lyssavirus infection of muscle spindles and motor end plates in striated muscle of hamsters.immunofluorescent, light, and electron microscopy were used to document lyssavirus infection of muscle spindles and motor end plates. virus particles were seen in the narrow intercellular space between sensory nerve endings and intrafusal muscle fibers; they were also observed budding from intracellular and plasma membranes of the latter. involvement of motor nerves and motor end plates could only be demonstrated by electron microscopy. in nature, rabies virus invasion of the peripheral nervous ...1978149526
[a lyssavirus with an unusual antigenic structure isolated from a bat in southern kyrgyzstan].examination of 191 specimens of chiroptera in osh province of kyrgyzstan yielded 1 strain of lyssavirus from myotis blythi, the isolate not belonging to serotype 1. the virus was designated aravan by the area of its isolation. its antigenic structure was studied using antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies of the wistar institute (philadelphia, isa) and central veterinary laboratory of great britain (waybridge, great britain). the paper presents its antigenic profile, brief characteristics of si ...19921290226
antigenic and molecular characterization of bat rabies virus in europe.the predominant role of eptesicus serotinus in the epizootic of bat rabies in europe was further outlined by the first isolation of the rabies virus from this species in france. the distribution of the virus was studied in naturally infected e. serotinus bats at the time of death and suggested that the papillae of the tongue and the respiratory mucosa may play a role in virus production and excretion. the analysis of 501 french rabies virus isolates from various animal species by antinucleocapsi ...19921401009
[the experimental infection of bats with lyssavirus serotypes 1 and 4].the results of intramuscular inoculation of 111 bats (myotis daubentoni, myotis brandtii) with three strains of lyssaviruses--yuli, stade, and 1150 are presented. bats were found to have low susceptibility, especially to strains of serotype 4. after infection with serotype 4 viruses, fewer bats died but within shorter periods than after infection with serotype 1. after inoculation with strain 1150, 60% of bats yielded virus, whereas only 9-24% did after inoculation with type 4 strains. the survi ...19921471342
a modified rapid enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses: rreid-lyssa.this paper presents a modification of the previously described rapid rabies enzyme immuno-diagnosis test (rreid) by using biotinylated antibodies, streptavidin conjugate and a mixture of monospecific polyclonal antibodies against several lyssaviruses. in the modified technique (rreid-lyssa), microplates were sensitized with a mixture of purified antibodies against ribonucleoprotein (rnp) from pasteur virus (lyssavirus serotype 1), european bat lyssavirus (ebl, unclassified) and mokola virus (lys ...19921610558
nucleocapsid gene sequence of a north american isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus.viral haemorrhagic septicaemia is the most important viral disease of trout in europe. the causative agent, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv), a member of the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family, was formerly believed to be confined to portions of the european continent; however in 1988, vhsv was isolated from adult chinook (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (o. kisutch) salmon returning to two hatcheries in the northwestern part of the state of washington, u.s.a. initial fea ...19921634868
rabies-specific production of interleukin-2 by peripheral blood lymphocytes from human rabies vaccinees.cell-mediated immunity induced by rabies vaccination was studied in humans by the determination of specific interleukin-2 (il-2) production in a large number of donors (postexposure immunized patients and pre-exposure immunized laboratory workers). peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) from 35 donors were tested for il-2 production after in vitro stimulation by different rabies and rabies-related viruses. il-2 responses were compared to antibody recognition of these different virus serotypes by ser ...19911771968
t and b cell human responses to european bat lyssavirus after post-exposure rabies vaccination.t and b cell human responses to european bat lyssavirus (ebl1) induced by post-exposure rabies vaccination (pm virus vaccine) were evaluated by measuring plasmatic titres of ebl1-specific neutralizing antibodies; specific ebl1-binding antibodies; and proliferation indices of peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated in vitro with ebl1. these parameters for vaccination efficacy were compared with those obtained with vaccine-related viruses (cvs and era) and with a non-vaccine-related virus. mokola ...19911864001
an l (polymerase)-deficient rabies virus defective interfering particle rna is replicated and transcribed by heterologous helper virus l proteins.a rabies virus-derived defective interfering particle (di) was isolated and characterized. the di genome contained an internal deletion of 6.4 kb spanning the 3' moiety of the pseudogene region (psi) and most of the l gene. di-specific monocistronic n, ns, and m mrnas as well as a g/l fusion mrna were transcribed in cells coinfected with di and helper virus. in addition, polycistronic di rnas and standard virus rnas with internal a stretches and intergenic regions were found. superinfection expe ...19911887588
rabies virus cross-reactive murine t cell clones: analysis of helper and delayed-type hypersensitivity function.three t cell clones derived from rabies virus-immunized balb/c mice were analysed for specificity and function. the clones proved to be broadly cross-reactive by responding to different rabies virus isolates (pm, era, cvs, hep) and other representatives of the genus lyssavirus, like the duvenhage-6 (duv6) and mokola (mok) viruses. the clones detected three different epitopes: an epitope expressed on the matrix protein (m) shared by pm, hep, mok and duv6 viruses (clone aa8), an epitope expressed ...19901967528
serological evidence of infection of dogs and man in nigeria by lyssaviruses (family rhabdoviridae).a survey was conducted for serum neutralizing antibodies against 3 members of the lyssavirus group (rabies, lagos bat and mokola viruses) in nigerian dogs and humans. of 463 unvaccinated dogs sampled, 142 (30.7%) had antibodies against rabies; 39.2% of the stray dogs were positive. of 241 dogs tested, 17.4% had antibodies against mokola virus and 5.8% against lagos bat virus. 28.6% of human samples tested had antibodies against rabies and, of 158 human samples tested, 12 (7.5%) had antibodies ag ...19902096520
detection of rabies virus antibodies in fruit bats (eidolon helvum) from nigeria.fruit bats (eidolon helvum) were collected from three different localities in western nigeria: oti, ibadan and idanre. fifty serum samples were analyzed using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition technique against rabies, mokola, lagos bat and duvenhage viruses. twenty-five brain samples were screened for rabies and related lyssavirus antigens by direct fluorescent antibody microscopy and by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique with rabies anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. ...19902187101
from rabies to rabies-related viruses.antigenic differences between rabies virus strains characterized with monoclonal antibodies presently define at least four serotypes within the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family: classical rabies virus strains (serotype 1), lagos bat virus (serotype 2), mokola virus (serotype 3) and duvenhage virus (serotype 4). the wide distribution of rabies-related virus strains (serotypes 2, 3 and 4) and above all, the weak protection conferred by rabies vaccines against some of them (principally ...19902205967
a reduced panel of anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies for bat rabies virus identification in europe.a reduced panel of 4 anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (mab) was set up to distinguish viruses of terrestrial mammal origin from viruses of bat origin in europe. four additional mab were necessary to identify each one of the four serotypes of lyssavirus. these 8 mab were selected out of 25 mab secreted by hybridomas obtained from mice immunized with either serotype 1 lyssavirus (rabies virus pv4) or serotype 3 lyssavirus (mokola). they were screened with 32 viruses representative of the fo ...19902277871
human monoclonal antibodies specific for the rabies virus glycoprotein and n protein.human monoclonal antibodies to rabies virus were established by epstein-barr virus infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from a rabies-vaccinated donor, and fusion with a heteromyeloma line. two human monoclonal antibodies, hum1 and hum2, both igg2, reacted with the envelope glycoprotein of the rabies virus. the antibody hum1 neutralized rabies virus (lyssavirus serotype 1) and mokola virus (lyssavirus serotype 3), but did not neutralize european bat lyssavirus, suggesting that som ...19902391499
rabies-related yuli virus; identification with a panel of monoclonal antibodies.yuli virus was isolated by intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of suckling mice with a 10% brain suspension from 11-year-old patient who died under signs of atypical hydrophobia after a bat bite into lower lip. identification with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (moab) to nucleocapsid protein (np) confirmed that yuli virus belongs to lyssavirus genus, as an antigenic variant of the european duvenhage virus.19892576595
complete cloning and molecular organization of a rabies-related virus, mokola virus.mokola virus is a rabies-related virus responsible for both animal and human encephalitis cases in africa. we report here the construction of a genomic library containing overlapping cdna clones encompassing the entire genome. five overlapping clones were sufficient to cover the genome (about 12 kb in size). mokola virus was shown to share the same genomic organization as the rabies virus genome and also identical transcription signals. cdna probes characterized six different transcripts by nort ...19892769229
immunological relationships between rabies virus and rabies-related viruses studied with monoclonal antibodies to mokola virus.specific monoclonal antibodies (mab) were prepared against a rabies-related lyssavirus, mokola virus. a strain isolated in the central african republic, mok-3, was used as immunogen. after 3 fusions more than 90 hybridoma cultures secreting mab were identified. according to their different patterns of reactivity against rabies and rabies-related viruses, 61 ascites fluids were obtained. the antibody class was igm for 2 of them and igg for 59. they were specific for one of the 4 major viral prote ...19883207504
frequency analysis of cytolytic t lymphocyte precursors (ctl-p) generated in vivo during lethal rabies infection of mice. ii. rabies virus genus specificity of ctl-p.cytolytic t lymphocyte precursors (ctl-p) were sensitized in vivo by intraplantar infection of c57bl/6 mice with a lethal dose of rabies virus, strain era (era). as a result of sensitization ctl-p matured to interleukin-receptive ctl-p (il-ctl-p) that could be expanded in vitro to thy-1+, lyt-2+ ctl clones in the presence of il without subjection to antigen-driven selection. after infection with era, il-ctl-p-derived ctl lysed fibroblasts infected with rabies virus but not those infected with an ...19846094202
use of hybridoma monoclonal antibodies in the detection of antigenic differences between rabies and rabies-related virus proteins. i. the nucleocapsid protein.twenty-one hybridoma cultures, obtained through the fusion of mouse myeloma cells with splenocytes of balb/c mice immunized with either rabies virus or mokola virus, secreted monoclonal antibodies specific for the nucleocapsid of the inducer virus. they displayed different specificities for the nucleocapsids of rabies and rabies-related viruses and could be classified into eight groups which are likely to correspond to different antigenic determinants on the nucleocapsid. four strains of fixed r ...19806155436
linear and conformation-dependent antigenic sites on the nucleoprotein of rabies virus.a set of 29 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for the rabies virus nucleoprotein (n protein) was prepared and used to analyze the topography of antigenic sites. at least four partially overlapping antigenic sites were delineated on the n protein of rabies virus by competitive binding assays. indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests using mabs with a series of rabies and rabies-related viruses showed that epitopes shared by various fixed and street strains of rabies virus were mainly localiz ...19947526134
molecular epidemiology of lyssaviruses: focus on the glycoprotein and pseudogenes. 19937539907
the glycoprotein g of rhabdoviruses.rhabdoviruses show an rna-containing helically-wound nucleocapsid either enclosed by or enclosing a membrane m protein, surrounded by a lipid bilayer through which dynamic protein trimers made up of non-covalently associated monomers of glycoprotein g (g) project outside. mature monomeric rhabdoviral g has more than 500 amino acids, 2-6 potential glycosylation sites, 12-16 highly conserved cysteine residues, 2-3 stretches of a-d hydrophobic heptad-repeats, a removed amino terminal hydrophobic si ...19957605197
expression of the nucleoprotein of rabies virus in escherichia coli and mapping of antigenic sites.investigations were performed to delineate the antigenic sites i and iv of rabies virus nucleoprotein (n), the former of which is well conserved among the rabies and rabies-related viruses. the n cdna of the rc-hl strain was inserted into an expression vector pet3a, with which the e. coli bl21(de3) was transformed. upon induction with isopropyl-1-thio-beta-d-galactoside, the transformants produced a protein with a size (56 k-da) almost identical to that of the authentic n protein. the protein al ...19957611878
the rabies virus genome: an overview.the replication strategy, genome organization and extent of variation within the genome of the genus lyssavirus is briefly reviewed. strategies used in the approach to genome studies are discussed.19937777310
taxonomy and evolutionary studies on lyssaviruses with special reference to africa.currently, the lyssavirus genus is composed of four serotypes and the ungrouped european bat lyssaviruses (ebl). using previously described pcr amplification and direct sequencing methods, the n genes of 70 representative lyssaviruses collected from 40 different countries were examined. from the results, a phylogenetic tree with six branches (genotypes) was constructed: genotypes 1-4 correlated with the classification of serotypes 1-4 and in addition ebl 1 and ebl 2 were identified as two furthe ...19937777311
monoclonal antibody studies on rabies-related viruses.rabies and rabies-related viruses are divided into four serotypes, although it has been suggested that the inclusion of european bat lyssaviruses results in six genotypes. sixty-four rabies-related viruses were tested against a panel of 36 anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies prepared from the immunization of balb/c mice with five prototypic rabies-related viruses. reaction patterns obtained confirmed the original distinction between serotype 1-4 viruses and revealed multiple variants of lago ...19937777312
molecular analysis of rabies-related viruses from ethiopia.from brain samples collected from domestic animals in ethiopia, two rabies-related viruses were isolated. according to their reactivity pattern with anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies, they were characterized as lagos bat virus (isolate eth-58) and mokola virus (isolate eth-16). this classification was confirmed by neutralization experiments with mokola and lagos bat specific antisera. two potent anti-rabies vaccines were unable to protect mice against the two rabies-related viruses. in ord ...19937777313
genetic polymorphism in the rabies virus nucleoprotein an attempt to compare intrinsic and extrinsic genetic diversity of the lyssavirus genotypes, 69 rabies virus isolates from various part of the world were partially sequenced and compared to 13 representative isolates of the 6 lyssavirus genotypes. the analysis of their phylogenetic relationships, performed on the complete nucleoprotein (n) coding gene (1350 bases), established that the rabies virus isolates all belonged to genotype 1 and that at least 11 phylogenetic lineages could be identif ...19957778285
vhs confirmed on scottish island. 19947817512
mokola virus glycoprotein and chimeric proteins can replace rabies virus glycoprotein in the rescue of infectious defective rabies virus particles.a reverse genetics approach which allows the generation of infectious defective rabies virus (rv) particles entirely from plasmid-encoded genomes and proteins (k.-k. conzelmann and m. schnell, j. virol. 68:713-719, 1994) was used to investigate the ability of a heterologous lyssavirus glycoprotein (g) and chimeric g constructs to function in the formation of infectious rv-like particles. virions containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene (sdi-cat) were generated in cells ...19957853476
the biology of southern african lyssavirus variants. 19947859494
functional aspects of lyssavirus proteins. 19947859495
beyond pasteur to 2001: future trends in lyssavirus research? 19947859497
reproduction of lyssaviruses: ultrastructural composition of lyssavirus and functional aspects of pathogenesis.lyssaviruses are considerably adapted to neural tissue, although they can also be replicated in muscle and glandular cells. in neural tissue their reproduction takes place almost exclusively in neurons, and in the course of their dissemination they make use of the structural peculiarities of this highly differentiated cell type. the replication takes place completely in the cytoplasm, although rhabdovirus leader rna enters the nucleus and by blocking host dna and rna synthesis promotes viral syn ...19947859498
the molecular basis for altered pathogenicity of lyssavirus variants. 19947859499
the pathogenesis of rabies and other lyssaviral infections: recent studies. 19947859501
analysis of the nucleocapsid gene of lettuce necrotic yellows rhabdovirus.the complete nucleotide sequence of the nucleocapsid (n) gene of lettuce necrotic yellows virus (lnyv), the type member of the genus cytorhabdovirus of plant rhabdoviruses, has been determined from cdna clones of both the viral genomic and messenger rnas. the previously identified n gene was adjacent to the 3' leader rna and began at position 91 from the 3' end of the lnyv genome. analysis of the sequence showed that the n mrna contained a 78-nt 5' untranslated region, followed by a 1377-nt open ...19948030210
[experimental lyssavirus infection in chiropters].insectivorous bats, pipistrellus pipistrellus in the active stage and hibernation were inoculated with bat unclassified lyssavirus aravan and lyssavirus serotypes 1 and 4. the influence of hibernation on the duration of the incubation period and the distribution of viruses in extraneural tissues was demonstrated. clinical symptoms of the diseases caused by different strains are described.19948160441
genomic organization of lettuce necrotic yellows rhabdovirus.we have mapped the genome of lettuce necrotic yellows virus (lnyv), the type member of the genus cytorhabdovirus of the family rhabdoviridae. we have cloned and sequenced all intergenic regions and the 3' leader and 5' trailer of the negative-sense, single-stranded rna genome of lnyv. the lnyv genome appears to contain six genes, the five expected genes coding for the virion proteins, and a sixth gene of unknown function, as for sonchus yellow net virus (synv), a member of the genus nucleorhabdo ...19948178430
protective activity of a murine monoclonal antibody against european bat lyssavirus 1 (ebl1) infection in mice.a mouse model was designed to test in vivo the efficacy of rabies immune globulins and specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to prevent european bat lyssavirus 1 infection. human or equine rabies immune globulins previously found to contain variable amounts of neutralizing bat lyssavirus crossreactive antibodies were passively transferred to mice receiving intramuscularly a lethal dose of bat lyssavirus type 1. immune globulins did not protect mice well against bat lyssavirus 1 whereas the ...19938256507
molecular diversity of the lyssavirus genus.the sequence of 5568 nucleotides of the 3' moiety of the mokola virus genome (serotype 3 of lyssaviruses) encompassing the nucleoprotein (n), phosphoprotein, matrix protein, and glycoprotein genes is presented and compared to that of the vaccinal strains of serotype 1. it allowed us to determine consensus sequences derived from the transcriptional start/stop signals and the order of protein conservation (nucleoprotein > matrix protein > phosphoprotein) in lyssaviruses. the sequences of the n gen ...19938386891
structure and expression in baculovirus of the mokola virus glycoprotein: an efficient recombinant vaccine.the sequence of the glycoprotein gene of the mokola virus, the more divergent element of the lyssavirus genus, has been determined and the predicted protein structure compared to its counterpart in rabies vaccine strains. a global similarity of 54.3% was observed. the divergence affects particularly the rabies antigenic sites involved in the b-cell response. this provides a molecular basis for the absence of cross-protection between mokola and rabies viruses and argues for the necessity of a spe ...19938480429
[the evaluation of a monoclonal antibody panel for lyssavirus typing in mexico].the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a panel of eight antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies developed in europe to identify different strains of rabies virus isolated from a variety of animal species from diverse geographic areas in mexico. fifty-one virus-positive samples of brain tissue from various animal species and humans were studied. material from these samples was used to infect mice, whose brains were later tested by indirect immunofluorescence, using the monoclonal ...19958540994
lyssavirus in eptesicus serotinus (chiroptera: vespertilionidae).to determine the prevalence of european bat lyssavirus 1 (ebl1), antibodies plasma samples were obtained from 175 serotine bats (eptesicus serotinus) from four colonies in southern spain between september of 1991 and september 1992. five bats were detected with ebl1 virus in one colony in 1989. the prevalence of antibodies rose to 74% in one of the colonies studied (villarrasa) in the spring of 1992. after a few months the prevalence declined to under 10%. individuals with a high antibody level ...19958592359
further isolation of mokola virus in south africa. 19968650912
[lissaviruses]. 19968669140
the antigen-specific cell-mediated immune response in mice is suppressed by infection with pathogenic lyssaviruses.responsiveness of t cells (rtc) was studied in balb/c mice intramuscularly infected with various lyssaviruses. after infection by this peripheral route, two types of viruses could be classified according to their effects: 1) pathogenic viruses, including fixed rabies pasteur virus (serogenotype 1) and wild viruses belonging to serogenotype 1 (from a rabid fox in france and from a cow infected by a vampire bat in brazil) or to serogenotype 5 (european bat lyssavirus 1); and 2) non-pathogenic viru ...19968880998
investigation of rabies virus strains in mexico with a panel of monoclonal antibodies used to classify lyssavirus.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a panel of eight antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies developed in europe to assess rabies virus strains isolated from various animal species in geographically diverse areas of mexico. fifty-one rabies-positive brain tissue samples from animals and humans were examined. material from these samples was used to infect mice, whose brain tissue was subsequently tested by indirect immunofluorescence using the monoclonal antibodies described a ...19968919723
ten-year survey of british bats for the existence of 1985, a notable increase in the number of recorded cases of rabies in european bats was observed, indicating a possible spread of the rabies virus in these bats. because of concern that the disease could be introduced into the united kingdom by bats crossing from mainland europe, a programme of screening dead bats for the presence of rabies and rabies-related viruses was initiated at the rabies research and diagnostic unit at the central veterinary laboratory. over a period of 10 years (janua ...19968950819
rabies humans, rabies still is a fatally evolving encephalomyelitis caused by a rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus. in general, the disease is contracted through a contact with an infected mammal. taxonomically, different rabies and closely related rabies-like viruses can be distinguished. new molecular identification techniques can be utilized as epidemiological tools to study the geographic distribution and presence in different reservoirs of the viruses. antigenic diversity and new insights in t ...19968950840
encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus in fruit bats in australia.this report describes the first pathologic and immunohistochemical recognition in australia of a rabies-like disease in a native mammal, a fruit bat, the black flying fox (pteropus alecto). a virus with close serologic and genetic relationships to members of the lyssavirus genus of the family rhabdoviridae was isolated in mice from the tissue homogenates of a sick juvenile animal.19968969249
taskforce investigates fatal bat virus. 19969006852
current knowledge on the australian bat lyssavirus. 19979066976
fatal encephalitis and meningitis at the gold coast hospital, 1980 to 1996.the recent association of a fatal human case of encephalitis with a newly identified lyssavirus apparently acquired from a native australian bat has highlighted the possibility that previous human infections have passed urecognised. infected bats have been identified on the queensland gold coast where extensive close contact between bats and humans has occurred for many years. in an attempt to identify nervously unrecognised cases of fatal lyssavirus encephalitis, the medical records of the gold ...19979079589
australian bat lyssavirus--a newly emerged zoonosis? 19979088509
australian bat lyssavirus infection in three fruit bats from north queensland.we report the case findings of australian bat lyssavirus infection in two black flying foxes (pteropus alecto) and one little red flying fox (pteropus scapulatus) from north queensland between january 1995 and august 1996. although the p. alecto case in january 1995 is the first recognised case of australian bat lyssavirus infection in australia, this was a retrospective diagnosis made after identification of the index case at ballina in may 1996. eight persons had exposure to the three bats. se ...19979145563
[isolation and identification of lyssavirus strains from an area of slovakia where oral antirabies vaccine was administered].the study was aimed at isolation and subsequent identification of strains of rabies virus by means of monoclonal antibodies from foxes killed in the vaccination zone within the complex preliminary monitoring of oral antirabies vaccination. the results obtained indicate that the vaccines for oral antirabies vaccination used in slovakia did not contain any vaccination strain pathogenic to the extremely sensitive target species-the fox (vulpes vulpes).19979148571
australian bat lyssavirus. 19979196832
zoonoses control. lyssavirus infection in 3 fruit bats, australia. 19979220702
the complete mokola virus genome sequence: structure of the rna-dependent rna polymerase.the genome sequence of the rabies-related virus mokola virus (genus lyssavirus) has been completed by sequencing the l gene, which consists of 6384 nucleotides encoding a 2127 amino acid polymerase. alignment of the mokola virus l protein with other polymerases from the virus order mononegavirales defined three domains: a divergent nh2-terminal domain, a highly conserved central domain carrying most of the functional motifs and a cooh-terminal domain with alternating conserved and divergent regi ...19979225031
evolution of european bat lyssaviruses.forty-seven european bat lyssaviruses (ebl) and two african insectivorous bat lyssaviruses (duvenhage viruses) were selected for a comparison to be made of their evolutionary relationships. studies were based on direct sequencing of the pcr-amplified products of the 400 nucleotides coding for the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein. phylogenetic relationships were analysed after bootstrap resampling using the maximum parsimony and the neighbour-joining methods. analyses of both the nucleotide an ...19979292021
sequence variation of the glycoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages within field isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, a fish evaluate the genetic diversity of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv), the sequence of the glycoprotein genes (g) of 11 north american and european isolates were determined. comparison with the g protein of representative members of the family rhabdoviridae suggested that vhsv was a different virus species from infectious haemorrhagic necrosis virus (ihnv) and hirame rhabdovirus (hirrv). at a higher taxonomic level, vhsv, ihnv and hirrv formed a group which was genetically closest to ...19979367370
emerging infections in australia.over the last 10 years, novel infectious agents including equine morbillivirus, lyssavirus, barmah forest virus, rickettsia honei and two as-yet-unnamed bunyaviruses have been identified as causes of human disease in australia. previously described agents, such as japanese b encephalitis virus, dengue virus, ross river virus, orientia tsutsugamushi, rickettsia australis, burkholderia pseudomallei, mycobacterium ulcerans and trichinella pseudospiralis, have increased their geographical distributi ...19979494666
rapid detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses by rt-pcr and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a rapid detection method for the six established genotypes of rabies and rabies-related viral rna using rt-pcr-elisa is described. the detection of digoxigenin-labelled amplified products is performed by solution hybridization to two specific, biotin-labelled, capture probes, which are complementary to the inner region of the amplification products. the capture probe and amplified product hybrid are then immobilised on a streptavidin-coated microtitre plate, bound products are detected by an ant ...19979504752
emerging emerging virus is a term applied to a newly discovered virus, one that is increasing in incidence or with the potential to increase in incidence. many viruses fit into this definition. hiv is the clearest example of a previously unknown virus that has now produced one of the largest pandemics in history. recent advances have occurred in the identification and understanding of new hantaviruses in the americas, causing an acute respiratory disease. the possible causal role of human herpesvirus ...19989529635
antigenic and functional analyses of glycoprotein of rabies virus using monoclonal antibodies.thirty-five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against glycoprotein (g protein) of the rc-hl strain of the rabies virus have been established. using these mabs, two antigenic sites (i and ii) were delineated on the g protein of the rc-hl strain in a competitive binding assay. of these, 34 mabs recognized the epitopes on site ii. site ii was further categorized into 10 subsites according to their patterns in a competitive binding assay. each site ii-specific mab showed 5 to 23 nonreciprocal competition ...19989570284
lyssaviral infection and lead poisoning in black flying foxes from queensland.pteropid lyssaviral infection, lead poisoning, and the difficulties in diagnosing pteropid lyssaviral infection using histopathological examination of tissues are described in wild black flying foxes (pteropus alecto) from northern queensland (australia). an adult female p. alecto showed aggression before death in january 1995. lead poisoning was diagnosed due to the presence of intranuclear lead inclusion bodies in renal proximal convoluted tubular epithelium and high concentrations of lead in ...19989577784
dna-based immunization for exploring the enlargement of immunological cross-reactivity against the lyssaviruses.dna-based immunization was used for studying the cross-reactivity of lyssavirus neutralizing antibodies and for exploring the induction of a wider range of protection against lyssaviruses. in order to immunize mice with homogeneous and chimeric genes of glycoproteins (g) from two divergent lyssaviruses, we used for the first time a new plasmid (pci-neo) known to be a highly efficient vector for in vitro expression. the homogeneous plasmids pgpv and pgmok encoded the pasteur virus (pv: genotype 1 ...19989607065
characterisation of a novel lyssavirus isolated from pteropid bats in australia.a novel lyssavirus isolated from pteropid bats in australia (australian bat lyssavirus, ablv) has been characterised using gene sequence analyses, electron microscopy and a panel of monoclonal antibodies. electron microscopic examination of pteropid bat and mouse brain material as well as virus isolated from tissue culture medium, showed the presence of bullet-shaped rhabdovirus particles and structures characteristic of lyssavirus. analysis using nucleocapsid (n) specific monoclonal antibodies, ...19989696125
bat lyssavirus prophylaxis in an immunocompromised patient. 19989734519
rabies prophylaxis in western australia: the impact of australian bat rabies prophylaxis is provided by the health department of western australia to persons exposed to potentially rabid animals overseas. in addition, since the discovery of australian bat lyssavirus in 1996, rabies prophylaxis has been provided to persons exposed or likely to be exposed to australian bats. this article reviews the provision of rabies prophylaxis in western australia from july 1991 to december 1997. during this period, 101 persons received rabies post-exposure prophyl ...19989735544
non-rabies lyssavirus human encephalitis from fruit bats: australian bat lyssavirus (pteropid lyssavirus) infection.a 39-year-old woman died of encephalitis a few weeks after being scratched by fruit bats. autopsy disclosed meningoencephalomyelitis, and revealed neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions which had similarities to negri bodies of rabies. laboratory investigations detected a lyssavirus type previously identified only in fruit bats. this appears to be the first human case of encephalitis due to this lyssavirus type.19989775399
australian lyssavirus infection. 19989834577
chimeric lyssavirus glycoproteins with increased immunological potential.the rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (g) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the nh2 half (site ii part) containing antigenic site ii up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope vi [aa 264]) and the cooh half (site iii part) containing antigenic site iii and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. the structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse dna-based immunization with homogeneous ...19999847325
use of anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies to characterize rabies virus in formalin-fixed tissues.seventy anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were tested for reactivity with rabies and rabies-related viruses in formalin-fixed (ff) tissues. forty-three of the mabs were directed against the glycoprotein and 27 were directed against the nucleocapsid as determined by enzyme immunoassays and neutralization tests. twenty of the anti-glycoprotein mabs and one of the anti-nucleocapsid mabs reacted with the rabies challenge virus strain (cvs) in ff tissue. these 21 mabs were screened again ...199910029326
[rabies]. 199910088358
mokola virus infection: description of recent south african cases and a review of the virus epidemiology.five cases of mokola virus, a lyssavirus related to rabies, are described. the cases occurred in cats from the east london, pinetown and pietermaritzburg areas of south africa from february 1996 to february 1998. each of the cats was suspected of being rabid and their brains were submitted for laboratory confirmation. four of the cases were positive, but with atypical fluorescence, and 1 was negative. mokola virus infection was identified by anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody typin ...199810192092
is there an advantage to including the nucleoprotein in a rabies glycoprotein subunit vaccine?the pv rabies (genotype 1) g and n proteins were produced by recombinant baculoviruses in insect cells. we tested the ability of recombinant antigens to synergistically induce an immune response and, particularly, to broaden the spectrum of lyssavirus-neutralizing antibodies produced. cell-free preparations of recombinant proteins caused an immune response. recombinant rabies g protein (rrg) from infected cell extract or supernatant induced virus neutralizing antibodies (vnab) against rabies (cv ...199910195792
australian bat lyssavirus infection in a captive juvenile black flying fox.the newly emerging australian bat lyssavirus causes rabieslike disease in bats and humans. a captive juvenile black flying fox exhibited progressive neurologic signs, including sudden aggression, vocalization, dysphagia, and paresis over 9 days and then died. at necropsy, lyssavirus infection was diagnosed by fluorescent antibody test, immunoperoxidase staining, polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. eight human contacts received postexposure vaccination.199910341182
deduced structural model for animal rhabdovirus glycoproteins.the g protein sequences of fourteen animal rhabdoviruses, representing all four recognized genera (vesiculovirus, lyssavirus, ephemerovirus and novirhabdovirus) and the ungrouped sigma virus, were aligned using clustal w and adjusted to account for obvious sequence similarities not detected by the algorithm. analysis of the alignment indicated remarkable preservation of g protein structural features including cysteine residues, antigenic sites and significant elements of secondary structure (alp ...199910355768
a retrospective search for lyssavirus in humans in the northern territory.following the 1996 discovery of a rabies-like lyssavirus in australian flying foxes, it was unclear whether this was a new epizootic or an unrecognised, previously existing disease.199910388177
detection and identification of rabies and rabies-related viruses using rapid-cycle pcr.the rapid identification of suspect rabies infection is essential in human cases, to ensure appropriate post-exposure treatment of contacts, and in animal cases to allow specific control strategies to be decided and implemented. we describe here the use of high speed air thermo-cycler pcr as a diagnostic tool for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses. using this technique we were able to diagnose rabies in a human within 5 h. furthermore, the application of automated sequencing of t ...199910488762
newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order mononegavirales, namely hendra virus (hev), menangle virus and australian bat lyssavirus (abl). early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. in 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in queensland. the virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (emv) and has since been renamed hev. inve ...199910501164
immunohistochemistry in the identification of a number of new diseases in australia.immunohistochemistry plays an important part in the diagnosis of some viral diseases. demonstration of viral antigen in a lesion is an important contribution to diagnosis, either at the time of investigation or retrospectively. at the csiro australian animal health laboratory, the most frequent use of immunohistochemistry has been in the diagnosis of the important avian diseases, highly pathogenic avian influenza and newcastle disease. the technology took key roles in the diagnoses of hendra vir ...199910501165
lyssavirus glycoproteins expressing immunologically potent foreign b cell and cytotoxic t lymphocyte epitopes as prototypes for multivalent vaccines.truncated and chimeric lyssavirus glycoprotein (g) genes were used to carry and express non-lyssavirus b and t cell epitopes for dna-based immunization of mice, with the aim of developing a multivalent vaccine prototype. truncated g (gpviii) was composed of the c-terminal half (aa 253-503) of the pasteur rabies virus (pv: genotype 1) g containing antigenic site iii and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. the chimeric g (gebl1-pv) was composed of the n-terminal half (aa 1-250) of the europ ...199910501486
immunization of dogs with a dna vaccine induces protection against rabies virus.rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis which is transmitted to man, mostly by dogs in developing countries. this zoonosis can be prevented by vaccination of humans before or after exposure. however, a more radical approach is possible, involving the elimination of the principal vector/reservoir by vaccinating dogs. the vaccine must be effective, safe and inexpensive. mass production of plasmids is possible and dna-based immunization with a plasmid encoding the antigen responsible for inducing prote ...199910519937
histopathology and immunohistochemistry of bats infected by australian bat describe the lesions and distribution of viral antigens in bats infected by australian bat lyssavirus.199910561795
assessment of template quality by the incorporation of an internal control into a rt-pcr for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses.a method is described to assess rna template quality by the incorporation of a ribosomal rna (rrna) internal (in tube) control into a standard rabies and rabies-related virus specific rt-pcr. specific virus and rrna templates were co-amplified in a duplex reaction from rna extracts derived from 60 isolates representing all six of the established lyssavirus genotypes. to ensure a wide species applicability of this technique we demonstrated that the rrna assay was capable of functioning using the ...200010680960
veterinary surgeon's guide to australian bat lyssavirus.veterinary surgeons in australia must be aware of the emerging viral diseases and their potential effects on public health generally and, more specifically, on the veterinary profession. australian bat lyssavirus was identified in 1996 and causes rabies-like disease in bats and humans. two humans from queensland have died of australian bat lyssavirus encephalitis. surveillance has shown that all australian bats must be considered carriers of this new virus, therefore protective apparel should be ...199910685161
a panel of monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus phosphoprotein identifies a highly variable epitope of value for sensitive strain discrimination.a recombinant rabies virus phosphoprotein fusion product (gst-p) was used to generate a series of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) with anti-p reactivity. competitive binding assays classified 27 of these mabs into four groups (i to iv), and 24 of them were deemed to recognize linear epitopes, as judged by their reaction in immunoblots. the linear epitope recognized in each case was mapped by using two series of n- and c-terminally deleted recombinant phosphoproteins. assessment of the reactivities ...200010747114
potential exposure to australian bat lyssavirus, queensland, 1996-1999.two human deaths caused by australian bat lyssavirus (abl) infection have been reported since 1996. information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south brisbane and the south coast of queensland), who reported potential abl exposure to the brisbane southside public health unit from november 1,1996, to january 31, 1999. volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who inten ...200010827115
molecular methods to distinguish between classical rabies and the rabies-related european bat lyssaviruses.a rapid and sensitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay for the detection of classical rabies virus (genotype 1) and the rabies related european bat lyssaviruses (ebls) (genotypes 5 and 6) was developed. when combined with specific oligonucleotide probes and a pcr-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (pcr-elisa), genotype 5 and 6 viruses can be distinguished from each other and from genotype 1 viruses. ninety-two isolates from the six established genotypes of rabies and ...200010856759
new cases of mokola virus infection in south africa: a genotypic comparison of southern african virus isolates.mokola virus, one of the six genotypes within the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family, is believed to be exclusive to the african continent, where infections in various mammal species have been reported. after an isolation of mokola virus at umhlanga on the east coast of south africa in 1970, the virus was not reported in south africa until its reappearance in 1995. since then a total of six new isolates of the virus were made, three from the east london region in 1995 and 1996, two nea ...200010872870
australian bat lyssavirus: the public health response to an emerging infection. 200010914099
australian bat lyssavirus infection: a second human case, with a long incubation december 1998, a 37-year-old queensland woman died from a rabies-like illness, 27 months after being bitten by a flying fox (fruit bat). molecular techniques enabled diagnosis of infection with australian bat lyssavirus (abl), the second human case to be recognised and the first to be acquired from a flying fox. it must be assumed that any bat in australia could transmit abl; anyone bitten or scratched by a bat should immediately wash the wounds thoroughly with soap and water and promptly see ...200010914106
cytoplasmic dynein lc8 interacts with lyssavirus phosphoprotein.using a yeast two-hybrid human brain cdna library screen, the cytoplasmic dynein light chain (lc8), a 10-kda protein, was found to interact strongly with the phosphoprotein (p) of two lyssaviruses: rabies virus (genotype 1) and mokola virus (genotype 3). the high degree of sequence divergence between these p proteins (only 46% amino acid identity) favors the hypothesis that this interaction is a common property shared by all lyssaviruses. the p protein-dynein lc8 interaction was confirmed by col ...200011024152
[genetic diversity of lyssavirus].rabies is a zoonosis of which the archaeological agents belong to the lyssavirus species. seven genotypes are known to exist. the isolates are grouped according to a) their geographical origin, b) historical context, c) type of vector. in parts of the world where several epidemic cycles exist, practical tools have been developed in order to distinguish between them more easily. vaccine strains--all of which have been elaborated from genotype 1--offer little or no protection against the other gen ...200011030054
characterisation of a recently isolated lyssavirus in frugivorous zoo july 1997 a lyssavirus was isolated in denmark from a colony of egyptian flying foxes (rousettus aegyptiacus) originating from a dutch zoo. sequencing of a 400 nucleotides coding region of the nucleoprotein and of a major part of the g-protein ectodomain encoding region of the newly isolated virus, revealed a very high similarity with european bat lyssavirus subtype 1a (ebl-1a). for characterisation of the recently isolated lyssavirus in frugivorous zoo bats, 16 frugivorous bats (rousettus ae ...200011043951
first isolation of a rabies-related virus from a daubenton's bat in the united kingdom.on may 30, 1996, a sick daubenton's bat (myotis daubentonii) was recovered from the cellar of a public house in newhaven, east sussex. its condition deteriorated rapidly, and it was euthanased and examined. positive results, establishing the presence of a rabies or rabies-related virus in its brain, were obtained from the fluorescent antibody test, the rabies tissue culture isolation test, and a hemi-nested reverse-transcription pcr. the complete sequence of the nucleoprotein gene was determined ...200011073000
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