antibodies to tos virus were detected in human s ...19883152279
growth of the phlebovirus toscana in a mosquito (aedes pseudoscutellaris) cell line (ap-61): establishment of a persistent infection.toscana virus, a sandfly-associated phlebovirus, was adapted to grow in cultured aedes pseudoscutellaris (ap-61) mosquito cell line. no evidence of virus growth was seen after primary infection of cell monolayers under maintenance conditions. on the contrary, persistent infections were established by subculturing infected cultures. cytopathic effect was never observed. significant titres of virus (10(3)-10(5) pfu/ml), as assayed in vero cells at 37 degrees c, were released from persistent infect ...19854015410
antigenic and biological characterization of toscana virus, a new phlebotomus fever group virus isolated in italy.toscana (tos) virus, a new member of the phlebotomus fever serogroup of arboviruses, was isolated from sandflies collected in italy. it was shown to be closely related to sandfly fever naples (sfn) virus. the antigenic relationships between the two viruses were analysed in the complement fixation (cf), plaque reduction neutralization (prn) and indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) tests. tos virus multiplied to high titres with a cytopathic effect (cpe) in several vertebrate cell cultures (e.g. ve ...19846143496
establishment and maintenance of persistent infection by the phlebovirus toscana in vero cells.persistent infections were established by serial undiluted passages of the toscana virus of the genus phlebovirus in vero cells. persistence was maintained through more than 70 passages over a period of 2 years. the persistently infected cells were morphologically similar to the parental vero cells and released variable amounts of infectious virus. a small percentage of the persistently infected cells produced infectious virus while a larger percentage was shown to possess viral antigens by fluo ...19846693858
[characteristics of toscana virus growth and persistent infection in a cell line]. 19826765076
[ecological and epidemiological studies of toscana virus, an arbovirus isolated from phlebotomus]. 19827187828
serosurvey and laboratory diagnosis of imported sandfly fever virus, serotype toscana, infection in germany.of eight acute infections in german tourists caused by sandfly fever virus, serotype toscana (tos), and diagnosed clinically and serologically, seven were acquired during visits to tuscany, italy, and one to coimbra, portugal. an indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using infected cells, and a newly developed enzyme-immunoassay (eia) using crude virus antigen prepared from infected vero-e6 cells was used to detect anti-tos igm and igg. in a seroepidemiological survey of 859 health care worker ...19957781738
travel-related toscana virus infection. 19938103888
separation and partial characterization of proteinases with substrate specificity for basic amino acids from human molt-4 t lymphocytes: identification of those inhibited by variable-loop-v3 peptides of hiv-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-1) envelope glycoprotein.the v3 loop of the hiv (human immunodeficiency virus)-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 likely plays a role in hiv-1 infectivity. although the amino acid sequence of the v3 loop is hypervariable, it contains a conserved region, gly-pro-gly-arg, that shows similarity to the active-site gly-pro-cys-arg sequence of inter-alpha-trypsin and trypstatin proteinase inhibitors. the purpose of the present work was to identify proteinases recognizing substrates with basic amino acids in the p1 substrate site t ...19938318003
vertical transmission of toscana virus in the sandfly, phlebotomus perniciosus, via the second gonotrophic cycle. 19938369564
toscana virus genomic l segment: molecular cloning, coding strategy and amino acid sequence in comparison with other negative strand rna viruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of toscana (tos) virus (bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) l segment was determined. the l segment is 6404 nucleotides long, containing a single open reading frame (orf) in the viral complementary sense coding for a protein of 2095 amino acids that, as in the case of negative strand rna viruses, could be part of the rna polymerase of tos virus. this orf is expressed by a messenger rna (mrna) as long as the genomic segment. like the mrnas expressed by the genomic segments ...19938460526
aseptic meningitis caused by sandfly fever virus, serotype toscana.sandfly fever virus, serotype toscana (tos), is endemic in some mediterranean countries and causes sandfly fever (pappataci fever). in some patients, tos may cause meningitis and meningoencephalitis. we report on two german adults returning from italy with tos-related meningitis, complicated in one case by abducens nerve palsy. tos infection should be considered as a cause of acute central nervous system disorders in patients returning from areas of endemicity.19958527565
nested rt-pcr for detection of sandfly fever virus, serotype toscana, in clinical specimens, with confirmation by nucleotide sequence analysis.a single tube, reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was developed and evaluated for detecting a 400-bp product of the small rna of sandfly fever virus, serotype toscana (tos). for more sensitive detection of genomic tos rna, a nested pcr amplifying a 243-bp cdna within the rt-pcr product was established. nucleotide sequence analysis of first- and second-round pcr products using the dideoxy cycle sequencing technique confirmed a previously published sequence of the tos referen ...19958578009
sandfly fever viruses in italy.two serologically distinct agents, the sandfly fever sicilian and the sandfly fever naples viruses, were isolated by sabin from blood samples taken during an italian epidemic of febrile illness. since then, several different viruses have been isolated from sandflies and/or humans in both the old and new world. toscana virus, a new virus closely antigenically related to sandfly fever naples virus, was isolated in 1971 from the sandfly phlebotomus perniciosus in italy. extensive studies on the imp ...19968800804
rapid identification of toscana virus by nested pcr during an outbreak in the siena area of italy.the sand fly-transmitted toscana virus is recognized as an etiologic agent of an aseptic meningitis with a long convalescence. this infection has been reported overall in many tourists or in a seronegative population circulating in endemic mediterranean areas (italy, portugal, egypt, and cyprus). we report a cluster of acute toscana virus infections in the local population during the summer of 1995. twenty-one clinical cases of meningitis were investigated for the presence of toscana virus by ne ...19968880508
immunoblot detection of antibodies to toscana virus.sera from patients with sandfly fever caused by toscana virus (tosv) infection were tested by immunoblot for specific antibody response to tosv derived from infected vero-e6 cells. the 28 kda tosv nucleoprotein (n) was identified as the major immunodominant protein recognized by immunoblot. in sera of patients with acute tosv infection, specific antibodies of the igm, iga, and igg class were detected. using sandfly fever virus, serotypes sicilian (sfsv) and naples (sfnv), as antigens for immunob ...19968991940
toscana virus infection in german travellers returning from the mediterranean. 19979334873
toscana virus infections of the central nervous system in children: a report of 14 evaluate the pathogenicity of a recently discovered arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus (toscana virus) on the cns in children and to provide information on the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of toscana virus infection.19989470016
evidence of toscana virus variants circulating in tuscany, italy, during the summers of 1995 to 1997.the toscana virus can cause neurological infection in adults. this study of 112 cases of acute meningitis which occurred during the summers of 1995, 1996, and 1997 demonstrated the presence of viral rna in the cerebrospinal fluid of 56 patients. their sequence analysis shows four variants of the toscana virus.19989650974
characterization of toscana virus-defective interfering particles generated in vivo.toscana (tos) virus stocks strongly interfering with standard virus replication were obtained by sequential passages of virus in suckling mouse brain. characterization of viral rnas in these stocks showed the presence of a heterogeneous population of defective rna molecules derived from the l genomic segment, in both nucleocapsid (nc) and messenger rnas, suggesting that these molecules could be replicated, assembled, and transcribed. subgenomic rnas from the l segment but not from the s or m seg ...19989657000
infections due to sandfly fever virus serotype toscana in spain.of the sandfly fever viruses known to be human pathogens (serotypes toscana [tos], sicilian [sfs], and naples [sfn]), only tos has demonstrated neurotropic activity. infections by tos have been reported in mediterranean countries, but the virus was previously isolated only in italy and portugal. we isolated 15 strains of tos between 1988 and 1996 from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute aseptic meningitis in granada, spain. this finding led us to study the presence of antibodies to to ...19989770137
diagnostic potential of toscana virus n protein expressed in escherichia coli.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of the toscana (tos) virus was expressed in escherichia coli by using a pet15b vector. the recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography and was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and enzyme immunoassay (eia). the recombinant antigen was reactive with positive human sera, and the reactivity correlated very well (r = 0.9) with that of a whole-virus antigen when tested by eia with 30 tos virus-posit ...19989774559
humoral response in toscana virus acute neurologic disease investigated by viral-protein-specific immunoassays.the toscana virus (family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus) is the only sandfly-transmitted virus that demonstrates neurotropic activity. clinical cases ranging from aseptic meningitis to meningoencephalitis caused by toscana virus are yearly observed in central italy during the summer, and several cases have been reported among tourists returning from zones of endemicity (italy, portugal, spain, and cyprus). in toscana virus patients, immunoglobulin m (igm) antibodies, usually present at the ons ...19999874664
a recombinant toscana virus nucleoprotein in a diagnostic immunoblot test system.sandfly fever, a vector-borne disease endemic in the mediterranean region, is caused by toscana virus (tos). the disease is increasingly important as a travel-related infection. serological diagnosis is currently dependent on viral antigens derived from tos-infected cell cultures. in this study, we report the cloning and expression of the tos nucleoprotein (n) in escherichia coli and evaluation of the recombinant (r) tos n protein as an antigen for immunoblot assays. the tos n gene was amplified ...19989923017
laboratory diagnosis of toscana virus infection by enzyme immunoassay with recombinant viral nucleoprotein.a recombinant enzyme immunoassay (reia) to detect serum immunoglobulin m (igm) and igg to toscana virus (tosv) was developed with the aim of establishing a simple and easily available assay for diagnosing acute and/or previous infections. the reia, based on the recombinant nucleoprotein of tosv expressed in escherichia coli, was evaluated with 97 serum samples collected in an area where tosv is endemic and compared to an analogous assay based on cell-derived tosv. discordant results were resolve ...19999986827
phlebotomus-transmitted toscana virus infections of the central nervous system: a seven-year experience in tuscany.toscana virus (tosv) is a recently discovered phlebotomus-transmitted human pathogen involved in acute infections of the central nervous system (cns) occurring during the summer in natural foci in italy. the purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the role of this virus in 170 patients with meningitis-meningoencephalitis of suspected viral origin, admitted to the departments of infectious diseases at the siena hospital from 1990 to 1996. infections caused by tick-borne encephalitis ...199810066054
detection of toscana virus-specific immunoglobulins g and m by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant viral enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on the recombinant toscana virus nucleoprotein (rn) has been developed. its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of virus-specific immunoglobulins g and m in human sera were similar to those of the elisa that is based on an antigen extracted from infected mouse brain and that is routinely used for serodiagnosis.199910325365
immunological characterization of toscana virus proteins.the genome of toscana virus (bunyaviridae family, phlebovirus genus) consists of three single stranded rna segments (l, m, s), with negative polarity. the l and m segments contain a single orf in viral complementary sense and the s segment contains two orfs in "ambisense" orientation. the m segment codes for three proteins in 3'-5' genomic orientation: a 30 kda non structural protein and two 65 kda glycoproteins, gn, and gc. in this paper we report the expression in e. coli of the s segment orfs ...199910550668
detection of neurotropic viruses circulating in tuscany: the incisive role of toscana virus.acute meningitis is perhaps the most frequent among central nervous system infections. we report a study considering 277 cases of meningitis hospitalized in the southern tuscany area (italy) during the period from 1995 to 1998 investigated by tissue culture and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methods. the cytochemical analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid samples suggested the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, recognized as viral meningitis in 104 cases by detection of viral dna or rna. the results ...200010568768
neutralization of toscana virus is partially mediated by antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein.the envelope glycoproteins g1/g2 of toscana virus (tosv) seem to have the most important protective role in stimulating antibodies against the disease in humans, as well as antibodies against the nucleoprotein (n), a partial neutralizing activity. mice immunized with tosv recombinant nucleoprotein developed a strong humoral response to the tosv that revealed the presence of neutralizing antibody than in vitro assay. the neutralizing antibody titre of mice immunized with the whole tosv was analyz ...200111130891
activity of toscana and rift valley fever virus transcription complexes on heterologous templates.a transcription system for toscana virus (tosv) (a member of the family bunyaviridae:, genus phlebovirus:) was constructed. for in vivo expression, the tosv transcription system uses the viral n and l proteins and an s-like rna genome containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in the antisense orientation flanked by the viral genomic 5'- and 3'-terminal s sequences. it was found that the n and l proteins represent the minimal protein requirement for an active transcription co ...200111257182
encephalitis without meningitis due to sandfly fever virus serotype toscana.the role of toscana (tos) virus in producing encephalitis without meningitis is uncertain. we studied 2 cases of tos virus encephalitis without meningitis by means of nested polymerase chain reaction assay and dna sequencing. findings confirm that tos virus may directly cause encephalitis and suggest the usefulness of dna sequencing in investigating relationships between tos virus molecular patterns and the spectrum of neurological involvement.200111283818
fast duplex one-step rt-pcr for rapid differential diagnosis of entero- or toscana virus meningitis.acute meningitis is the most common neurologic disease that involves the central nervous system. the spectrum of infectious agents that cause neurologic infection is remarkably broad and numerous viruses are the most frequent cause of the aseptic meningitis syndrome. we applied a multiplex one-step method for the rapid detection of the genomic rna of different neurotropic viruses: particles in the genus enterovirus and toscana virus, which are the most representative aetiologic agents in our cou ...200212106953
stds and hiv / aids: a kap study among drug operators.this study presents the findings of a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey about sexually transmitted diseases (stds) and hiv/aids in rajasthan, india. data were obtained from 153 truck drivers covering "dhabas" at different highways. truck operators (tos), commercial sex workers (csws), and iv drug users are the primary at risk populations for hiv/aids. in 1997, 73.3% of the 3188 hiv-infected persons were infected through heterosexual intercourse. findings from tos indicate a high level ...199812348877
human antibody response to toscana virus glycoproteins expressed by recombinant baculovirus.the arthropod-borne toscana virus has been associated with acute neurological disease in humans. in this study, the viral envelope glycoproteins were expressed in soluble form in a baculovirus system. the recombinant sgn and sgc proteins were used as viral antigens in a western blot assay to analyze the specific immune response in sera from patients with recognized virus-associated aseptic meningitis. the anti-glycoprotein and the anti-nucleoprotein n igg responses were compared by an immunoassa ...200212376972
symptomatic infections by toscana virus in the modena province in the triennium 1999-2001.we report nine cases of clinical manifestations by toscana virus (tosv) diagnosed at the centre for the diagnosis of viral diseases of the university of modena and reggio emilia, in the inhabitants of modena province (emilia romagna region), in the triennium 1999-2001. tosv was involved in six cases of meningitis, two of meningoencephalitis and one case of febrile erythema without meningeal manifestations. six tosv-infected patients had stayed for a few days in a different area of the tuscany re ...200212437229
acute meningitis due to toscana virus infection among patients from both the spanish mediterranean region and the region of madrid.toscana virus (tosv) is a member of the genus phlebovirus that is transmitted to humans by two different species of sand fly and causes acute aseptic meningitis (aam) and meningoencephalitis in central italy. fifteen cases of aam due to tosv have been found at the spanish province of granada, but no data regarding the presence of tosv-related disease in other regions of spain have been still reported. a collection of 88 serum and 53 cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples taken from 81 selected patien ...200312589837
serological survey of toscana virus infections in a high-risk population in italy.toscana virus is the most important agent responsible for meningitis in central italy. we report a serosurveillance study, using an immunoenzymatic assay, of 360 serum samples harvested from a high-risk population occupationally exposed to toscana virus in two regions of italy, tuscany and piedmont. the results indicates a seroprevalence of toscana virus of 77.2% in the forestry workers, particularly in the tuscany region. this fact is strictly correlated with the ecological niches specific for ...200312738655
detection and identification of toscana and other phleboviruses by rt-nested-pcr assays with degenerated primers.phleboviruses are a large and widespread group of viruses that are transmitted by arthropods. toscana virus is one of the principal agents that causes meningitis in humans during the summer in italy and, possibly, in other mediterranean countries. rift valley fever virus can cause serious illness in both animals and humans, leading to high morbidity and mortality, and is considered to be a potential agent for epizootics and human epidemics. since information on this group of viruses is still sca ...200312858420
evidence of toscana virus circulation in umbria: first evaluate, for the first time, circulation and clinical expression of toscana virus (tosv) in umbria region we studied: (1) 93 cases of aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis admitted to our department from 1989 to 2001 with negative results for common neurotropic virus; (2) 50 healthy subjects. specific antibodies (igm and igg) anti-tosv were found in 36.6% of aseptic meningitis, in 6.06% of meningoencephalitis and (igg) in 16% of healthy subjects.200312889693
epidemiological, clinical and laboratory aspects of sandfly fever.sandfly fever viruses are still a significant health problem in many regions of the world, such as africa, the mediterranean basin, the middle east, and central asia. this review provides an update on the advances in knowledge about epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory aspects of infections caused by toscana, sicilian and naples viruses.200314501989
unusual presentation of life-threatening toscana virus meningoencephalitis.this case report describes a brother and a sister with severe meningoencephalitis caused by toscana virus (tosv). the clinical presentation was characterized by stiff neck, deep coma, maculopapular rash, diffuse lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, renal involvement, tendency to bleeding, and diffuse intravascular coagulation. the boy had epididymo-orchitis. recovery with neurologic sequelae as hydrocephalus was observed. microbiological diagnosis was obtained by serological tests and reverse tr ...200414765344
[meningitis by toscana virus in spain: description of 17 cases].we aimed to analyze the clinical and epidemiological data from the first series of patients with meningitis by toscana virus in spain.200415066251
sandfly fever due to toscana virus: an emerging infection in southern france.infections due to toscana virus (tosv) have been described in the mediterranean area, mainly in italy. we describe two cases of acute tosv infection in southern france, one aseptic meningitis and one influenza-like illness. to our knowledge, only one other case of tosv infection has been reported in this area.200415450990
development of a mouse model for the study of toscana virus pathogenesis.toscana virus (tosv) has recently been recognized as an emerging virus transmitted by phlebotomus vectors, responsible for acute neurological diseases in mediterranean countries. in our study, we demonstrated that adult balb/c mice were susceptible to tosv when infected intracerebrally (i.c.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a neuroadapted strain of the virus. we have shown that by performing serial passages of a wild type human isolate of tosv in mouse brains, selection occurs for a highly virulen ...200515708593
toscana virus and acute meningitis, france. 200515898178
toscana virus causing severe meningoencephalitis in an elderly traveller. 200516227565
acute meningitis owing to phlebotomus fever toscana virus imported to france.acute lymphocytic meningitis, seen in france in summer, is often due to enteroviruses. arboviruses as west nile and tick-borne encephalitis do exist in europe, but other viruses are rarely considered in patients unless they have had recent tropical travel. toscana virus infection, which is endemic, especially in italy,1-3 has been documented in some european travelers returning from italy,4-6 but surprisingly was not documented in france until recently.7 we report a case of meningitis caused by ...200516256057
seroprevalence study of tick-borne encephalitis, borrelia burgdorferi, dengue and toscana virus in turin province.tick borne encephalitis virus (tbev) is present in some european countries and it is transmitted by a tick bite. ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the infection in italy, where fortunately clinical neurological manifestations, typical of the more serious phase of the disease, are very rarely observed. this behaviour is different from other endemic euroasiatic areas where numerous cases of encephalitis are described. however tbe transmission has not been widely investigated in italy and availa ...200716312014
emergence of toscana virus in europe.toscana virus (tosv) is an arthropod-borne virus first identified in 1971 from the sandfly phlebotomus perniciosus in central italy. many case reports in travelers and clinical research and epidemiologic studies conducted around the mediterranean region have shown that tosv has a tropism for the central nervous system (cns) and is a major cause of meningitis and encephalitis in countries in which it circulates. in central italy, tosv is the most frequent cause of meningitis from may to october, ...200516318715
toscana virus in spain.toscana virus (tosv, phlebovirus, family bunyaviridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in spain. within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of tosv was conducted in granada, in southern spain. the overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. tosv was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from a region of the l gene. nucleotide sequence homology w ...200516318721
[infections due to toscana virus, west nile virus, and other arboviruses of interest in europe].arbovirosis, viral infection transmitted by arthropods, is a widespread health problem. recurrent outbreaks caused by some of these viruses such as dengue or west nile strains in regions where they do not appear frequently, justify the establishment of global control measures. tick-borne encephalitis viruses, sand fly fever viruses (toscana, naples and sicily) and occasionally west nile and crimean-congo fever viruses are the most frequent causes of arbovirosis in europe, although circulation of ...200516324569
toscana virus central nervous system infections in southern italy.toscana virus was detected by reverse transcription-nested pcr in 5.6% of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) samples from patients with meningitis and encephalitis during the summer in southern italy. the central nervous system infections were associated with young adults and with a substantially benign clinical course. presenting features and csf findings are also discussed in the present report.200516333126
emerging and re-emerging viral infections in europe.emerging viral infections are becoming a serious problem in europe in the recent years. this is particularly true for severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars), west nile virus (wnv) disease, toscana virus (tosv) disease, and potentially for avian influenza virus (h5n1). in contrast, emergence or re-emergence of severe viral infections, including tick borne encephalitis virus, and viral haemorrhagic fever caused by hantavirus and dengue virus have been frequently reported in several european coun ...200716944546
toscana virus rna in sergentomyia minuta files. 200616972358
evaluation of the efficacy of a topically administered combination of imidacloprid and permethrin against phlebotomus perniciosus in dog.the phlebotomine sand fly phlebotomus perniciosus is one of the main vectors of leishmania infantum, responsible for human and canine leishmaniasis in the mediterranean basin. the objective of this study was to evaluate the repellent and insecticidal efficacy of imidacloprid 10% (w/v)/permethrin 50% (w/v) spot-on against sand flies (p. perniciosus) on dogs. the dogs used in this trial were laboratory-bred beagles: eight were impregnated with the solution (treated group), while the other eight we ...200717056182
[sandfly fever naples virus (serotype toscana) infection with meningeal involvement after a vacation in italy].a 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with severe headache, recurrent episodes of fever and deterioration of general health. he returned from a vacation in tuscany (italy) a few days before admission. physical examination revealed slight nuchal rigidity and an elevated body temperature of 37.8 c but was otherwise unremarkable.200617160766
[age-dependent seroprevalence of toscana virus in the community of madrid: 1993-1994 and 1999-2000].the aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of toscana virus (tosv) in the community of madrid.200717335698
emerging zoonoses and vector-borne infections affecting humans in europe.the purpose of this study was to assess and describe the current spectrum of emerging zoonoses between 2000 and 2006 in european countries. a computerized search of the medline database from january 1966 to august 2006 for all zoonotic agents in european countries was performed using specific criteria for emergence. fifteen pathogens were identified as emerging in europe from 2000 to august 2006: rickettsiae spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, bartonella spp., francisella tula ...200717445320
cocirculation of 2 genotypes of toscana virus, southeastern france.toscana virus (tosv), an arthropodborne phlebovirus transmitted by sandflies, can cause febrile illness and meningitis. the vector of tosv in france was unknown. we detected tosv rna in 2 (female phlebotomus perniciosus) of 61 pools of sandflies captured in southeastern france. two genotypes of tosv were identified.200717552102
prevalence of toscana virus antibodies in volunteer blood donors and patients with central nervous system infections in southeastern france.toscana virus (tosv) is a sandfly-borne phlebovirus causing meningitis and encephalitis during the summer period. a significant proportion of infection results in asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic forms. although seroprevalence studies had been conducted in italy, spain, greece, and cyprus, no data were available from france at the outset of this study. we present here results of seroprevalence studies conducted in volunteer blood donors and in patients presenting with central nervous system (cn ...200717627448
detection of toscana virus central nervous system infections in sardinia island, italy. 200717662649
toscana virus meningitis in portugal, 2002-2005.toscana virus infection is endemic in italy, but has also been documented in other mediterranean countries. our aim was to investigate the occurrence of toscana virus (tosv) meningitis in children and young adults in a metropolitan area in the north of portugal. cerebrospinal fluid samples from 308 patients with the diagnosis of meningitis and with negative bacterial culture were tested for enteroviruses and herpesviruseses by reverse transcription pcr. those samples that proved negative for ent ...200717991401
immunization with toscana virus n-gc proteins protects mice against virus challenge.toscana virus (tosv) is an emerging virus, circulating in the mediterranean area, that is responsible for aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and encephalitis. the development of a vaccine that could provide complete protection from tosv infection is needed. in this study we investigated the capacity of tosv structural proteins, nucleocapsid protein n and the two gc and gn glycoproteins, produced as recombinant proteins, in an animal model. in particular, we investigated their role in induc ...200818355889
[deafness as a sequela of toscana virus meningitis]. 200818482536
occupational risk associated with toscana virus infection in tuscany, italy.sandfly fever virus serotype toscana is endemic in mediterranean countries and is a widespread public health problem as it may be associated with acute neurological diseases such as aseptic meningitis.200818832346
meningoencephalitis due to toscana virus in a french traveler returning from central italy.toscana virus (tosv) is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by sand flies of phlebotomus species that has been recognized as an agent associated with acute meningitis and encephalitis around the mediterranean. we report the first imported case of meningoencephalitis due to tosv in a traveler returning from central italy to france.200819006512
imported aseptic meningitis due to toscana virus acquired on the island of elba, italy, august 2008.we describe a case of aseptic meningitis due to toscana virus imported to switzerland and discuss the epidemiological situation. to our knowledge this is the first description of this infection acquired on the island of elba.200919161712
unusual manifestation of toscana virus infection, spain. 200919193294
genetic diversity of toscana virus.distribution of toscana virus (tosv) is evolving with climate change, and pathogenicity may be higher in nonexposed populations outside areas of current prevalence (mediterranean basin). to characterize genetic diversity of tosv, we determined the coding sequences of isolates from spain and france. tosv is more diverse than other well-studied phleboviruses (e.g.,rift valley fever virus).200919331735
effect of rrr-alpha-tocopherol succinate on the growth and immunity in broilers.the objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 esters of alpha-tocopherol, all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate and rrr-alpha-tocopherol succinate (d-alpha-tos) on growth and immunity in broiler chicks. three hundred twenty 1-d-old commercial arbor acres broilers were randomly distributed to 4 treatments, each of which had 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. birds in the control group were fed with the diets supplemented with 30 mg/kg of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol acetate or the basal diet with d ...200919359683
bayesian skyline plot inference of the toscana virus epidemic: a decline in the effective number of infections over the last 30 years.toscana virus (tosv), a sandfly fever virus, is one of the main causes of the aseptic meningitis that occurs during the summer in some mediterranean regions, and whose epidemiology is largely unknown. we used a bayesian markov chain monte carlo approach and a relaxed molecular clock to estimate the demographic history of the tosv infection in a series of isolates sampled between 1980 and 2003. the estimated mean evolutionary rate was 2.5 x 10(-4) substitutions per site per year (95% hpd: 0.31-5. ...200919460322
age-dependent seroprevalence of toscana virus in central italy and correlation with the clinical order to estimate the antibody prevalence rates for toscana virus (tosv) among children and adults, we evaluated the seroprevalence of tosv in a population (n = 2,737) living in tuscany during the period of 1999 to 2006. the seroprevalence rate was 19.8% in adults and 5.8% in children, showing an age-dependent increase in tosv-specific immunity. meningitis due to tosv infection was more frequent in adults than in children.200919553552
interaction of tomato yellow leaf curl virus with diverse betasatellites enhances symptom severity.the complete nucleotide sequence was determined for a begomovirus isolated from tomato exhibiting leaf curling and yellowing symptoms in tochigi prefecture in japan. the genome organization of this virus was similar to those of other old world monopartite begomoviruses. neither a dna betasatellite nor a dna-b component was detected. it had the highest total nucleotide sequence identity (99%) with tomato yellow leaf curl virus-israel[japan:tosa:2005] (tylcv-il[jr:tos:05]) and tylcv-israel[japan:h ...200919575277
emerging viral infections of the central nervous system: part this 2-part review, i will focus on emerging virus infections of the central nervous system (cns). part 1 will introduce the basic features of emerging infections, including their definition, epidemiology, and the frequency of cns involvement. important mechanisms of emergence will be reviewed, including viruses spreading into new host ranges as exemplified by west nile virus (wnv), japanese encephalitis (je) virus, toscana virus, and enterovirus 71 (ev71). emerging infections also result fro ...200919667214
massive secretion by t cells is caused by hiv nef in infected cells and by nef transfer to bystander cells.the hiv nef protein mediates endocytosis of surface receptors that correlates with disease progression, but the link between this nef function and hiv pathogenesis is not clear. here, we report that nef-mediated activation of membrane trafficking is bidirectional, connecting endocytosis with exocytosis as occurs in activated t cells. nef expression induced an extensive secretory activity in infected and, surprisingly, also in noninfected t cells, leading to the massive release of microvesicle cl ...200919748464
acute toscana virus infection mimicked by yersinia-induced reactive arthritis syndrome after journey to spain. 201019889574
[seroepidemiological surveys of non vaccine-preventable diseases and their interest in public health].seroepidemiological surveys are epidemiological studies carried out by the use of serum tests to detect infection; they can be applied to infections in general and to vaccine-preventable diseases in particular. among other applications, seroepidemiological studies are useful for determining groups at risk for a specific disease; evaluating transmission mechanisms; and determining population groups who are critical in maintaining the transmission of infectious agents. we analysed the results of s ...200920111813
[role of toscana virus in meningo-encephalitis in tunisia.]objectives: to detect the presence of toscana virus (tosv) circulation in tunisia and to study its role in viral meningo-encephalitis. patients and methods: a total of 315 (167 sera and 178 cerobrospinal fluid [csf]) samples was investigated. these samples are colleted from tunisian patients with neurological diseases during the period between january 2003 and december 2009. all samples were tested negative for enterovirus, herpes simplex virus and west nile virus. detection for igm and igg spec ...201020378279
toscana virus infection imported from elba into switzerland. 201020507770
toscana virus epidemiology: from italy to beyond.toscana virus (tosv) is an arthropod-borne virus which is transmitted to humans by phlebotomus spp sandflies. infection is the cause of brain injuries, such as aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis, in italy mainly during the summer. more recently some unusual clinical manifestations due to tosv with severe sequelae, such as ischemic complications and hydrocephalus, have been reported. tosv represents an important emerging pathogen and its presence is being investigated in several european ...201020517492
molecular and serological evidence for the presence of novel phleboviruses in sandflies from northern algeria.during summer 2007, a total of 785 phlebotomine flies were trapped in northern algeria, identified morphologically, organised as monospecific pools and tested for the presence of phlebovirus rna using degenerate primers. three pools were positive, and the corresponding pcr products were cloned and sequenced. viral sequences corresponding to two phleboviruses distinct from each other were detected in sandflies circulating in two close locations (140 km apart) in northern algeria. the 3 sequences ...201020563287
phlebovirus meningoencephalis complicated by pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia: a case report.abstract in june 2004 an 8-year-old boy was admitted to a hospital in thessaloniki, greece, because of high fever, tachypnea, hypotonia, diarrhea, and tonoclonic convulsions. phlebovirus infection was diagnosed by igg seroconversion to toscana virus. as igm antibodies were not detected, it is suggested that this was an acute infection caused by a phlebovirus virus distinct from toscana virus. complication by a hospital-acquired pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia resulted in 2 months of hospitaliza ...201120575643
toscana virus infection in american traveler returning from sicily, 2009. 201020735948
toscana virus induces interferon although its nss protein reveals antagonistic activity.toscana virus (tosv) is a phlebotomus-transmitted virus that belongs to the family bunyaviridae and causes widespread infections in humans; about 30 % of these cases result in aseptic meningitis. in the present study, it was shown that tosv is an inducer of beta interferon (ifn-β), although its non-structural protein (nss) could inhibit the induction of ifn-β if expressed in a heterologous context. a recombinant rift valley fever virus expressing the tosv nss could suppress ifn-β expression in i ...201120861320
serosurvey study of toscana virus in domestic animals, granada, spain.abstract toscana virus (tosv) is transmitted by infected sandflies. in mediterranean countries, tosv is one of the major viral pathogens involved in aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis in humans. it remains unclear if there are animal reservoirs able to maintain the virus through the cold months of the year, when the vector is not circulating. from may to october of 2006 and 2007, we conducted a serosurvey study on domestic animals from granada province (southern spain). tosv was investig ...201020925529
prevalence of toscana virus antibodies in residents of two ionian islands, greece.the prevalence of toscana virus (tosv) igg antibodies was determined among 128 residents of two greek islands in the ionian sea, corfu and cephalonia. in total, 47.7% of tested persons had tosv igg antibodies; 51.7% among residents of corfu and 39% among residents of cephalonia. the prevalence was higher among persons older than 60 years, who were living in the coastal areas, while no relation with occupation was observed. the high seroprevalence, combined with the high antibody titers observed, ...201020971440
[unusual toscana virus encephalitis in southern france]. 201021050685
characterization of a sandfly fever sicilian virus isolated during a sandfly fever epidemic in turkey.phleboviruses cause sandfly fever but isolates are rare.201020579934
[toscana virus, west nile virus and lymphochoriomeningitis virus as causing agents of aseptic meningitis in spain].cases of aseptic meningitis (am) are mostly due to enterovirus (ev), herpesvirus, and mumps virus (mv). an important number of cases remains without an etiologic diagnosis.200919375119
personality changes after toscana virus (tosv) encephalitis in a 49-year-old man: a case report.toscana virus (tosv) infection may often cause symptomatic meningitides and encephalitides. these usually subside in few days and their sequelae do not last for more than few weeks. we here report the case of a 49-year-old man who developed encephalitis after being bitten by phlebotomi in a region near southern tuscany, where tosv is endemic, and who developed postencephalitic seizures and subsequently, persistent personality alterations, characterized by sexually dissolute behavior and aggressi ...201021126108
comparative production analysis of three phlebovirus nucleoproteins under denaturing or non-denaturing conditions for crystallographic studies.nucleoproteins (nps) encapsidate the phlebovirus genomic (-)rna. upon recombinant expression, nps tend to form heterogeneous oligomers impeding characterization of the encapsidation process through crystallographic studies. to overcome this problem, we set up a standard protocol in which production under both non-denaturing and denaturing/refolding conditions can be investigated and compared. the protocol was applied for three phlebovirus nps, allowing an optimized production strategy for each o ...201121245924
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