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effect of adamantane derivatives on the activity of orthomyxovirus rna-dependent rna polymerase.the effect of several adamantane derivatives on the activity of virion-associated rna-dependent rna polymerase of fowl plague virus (fpv) and influenza b virus was studied in vitro. some of the derivatives inhibited the activity of the polymerase by 60 per cent. a correlation was established between the previously demonstrated capacity of these inhibitors to suppress orthomyxovirus reproduction in vivo and their ability to reduce the activity of virion-associated rna-dependent rna polymerase in ...19769825
recombination and complementation between orthomyxoviruses under conditions of abortive infection.on interaction of ts mutants of fowl plague virus (fpv) belonging to different complementation groups and human influenza a viruses under conditions of abortive infection for both partners, complementation was marked and recombinants occurred with a high frequency. the level and degree of complementation as well as the frequency of recombinants depended on the stage at which the reproduction of the human influenza a viruses involved was blocked. on simultaneous inoculation of chicks with two apa ...197939444
letter: temporary paralysis in childhood after influenza b. 197545999
gastric 'flu influenza b causing abdominal symptons in children.influenza-b virus was identified in 102 children admitted to hospital during two epidemics in 1973 and 1974, enzbling the symptomatology of infection with this virus to be assessed in detail for the first time. abdominal pain, often severe enough to require differentiation from acute appendicitis, emerged as a dominant symptom, especially in older children. respiratory symptoms were often insignificant, although the lower respiratory tract was sometimes involved. other symptoms in some children ...197546444
increased influenza pneumonia mortality of mice adoptively immunized with node and spleen cells sensitized by inactivated but not live virus.syngeneic mice adoptively immunized intravenously with 25 million washed node and spleen cells from donors vaccinated subcutaneously with formolized influenza a pr8 had a higher mortality with influenza pneumonia after challenge with homologous virus than occurred in recipients of similar cells from unsensitized donors, and this increased mortality was prevented by treatment of the sensitized cells with antithymocyte serum. mice adoptively immunized with cells from donors vaccinated with formoli ...197547313
myxoviruses.myxoviruses can be divided into 2 groups, orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. the former comprise the influenza group which is subdivided into types a,b and c. influenza b and c are purely human pathogens but influenza a, which includes a large number of antigenic subtypes, occurs in nature in pigs, horses, birds and man. all influenza a viruses irrespective of origin are chemically, biologically and genetically related. the epidemics which they cause are curious and puzzling and are an import ...197547825
influenza at christ's hospital: march, 1974.boys in a boarding-school given inactivated influenza-a or influenza-b vaccine have been observed during a simultaneous outbreak of influenza due to a/port chalmers, b/hong kong, and b/intermediate strains. influenza-b vaccine conferred substantial protection, the attack-rates in boys given b vaccine being 24% compared with 45% in a control group. a/hong kong vaccine, by preventing infection during the previous influenza a/england outbreak, left the boys vulnerable to influenza a/port chalmers. ...197654631
influenza virus subunit vaccines. ii. immunogenicity and original antigenic sin in humans.subunit vaccines containing hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and nucleocapsids of a/port chalmers/1/73 (h3n2) influenza virus were prepared after treatment of purified virus with ammonium deoxycholate. the immunogenicity of these subunits and the response to the common and specific antigenic determinants on the hemagglutinin subunits were studied in man. the subunits were as immunogenic in man as intact inactivated influenza virus vaccine at an equivalent concentration. booster doses of antigen did ...197659787
influenza surveillance.the main objectives of influenza surveillance are: to measure the impact of the disease by collection and analysis of epidemiological information on morbidity and mortality, and to anticipate future epidemics and pandemics by the collection and analysis of influenza viruses. the world health organization's influenza programme is based on the collaboration of 98 national influenza centres in 70 countries and the 2 who collaborating centres in atlanta and london.epidemiological information may be ...197878771
immunological studies with the ha1 and ha2 polypeptides of influenza a virus haemagglutinin.ha1 and ha2 polypeptides of influenza a virus haemagglutinin (ha) were separated in purified form using electrophoresis in sds containing polyacrylamide gels (page) or chloroform-methanol extraction. the populations of ha1 polypeptides were immunogenic but considerably less so than the intact ha molecule and induced antibody which cross-reacted with influenza a and b viruses. after absorption with heterologous influenza b virus, the cross-reacting antibodies were removed and the ha1 antisera the ...197881152
macrophage immunity to influenza virus: in vitro and in vivo studies.using m-tur, a macrophage-adapted avian influenza a virus (hav1, nav3), antiviral resistance of peritoneal macrophages obtained from specifically or nonspecifically immunized mice towards in vitro infection was assessed. m-tur grew to high titers in macrophages from nonimmune mice thereby causing a marked cytopathic effect. in contrast, peritoneal macrophages from mice specifically immunized with tur virus were not affected by infection with m-tur in vitro. this antiviral immunity was specific: ...197989051
antigenic relationships between strains of influenza b virus.an immunological relationship between strains of influenza b virus, considerably differing from one another in haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and virus neutralization (vn) tests, was established. the relationships were also evaluated based on the ability of influenza b viruses to replicate in the lungs of mice immunized with strains possessing antigenically distinct haemagglutinin. there was no substantial difference in the protection of animals immunized with homologous or heterologous strai ...197990457
the epidemiology of influenza b in a rural setting in 1977.an epidemic of influenza b began in january, 1977, in two rural parishes in northeastern louisiana and quickly spread to involve 29% of their population with clinical influenza. this epidemic was investigated using a standard questionnaire and a random sample of 4.2% of the population. the clinical illness was typical of influenza, with predominant fever, cough, malaise and headache. gastrointestinal symptoms were part of the clinical syndrome. rhinitis and diarrhea were significantly more commo ...1979110144
[studies of the influenza epidemic of january-march, 1974].in an epidemiologic, clinical and viral study of several influenza foci in some urban districts of romania during january-march 1974, 23 influenza virus b hong-kong 8/73 strains were isolated. the dynamics of hai serum antibodies confirmed the viral diagnosis. the epidemic ran a slow course, affecting especially the 14-25 years age group and had an evident benign clinical aspect.1975128103
[details of the evolution of the influenza epidemic process in the city of bucharest in 1974].the present paper reports on the results of a complex epidemiologic survey of the epidemiologic potential of influenza in bucharest in 1974, conducted on the basis of a complete, unitary methodology including; (a) dynamic survey of the morbidity and mortality from influenza, with statistical-mathematical processing of the data per age group and total population; (b) monthly sero-epidemiologic survey of the antiinfluenza immunologic profile of the population, determined in lots of 540 sera (annua ...1975128104
serologic studies of acute respiratory infections in military personnel.the advantages, disadvantages, and uses of serological epidemiology are discussed in relation to acute respiratory infections in military personnel. the prevalence of antibody reflects both current and past experience with respiratory agents and is a measure of susceptinility. incidence data calculated by testing two serial serum samples, on entry and discharge from the service, has indicated high influenza and mycoplasma pneumoniae rates in south american recruits and low rates of adenovirus ...1975169640
[quantitative and virus specific serum igm detection in newborns (author's transl)].serum igm concentration was determined in umbilical cord blood samples from 1000 newborns. 34 cases presenting elevated igm values (greater than or equal to 30 mg%) were tested for virus specific igm antibodies. we could demonstrate such virus specific igm antibodies against cytomegalovirus (4), against rubella, influenza a and influenza b (2 each) and against coxsackie virus (1). the quantitation of igm in blood samples of child bearing women showed no elevated values compared to those of non-p ...1975173647
the influence of substances changing the intracellular concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate on interferon synthesis in chick embryo cell culture.the influence of cyclic 3'5'-adenosine monophosphate (camp), adrenalin and theophylline on interferon synthesis induced by influenza b virus (lee strain) in chick embryo cell cultures was studied. in 5-day-old cell culture, theophylline was shown to enhance the inhibiting effect of exogenous camp and adrenalin on interferon synthesis and in 1-day-old culture, on the contrary, to enhance interferon production whereas adrenaline under these conditions had no effect on interferon synthesis at all. ...1975174527
virus infections and acute renal transplant rejection.the date of onset of 360 acute renal transplant rejection episodes from 1969 to 1973 have been compared with the prevalence of various common viral infections and infections due to mycoplasma pnuemoniae. a positive correlation was found for influenza b infections (r=0.43, p less than 0.01) up to 5 months before transplantation and for adenovirus infections (r=0.32, p less than 0.05) at 1 month before kidney grafting.1976175308
[aetiological studies on viral pneumonia (author's transl)].401 cases of viral pneumonia diagnosed between january 1973 and august 1975 were investigated serologically by the complement-fixation test. the percentage distribution of the responsible pathogenic organism in this series of cases was as follows: influenza virus a 45.9%, mycoplasma pneumoniae 19.5%, coxsackie b viruses 9.2%, cytomegalovirus 7.5% and chlamydia psittaci 8.5%. the remaining 9.4% cases were caused by adeno, parainfluenza, measles, influenza b, herpes simplex and respiratory syncyti ...1976185813
[results of serologic surveys of children with acute stenosing laryngotracheobronchitis].the materials of serologic surveys of 269 children with acute stenosing laryngotracheobronchitis hospitalized in children's infectious hospital no. 3, leningrad, are presented. acute stenosing laryngotracheobronchitis developed most frequently against the background of low titres of antibody to viruses of the respiratory group. severe cases of the disease were caused by influenza a2 virus, milder cases by influenza b, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial and adenoviruses.1976188258
simple mathematical deductions in the seroepidemiology of viral infections. ii. (para) myxoviruses (measles, mumps, influenza b), rubella, enteroviruses (polio, coxsackie b), adenoviruses, and mycoplasma pneumoniae.large samples of nonselected persons collected in south-west germany were investigated for the prevalence of serum antibodies to poliovirus 1-3 and coxsackievirus b 1-5 (neutralisation test), to measles, rubella, and mumps (hemagglutination inhibition test), mumps, influenza b, adenovirus, and mycoplasma pneumoniae (complement-fixation test). according to "catalytic models", which compare the infection spread to simple chemical reactions of molecules as self-limiting procedures, a mathematical a ...1977196454
[immunofluorescent method of studying autopsy material in acute pneumonia].the immunofluorescent procedure in examinations of the autopsy material from 304 fatal cases hospitalized for acute pneumonia permitted to diagnose influenza a2 in 29.0%, influenza b in 18.1%, parainfluenza in 3.5%, adenovirus infection in 9.2% and respiratory syncytial virus infection in 3.5% of the cases. in the period of a high incidence of acute respiratory infection, influenza a2 was detected by this method in 40.9% and influenza b in 50% of the cases. simultaneous examinations of the mater ...1977198964
[antiviral antibodies in acute laryngotracheobronchitis].antibodies to influenza a2, influenza b, parainfluenza 2 and 3, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial viruses were determined in thirty nine children with acute laryngotracheobronchitis; nine cases were not included in the analysis because of the presence of anticomplementary sera; 40% of cases were positive, 20% to influenza a2, 10% to influenza b (one case of double infection with influenza b and parainfluenza 2 viruses), 6.7% to respiratory syncytial virus and 3.3% to parainfluenza 2. results ...1978202293
biomedical survey in irian jaya (west irian), indonesia.a biomedical survey was conducted in several areas of irian jaya, indonesia in july 1972 in association with an investigation of reports of a cholera outbreak. stool specimens, blood smears and sera were collected and examined for evidence of parasitic as well as other infectious diseases. a total of 114 stools were examined and the most commonly found intestinal parasites were trichuris trichiura (94%), ascaris lumbricoides (74%), hookworm (58%), entamoeba coli (15%), endolimax nana (8%), entam ...1977208184
[first madagascan myxovirus b isolated during an influenza epidemic in antananarivo (june-august 1977)].the authors study an influenza epidemic at antananarivo, during the austral winter 1977. a virologic work confirmed the diagnostic of influenza with the isolation of two influenza b virus strains. an epidemiologic survey was also carried out in consultant people at the work medecine department and hygiene municipal service to evaluate its influency on morbidity and mortality.1978218507
evidence for an aetiological role for adenovirus type 7 in the mesenteric adenitis syndrome.previous research has established the relationship between viral infection with adenovirus, influenza b virus and coxsackie b virus, and mesenteric adenitis. a prospective controlled survey of the incidence of viral infection in mesenteric adenitis was undertaken in children attending a children's hospital over a period of 13 months. eighteen patients, together with 18 controls who were matched for age, sex, and date of presentation, were studied. there were five cases of adenovirus type 7 infec ...1979226850
decreased cell-mediated cytotoxicity against virus-infected cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.cell-mediated cytotoxicity, directed against virus-infected tissue culture cells, was studied with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (sle) and 12 matched, normal subjects in a 51cr release assay. baseline (preimmunization) levels of cytotoxicity against target cells infected with influenza a/victoria, influenza b/hong kong, newcastle disease virus, and herpes simplex virus were significantly decreased in patients with sle compared to normal sub ...1979231095
influenza surveillance 1972-75. by the public health laboratory service standing advisory committee on influenza.the surveillance programme described in an earlier report was used to monitor outbreaks of influenza in three successive winters. influenza virus a was active in all of them, but the only major outbreak of influenza b was in 1973--4. the highest incidence of influenza a was in the 0--4 age group in all three winters, but schoolchildren bore the brunt of infections by influenza virus b.1977265344
systemic reactions to influenza b vaccine.standard whole virus influenza vaccine (1974-1976) containing 700 chicken cell agglutinating (cca) units of type a (port chalmers/1/75) or port chalmers plus scotland/840/74) and 500 units of type b (hk/8/73) antigens was found to produce excessive systemic toxicity in adult volunteers. using experimental monovalent a and b vaccines, most of the observed toxicity was shown to be associated with the b antigen. injection of 500 cca units or more of b vaccine was followed within 10-16 hours by mala ...1977322477
evaluation of the single radial hemolysis test for measuring hemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific antibodies to h3n2 influenza strains and antibodies to influenza b.antibodies to the h3 hemagglutinin of influenza a virus could be specifically measured by single radial hemolysis (srh) when test antigens were recombinant viruses containing the relevant h3 hemagglutinin antigen and irrelevant neq1 neuraminidase of a/equine/prague/1/56 virus. antibodies to influenza b virus could also be measured by the srh technique. antibody rises to influenza a or b virus measured by srh agreed with results of hemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests for about 80% of the sera ...1977323281
[reye syndrome (author's transl)].reye's syndrome is characterized by severe encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver. probably this is a polyetiological syndrome. in most cases the disease is preceded by influenza b or varicella infection. as known to date, damage to mitochondria is the essential feature. therapy is symptomatic. a review is given of the clinical symptoms and of the many unsolved problems of pathogenesis.1977327146
isolation of influenza virus from muscle in myoglobinuric polymyositis.we report the first isolation of influenza virus from muscle in a man with myoglobinuria and acute polymyositis. influenza virus was isolated from cultures of madin darby bovine kidney and primary rhesus monkey kidney cells inoculated with muscle homogenates in the presence of trypsin; the virus was identified by neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition studies using influenza b/lee antiserum. viral plaque assay was performed with madin darby canine cells. viral antigen was also detected b ...1979384294
high-resolution flow-zonal centrifuge system.a modified cf-32 beckman flow centrifuge rotor has been developed that provides a long sedimentation path length with high gravitational force at the gradient sample interface. the modified rotor exhibits excellent separative capability and extraction efficiency when applied to purification of human influenza b and herpes simplex viruses.1979427264
influenza b virus genome: assignment of viral polypeptides to rna segments.it was shown that all eight rna segments of influenza b viruses are most likely monocistronic and code for eight virus-specific polypeptides. a genetic map of the influenza b virus genome was established, and six polypeptides (p1 protein, nucleoprotein, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, m protein, and nonstructural protein) were unambiguously assigned to specific rna segments. molecular weight estimates of the eight individual genes are obtained by using the glyoxal method. these results suggest tha ...1979430594
influenza a and b virus infection in infants and young children during the years 1957-1976.influenza a virus activity was demonstrated in infants and young children from metropolitan washington, dc during each of 19 successive august-july respiratory disease years, and during 17 of these years at least 2% of hospitalized respiratory disease patients yielded an influenza a or b virus and/or showed an influenza a or b serum complement-fixing (cf) antibody response. between october 1957 and july 1976, 14.3% of 860 croup patients and 5.3% of a total of 5655 hospitalized respiratory patien ...1979443244
sales of nonprescription cold remedies: a unique method of influenza surveillance.in 1976, the national institute of allergy and infectious disease sponsored a nationwide network for influenza surveillance. in this paper, in addition to reporting the surveillance findings in los angeles, sales of nonprescription cold remedies in a large supermarket chain were evaluated as an indicator of influenza activity in the community. twenty-seven isolates of influenza b occurred between february 17 and april 26, 1977. peak influenza b activity occurred from mid-march to early april, 19 ...1979503653
laboratory-based surveillance of influenza virus in the united states during the winter of 1977-1978. i. periods of prevalence of h1n1 and h3n2 influenza a strains, their relative rates of isolation in different age groups, and detection of antigenic variants.influenza a (h3n2) viruses were isolated from outbreaks and epidemics of disease during the period december 1977 to march 1978. for the last two months of this period, h1n1 strains of influenza a were also responsible for epidemics. in some regions (e.g., hawaii) co-circulation of h1n1 and h3n2 strains occurred, whereas in other regions (e.g., wisconsin) isolation of h3n2 strains had almost ceased prior to isolation of h1n1 strains. few influenza b isolates were reported. analysis of the ages of ...1979507036
viral shedding patterns of children with influenza b infection.during an epidemic of influenza b, 43 ambulatory children were prospectively followed to determine the quantitative shedding patterns of influenza b viral infection, because these have not been previously described. the spectrum of illness included 74% with a typical influenzalike illness, 7% with an afebrile infection of the upper respiratory tract, and 19% with croup. mild myositis occurred in 21%. for the first three days of illness, greater than or equal to 93% of the children shed virus, an ...1979512419
secretory immunity in influenza.the dynamics of secretory antibody formation, the duration of secretory antibody preservation, and changes in the concentration of secretory antibodies to antigens other than influenza virus were studied in 64 patients with influenza a, 105 patients with influenza b, and 23 persons who had had influenza a. severe forms of influenza a were accompanied by antibody accumulation in sera and nasal secretions; in some cases of mild forms of this infection, this process was limited by the humoral immun ...1979541522
the structural and infected cell polypeptides of influenza b virus.structural and virus-induced infected cell polypeptides of several strains of influenza b virus were examined by high resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and shown to be directly analogous to those of the influenza a viruses. eight structural polypeptides, p1, p2, p3, ha1, ha2, na, np and m were observed in purified virus and at least two additional polypeptides, ha and ns could be detected in infected mdck cells. the three p proteins plus np were shown to be associated with rna-depen ...1979541675
experiments in the preparation of live influenza b vaccines.a study is described of the selection of influenza b virus recombinants. three virulent viruses isolated in 1970, 1970 and 1973, were crossed with host-range mutants of low virulence for man, which had originally been isolated in 1940, 1959 and 1956, respectively. nine presumptive recombinants were inoculated into volunteers with low initial hi antibody titres. although a number proved attenuated and there was evidence of high frequency of recombination, antigenic characterization of neuraminida ...1977604138
[influenza b epidemic of january-april 1977 in moldavia. epidemiological, clinical and virological data[]. 1977613410
[neonatal infection and high igm at birth].to determine the concentration of igm to be used as intrauterine infection indicator, the sera of 2,906 newborns were studied. five hundred and sixty-three (19.4%), showed high concentrations of igm and out of 199 pair sera studied, serologic evidence of infection was found in 21.1%. out of these cases, 80.9% showed no clinical disturbances during their first two months of life. the agents most frequently found responsible for intrauterine infection were cytomegalovirus, influenza a2 h-k, influe ...1978646887
efficiency of complement fixation (cf) test with internal nucleoprotein (np) antigen and hemagglutination--inhibition (hi) test in the serodiagnosis of a and b influenza infections. 1979401012
[vaccination of infants and schoolchildren with an influenza subunit vaccine (author's transl)].a new influenza subunit vaccine which contains only hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens was investigated for reactogenicity and immunogenicity in children aged between three and 15 years. children under six years of age received either 500 iu or 1000 iu of the commercial vaccine, those aged from six to 15 years either 1000 iu or 2000 iu. the vaccines contained the virus strains recommended by the world health organisation for the vaccination season 1976/77. in a double blind study the vacci ...1978365775
[live influenza vaccination of military personnel (author's transl)].a field study was performed on 118 members of army personnel with the intranasally-applied live influenza vaccine, rit 4050. 91 subjects were revaccinated 7 days thereafter. the immune response was best in subjects with a low prevaccination titre and was better in subjects vaccinated twice than only once. an immune response was also detected in the nasal secretion measuring the secretory iga antibodies. live influenza vaccine can be regarded as a suitable alternative to other influenza vaccines, ...1978695667
distribution of antibodies in animals against influenza b and c viruses. 1978739713
sudden infant death syndrome in cardiff, association with epidemic influenza and with temperature - 1955-1974.the effects of social class, season, low temperature and sudden falls in temperature are investigated in 286 cases of sudden infant death syndrome in cardiff in the years 1955--1974. the association with low temperature was striking: unsuspected hypothermia may be an important feature of these deaths. sudden infant death incidence was associated with influenza a but not influenza b epidemics.1978744671
agents affecting health of mother and child in a rural area of kenya. x. haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against influenza a (h3n2) and influenza b virus in sera from children living in the machakos district of kenya.in the framework of the machakos project bloodcollections from random samples of children under 5 years of age and living in a rural area of kenya were done with regular intervals, serum samples of two collections were tested for haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against influenza a and b viruses. the children had been exposed to the hong kong/1/68 (h3n2) virus or its variants during one, two or three episodes of circulation and probably to only one epidosde of b/hong kong/8/73 virus. the ...1978749289
[biological characteristics of influenza b viruses isolated during influenza b epidemics in 1976-1977].comparative studies of the antigenic structure of influenza b viruses isolated in 1976-1977 and in previous years demonstrated one-way relationship of the hemagglutinin of b/76 viruses with that of b/72 viruses. antisera to new b/76 strains neutralized the hemagglutinating activity of all known reference influenza b virus strains beginning from 1972. influenza b/76 viruses were divided into two groups depending on complete or partial neutralization by antiserum b/hong kong/7/75. the study of the ...1978749340
[immunologic memory in influenza patients according to the blast transformation reaction to specific antigen].one hundred-sixty patients with the laboratorily confirmed diagnosis of influenza were examined in the study on the capacity of t-and b-lymphocytes to retain immunological memory for influenza infection by the method of lymphocyte blast-cell transformation (lbt). the studies were carried out in the epidemic periods of influenza a2, a1, and b at various stages of the disease and convalescence. the lbt test was positive in 21--70% of tests depending on the time after the onset. memory cells were d ...1978749348
[determination of antibodies against influenza viruses, using the elisa method].a microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was adapted for the demonstration of antibodies to influenza a and b in 25 paired acute and convalescent sera taken from patients with influenza a infection, in 11 single convalescent sera collected from patients with acute respiratory infection and serological evidence of influenza b infection, in 14 paired sera collected from volunteers who were vaccinated with an aqueous inactivated influenza a and b vaccine, and in 15 serum sam ...1978350238
[determination of antibody specificity to a new influenza b virus variant by means of the immunoadsorption test].immunoadsorption test was used for determination of the strainspecificity of antibody to a new antigenic variant of influenza b virus (b/hong kong/5/72 and b/yamagata/1/73) in human sera collected in april, 1973--march, 1974. the new strains were shown to be circulating in moscow city only late in february and in march 1974. the experimental data show the immunoadsorption test to give more definite ideas not only on the qualitative differences between strains but also on the specificity of the i ...1975766407
influenza surveillance of wisconsin (usa) population-detection of a/new jersey by isolation and serologic monitoring and vaccine evaluation.the 1976-77 influenza surveillance in wisconsin consisted of three major areas of study. serum and virus isolation specimens were obtained from the practicing medical community and from epidemiologic studies. from all sources 1,132 throat specimens were tested by egg and tissue culture inoculations. three isolations similar to a/new jersey/8/76 were recovered from pig farm associated patients. one contact with one of the isolate patients seroconverted to a/new jersey suggesting patient to patien ...1977342315
[effect on drugs changing the intracellular level of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate on interferon formation in chick embryo cells of different ages].the effect of theophylline and adrenaline on the synthesis of interferon induced by the influenza b virus, strain lee, in a chick embryo tissue culture was studied. both preparation were found to decrease interferon synthesis when 5-day-old cultures were used; the inhibitory effect was increased when the two drugs were used together. the degree of inhibition of interferon production depended on a dose of the preparation; the inhibition was still present even when the drugs ere introduced several ...1975177123
seroepidemiological survey of hospital-associated populations in colombo, sri lanka.almost 1,500 sera from hospital-associated groups in colombo, sri lanka were tested for antibodies against melioidosis, scrub typhus, influenza, and group b arboviruses. a low prevalence of antibodies was found against meliodosis and scrub typhus. crude prevalence rates of more than 50% were encountered for antibodies against a influenza, and there was no apparent difference in rates when these were analysed according to age, sex, or ethnic background. influenza b antibodies were more prevalent ...1976829175
selection of influenza b virus recombinants and their testing in humans for attenuation and immunogenicity.the selection of influenza b virus recombinants from plaques in bovine kidney cell monolayers is described. two sets of recombinants were each derived from parents of high and low virulence for humans, respectively. recombination frequency was apparently high, and reassortment of genes made it possible to obtain attenuated recombinants containing the surface antigens of the virulent parents. attenuation and immunogenicity were demonstrated in a series of volunteer trials. however, technique prov ...1977844900
influenza b-associated reye's syndrome: incidence in michigan and potential for prevention.prospective surveillance for reye's syndrome in michigan revealed the occurrence of 46 cases between december 15, 1973 and june 1, 1974. in an attempt to determine the incidence of influenza b-associated reye's syndrome, a randomized point-prevalence survey of 1,041 schoolchildren was done in a county in michigan where there had been simultaneous outbreaks of influenza b and reye's syndrome. of the children tested, 20% had titers of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody to influenza virus b/hong ...1977850077
an outbreak of influenza b in a closed community school in uganda. 1977852457
influenza immunization: serologic and clinical responses in military units.two inactivated influenza-virus vaccines were tested and compared in three army training units in israel. the serological responses to the vaccines and the side-effects were assessed. the vaccines contained the influenza strains which were prevalent in 1974: a2/port chalmers/1/73 and b/hong kong/8/73. one of the vaccines also contained a2/england/42/72. both vaccines caused a more than three-fold rise in geometric mean titers against influenza a strains, and about a twofold rise in geometric mea ...1977881264
intradermal administration of bivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines.intradermal (id) administration of 0.1 ml of a bivalent influenza vaccine containing 40 cca units each of influenza a/new jersey (hswine 1n1) and a/victoria (h3n2) virus antigens and of a monovalent vaccine containing 100 cca units of influenza b/hong kong virus to 70 adult volunteers produced no serious reactions and only 7% bothersome side effects. excluding persons with high (1:64 or greater) initial antibody titers, then 90% and 85% of persons had fourfold or greater rises in hai antibodies ...1977889154
the antibody response of institutionalized down's syndrome patients to seven microbial antigens.an earlier cross-sectional study had revealed that institutionalized down's syndrome (ds) patients possessed much lower titres of hepatitis b surface antibodies (anti-hbs) than did their non-down's (nd) counterparts. in an attempt to determine whether ds patients were generally deficient in humoral antibody response, the inmates of an institution for the mentally retarded (110 ds, seventy-eight nd) were immunized with tetanus, diphtheria (toxoids), influenza a, influenza b (inactivated vaccines) ...1978148342
[relations between the principal classes of serum immunoglobulins and serodiagnostic tests in viroses. i. influenza infection].the relationship between the main serum immunoglobulin classes (igm, igg) and the positive diagnostic serologic tests (hemagglutination-inhibition and complement fixation) followed up in 30 paired serum samples from patients in the course of a primary influenza infection with b virus strain, before and after treatment with 2-me, showed actual participation of the igm molecules sensitive to 2-me in the cf test. hi with the serum fractions of patients and convalescents of influenza b, in the prese ...1975128106
reye's syndrome in the united states in 1977-1978, a non-influenza b virus year. 1979501157
rnas of influenza a, b, and c viruses.the nucleic acids of influenza a, b, and c viruses were compared. susceptibility to nucleases demonstrates that influenza c virus, just as influenza a and b viruses, possesses single-stranded rna as its genome. the base compositions of the rnas of influenza a, b, and influenza c virus are almost identical and comparative analysis on polyacrylamide gels shows that the genome of influenza c/gl/1167/54 virus, like that of the rnas of influenza a and b viruses, is segmented. eight distinct rna bands ...1976944790
[acute untreated interstitial myocarditis in the generalized form of influenza b]. 1979459242
influenza virus isolations from dogs during a human epidemic in taiwan.during an islandwide outbreak of human influenza in june and july 1971, throat swabs were taken from dogs and cats in 3 urban communities of taiwan. eight influenza isolates were obtained from dogs in july 1971: two were identified as influenza a closely related to the human hong kong/68 virus, and one was a strain of influenza type b closely resembling human influenza b virus. the latter is the first such reported isolation from dogs under natural conditions.1976977232
[interferonogenic capacity of strains influenza b virus and their sensitivity to exogenous interferon].this study is a continuation of the investgation of the influence of endogenous and exogenous interferon on influenza infection. influenza b virus strains, both laboratory and fresh isolates, were found to be poor interferon inducers in contrast to influenza a virus strains. the study also showed that influenza b virus strains not only induced endogenous interferon poorly but were also resistant to exogenous interferon. this evidence points to marked differences of the investigated influenza b v ...1976983000
clinical and serologic effects of live attenuated serum inhibitor-resistant influenza b vaccine in seronegative adults.the clinical effects, nasal and serum antibody responses, and virus excretion of a live attenuated serum inhibitor-resistant influenza b virus vaccine, r75, was evaluated in 43 seronegative healthy adults by a random double-blind study. symptom responses were minimal and were not significantly different between vaccine and placebo groups. no fevers, abnormalities in physical examination or laboratory testing developed during 4 weeks of observation. among vaccinees, 10 (48%) developed serum hemag ...1977344835
ultrastructural studies of influenza c. ii. von magnus phenomenon.influenza c was propagated by serial undiluted passage; conditions known to produce non-infectious (von magnus) particles with influenza a and b. following each passage infectious material was assayed for infectivity and haemagglutinating activity and the values related by calculating the log difference between infectivity and haemagglutinating titre (i:a ratio). infectious material from each pass was examined for ultrastruct aberrations by negative strain electron microscopy. influenza c exhibi ...1976994856
isolation, purification and characterization of polypeptides of influenza and parainfluenza viruses. note iii. polypeptides of three influenza virus strains isolated in romania.an analysis is presented of the nature, number and relative molecular mass of the polypeptides of three influenza virus strains-a/romania 1/73 (h3n2), a/romania 1/75 (h3n2), and b/romania 34/74-isolated during different epidemic outbreaks. the results obtained indicate some similarities between the protein subunits of the two influenza a virus strains (as concerns virus surface and nucleocapsid components) and point out the particular properties of the influenza b strain.19761006977
a comparison of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections among infants admitted to hospital with acute respiratory infections.among 741 children under 5 years admitted to hospital with respiratory infections during two winters, infection with influenza a virus was diagnosed in 70 (9%), with influenza b virus in 8 (1%), and with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in 259 (35%). both influenza virus and rsv infections were diagnosed most frequently in children under the age of one year, and diagnosed more frequently in males than females. influenza illnesses were more severe in boys than girls. both infections occurred mor ...19761069818
reye's syndrome and post-influenza-b hepatotoxicity. 19751114852
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to influenza a and b and parainfluenza type 1 in sera of patients.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the detection of antibodies to influenza a/hong kong/1/68, influenza a/victoria/3/75, influenza b/hong kong/5/72, and parainfluenza type 1 viruses. development and standardization of the method indicated that an acetone-ethyl alcohol mixture was a suitable fixative for the preparation of the solid-phase coupled antigen. the addition of sodium azide to the enzyme-conjugated solution and the concentrations of the enzyme-conjugate antig ...1978217892
synthesis and antiviral acticity of some phosphates of the broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside, 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (ribavirin).1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide 5'-phosphate (2) was prepared and converted into the following derivatives: the 5'-phosphoramidate 3, the 5'-diphosphate 4, the 5'-triphosphate 5, and the cyclic 3',5'-phosphate 6. the cyclic 2',3'-phosphate 7 was prepared from the parent nucleoside, 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (1), and was opened to the 2'(3')-phosphate 8. these compounds were found to exhibit significant antiviral activity against several viruses in ce ...1978211234
[is there evidence for antigenic drift of influenza c viruses? (author's transl)].antigenic differences between the influenza c strains c/1233/47 (taylor), c/paris/1/67 and strains isolated in johannesburg 1967 have been reported (pereira, 1969). our experiments performed with chicken immune sera did not differentiate clearly between the strains c/paris/1/67 and c/jhb/4/67, however, antigenic differences between the strains c/1233/47 and the strains isolated in 1967 could be confirmed. these antigenic differences were found to be of approximately the same degree as those obse ...19751154916
reye's syndrome: epidemiologic and viral studies, 1963-1974.fifty-eight children with reye's syndrome (rs) confirmed by liver biopsy were treated at the university of cincinnati between 1963 and 1974. cases were clustered in the winter and spring with the peak in february and march. these coincided with the occurrence of influenza and, numerically, were associated more closely with influenza b than with influenza a. six of the 58 cases were associated with chickenpox. twenty-six children with rs were seen from 1963 to 1971, before the beginning of a syst ...19751155430
identification of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of influenza b virus.the genome of influenza b viruses was shown by electrophoresis to consist of eight rna segments. the fifth largest segment coded for hemagglutinin and the sixth coded for neuraminidase.1978625089
nosocomial influenza infection as a cause of intercurrent fevers in infants.all patients on an infants' ward manifesting intercurrent fevers were studied for viral and bacterial etiology during a community outbreak of influenza a. during a one-month period, of 29 infants admitted to the ward, 17 were hospitalized for seven or more days. intercurrent fever complicated the course of 13 (76%) of these 17 infants. nosocomially acquired influenza a infection was found in 13 infants. two of these also contracted a dual infection with influenza b. the fever lasted an aver ...19751168894
[epidemiological phenomenon and antigenic study of influenza b]. 19751169550
reye syndrome with associated influenza a and b infection.in early 1974, seventeen children were treated for reye syndrome. thirteen of these were studied for laboratory evidence of concomitant viral infection. influenza b/hong kong was isolated from the pharynx in four of nine 1974 cases tested. one child had just recovered from varicella. adenovirus type 2 and respiratory syncytial virus were isolated from two additional patients. serologic tests for influenza suggested concomitant or recent influenza b infection in ten of 13 of 1971 cases. during fe ...19751174373
monitoring of influenza in israel 1976/77.the main objectives of the monitoring were: (1) to define the prevalent virus involved in influenza activity: (2) to determine the time of its occurrence; and (3) to evaluate its extent and impact. a sudden rise in the frequency of visits associated with acute respiratory conditions in the age group 0-14 to the emergency rooms of 14 hospitals throughout the country, correlated well with the start of influenza b/hong kong activity; this was simultaneously attested by two different laboratories. t ...1977604128
tracheobronchial clearance in health and disease: with special reference to interciliary fluid.rats were exposed to influenza b virus for 2 hours. mucociliary function in the isolated airway preparation of these animals was studied from the first day after exposure and at regular intervals for up to 190 days. transmission electron microscopy (tem) studies were done at times corresponding to the mucociliary function studies. tem studies confirmed the results of the mucociliary function studies: pathological changes were first apparent three days after exposure and began in the distal bronc ...1978248013
permanent canine kidney (mdck) cells for isolation and plaque assay of influenza b viruses.a wide range of influenza b virus strains with various passage histories uniformly formed well-defined clear plaques with high efficiency in cultures of an established line of canine kidney cells (mdck). pfu titers of the viruses assayed in mdck exceeded the titers assayed in ovo. with recently isolated strains such as b/hong kong/5/72 and gifu/2/73, the pfu/eid50 ratios were as high as 100 to 400. mdck cells have been successfully employed for primary isolation of influenza b viruses from throa ...19751214707
the effect of atp on lactic dehydrogenase (ldh) activity and influenza b virus multiplication.the authors investigated the effect of atp, an energy supplying substance, on the activity of ldh, an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway and on the multiplication of influenza virus strain b/singapore in embryonate hen eggs. in the presence of atp the increase in ldh activity could be detected from the first 1-3 hours and became obvious after 24 hours; likewise, virus multiplication was more intensive so that the hemagglutinating (ha) activity appeared 12 hours earlier than in controls and the inc ...19751216689
[comparative study on the properties of influenza b viruses isolated in 1959-1974].the biological properties and antigenic structure of the following influenza b virus strains were compared: moscow/likh/59, moscow/106/62, moscow/1/66, hong kong/5/72, yamagata/73 and ussr/01/4. the influenza b virus strains isolated in 1972-1974 differed by hemagglutinin from those isolated in 1959-1966. the variability of hemagglutinin correlated with that of neuraminidase. yamagata/73 virus occupied a special position both with regard to the structure of surface antigens and to some other bio ...19751216839
clinical reactions and serologic response following inactivated monovalent influenza type b vaccine in young children and infants.a monovalent, zonally purified, inactivated influenza b vaccine was administered to 29 children, 3 to 6 years of age, and 16 infants, 12 to 28 months of age, as a single dose of 0.25 ml containing 250 chick cell agglutinating units. the vaccine was both antigenic and well tolerated in the older group of preschool children. in the infants the vaccine was also antigenic but poorly tolerated clinically. febrile reactions to 102 or greater were seen in 9 of the 16 infants, and two of these infants e ...19761245939
[importance of replacing the support medium for viral interferonogenesis in tissue culture].interferonogenesis in the cells of chick embryos induced by strain lee of influenza b virus was studied. the levels of interferon production with and without changing the medium before the cell inoculation with the interferonogens were compared. it was shown that preliminary changing of the medium resulted in a statistically reliable increase in production of interferon as compared to that without the medium changing. it was found that the increase in the synthesis of interferon under the condit ...1976179461
effect of blood group determinants on binding of human salivary mucous glycoproteins to influenza virus.we have demonstrated that the inhibitor of influenza b virus hemagglutination in human saliva is inactivated by neuraminidase and is associated with the mucous glycoprotein fraction (blood group substance) of this secretion. inhibitory activity of saliva was found to be roughly proportional to its sialic acid content (r = 0.456). however, the minimal quantity of salivary sialic acid, neutral sugar, or blood group antigen required to inhibit virus hemagglutination was greater for secretors of a a ...1978638205
reactogenicity and immunogenicity of bivalent influenza a and monovalent influenza b virus vaccines in high-risk children.seventy-nine high-risk children were immunized with either commercial, bivalent, split-product influenza a vaccine or purified hemagglutinin-neuraminidase bivalent influenza a vaccine, and 78 of these subjects were immunized with commercial, monovalent, influenza b split-product vaccine. the reactogenicity of all three vaccines was low, and there were no severe reactions. twenty-nine subjects who received hemagglutinin-neuraminidase vaccine as their initial dose and commercial split-product vac ...1977606790
from the centers for disease control and prevention. update: influenza activity, 1992. 19921279227
an influenza b epidemic among children in day-care.an outbreak of influenza virus type b infections occurred in the frank porter graham day care center from february to april, 1974. during the epidemic there were 27 isolations of influenza b virus from 20 children. one half of these were obtained from children who were well at the time of culturing. attack rates as determined by virus isolation and seroconversion for most age groups approximated the 40% rate for the entire population. clinical and microbiological data from this study were compar ...1976958761
national advisory committee on immunization (naci). statement on influenza vaccination for the 1992-93 season. 19921284383
[the inhibitory effects of catechin derivatives on the activities of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and dna polymerases].catechin derivatives including (-)-epicatechin gallate (ecg), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (egcg), (-)-epigallocatechin (egc) and green tea extract (gte) were found to inhibit the activities of cloned human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (hiv-1 rt), duck hepatitis b virus replication complexes reverse transcriptase (dhbv rcs rt), herpes simplex virus 1 dna polymerase (hsv-1 dnap) and cow thymus dna polymerase alpha (ct dnap alpha). egcg and ecg were shown to be very potent i ...19921284389
influenza surveillance in england and wales: november 1991-june 1992. 19921285133
influenza in canada, 1990-91 and 1991-92 season. 19921291002
urticaria subsequent to administration of influenza vaccine.described is an 11-year-old girl who had a reaction including urticaria and asthma to influenza immunization. the urticaria lasted for nine days. this patient had no clinical sensitivity to egg and no skin test reactivity to egg, but she did show positive skin test reactions to influenza b and bivalent flu vaccine. since passive transfer did not produce positive skin tests, it would appear that the reactions were not ige-mediated. the patient has not had subsequent urticaria. the possibility exi ...1979482996
[influenza b in the winter-spring season of 1991 in children (based on polyclinic and hospital data)]. 19921291952
asymptomatic glomerulonephritis after nonstreptococcal upper respiratory infections.two hundred forty previously healthy military personnel with nonstreptococcal upper respiratory infections were prospectively studied to define the incidence and clinicopathologic characteristics of possible virus-associated glomerulonephritis. nine patients without preceding streptococcal infection had erythrocyte casts on urinalysis and glomerulonephritis on biopsy. of these nine, four had a reduction in total hemolytic complement and five had serologic evidence of infection with adenovirus, i ...1979227300
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