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rabies glycoprotein purification by isoelectric focusing (author's transl).a glycoprotein was extracted with triton x100 from rabies virus grown in primary foetal bovine kidney cells. this glycoprotein was further purified by iso electro focusing and showed a major peak at ph 7,0 and a smaller peak at ph 4,6. purified fractions were migrated on polyacrylamide gels and assayed for immunogenicity.197614578
possible role of measles, rubella and mumps viruses in multiple sclerosis. 197717282
comparison of the ribonucleoproteins of different rabies virus serotypes by radioimmunoassay.radioimmunoassay (ria) provides a sensitive serological procedure for detecting rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (rnp) as well as its specific antibodies, ria was carried out using highly purified rnps labelled by the chloramine-t method. this paper describes optimal conditions for iodination of rnp with high specific activity. the optimal concentrations of 125i, rnp, chloramine-t, and reducing agent as well as the effect of ph on the reaction were investigated. ria proved to be extremely sensitiv ...197722569
transcriptase activity associated with rabies virion.rabies virion-associated transcriptase activity was investigated in vitro and compared with that of the new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus. the concentration of detergent that affected 3hgmp incoporation into acid-insoluble material was significantly different for both viruses. vesicular stomatitis virus new jersey required 0.05 to 0.1% nonionic detergent, whereas rabies virion could not be fully activated unless 4 to 5% detergent was used. other optimal conditions were as follows ...197722766
application of a tricin-buffered modification of the cmrl-1969 medium in cell and virus cultivation (author's transl).cmrl-1969 medium (healy et al., 1971) was modified by using 0.02 molar n-tris-(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-glycin (= tricin) instead of bicarbonate as the buffer substance. several permanent cell lines and primary cell cultures did not show growth differences in the two medium variants. like other non volatile buffers tricin abolishes the initial increase of the ph in freshly split or newly fed closed vessel cultures, but in 0.02 m concentration maintains the same buffering capacity of the medium as c ...197724962
an rna polymerase activity in purified rabies virions.an rna polymerase activity has been demonstrated in purified rabies virions. efficiency of the reaction is low since the rate of incorporation was equal to 3 to 5 pmol of uridine per hour, per mg of protein. as with other mammalian rhabdoviruses the optimal temperature was 31 degrees c. unlike vesicular stomatitis virus, manganese could be substituted for magnesium as a divalent cation, at an optimum concentration of 10 to 20 mm.197829077
allergic encephalitis, rabies antibodies, and the blood/brain barrier.similarity of the syndromes of rabies and of encephalomyelitis resulting from rabies vaccination poses a problem in differential diagnosis that has had tragic consequences. that difficulty may also be largely responsible for the traditional belief that rabies is inexorably fatal, in that recovery from paralysis is interpreted as evidence that the disease was postvaccinal encephalomyelitis rather than rabies. diagnosis is additionally complicated by presence of rabies antibodies in serum in both ...197938289
chronic form of experimental rabies in mice.the l-28 strain of street rabies virus isolated from the salivary gland of a red fox caused chronic infection in mice. after intracerebral (i.e.) infection with virus-containing fox salivary gland suspension, 13.9% of mice showed clinical signs of disease for 11--52 days. clear-cut stages of irritation and paralysis were distinguished in the course of infection of mice. the diagnosis of chronic rabies in mice was confirmed by immunofluorescence and isolation of virus by i.c. inoculation of mice. ...197939437
early events in non-lethal rabies infection.inoculation of sublethal doses of rabies virus strains isolated from small wild rodents resulted in non-lethal infection of white mice. during the first 48 hr after inoculation the virus neutralizing and protection activities in mouse sera and brain suspensions increased, followed by a transient decrease on the 3rd and 4th day. in some cases there also occurred transient multiplication of virus, which retained a relatively high infectivity for mice.197940421
[interferon induced in the hamster by subunits of "nocardia": essay of protection against rabies (author's transl)].lipid-free cells of nocardia opaca and a cell extract (nwsm) are interferon inducers in syrian hamsters: peak interferon appears 2 h after injection as compared to 8 h in the case of interferon induced by inactivated ndv virus. the interferon induced by nocardia product is inactivated by a treatment for 30 min at 56 degrees c or 24 h at ph 2: ndv-induced interferon is more stable under these conditions. hamsters inoculated with nwsm before and after infection with rabies virus are partially prot ...197943690
[rabies specific igm- and igg-antibody response in persons immunized with hdcs vaccine according to the essen postexposure vaccination schedule (author's transl)].a solid phase enzyme immunoassay (elisa) was applied for the determination of rabies virus antibodies of the immunoglobulin classes g and m in sera of 10 young adults. vaccinations were carried out with the essen post-exposure vaccination schedule, which is recommended by the w.h.o., with the rabies hdcs vaccine with an antigen value of 1.9. from these results the rabies virus igm/igg-conversion was derived. furthermore a comparison was carried out of results obtained with the elisa, the mouse n ...197944937
letter: asymptomatic non-fatal canine rabies. 197547030
immunogenicity and acceptability of a human diploid-cell culture rabies vaccine in volunteers.a rabies vaccine, prepared in human diploid-cell culture, was given intradermally (i.d.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) to 35 volumteers who had not previously received prophylactic immunisation. rabies neutralising antibody titres rose sharply after the first dose, and 4 weeks after the second dose all titres were above 1/80 (1-7 i.u. per ml.). immunisation via the i.d. and i.m. routes was equally successful in terms of likely immune status, but the i.d. rate was associated with many more local si ...197547083
letters to the editor: is the negri body specific for rabies? 197548371
preservation of stained and unstained tissue impressions for the rabies fluorescent antibody test. 197550119
[study of the antigenic relationship of different strains of the rabies group viruses].in neutralization tests in animals close antigenic relationship between human virus of acute encephalomyelitis (aem) and viruses (297 and 598 sg strains) isolated from wild rodents in czechoslovakia was first established. at the same time, poor antigenic relationship of human aem virus to viruses isolated in africa from bats (lagos bat) and from shrews (yban 27377) was demonstrated. certain differences in the antigenic properties of viruses isolated in africa and in czechoslovakia were found. t ...197554997
absence of neuraminidase from influenza c virus.influenza c viruses did not possess neuraminidase activity when examined using either fetuin or sialyllactose as substrate. purified preparations of influenza c virus inhibited hemagglutination by nws hemagglutinin. the hemagglutination inhibiting activity was abolished by treatment of influenza c virus with neuraminidase. these findings indicated the absence of neuraminidase activity on influenza c virus particles.197656930
use of the hemadsorption phenomenon for determining virus and neutralizing antibody titers of rabies.chicken embryo cells infected with the hep flury strain of rabies virus adapted to tissue culture produced a hemadsorption (had) phenomenon by using goose erthyrocytes. the optimal conditions for had included the incubation of cell cultures at 37c for 3 days after virus inoculation, the use of a 0.4% suspension of goose erythrocytes in phosphate buffer adjusted at ph 6.2, and adsorption of erythrocytes at 4c. this phenomenon was inhibited with anti-rabies serum. virus titer obtained with the had ...197657927
letter: intensive care in rabies therapy. 197659276
specificity of the agar gel microimmunodiffusion test in rabies diagnostics.the agar-gel microimmunodiffusion test (midt) with commercially available antirabies sera from different sources was applied to evaluation of rabies infection at about 500 brains from suspected animals. the high nonspecificity of the test and false positive results with nonvirulent materials were stated when compared with the histopathological, biological and fa tests. for evaluation of the nonspecificity and its cause, different antirabies sera and brain antigens from noninfected and rabid anim ...197659529
laboratory investigations on "postvaccinall rabies" caused by live sheep-brain vaccine.the viral ethiology of postvaccinal complications among 30 dogs vaccinated by live antirabies vaccine (umeno-doi type, sheep brain vaccine) was fully confirmed. three lots of virulent vaccine were inoculated subcutaneously into groups of "wistar" rats according to the different schemes. between the 1st and 12th day after the end of the vaccination there were no isolations of fixed virus in direct and blind i.c. passages of suspensions made from the thalamus area on succkling mice and rats. also ...197659530
[comparative study "in vitro" between rabies and rabies related viruses by the sensitized lymphocytes technique].rabbit lymphocytes obtained from animals previously exposed to rabies virus undergo a specific lymphoblastic transformation when incubated in vitro in the presence of either the complete virus or a nucleocapsid fraction. this type of in vitro transformation was observed by the pasteur, lagos, mokola, obodhiang viruses as well as the virus hep in cells originally exposed only to the virus hep. in additions to the morphological changes of lymphoblastic transformation, 3h-thymidine incorporation wa ...197660074
detection of antigenic differences among street and fixed rabies virus strains by the counterimmunoelectrophoresis test.using the counterimmunoelectrophoresis test, two street rabies virus strains (mangosta and apipe) revealed antigens not detected in the standard challenge virus (cvs). no antigenic differences, however, were found between cvs and another fixed rabies virus strain (strain 91) by this method. the results of serum neutralization tests revealed similar antigenic relationships among the rabies virus strains studied. these findings are discussed in terms of their significance to antigenic variations i ...197665070
isolation and assay of rabies serogroup viruses in cer cells.infection of cer cell cultures with field strains of rabies virus, ranging from 0 to 5 mouse brain passages, was detected by immunoflurescence within 2-4 days after infection. a fluorescent focus assay for measuring infectivity of seven rabies serogroup viruses was rapid and reproducible. rabies field strians and other rabies serogroup viruses also induced cytopathic effect, usually on initial passage. the hemadsorption-negative (had-) plaque test in bsc-1 cells was successfully applied to labor ...197767104
rabies virus infection in mouse neuroblastoma cells.as part of an inquiry into factors that determine the virulence of fixed rabies virus, mouse neuroblastoma cells were infected in culture with high virulence and low virulence strains of flury hep virus. low virulence virus infection differed from high virulence virus infection in (1) its more rapid production of progeny virus in the early cycles of virus infection as shown by the number of extracellular virus particles and the infectivity of the supernatant fluid; (2) its earlier development o ...197768172
enzyme immunoassay for demonstration of rabies-virus antibodies after immunisation. 197770604
haemagglutinin from rabies viruses. 197771417
light-microscopical diagnosis of rabies. a reappraisal.the validity of reports suggesting that lyssa and negri bodies are non-specific in the light-microscopical diagnosis of rabies was investigated. with seller's impression technique, a substantial proportion of speciments found to be non-rabid with the fluorescent-antibody technique showed structures indistinguishable from lyssa or negri bodies. neither histological examination nor inoculation of animals with non-rabid seller-positive material explained the nature of these rabies-like structures. ...197875337
post-exposure local treatment of mice infected with rabies with two axonal flow inhibitors, colchicine and vinblastine.post-exposure protection of rabies-infected mice was observed by proximal application of axonal flow inhibitors, particularly vinblastine, to the local nerve(s). these observations indicate that rabies virus is transported by the axonal flow of the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system. both a fixed virus (cvs) and a street (sylvatic) virus were used. this model in mice could be used to develop an additional post-exposure local treatment of rabies infection in man, by infiltrating loca ...197877308
isolation and purification of a polymeric form of the glycoprotein of rabies virus.of the three major proteins associated with the rabies virus membrane, only the glycoprotein was found to be located on the external surface of the virus membrane. glycoprotein prepared by treatment of rabies virus with triton x-100 and purified by isoelectric focusing was found to be homogeneous with respect to size and isoelectric point. this material, which is free of phospholipids, is able to protect in vaccination experiments against a lethal challenge infection with rabies virus. the appar ...197880443
[treatment with inactivated cultured antirabies vaccine and antirabies gamma-globulin of persons biten by rabid wolves or those suspected of being rabid].the authors present the results of using inactivated cultural rabies vaccine from the vnukovo-32 strain in combination with rabies gamma-globulin for the treatment of 39 persons; of this number 28 were bitten by rabid wolves (the diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory methods), 25 had wounds of dangerous localization, and 3 were children from 7 to 15 years of age. in examining the sera of all the 39 bitten persons it was found that the scheme of combined vaccinations with inactivated cultural rib ...197885398
evidence for an intraaxonal transport of fixed and street rabies virus.colchicine was used to inhibit axonal transport and to demonstrate that rabies virus spread from the peripheral inoculation site to the cns by the retrograde axoplasmic flow. colchicine was applied by the mean of elastomer implants around the sciatic nerve of young rats in order to obtain higher local concentrations of the drug. this procedure avoided the systemic effects of colchicine encountered with the usual treatment. to confirm the efficiency of the axoplasmic flow inhibition by colchicine ...197986604
ultrastructure of peripheral nerves of mice inoculated with rabies virus.fourty adult female albino mice were inoculated in the right hind leg with rabies viruses of the street type. the mice were sacrificed with an interval of 24 hours each, starting in the next day after inoculation. from the 10th day ownwards the animals started presenting signs of paralysis, first on the leg where the viruses were inoculated anbnormalities were found in peripheral nerves compatible with axonal degeneration with secondary demyelination but the rabies viruses were not found in the ...197991359
[monoclonal antibodies in virology]. 197993349
[distribution of the rabies virus in the central nervous system of naturally infected foxes].quantitative distribution of rabies virus and the character of immunofluorescence in various parts of the central nervous system [cns] and salivary glands were investigated in 21 naturally infected foxes. a mean death period was recorded in mice infected with the virus obtained from various parts of the cns and salivary glands of the investigated foxes. the highest average titer of the virus was found out in the salivary glands - 4.46 log mld50 per 0.03 ml i. c. the average titer was 2.30 log in ...197897842
pre-immunization and post-exposure treatment with inactivated rabies vaccine of chick embryo cell culture origin (cec).routine laboratory assay revealed that the potency of concentrated rabies vaccine of chick embryo cell culture (cec) origin was in the same level compared with suckling mouse brain (smb) vaccine. over one hundred persons received two doses of cec vaccine at an interval of one week and produced high level of neutralizing antibody against rabies virus. the monkeys experimentally infected with street rabies virus were satisfactorily protected by subcutaneous inoculation with cec vaccine one hour af ...197898373
production of an inactivated rabies vaccine in primary dog kidney cells.in this paper the large-scale production of a purified inactivated rabies vaccine in primary dog kidney cells cultivated in microcarrier culture is described. the potency in the nih-test and the antigenicity of this vaccine in other animal experiments were comparable with the antigenicity of vaccine prepared in human diploid cells. the antibody response was greatly enhanced by the addition of aipo4 as adjuvant. the results of an initial clinical trial are presented.197898375
intramuscular and/or intralumbar postexposure treatment of rabies virus-infected cynomolgus monkeys with human interferon.from 9 to 10 of 10 cynomolgus monkeys infected with rabies street virus died of rabies about 20 days postinfection (pi). symptoms of illness appeared 1 to 4 days before death. in an attempt to protect infected animals from the disease, human leukocyte interferon (hif) was administered intramuscularly (i.m.) near the site of infection or into the cerebrospinal fluid between the first and second lumbar vertebrae (i.e., intralumbarly [i.l.]). multiple hif doses given over a period of several days p ...1979110693
[immunochemical characterization of rabies virus: determination of precipitable antigens].immunodiffusion and immuno-electrophoresis techniques were used to detect rabies precipitable antigens. the passive haemagglutination test with group "o" human red cells treated with tannic acid, was used as control test. the study was done with brain suspensions of rabies virus infected mice (cvs strain). mouse and horse rabies antisera were used. the analysis of the results of both immunochemical assays showed the presence of two specific antigenic fractions of rabies virus. the same two fract ...1978116328
immune globulins. 1979117551
an effective rabies treatment in exposed monkeys: a single dose of interferon inducer and vaccine.rhesus monkeys were injected with lethal doses of rabies virus and then treated with a variety of treatment combinations. the one found most successful was one dose of an interferon inducer (poly(i)-poly(c) complexed to poly-l-lysine and carboxymethyl-cellulose) and one dose of human diploid rabies vaccine. this combination proved to be as effective as hyperimmune serum and vaccine, and much better than vaccine alone. the combination of the interferon inducer plus vaccine could be administered a ...1979120234
[isolation of rabies virus from siberian polecats in kazakhstan]. 1975129961
lyssavirus infection of muscle spindles and motor end plates in striated muscle of hamsters.immunofluorescent, light, and electron microscopy were used to document lyssavirus infection of muscle spindles and motor end plates. virus particles were seen in the narrow intercellular space between sensory nerve endings and intrafusal muscle fibers; they were also observed budding from intracellular and plasma membranes of the latter. involvement of motor nerves and motor end plates could only be demonstrated by electron microscopy. in nature, rabies virus invasion of the peripheral nervous ...1978149526
[abortive infection of white mice with rabies virus (author's transl)]. 1978152158
structure-function relationships and mode of replication of animal rhabdoviruses.recently accumulated knowledge allows more precise comparison of the structural (and possibly evolutionary) relationships of several different animal rhabdoviruses: vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, kern canyon virus, and spring viremia of carp virus. each virus is composed primarily of a glycoprotein, an rna-associated nucleoprotein, and one or two membrane proteins. vesicular stomatitis virus group viruses contain lesser amounts of two additional distinct polypeptides, ns and l. the se ...1975165494
comparative study of the protein kinase associated with animal viruses. 1975166492
[bovine viruses and methods for their detection]. 1975169627
treatment of wounds from animals suspected of carrying neurotropic viruses.the methods used at the clinical research centre, northwick park hospital, to treat wounds potentially infected with neurotropic viruses are outlined. emphasis is laid on first aid and on surgical attention. patients should remain under medical supervision for at least four weeks after the injury, the need for specific post-exposure treatment depending on the nature of the exposure.1975169950
[sensitivity of various primate cells and animal viruses to the antiviral activity of human leukocyte interferon (author's transl)].u cells (a permanent, human amnion cell line) were protected against infection with semliki forest virus (sfv) by human interferon (hif) from peripheral leukocytes. despite the usual genus-specific action of interferons, mouse l929 cultures (a permanent mouse fibroblast cell line) were also protected by hif. the antiviral action of hif in six other primate cell cultures was also examined. it is of interest that two lymphoblastoid cell lines, rpmi1788 and kaplan, were insensitive to hif. the sens ...1975170886
purification of defective interfering t particles of vesicular stomatitis and rabies viruses generated in vivo in brains of newborn mice. 1975171834
characterization of rabies viruses recovered from persistently infected bhk cells. 1975171839
international arbovirus research.international cooperation in arbovirus research became increasingly prominent shortly after it was found in the early 1940's, that antigenic relationships existed among certain viruses isolated in different areas of thw world. the interest of a number of scientists and of a private organization led to the establishment of an international information exchange and to the preparation of an international catalogue of arboviruses including certain other viruses of vertebrates. international cooperat ...1975173936
factors involved in the generation and replication of rhabdovirus defective t particles.previous indications that cloned b virions might be genetically predisposed to generate a particular defective t particle are shown to be inaccurate. t particle generation was found to be a much more random process than was previously believed. we show that the previously observed generation of particular sizes of t particles by b virion pools is due to the random generation of t particles during preparation of first-passage pools of cloned b virions, and these breed true during the additional p ...1976176445
thermal inactivation of rabies and other rhabdoviruses: stabilization by the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at physiological temperatures.thermal inactivation of rabies and several other rhabdoviruses was studied using virus suspended in several different diluents. rabies serogroup viruses were more stable than kern canyon or vesicular stomatitis viruses. limited studies of two fish rhabdoviruses requiring low temperatures (less than 33 c) for replication indicated that they were not markedly more thermolabile than rabies virus. bovine serum protein components in complex cell culture media stabilized virus at 56 c, but at temperat ...1976181323
interaction of mouse peritoneal macrophages with fixed rabies virus in vivo and in vitro.the resistance of mice to intraperitoneal and intramuscular infection with fixed rabies virus increases with age. treatment of mature animals with either silica, indian ink or antimacrophage serum, which are cytotoxic for macrophages, reduced their resistance to intraperitoneal, but not to intramuscular or intracerebral infection. transfer of peritoneal macrophages from adults to syngeneic suckling mice delayed but did not prevent mortality from intraperitoneal infection: transfer of peritoneal ...1976181533
replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.the replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. the temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. virus yi ...1976183806
enhanced growth and plaquing of rabies virus in static chick embryo cell culture.the 7-day egg passage line of hep flury strain of rabies virus was inoculated to primary chick embyro (ce) cells prepared in different ways to compared efficiencies of viral growth and plaquing. special care to minimize cellular damage due to trypsin at the step of monodispersion and sowing a comparatively large number of cells for monolayer preparation were required for rabies plaquing, whereas such cares were not necessary for plaquing of vesicular stomatitis virus. plaque number and size were ...1976185442
long-term persistent vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus infection of cells in vitro.bhk 21 carrier cells persistently infected with vsv indiana for over 2 years have been shedding generally very low levels of mature infectious virus or mature t particles (averaging less than one-hundredth p.f.u./cell/day) yet most cells are producing virus antigens and are resistant to homologous superinfection. however, large amounts of biologically active t particle rnp can be recovered from cytoplasmic extracts of these carrier cells even at times when they are shedding no detectable infecti ...1976186559
rna synthesis in bhk 21 cells persistently infected with vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus.virus-induced rna synthesis was studied in bhk 21 cells persistently infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and rabies virus by labelling rna synthesized in the presence of antinomycin d. during persistent infection the species of messenger rna synthesized were similar in size and relative proportions to those seen during acute infection, but there were some minor differences. full-sized b virion rna was generally not detected during persistent infection, and new species (probably di vir ...1976186560
in vivo interference in vesicular stomatitis virus infection.inactivated defective interfering and complete particles of vesicular stomatitis virus given intracerebrally to adult mice protect them against challenge with homologous virus whether this is given at the same time or several days later. two separate protective processes appear to be involved. the first, which comes into operation immediately after inoculation, is also effective against heterologous strains of vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies (another rhabdovirus), and a neurotropic strain of ...1977191397
effect of actinomycin d and cytosine arabinoside on rabies and vsv multiplication. 1977193271
application of the critical point dried whole cell technique to the study of animal rhabdoviruses.the critical point dried (cpd) whole cell technique was applied to the study of the morphogenesis and morphology of rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) in mouse neuroblastoma and baby hamster kidney (bhk) cells. with the stereoscopic technique, progeny viruses at the cell surface and within the cytoplasm of the cpd whole cells were clearly visualized. the presence of many fine cellular processes and of virus budding from these processes were prominent features of the infected cells ...1978201590
ultrastructural localization of rabies virus antigens in infected trigeminal ganglion of hamsters.the trigeminal ganglion of hamsters infected with cvs strain of rabies virus was investigated by electron microscopy with peroxidase-labeled antibody. major localization of virus antigens were the following three types of structures; rabies virion, cytoplasmic inclusion, and ribosomal granules consisting of nissl body. rabies virions in neurons were mostly found within the cluster of such ribosome-rich regions suggesting a close relationship between the two in the synthesis of virus antigen. the ...1978211787
identification of cellular actin within the rabies virus. 1978214957
rous sarcoma virus blockade by rabies virus strains and rabies-induced plasma factor. 1978215539
absence of interferon production in a newly established human cell line.a cell line established from human embryonic lung, hel-r66, was demonstrated to be highly susceptible to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, vaccinia virus, newcastle disease virus (ndv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), western equine encephalitis (wee) virus, sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and rabies virus. the maximal yields of ndv, jev, wee virus, and rabies virus in this cell line exceeded by 2--4 logs those in control human embryonic lung cells. inability of this cell l ...1979218901
rabies virus infection selectively impairs membrane receptor functions in neuronal model cells.a persistent infection with rabies virus (hep-flury) was established in the cns-derived hybrid cell line 108cc15 which possesses specific membrane receptors for prostaglandins, catecholamines and acetylcholine. we report a differential virus influence on the specific receptor response to pge, isoproterenol and acetycholine as indicated by typical changes of the intracellular cyclic amp levels. as the adenylate cyclase activity was unchanged in infected cells in vitro, a selective virus influence ...1979219141
[effect of host cells on the course of chronic rabies virus infection in cell cultures].different patterns of rabies virus infection were observed in bhk-21/13s and hep-2 cell cultures at late stages of persistent infections. the infection of bhk-21/13s cells was characterized by periodical increases and declines in the portion of the antigen-containing cells (from 100% to less than 1%) and low infectivity titers which did not correspond to fluctuations in the antigen production and occasional resistance to challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus. in contrast, persistently infect ...1978219626
new approach to the production of concentrated and purified inactivated polio and rabies tissue culture vaccines.the preparation of inactivated polio and rabies vaccine in tissue culture has been developed into a "unit process" at our laboratory during recent years. the process comprises trypsinization of animal kidney cells by the perfusion method, cell/virus cultivation in microcarrier culture and concentration and purification of the virus suspension followed by inactivation. also, the control tests on the virus suspensions and vaccines are performed, to the greatest possible extent, according to the sa ...1978223908
large-scale concentration and purification of virus suspension from microcarrier culture for the preparation of inactivated virus vaccines.because of the presence of bovine serum proteins in poliovirus and rabiesvirus suspensions harvested from microcarrier cultures, a concentration and purification process has been developed in order to remove these proteins. the process comprises clarification by filtration, concentration by ultrafiltration, gel filtration on sepharose 6b and column chromatography on deae-sephadex a50. the serum protein content of the virus suspensions if reduced to a serum dilution of less than 1: 10(6) at a vir ...1979223923
[rabies (author's transl)]. 1979230472
influence of rabies virus on the oncogenesis in marek's disease. 1979232370
interferon production by rabies strains isolated from wild rodents.eight rabies strains isolated from wild rodents produced interferon in laboratory mouse brains the second day after inoculation. low levels of interferon were also detected in the serum, kidneys and lungs of the animals. the dosage and route of inoculation had no pronounced effect on interferon production.1975235203
effect of alkaline maintenance medium upon the growth of rabies virus in chick embryo cells.hep flury strain of rabies virus was propagated in chick embryo cells under maintenance media of different ph. it was found that viral growth was better and reached a markedly higher maximum titer when the initial ph of maintenance medium was 8.2 to 9.0 than when it was 7.4. the enhancement of viral growth was not ascribable to mere neutralization of acids produced from infected cells, because the different media became almost equally neutral within an early phase of growth curve. serial passage ...1975238491
[modification of the strain flury hep after its adaptation to cell culture. development of experimental vaccine for veterinary use].the rabies strain flury hep, adapted in our laboratory to bhk21 cells, shows, after 20 passages on this cell, an important modification of its pathogenic characteristics on adult mice, guinea pigs and hamsters. an experimental vaccine made with this adapted strain gives a good sero-conversion rate when injected by the intramuscular route to a group of dogs.1978262969
monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus produced by somatic cell hybridization: detection of antigenic variants.somatic cell hybrids (hybridomas) between mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells derived from balb/c mice immunized with inactivated rabies vaccine were found to produce antibodies to rabies virus. monoclonal antibodies with different specificities were obtained either from the mass culture directly after fusion or from clones derived from a single-cell cloning procedure. several strains of fixed or street rabies virus were analyzed by virus neutralization procedures which demonstrated differences ...1978279009
in vitro evidence of cell-mediated immunity after exposure of mice to both live and inactivated rabies virus.mice exposed to live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated rabies virus generated a strong, specific cell-mediated cytotoxic response which was generally maximal 6 days after inoculation. release of 51cr was apparently a function of immune thymus-derived lymphocytes (t cells) because it was abrogated by prior incubation of spleen cells with anti-thymus antiserum and complement but was undiminished by passage of spleen cells through nylon-wool columns. cytotoxicity was always maximal for interactions ...1977299948
suppression of cell-mediated immunity by street rabies virus.mice lethally infected with street rabies virus failed to develop cytotoxic t cells specific for rabies virus-infected target cells, whereas high levels of cell-mediated cytotoxicity (cmc) were generated after nonfatal infection with the attenuated high egg passage (hep) or era rabies virus strains. furthermore concurrent infection with street, but not with hep, rabies virus suppresses development of a primary (but not a secondary) cmc response specific for influenza virus. no cross-reactivity i ...1977301176
[physical and antigenic structure of the rabies virus]. 1978306055
[a purified rabies vaccine from human diploid cell cultures (author's transl)].in order to improve the tolerance of rabies vaccine from human diploid cell cultures, the rabies virus antigen is purified in the sucrose density gradient by means of a flow ultracentrifuge. the purified virus has a specific infectiosity of 10(9) ld50 and a speicific activity of 250 units "relative activity" per 1 mg protein. the purified vaccine has been shown to be well tolerated, effective and stable.1978306057
the role of antibody in recovery from experimental rabies. i. effect of depletion of b and t cells.the avirulent high egg passage (hep) strain of rabies virus produces an inapparent infection limited to the central nervous system (cns) in intracerebrally inoculated adult mice. heavy chain isotype (anti-mu antiserum) immunosuppression potentiates the infection, with a mortality of about 60% and with elevated virus titers in the brain. anti-mu-treated mice fail to raise antibody responses to rabies virus although their t cell function is normal when measured by the concanavalin a response of sp ...1978307577
[immunologic response in fatal cases of human rabies]. 1979318085
[quantification of complement-fixing rabies antibodies and of igm and igg type immunoglobulins in vaccinated white swiss mice]. 1979318089
application of the soluble antigen fluorescent antibody (safa) test to the serodiagnosis of rabies.the adaptation and evaluation of the soluble antigen fluorescent antibody (safa) test for the serologic diagnosis of rabies is described. evaluation of the safa test was based on a comparison between serum titers obtained in the safa test, the mouse serum neutralization (sn) test and in the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifat) test. dog, fox, raccoon and skunk sera were used for the comparison with mouse sn titers. human serum was used for the comparison with the ifat titer. the purity and conce ...1977320266
evaluation of tests for rabies antibody and analysis of serum responses after administration of three different types of rabies vaccines.humoral antibody response to three types of rabies vaccines were assayed by the neutralization (nt), the mixed hemadsorption (mh), and the indirect immunofluorescence (if) tests. the nt and mh tests were used to detect antibodies combining with antigens at the surface of virions and infected cells, whereas the indirect if test measured antibodies mainly to the rabies nucleocapsid antigen. after immunization with a human diploid cell vaccine, antibodies were detected by both the nt and the mh tes ...1977323275
comparison of rabies humoral antibody titers in rabbits and humans by indirect radioimmunoassay, rapid-fluorescent-focus-inhibition technique, and indirect fluorescent-antibody assay.rabies humoral antibodies were induced in eight new zealand rabbits by a single intramuscular injection of inactivated suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine. the primary response to immunization was measured in blood samples taken at selected intervals for 6 months. the anamnestic response was measured in blood samples obtained 2 weeks after the rabbits received a booster immunization. the humoral antibody concentrations were measured by the rapid-fluorescent-focus-inhibition technique (rffit), in ...1977323278
antibody response to rabies virus in syrian hamsters.syrian hamsters were injected with inactivated, attenuated, and virulent rabies virus (rv), and the antibody response was quantified by a neutralization test and the immunoglobulin class of the virus antibody was characterized by indirect fluorescent microscopy. serum antibodies to rv were found to be predominantly of the immunoglobulin g2 (igg2) class, although igg1 anti-rv also were detected in high-titered sera obtained after secondary challenge. brain extracts of hamsters inoculated intracer ...1977330398
prophylaxis for exposure to rabies in humans. 1977334352
[chronic cell culture infection with the rabies virus].three cell cultures chronically infected with fixed rabies virus, strain mniivp-74, have been obtained: hep-2/2, bhk/13s, and rk-13. in the former two cultures, the infectious virus titers were 2.0 to 5.25 ig ld50/ml. in rk-13 cells, traces of the infectious virus were found. in the chronically infected hep-2/2 culture the maximum amount of the antigen-containing cells determined by the fluorescent antibody procedure was 60% and in bhk/13s 80%. chronically infected cultures had a reduced growth ...1977337676
isolation of field rabies virus strains in cer and murine neuroblastoma cell cultures.infection of cer and murine neuroblastoma (clone n18) cell cultures by inoculation of brain tissue from rabid skunks, dogs, equines, foxes, bats and cows was detected by immunofluorescence 2--5 days after inoculation.1978344267
use of the antibody assay in immunized mice for the determination of rabies vaccine potency.at present, the nih potency test is the most widely used method for determining the potency of rabies virus vaccines. the drawbacks of this test are well known and include significant test variability as well as the use of an unnatural challenge route. the antibody assay in immunized mice involves the assay of sera from mice immunized with serial dilutions of rabies vaccine. the amount of antibody in the sera is expressed in international units per ml (iu/ml). sera from identical dilutions of di ...1978355013
actin filaments in paramyxovirus-infected human fibroblasts studied by indirect immunofluorescence.fibroblasts growing on glass have microfilaments arranged in bundles. these can be demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent technique using human antiactin serum or experimentally produced rabbit anti-actin serum. when monolayer cultures of epithelial cells and fibroblasts are infected with paramyxovirus, such as measles, mumps, sendai and ndv, there is a striking decrease of the bundles. rabies and adenoviruses do not seem to influence the staining of microfilaments. the microfilament decreas ...1978356824
[cytologic and histochemical study of cell cultures chronically infected with fixed rabies virus].cytoplasmic inclusion bodies corresponding in their tinctorial properties to negri bodies were detected in tep-2/2 and bhk-21/13s cell cultures chronically infected with fixed rabies virus. the number of cells containing the inclusions was always than that of the cells producing virus-specific antigen. histological examinations of chronically infected cultures revealed considerable inhibition of the acid phosphatase activity, some weakening of the reaction to alkaline phosphatase, and a marked d ...1978358598
neutralization and immunofluorescence test (nif) for the demonstration of antibodies against rabies virus. 1978358681
delayed-type hypersensitivity to rabies virus in mice: assay of active or passive sensitization by the footpad test.with a purified beta-propiolactone-inactivated rabies virus, a significant increase in footpad swelling was elicited in normal or in bcg-pretreated mice after immunization with varying doses of rabies vaccine. these footpad reactions were shown to peak at 24 h and to be associated with an infiltration of newly formed blood monocytes demonstrated by histology and [125i]deoxyuridine labeling. a relationship between the lymphoproliferation and the degree of sensitization is described, and the susce ...1978361580
rapid immunoenzymatic technique for titration of rabies antibodies igg and igm results.techniques usually employed for the detection of rabies' antibodies are costly, time consuming, and sometimes fail to detect early antibodies. the introduction of immunoenzymatic techniques in the serology of viral disease represents a new and important advance. we therefore adapted this technique to the detection of rabies antibodies. we have found that the sera from rabies patients who had not received antirabies treatment do not show seroneutralizing antibodies until several days after the on ...1978364283
human-to-human transmission of rabies virus by corneal transplant. 1979368632
[ecological and epidemiological problems of the natural type of rabies]. 1978371286
experimental rabies in skunks: immunofluorescence light and electron microscopic studies.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were inoculated into the abductor digiti quinti muscle with street rabies virus isolated from salivary glands of rabid skunks. using the immunofluorescence technique, antigen was detected in muscle cells at the inoculation site before it was detected in the central nervous system. neurons and their processes in nearly all regions of the brain, spinal cord, cerebrospinal ganglia, and peripheral nerves contained antigen in terminal stages of the disease. electron ...1979376938
[antigenic relations of the rabies group viruses studied in the blast transformation and immunofluorescence tests].the blast transformation test with lymphocytes of mice sensitized with commercial rabies vaccine, and the direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests with hyperimmune serum to human acute encephalomyelitis virus and rabies immunoglobulins demonstrated antigenic relationships of rabies, lagos bat, mokola, human acute encephalomyelitis and rabieslike virus isolated from rodents in central europe. at the same time, the time of appearance and the degree of intensity of specific blast transformation ...1979380163
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