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biochemical studies on the phlebotomus fever group viruses (bunyaviridae family).analyses of the virion polypeptides and genomes of several phlebotomus fever group viruses, karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses, have established that they are biochemically similar to the accepted members of the bunyaviridae family. like snowshoe hare virus (a member of the california serogroup of the bunyavirus genus of the bunyaviridae family), karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses all have three viral rna s ...1979225523
selective inhibition of arthropod-borne and arenaviruses in vitro by 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxyadenosine.a novel nucleoside analog, 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxyadenosine (3'f3'dado), was evaluated for antiviral activity against several arthropod-borne and arenaviruses in vero cell culture. the following 50% inhibitory concentrations (ec50) of virus plaque formation were obtained against the test viruses: semliki forest (10.3 microm) and venezuelan equine encephalitis (5.3 microm) alphaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (7.7 microm) and pichinde (greater than 32 microm) arenaviruses, punta toro (greater th ...19921365816
effect of macrophage source and activation on susceptibility in an age-dependent model of murine hepatitis caused by a phlebovirus, punta toro.the adames strain of a bunyavirus, punta toro virus (ptv), is an hepatotrophic virus that has been described to produce an age-dependent lethal hepatic necrosis in 3-4 week old c57bl/6 mice, but 8 week old mice survive with minimal necrosis. the course of ptv infection in vitro in macrophages derived from these mice served as a model to study the pathogenesis of phlebovirus infection. peripheral blood monocytes, resident or elicited peritoneal macrophages, and kupffer cell liver macrophages, as ...19921370368
potential role of immunomodulators for treatment of phlebovirus infections of animals.rift valley fever (rvfv) is a major phlebovirus-induced epizootic disease of domestic animals (primarily cattle and sheep) in africa. no therapies for the disease are known. a related phlebovirus, punta toro virus (ptv), has been adapted to induce an rvfv-like disease in c57bl/6 mice. this ptv infection has been used as a model for rvfv because it is reasonably safe and does not require high-level biologic containment. the infection model has been used to study the potential role of immunomodula ...19921385686
assembly and polarized release of punta toro virus and effects of brefeldin a.punta toro virus (ptv), a member of the sandfly fever group of bunyaviruses, is assembled by budding at intracellular membranes of the golgi complex. we have examined ptv glycoprotein transport, assembly, and release and the effects of brefeldin a (bfa) on these processes. both the g1 and g2 proteins were transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and retained in the golgi complex in a stable structure, either during ptv infection or when expressed from a vaccinia virus recombinant. bfa t ...19911847462
role of hepatocytes and kupffer cells in age-dependent murine hepatitis caused by a phlebovirus, punta toro.punta toro virus (ptv) infection of c57bl/6 mice results in fulminant hepatic necrosis and death in 3-week-old susceptible mice, but survival with minimal hepatocellular necrosis in 8-week-old resistant mice. susceptibility in 3-week-old mice is associated with an earlier rise of viral titers in liver and serum than that occurring in 8-week-old resistant mice. there is also an earlier and more rapid accumulation of infectious progeny in serum vs. liver after ptv infection in both age groups, sug ...19911901906
golgi complex localization of the punta toro virus g2 protein requires its association with the g1 protein.the glycoproteins of bunyaviruses accumulate in membranes of the golgi complex, where virus maturation occurs by budding. in this study we have constructed a series of full length or truncated mutants of the g2 glycoprotein of punta toro virus (ptv), a member of the phlebovirus genus of the bunyaviridae, and investigated their transport properties. the results indicate that the hydrophobic domain preceding the g2 glycoprotein can function as a translocational signal peptide, and that the hydroph ...19911905078
oligomerization, transport, and golgi retention of punta toro virus glycoproteins.we have investigated the oligomerization and intracellular transport of the membrane glycoproteins of punta toro virus, a member of the phlebovirus genus of the family bunyaviridae, which is assembled by budding in the golgi complex. by using one- or two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, chemical cross-linking, and sucrose gradient centrifugation, we found that the majority of the g1 and g2 glycoproteins are assembled into noncovalently linked g1-g2 heterodim ...19911920619
pathogenesis of a phleboviral infection (punta toro virus) in golden syrian hamsters.the hamster, mesocricetus auratus, was examined as a possible model for investigating the poorly defined pathogenesis of the family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus. punta toro virus (ptv) isolates from eastern panama were highly virulent for two outbred and five inbred hamster strains, while isolates from western panama were of low virulence. the adames strain (eastern panama) of ptv (ld50 approximately 1 pfu, sc) caused an acute fatal disease (average survival time, 3.8 days) in 10-week-old lak ...19902122875
analyses of the mrna transcription processes of punta toro phlebovirus (bunyaviridae).the time course of the syntheses of punta toro (pt) phlebovirus (bunyaviridae) small (s)-size viral rna (s vrna), viral complementary rna (s vcrna), and messenger rna (s mrna) species has been analyzed using single-stranded dna probes representing the two s-coded gene products. the data obtained support the conclusion that pt s rna has an ambisense coding strategy (t. ihara, h. akashi, and d. h. l. bishop, virology 136, 293-306, 1984) with the viral nucleocapsid protein, n, encoded in a viral-co ...19852416115
punta toro virus infection of c57bl/6j mice: a model for phlebovirus-induced disease.punta toro virus infections of inbred strains of mice have been characterized and evaluated as a model in which to study various aspects of the host response to phlebovirus infections and the requirements for protective immunity. the adames strain of punta toro virus was found to be strongly hepatotropic and lymphotropic and the outcome of infection was largely a function of age. c57bl/6j mice of less than 5 weeks of age uniformly developed fulminant hepatocellular necrosis with mean survival ti ...19872462155
antigenic analysis of punta toro virus and identification of protective determinants with monoclonal antibodies.hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to the three major structural proteins of punta toro virus (ptv) were established by fusion of spleen cells with sp2/0-ag-14 mouse plasmacytoma cells. thirty-six independently derived monoclonal antibodies were evaluated in neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, and elisa assays and the isotype, antigen specificities, and cross-reactivities were determined. these antibodies were also assessed for their ability to provide protection in a murine mod ...19882462308
antiviral and cytotoxicity evaluation of 3-nitro-3-deazauridine.3-nitro-3-deazauridine (3n-3du) is a new synthetic nucleoside having activity against members of 5 rna virus families including: paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza, piv), picornaviruses (rhino-, rv), rhabdoviruses (vesicular stomatitis, vsv), togaviruses (semliki forest, sfv) and bunyaviruses (punta toro, ptv). in this report, we evaluate and compare its activity with the parent nucleoside, 3-deazauridine (3du) and ribavirin as drug standards. comparison of drug activities utilizes observations of a ...19892634363
mechanism of selection of class ii recombinant murine leukemia viruses in the highly leukemic strain cwd.the development of spontaneous lymphomas in cwd mice is associated with the expression of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (mulv) and the formation of recombinant viruses. however, the pattern of substitution of nonecotropic sequences within the envelope genes of the cwd class ii recombinant viruses differs from that seen in class i recombinant mulvs of akr, c58, and hrs mice. to determine how cwd host genes might influence the envelope gene structure of the recombinant viruses, we c ...19882831378
identification of the n and nss proteins coded by the ambisense s rna of punta toro phlebovirus using monospecific antisera raised to baculovirus expressed n and nss proteins.an essentially complete dna copy of the ambisense s rna species of punta toro (pt) phlebovirus (t. ihara, h. akashi, and d.h.l. bishop, 1984, virology 136, 293-306) has been inserted in either orientation into autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (acnpv) in lieu of the 5' coding region of the acnpv polyhedrin gene (g.e. smith, m.d. summers, and m.j. fraser, 1983, mol. cell. biol. 3, 2156-2165). the two types of recombinant viruses were used to infect spodoptera frugiperda cell ...19872950650
effects of ribamidine, a 3-carboxamidine derivative of ribavirin, on experimentally induced phlebovirus infections.ribamidine (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamidine) was inhibitory in rhesus monkey kidney (llc-mk2 derivative) cells to adames and balliet strains of punta toro virus (ptv), a phlebovirus related to rift valley fever and sandfly fever viruses. the 50% effective dose was 8 and 12 micrograms/ml against each respective virus strain; the 50% cytotoxic dose was 320 micrograms/ml, giving selectivity indices of 40 and 27 against each virus strain. the virus ratings were 1.2 and 1.0, res ...19882976263
in vitro and in vivo phlebovirus inhibition by ribavirin.ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) was markedly inhibitory in vitro to adames and balliet strains of punta toro virus (ptv), a phlebovirus related to rift valley fever and sandfly fever viruses. by using inhibition of viral cytopathic effect in llc-mk2 cells with both virus strains, the 50% effective dose was 4 to 10 micrograms/ml and the virus rating was 1.3. the adames strain of ptv infection in mice was established for evaluation of the in vivo antiviral efficacy ...19883129991
intracellular accumulation of punta toro virus glycoproteins expressed from cloned cdna.the punta toro virus (ptv) middle size (m) rna encodes two glycoproteins, g1 and g2, and possibly a nonstructural protein, nsm. a partial cdna clone of the m segment which contains g1 and g2 glycoprotein coding sequences but lacks most of the nsm sequences was inserted into the genome of vaccinia virus under the control of an early vaccinia promoter. cells infected with the recombinant virus were found to synthesize two polypeptides with molecular weights of 65,000 (g1) and 55,000 (g2) that reac ...19883142146
ponteves (ptv) strain. larves 6. 19705491848
novel coding strategy (ambisense genomic rna) revealed by sequence analyses of punta toro phlebovirus s rna.sequence analyses of punta toro viral s rna species indicate the existence of a novel coding strategy for rna viruses that involves both viral complementary and viral sense mrna species. the punta toro nucleocapsid protein (n, 26.9 x 10(3) da) is coded by a discrete viral complementary mrna species corresponding to the 3' half of the viral s rna. a second, presumably nonstructural, gene product (ns, 29.1 x 10(3) da) is coded by a viral sense mrna species that corresponds to the 5' half of the vi ...19846087547
[electrical properties of the foot-and-mouth disease virus].it has been shown that the electron microscopy method can be used for characteristics of the electric properties of foot-and-mouth disease virus. the appearance of simultaneous positive and negative staining during the negative staining of virus preparations with 3-4% ptv solution shows the presence of full virions of constant poles designated as positively and negatively stained areas of protein coat surface. the lateral orientation of virions on the film at routine conditions of preparation an ...19846087939
a signal for golgi retention in the bunyavirus g1 glycoprotein.the g1 and g2 glycoproteins of punta toro virus, a member of the bunyaviruses, are targeted to the golgi complex, where viral budding occurs. we found that the g1 protein, when expressed in the absence of g2, is also targeted to the golgi complex. a series of g1 proteins truncated at the carboxyl-terminal region was constructed, and the localization of the expressed proteins was examined. it was found that the proteins expressed from constructs with partial deletions in the cytoplasmic domain we ...19948077205
antiviral activities of tragacanthin polysaccharides on punta toro virus infections in mice.tragacanthin polysaccharides from astragalus brachycentrus (av208) and astragalus echidnaeformis (av212) plants, which are devoid of in vitro antiviral activity, were evaluated in a mouse model of punta toro virus (ptv) infection. the ptv (a phlebovirus member of the bunyaviridae family of viruses) is a model for studying the treatment of rift valley fever and hantavirus infections. single intraperitoneal treatments with 12.5-200 mg/kg/day doses of av212 given 24 h before or 4 and 24 h after vir ...19968804797
molecular determinants of golgi retention in the punta toro virus g1 protein.the g1 glycoprotein of punta toro virus, a member of the bunyavirus family, accumulates in the golgi complex when it is expressed from cloned cdna. we previously reported that the information necessary for golgi retention of the g1 protein is located within the transmembrane domain and a portion of the cytoplasmic domain adjacent to the transmembrane domain (matsuoka, y., chen, s.-y., and compans, r. w. (1994) j. biol. chem. 269, 22565-22573). to determine the features of the amino acid sequence ...19968951050
broad-spectrum antiviral activity and mechanism of antiviral action of the fluoroquinolone derivative k-12.the fluoroquinolone derivatives have been shown to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) replication at the transcriptional level. we confirmed the anti-hiv activity of the most potent congener, 8-difluoromethoxy-1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-7-[4-(2- methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid (k-12), in both acutely and chronically infected cells. k-12 was active against different strains of hiv-1 (including azt- and ritonavir-resistant hiv-1 strains), hiv-2 and simian immu ...19989875393
efficacy and safety analyses of a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 derived vector system.lentiviruses infect both dividing and nondividing cells. in this study we characterized a lentiviral vector system consisting of a packaging vector (php) and a transducing vector (ptv) derived from a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). in php, the long terminal repeats (ltrs), the 5' untranslated leader and portions of the env and nef genes were deleted. the leader sequence of php was substituted with a modified rous sarcoma virus (rsv) 59 bp leader containing a mutated rsv ...199910505094
porcine teschoviruses comprise at least eleven distinct serotypes: molecular and evolutionary aspects.nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 10 recognized prototype strains of the porcine enterovirus (pev) cytopathic effect (cpe) group i reveals a close relationship of the viral genomes to the previously sequenced strain f65, supporting the concept of a reclassification of this virus group into a new picornavirus genus. also, nucleotide sequences of the polyprotein-encoding genome region or the p1 region of 28 historic strains and recent field isolates were determined. the data sugge ...200111160660
5'-nor carbocyclic 5'-deoxy-5'-(isobutylthio)adenosine and a 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydro derivative.the inhibition of biochemical processes requiring s-adenosylmethionine as a co-factor have led to many nucleoside-based medicinal agents. included in this group are 5'-deoxy-5'-(isobutylthio)adenosine (siba), a nucleoside with antiparasitic, antiviral and antiproliferative effects, and 5'-noraristeromycin, a carbocyclic-derived nucleoside with potent antiviral properties. this report brings together the structural components of these two compounds by describing both enantiomers of carbocyclic 5- ...200111527043
detection of porcine teschovirus and enterovirus type ii by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.porcine enteroviruses (pevs) have been recognized as the causative agents of various clinical manifestations such as fertility disorders, neurological defects, and dermal lesions in pigs. currently, the diagnosis of pev infection is carried out by virus isolation, which although useful, is labor- and time-intensive. the present investigation describes the development of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of pevs of cytopathic ef ...200212423029
molecular resolution of a complex of potyviruses infecting solanaceous crops at the centre of origin in peru.peru is a centre of origin and domestication of the potato, pepper and tomato (family solanaceae). many potyviruses (genus potyvirus) that infect these crops were described 20-30 years ago. however, definitive classification of these viruses as distinct species remains unresolved for several reasons, including their close serological relationships, similar symptomatology in test plants and lack of genomic sequence data. using samples collected from peru, we have determined the complete genomic s ...200312917478
synthesis, antiviral and cytotoxic activity of 6-bromo-2,3-disubstituted-4(3h)-quinazolinones.in the present study, a series of 6-bromo-2,3-disubstitued-4(3h)-quinazolinones was synthesized by condensation of 6-bromo-2-substituted-benzoxazin-4-one with trimethoprim, pyrimethamine and lamotrigine. the chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of ir, (1)h-nmr and mass spectral and elemental analysis. the antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of the compounds were tested in e(6)sm (herpes simplex-1 kos, herpes simplex-1 tk-kos acv, herpes simplex-2 g, vaccinia v ...200312951471
functional and structural similarities between the internal ribosome entry sites of hepatitis c virus and porcine teschovirus, a picornavirus.initiation of protein synthesis on picornavirus rna requires an internal ribosome entry site (ires). typically, picornavirus ires elements contain about 450 nucleotides (nt) and use most of the cellular translation initiation factors. however, it is now shown that just 280 nt of the porcine teschovirus type 1 talfan (ptv-1) 5' untranslated region direct the efficient internal initiation of translation in vitro and within cells. in toeprinting assays, assembly of 48s preinitiation complexes from ...200415078929
protective immunity against acute phleboviral infection elicited through immunostimulatory cationic liposome-dna complexes.cationic liposome-dna complexes (cldc) have been demonstrated to induce potent antitumor activities. the ability of these complexes to elicit protective immunity against viral infections has not been fully explored. here we report findings on the use of cldc as an antiviral agent in a mouse model of acute phleboviral (punta toro virus) disease. cldc treatment of mice challenged with punta toro virus (ptv) resulted in dramatic increases in survival and reduced viral burden and other parameters in ...200616430975
[liver damage caused by hepatitis c viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption].hepatitis c virus infection (hcv) is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%). the aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by hcv in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol.200616683409
recombinant eimeria protozoan protein elicits resistance to acute phlebovirus infection in mice but not hamsters.a protein antigen from an eimeria protozoan has recently been reported to induce antitumor activity in mice. this activity most likely results from the strong induction of interkeukin-12 (il-12) and gamma interferon (ifn-gamma), which are also essential factors in the establishment of protective immunity against viral infection. we evaluated recombinant eimeria antigen (rea) as a potential immunotherapeutic agent in mouse and hamster models of acute phleboviral disease. punta toro virus (ptv) wa ...200616723561
tlr3 deletion limits mortality and disease severity due to phlebovirus infection.tlr3 was the first member of the tlr family of pattern recognition receptors found to detect a conserved viral molecular pattern, dsrna, yet supporting evidence for a major role in host defense against viral pathogens is limited. punta toro virus (ptv) has been shown to produce severe infection in mice, modeling disease caused by the related highly pathogenic rift valley fever phlebovirus in humans and domesticated ungulates. using tlr3-deficient mice, we investigated the involvement of tlr3 in ...200617056560
tlr3 is essential for the induction of protective immunity against punta toro virus infection by the double-stranded rna (dsrna), poly(i:c12u), but not poly(i:c): differential recognition of synthetic dsrna molecules.in the wake of rna virus infections, dsrna intermediates are often generated. these viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns can be sensed by a growing number of host cell cytosolic proteins and tlr3, which contribute to the induction of antiviral defenses. recent evidence indicates that melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 is the prominent host component mediating ifn production after exposure to the dsrna analog, poly(i:c). we have previously reported that punta toro virus (ptv) infe ...200717404303
isolation and molecular characterization of a porcine teschovirus 1 isolate from china.porcine teschovirus 1 (ptv-1) (swine/ch/imh/03) was isolated from piglets in a farm in inner mongolia province, p.r. china. it was confirmed by electron microscopy, rt-pcr, and sequencing. comparison of the sequences of the amino acid and nucleotides and phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein showed that ptv swine/ch/imh/03 strain is ptv-1. the isolated virus has closest relationship with talfan strain, they shared 98.9% and 99.5% homology of amino acids and nucleotides, respectively, in the o ...200717432938
in vitro and in vivo activities of t-705 against arenavirus and bunyavirus infections.there is a need for the development of effective antivirals for the treatment of severe viral diseases caused by members of the virus families bunyaviridae and arenaviridae. the pyrazine derivative t-705 (6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) has demonstrated remarkable antiviral activity against influenza virus and, to a lesser degree, against some other rna viruses (y. furuta, k. takahashi, y. fukuda, m. kuno, t. kamiyama, k. kozaki, n. nomura, h. egawa, s. minami, y. watanabe, h. narita, ...200717606691
the picornavirus avian encephalomyelitis virus possesses a hepatitis c virus-like internal ribosome entry site element.avian encephalomyelitis virus (aev) is a picornavirus that causes disease in poultry worldwide, and flocks must be vaccinated for protection. aev is currently classified within the hepatovirus genus, since its proteins are most closely related to those of hepatitis a virus (hav). we now provide evidence that the 494-nucleotide-long 5' untranslated region of the aev genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (ires) element that functions efficiently in vitro and in mammalian cells. unlike th ...200818077729
expression of heterologous genes in oncolytic adenoviruses using picornaviral 2a sequences that trigger ribosome skipping.insertion of picornaviral 2a sequences into mrnas causes ribosomes to skip formation of a peptide bond at the junction of the 2a and downstream sequences, leading to the production of two proteins from a single open reading frame. adenoviral protein ix is a minor capsid protein that has been used to display foreign peptides on the surface of the capsid. we have used 2a sequences from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and porcine teschovirus 1 (ptv-1) to express protein ix (pix) and green f ...200818198369
potent in vitro activity of the albumin fusion type 1 interferons (albumin-interferon-alpha and albumin-interferon-beta) against rna viral agents of bioterrorism and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) virus.the type 1 interferons (inf-alpha and inf-beta) are potent antiviral agents. albumin-inf-alpha and albumin-inf-beta are novel recombinant proteins consisting of ifn-alpha or ifn-beta genetically fused to human albumin.200818560223
characterization of cell-death pathways in punta toro virus-induced hepatocyte injury.punta toro virus (ptv; genus phlebovirus, family bunyaviridae) causes apoptosis of hepatocytes in vivo in experimentally infected hamsters and in vitro in cultured hepg2 cells. screening for expression of apoptosis-related genes has shown alterations in the genes for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-alpha) and the tnf receptor family. this study examined the roles of the tnf receptor-related extrinsic pathway and the bcl-2 family-associated mitochondrial pathway in ptv-induced cell death. the e ...200818753227
the complete nucleotide sequence of potato virus t.potato virus t (pvt), a member of an unassigned species in the family flexiviridae, has a genome 6,539 nt in size with three orfs coding for replication-associated proteins (185 kda, orf 1), movement protein (40 kda, orf 2) and coat protein (24 kda, orf 3), respectively. pvt differs from the type members of all genera of the family flexiviridae with a 30k-type movement protein and is phylogenetically distant from all of these viruses, least so from grapevine virus a (gva, genus vitivirus), with ...200919115033
conserved functional domains and a novel tertiary interaction near the pseudoknot drive translational activity of hepatitis c virus and hepatitis c virus-like internal ribosome entry sites.the translational activity of the hepatitis c virus (hcv) internal ribosome entry site (ires) and other hcv-like ires rnas depends on structured rna elements in domains ii and iii, which serve to recruit the ribosomal 40s subunit, eukaryotic initiation factor (eif) 3 and the ternary eif2/met-trna(i)(met)/gtp complex and subsequently domain ii assists subunit joining. porcine teschovirus-1 talfan (ptv-1) is a member of the picornaviridae family, with a predicted hcv-like secondary structure, but ...200919596815
a biotechnological product and its potential as a new immunomodulator for treatment of animal phlebovirus infection: punta toro virus.intracellular pathogens with widespread drug-resistance contribute substantially to the increasing rates in morbidity and mortality due to emerging and reemerging diseases. thus, the development of new drugs, including those that can enhance the immune response, is urgently needed. the immunomodulator, p-mapa, a proteinaceous aggregate of ammonium and magnesium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride derived from aspergillus oryzae, have been shown to induce antitumor activities. the ability of ...200919393266
prophylaxis with cationic liposome-dna complexes protects hamsters from phleboviral disease: importance of liposomal delivery and cpg motifs.cationic liposome-dna complexes (cldc) are cationic/neutral lipid carriers complexed with plasmid dna that when administered systemically results in a robust t(h)1 cytokine response. cldc have been shown to be effective in prophylaxis and therapeutic treatment of animal models of viral disease. to determine the contribution of liposomal delivery and cpg content of the plasmid dna to the efficacy of cldc; plasmid, cpg-free plasmid dna, or cpg-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (odn) with and withou ...200918840471
non-structural and nucleocapsid proteins of punta toro virus induce apoptosis of hepatocytes through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.punta toro virus (ptv; family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus) causes severe hepatic damage through brisk apoptosis of hepatocytes. in the present study, two viral proteins encoded by the s segment of the viral genome, non-structural (nss) and nucleocapsid protein (n), were examined for their roles in apoptosis. expression of nss in hepg2 cells led to apoptosis in 45% of transfected cells, and with n, 28%, on average. these levels represent a four- to an eightfold increase over cells transfected ...201020055939
influence of the hepatitis c virus 3'-untranslated region on ires-dependent and cap-dependent translation initiation.translation of hepatitis c virus (hcv) genomic rna is directed by an internal ribosome entry site (ires) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-utr), and the hcv 3'-utr enhances ires activity. since the hcv 3'-utr has a unique structure among 3'-utrs, we checked possible communication between the 5'- and the 3'-utr of hcv during translation using chimeric reporter rnas. we show that translation directed by the hcv ires and by the hcv-like ires of porcine teschovirus (ptv) which belongs to a quite dis ...201020079737
isolation and characterization of the first chinese strain of porcine teschovirus-8.investigations were carried out to identify the causal agent of acute diarrhea, respiratory distress, and death of pigs on a swine farm in jilin province, northern china. only porcine teschovirus (ptv, designated as ptv-8 jilin/2003) was isolated from samples of organs. the presence of ptv was confirmed by the production of a specific cytopathic effect on susceptible cells and by the results of the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (ipma), polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy. other ...201020362007
prophylactic and therapeutic intervention of punta toro virus (phlebovirus, bunyaviridae) infection in hamsters with interferon alfacon-1.punta toro virus (ptv) is a member of the bunyaviridae family, genus phlebovirus, related to the highly pathogenic rift valley fever virus (rvfv). it produces a disease in hamsters that models severe rift valley fever (rvf) in humans. the recent outbreak of rvf in kenya stresses the need to identify prophylactic and therapeutic measures for preventing and treating severe forms of disease. to this end, interferon (ifn) alfacon-1 (consensus ifn-alpha) was evaluated in cell culture against rvfv and ...200818222548
the s segment of punta toro virus (bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) is a major determinant of lethality in the syrian hamster and codes for a type i interferon antagonist.two strains of punta toro virus (ptv), isolated from febrile humans in panama, cause a differential pathogenesis in syrian hamsters, which could be a useful model for understanding the virulence characteristics and differential outcomes in other phleboviral infections such as rift valley fever virus. genetic reassortants produced between the lethal adames (a/a/a) and nonlethal balliet (b/b/b) strains were used in this study to investigate viral genetic determinants for pathogenesis and lethality ...200717050607
synthesis, antiviral activity and cytotoxicity evaluation of schiff bases of some 2-phenyl quinazoline-4(3)h-ones.a new series of 3-(benzylideneamino)-2-phenylquinazoline-4(3h)-ones were prepared through schiff base formation of 3-amino-2-phenyl quinazoline-4(3)h-one with various substituted carbonyl compounds. their chemical structures were elucidated by spectral studies. cytotoxicity and antiviral activity were evaluated against herpes simplex virus-1 (kos), herpes simplex virus-2 (g), vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus-1 tk- kos acvr, para influenza-3 virus, reovirus-1, sind ...201020724039
synthesis and biological activity of isoxazolidinyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: potential dna intercalators.isoxazolidinyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (isoxazolidinyl-pahs) have been synthesized in good yields by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition methodology promoted by microwave irradiation. the structures of the obtained cycloadducts have been determined by noe experiments and supported by computational studies at the am1 level. the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the synthesized compounds have been investigated. in particular, compounds 7c and 7e show high levels of cytotoxicity on molt-3 leuke ...200616420056
synthesis of new c5-(1-substituted-1,2,3-triazol-4 or 5-yl)-2'-deoxyuridines and their antiviral evaluation.the synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a series of c5-(1,4- and 1,5-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazolo)-nucleoside derivatives is described. the key steps of this synthesis are regioselective huisgen's 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, using either copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (cuaac) or ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (ruaac) under microwave activation. some compounds among the 5a-l series possess activity against herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, human ...201021232828
host genetic variation in susceptibility to punta toro virus.infection of small laboratory animals by punta toro virus (ptv), family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus, is a model for the study of the human pathogen rift valley fever virus (rvfv). we have identified inbred mouse strains with significant differences in host response to the adames strain of ptv. nine inbred strains of mice representing major branches in the mus musculus phylogeny were inoculated subcutaneously with a high dose of ptv in survival experiments. two inbred strains of mice, nzw/lac ...201121320557
synthesis, antiviral and cytotoxic investigation of 2-phenyl-3-substituted quinazolin-4(3h)-ones.a series of 3(benzylideneamino)-2-phenyl quinazoline-4(3h)-ones was synthesized by reaction of 3-amino-2-phenyl-3h-quinazoline-4-one with various carbonyl compounds.201121796872
apoptosis of hepatocytes caused by punta toro virus (bunyaviridae: phlebovirus) and its implication for phlebovirus pathogenesis.experimental infection of hamsters with punta toro virus (ptv) produces a disease with clinical and pathological similarities to the severe human hemorrhagic fever caused by rift valley fever virus (rvfv), thus providing an animal model for rvfv pathogenesis. in this model, hepatocytic apoptosis is the main pathological component of liver injuries that are responsible for severe hemorrhagic manifestations. to further elucidate whether viral replication in hepatocytes directly causes apoptosis, w ...200516192639
teschoviruses and sapeloviruses in faecal samples from wild boar in spain.teschovirus and sapelovirus are two genera of the picornaviridae family, comprising highly variable and heterogeneous enteric viruses, commonly found in faecal samples from domestic pigs. although both of them are also known to infect wild boar, studies on their presence in these wild suids are scarce. the present study aimed at determining the presence of porcine teschovirus (ptv) and sapelovirus (psv) in free-living wild boar populations, as well as to study their relationships with similar vi ...201223265238
serosurvey of selected arboviral pathogens in free-ranging, two-toed sloths (choloepus hoffmanni) and three-toed sloths (bradypus variegatus) in costa rica, 2005-07.we screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in costa rica. blood samples were taken from 16 hoffman's two-toed sloths (htss; choloepus hoffmanni ) and 26 brown-throated sloths (btss; bradypus variegatus ) over a 3-yr period. we used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (st. louis encephalitis [slev], changuinola, venezuelan equine encephalitis, ilheus [ilhv], oropouche, mayaro, utinga, murutucu, pu ...201627479900
development of real-time reverse transcriptase qpcr assays for the detection of punta toro virus and pichinde virus.research with high biocontainment pathogens such as rift valley fever virus (rvfv) and lassa virus (lasv) is expensive, potentially hazardous, and limited to select institutions. surrogate pathogens such as punta toro virus (ptv) for rvfv infection and pichinde virus (picv) for lasv infection allow research to be performed under more permissive bsl-2 conditions. although used as infection models, ptv and picv have no standard real-time rt-qpcr assays to detect and quantify pathogenesis. ptv is a ...201627029488
toscana virus nss protein promotes degradation of double-stranded rna-dependent protein kinase.toscana virus (tosv), which is transmitted by phlebotomus spp. sandflies, is a major etiologic agent of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in the mediterranean. like other members of the genus phlebovirus of the family bunyaviridae, tosv encodes a nonstructural protein (nss) in its small rna segment. although the nss of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) has been identified as an important virulence factor, which suppresses host general transcription, inhibits transcription from the beta interferon ...201323325696
phleboviruses and the type i interferon response.the genus phlebovirus of the family bunyaviridae contains a number of emerging virus species which pose a threat to both human and animal health. most prominent members include rift valley fever virus (rvfv), sandfly fever naples virus (sfnv), sandfly fever sicilian virus (sfsv), toscana virus (tosv), punta toro virus (ptv), and the two new members severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (sftsv) and heartland virus (hrtv). the nonstructural protein nss is well established as the main p ...201627338447
characterization of rift valley fever virus mp-12 strain encoding nss of punta toro virus or sandfly fever sicilian virus.rift valley fever virus (rvfv; genus phlebovirus, family bunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. mp-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the m- and l-segments, but the s-segment retains the virulent phenotype. mp-12 was manufactured as an investigational new drug vaccine by using mrc-5 cells and encodes a functional nss gene, the majo ...201323638202
synthesis and antiviral evaluation of c5-substituted-(1,3-diyne)-2'-deoxyuridines.starting from acetylated 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (3), 14 hitherto unknown c5-substituted-(1,3-diyne)-2'-deoxyuridines (with cyclopropyl, hydroxymethyl, methylcyclopentane, p-(substituted)phenyl and disubstituted-phenyl substituents) have been synthesized via a nickel-copper catalyzed c-h activation between two terminal alkynes, in yields ranging from 19% to 67%. their antiviral activities were measured against a large number of dna and rna viruses including herpes simplex virus type 1 and type ...201222578783
extended protection against phlebovirus infection conferred by recombinant adenovirus expressing consensus interferon (def201).punta toro virus (ptv; bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) is related to rift valley fever virus (rvfv), a pathogenic agent which causes severe disease in humans and livestock primarily in the sub-saharan region of africa. the recent range expansion of rvfv and the potential for its intentional release into naïve populations pose a significant threat to public health and agriculture. studies modeling disease in rodents and nonhuman primates have shown that ptv and rvfv are highly sensitive to the antivir ...201222615273
strains of peru tomato virus infecting cocona (solanum sessiliflorum), tomato and pepper in peru with reference to genome evolution in genus potyvirus.two isolates (sl1 and sl6) of peru tomato virus (ptv, genus potyvirus) were obtained from cocona plants (solanum sessiliflorum) growing in tingo maría, the jungle of the amazon basin in peru. one ptv isolate (tm) was isolated from a tomato plant (lycopersicon esculentum) growing in huaral at the peruvian coast. the three ptv isolates were readily transmissible by myzus persicae. isolate sl1, but not sl6, caused chlorotic lesions in inoculated leaves of chenopodium amaranticolor and c. quinoa. is ...200415290372
dosimetric and technical considerations for interstitial adenoviral gene therapy as applied to prostate cancer.to introduce a simple and specific dosimetric model and an adenoviral delivery technique for interstitial adenoviral gene therapy of prostate cancer.200312504055
attenuation of pathogenic rift valley fever virus strain through the chimeric s-segment encoding sandfly fever phlebovirus nss or a dominant-negative pkr.rift valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting ruminants and humans. rift valley fever virus (rvfv: family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus) causes abortions and fetal malformations in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or retinitis in humans. the live-attenuated mp-12 vaccine is conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the us. however, this vaccine lacks a marker for the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (diva). nss gene is dispensable for rvf ...201627248570
enhanced cellular immunity to hepatitis c virus nonstructural proteins by codelivery of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor gene in intramuscular dna immunization.hepatitis c virus (hcv) nonstructural (ns) proteins appeared to be important targets for hcv vaccine development, since ns-specific t-helper-cell responses are associated with clearance from acute hcv infection. in this report, we have constructed a plasmid, ptv-ns345, that encodes the hcv ns3, ns4 and ns5 proteins (ns345) and a bicistronic plasmid, ptv-ns345/gmcsf, in which the hcv ns345 polyprotein and gmcsf are translated independently. intramuscular inoculation with ptv-ns345 plasmid dna int ...199910195625
two amino acid changes at the n-terminus of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus spike protein result in the loss of enteric tropism.to study the molecular basis of tgev tropism, a collection of recombinants between the pur46-mad strain of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (tgev) infecting the enteric and respiratory tracts and the ptv strain, which only infects the respiratory tract, was generated. the recombinant isolation frequency was about 10(-9) recombinants per nucleotide and was 3.7-fold higher at the 5'-end of the s gene than in other areas of the genome. thirty recombinants were plaque purified and character ...19979018137
molecular bases of tropism in the pur46 cluster of transmissible gastroenteritis coronaviruses.transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (tgev) infects both, the enteric and the respiratory tract of swine. s protein, that is recognized by the cellular receptor, has been proposed that plays an essential role in controlling the dominant tropism. the genetic relationship of s gene from different enteric strains and non-enteropathogenic porcine respiratory coronaviruses (prcvs) was determined. a correlation between tropism and the genetic structure of the s gene was established. prcvs, derive ...19958830541
antiviral and immunomodulating inhibitors of experimentally-induced punta toro virus infections.a major component of a us army medical research and development command-supported program to discover and develop new drugs for the treatment of rift valley fever, sandfly fever, and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever has been to study candidate test materials against hepatotropic infections of c57bl/6 mice induced by the related but less biohazardous punta toro virus (ptv). the effects of 75 compounds, some of which were considered immunomodulators in their primary mechanism of activity, were stud ...19947847873
antiviral activity of an immunomodulatory lipophilic desmuramyl dipeptide analog.bch-527, the lipophilic hydrochloride salt of octadecyl d-alanyl l-glutamine, was evaluated for efficacy against experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (mcmv), influenza a (h1n1) (iv-a), and punta toro virus (ptv) infections in mice. the compound was administered i.p. every other day for a total of 4 injections commencing 24 h previrus exposure. doses ranged from 12.5 to 200 mg/kg per injection in the various experiments. the mcmv infection was significantly inhibited in two experiments b ...19957605113
a single dominant gene determines susceptibility to a leukaemogenic recombinant retrovirus.the production of recombinant retroviruses is an important episode in the natural history of thymic leukaemia in akr and hrs/j (hr/hr) mices. these viruses apparently originate from ecotropic and xenotropic precursors in the late preleukaemic stage of the disease. analyses of their structural proteins and genomic oligonucleotides indicate that they arise by recombination of env genes of the precursor viruses. this event leads to a viral envelope glycoprotein (gp70) with some peptides that have f ...19817254316
viruses isolated from panamanian sloths.seven virus strains were isolated in vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, bradypus variegatus and choloepus hoffmanni, from central panamá. four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. one strain is an antigenic subtype of punta toro virus, and another, described here as bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. a second new virus from sloths, ut ...19836316795
cyclopentenylcytosine. a carbocyclic nucleoside with antitumor and antiviral properties.cyclopentenylcytosine (cpe-c, 2), a pyrimidine analogue of the fermentation derived carbocyclic nucleoside neplanocin a, has been synthesized from the optically active cyclopentenylamine 3b by two synthetic routes. cpe-c demonstrates significant antitumor activity against both the sensitive and ara-c resistant lines of l1210 leukemia in vivo. multiple long term survivors are produced in both tumor models. the compound also gives 100% growth inhibition of the solid human a549 lung and mx-1 mammar ...19883411597
complete sequences of the glycoproteins and m rna of punta toro phlebovirus compared to those of rift valley fever virus.the complete sequence of punta toro virus (phlebovirus, bunyaviridae) middle size (m), rna has been determined. the rna is 4330 nucleotides long (mol wt 1.46 x 10(6), base composition: 26.7% a, 33.6% u, 18.5% g, 21.2% c) and has 3'- and 5'-terminal sequences that, depending on the arrangement, are complementary for some 15 residues. the viral rna codes in its viral-complementary sequence for a single primary gene product (the viral glycoprotein precursor) that is comprised of 1313 amino acids (1 ...19852998043
effect of human, recombinant interleukin 2 on punta toro virus infections in c57bl/6 mice.the effect of human recombinant interleukin-2 (ril-2) on punta toro virus (ptv) infection was investigated in c57bl/6 mice. immunologic and viral parameters were assessed after mice were treated i.p. with ril-2 for 5 days. treatment of mice with 25000 and 12500 units/mouse of ril-2 resulted in significant inhibition of the disease as indicated by increases in survival of mice as well as decreases in liver and serum virus titers. serum glutamic oxalic acid and pyruvic acid transaminase levels wer ...19911719936
prophylactic and therapeutic activities of 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine against punta toro virus infections in mice.the biological response modifier 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine was evaluated in mice against the hepatotropic adames strain of punta toro virus. when administered intraperitoneally in divided doses, significant protection from death was conferred at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day given 24 and 17 h pre-virus inoculation, 25-100 mg/kg/day administered 4 h pre- and 3 h post-virus challenge, and 12.5 to 100 mg/kg/day administered 24 and 31 h after virus inoculation. these doses preventing death reduced liver ...19911716090
assembly of g1 and g2 glycoprotein oligomers in punta toro virus-infected cells.we have studied the oligomerization of the membrane glycoproteins of punta toro virus (ptv), a member of the phlebovirus genus of the family bunyaviridae, and the effect of glycosylation on protein stability and transport. by using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the g1 and g2 glycoproteins in ptv-infected or recombinant-transfected cells were found to sediment as dimers after dsp cross-linking, suggesting that the g 1 and g2 proteins are associated as dimers by non-covalent interactions. pulse ...19921320791
punta toro virus (bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) infection in mice: strain differences in pathogenesis and host interferon response.the adames strain of punta toro virus (ptv-a, bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) causes an acute lethal disease in hamsters and mice. the balliet strain of the virus (ptv-b) is generally considered to be avirulent. the difference in hamster susceptibility is likely due to the ability of ptv-a to suppress interferon (ifn)-beta similarly to that described for rift valley fever virus. here we investigated strain differences in ptv pathogenesis and the ifn response in mice. although ptv-b infection in mice ...200919783024
efficacy of favipiravir (t-705) and t-1106 pyrazine derivatives in phlebovirus disease models.several studies have reported favipiravir (t-705) to be effective in treating a number of viral diseases modeled in rodent systems. notably, the related pyrazine derivative, t-1106, was found to be more effective than t-705 in treating yellow fever virus infection in hamsters. based on these findings, we hypothesized that t-1106 may be more effective in treating hepatotropic punta toro virus (ptv, phlebovirus) infection in rodents. in cell culture, the inhibitory concentrations of the compounds ...201019874853
"viologen" dendrimers as antiviral agents: the effect of charge number and distance.a series of "viologen" derivatives (4,4'-bipyridinium salts) carrying between 1 and 90 charges per molecule have been prepared and investigated for their activity against human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), herpes simplex virus (hsv), vesicular stomatitis, punta toro virus, sindbis virus, reovirus, and respiratory syncytial viruses. in general, most of the compounds showed good activities against hiv-1 (strain iii(b)). in particular, compound 36 exhibited the highest in vitro activity and select ...201020377249
characterization of punta toro s mrna species and identification of an inverted complementary sequence in the intergenic region of punta toro phlebovirus ambisense s rna that is involved in mrna transcription termination.the transcription termination sites for the subgenomic n and ns(s) mrna species coded by the 1904 nucleotide, ambisense s rna species of punta toro (pt) phlebovirus (bunyaviridae, ihara et al., 1984) have been identified by northern analyses using a series of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. for the viral-complementary n mrna species the oligonucleotides that were used represented viral rna sequences; for the viral-sense ns(s) mrna species they represented viral-complementary sequences. the resu ...198718644551
immunoprophylaxis of punta toro virus (phlebovirus, bunyaviridae) infection in hamsters with recombinant eimeria profilin-like antigen.recombinant eimeria antigen (rea) has been shown to have potent anticancer and antiviral activity in respective mouse disease models, presumably through robust immune stimulation that occurs via tlr11, a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes profilin-like proteins expressed on apicomplexan protozoans. comparable immunostimulatory activity in other species has yet to be demonstrated. since rea is known to be highly effective in treating punta toro virus (ptv) infection in mice, its ability ...200818550012
genotyping of porcine teschovirus from nervous tissue of pigs with and without polioencephalomyelitis in indiana.porcine teschovirus (ptv) was isolated in cell culture and/or demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction in samples of brain and/or spinal cord in pigs in indiana during the 2002-2007 period. testing was initiated on pigs originating from populations exhibiting nervous clinical disease and/or pigs with microscopic lesions in central nervous tissues, indicating viral encephalitis and/or myelitis. virus was demonstrated in pigs with and without lesions as well as with and without nervous clinical d ...201020622231
a multiplex rt-pcr for rapid and simultaneous detection of porcine teschovirus, classical swine fever virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in clinical specimens.a multiplex rt-pcr (mrt-pcr) assay was developed and evaluated for its ability to detect multiple viral infections of swine simultaneously. one pair of primers was selected carefully for each of the following three rna viruses: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv), classical swine fever virus (csfv), and porcine teschovirus (ptv). each target produced a specific amplicon with a size of 451bp (prrsv), 343bp (csfv), or 163bp (ptv). the sensitivity of the mrt-pcr using purifi ...201021192983
Duck Hepatitis A Virus Possesses a Distinct Type IV Internal Ribosome Entry Site Element of Picornavirus.Sequence analysis of duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1) led to its classification as the only member of a new genus, Avihepatovirus, of the family Picornaviridae, and so was renamed duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). The 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) plays an important role in translation initiation and RNA synthesis of the picornavirus. Here, we provide evidence that the 651-nucleotide (nt)-long 5' UTR of DHAV genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element that functions efficien ...201222090106
functional analyses of rna structures shared between the internal ribosome entry sites of hepatitis c virus and the picornavirus porcine teschovirus 1 talfan.the internal ribosome entry site (ires) of porcine teschovirus 1 (ptv-1), a member of the picornaviridae family, is quite distinct from other well-characterized picornavirus ires elements, but it displays functional similarities to the ires from hepatitis c virus (hcv), a member of the flaviviridae family. in particular, a dominant negative mutant form of eif4a does not inhibit the activity of the ptv-1 ires. furthermore, there is a high level (ca. 50%) of identity between the ptv-1 and hcv ires ...200616415004
self-inactivating lentiviral vectors with u3 and u5 modifications.lentiviral vectors have gained much attention in recent years mainly because they integrate into nondividing host-cell genomes. for clinical applications, a safe and efficient lentiviral vector system is required. previously, we have established a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1)-derived three-plasmid lentiviral vector system for viral vector production which includes a packaging vector php, a transducing vector ptv, and an envelope-encoding plasmid phef-vsvg. cotransfection of these ...199910441560
characterization of the punta toro species complex (genus phlebovirus, family bunyaviridae).punta toro virus (ptv), a member of the ptv complex, is a relatively common causative agent of febrile illness in panama that is often misdiagnosed as 'dengue' or 'influenza'. currently, only two named members make up this species complex, ptv and buenaventura virus (buev). genomic and antigenic characterization of 17 members of the ptv complex, nine of which were isolated from human acute febrile illness cases, reveals that this species complex is composed of six distant viruses. we propose to ...201525934793
synthesis and in vitro antiviral evaluation of 4-substituted 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones.a series of 4-substituted 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-ones (dhpm) was synthesized, characterized by ir, (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr and hrms spectra. the compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against a broad range of dna and rna viruses, along with assessment for potential cytotoxicity in diverse mammalian cell lines. compound 4m, which possesses a long lipophilic side chain, was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of punta toro virus, a member of the bunyaviridae. for rift ...201727979594
favipiravir (t-705) protects against peracute rift valley fever virus infection and reduces delayed-onset neurologic disease observed with ribavirin treatment.rift valley fever is a zoonotic, arthropod-borne disease that affects livestock and humans. the etiologic agent, rift valley fever virus (rvfv; bunyaviridae, phlebovirus) is primarily transmitted through mosquito bites, but can also be transmitted by exposure to infectious aerosols. there are presently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent or treat severe rvfv infection in humans. we have previously reported on the activity of favipiravir (t-705) against the mp-12 vaccine strain of rvf ...201424486952
clinical manifestations of punta toro virus species complex infections, panama, 2009.an investigation in panama found that punta toro virus species complex (ptvs) may contribute to febrile illnesses with symptoms mirroring those of dengue fever. however, further studies are needed to determine if ptv infection causes only a mild disease or if it can have more serious manifestations in some patients.201728418305
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