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diminished virucidal activity of kethoxal against vesicular stomatitis virus pretreated with guanidinating reagent and proteases.the reactivity of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) with kethoxal can be appreciably altered by treatment with 1-guanyl-3, 5-dimethyl pyrazole nitrate (gdmp) and proteolytic enzymes. pretreatment of purified vsv with gdmp or proteolytic enzymes markedly reduced the effectiveness of kethoxal as a virucide. the rate of neutralizability of gdmp- and trypsin-treated viruses by specific antiserum differed from that of controls.19765866
interfering activity of virulent and attenuated influenza virus strains.the interfering activity of influenza virus variants a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n202), a/victoria/35/72(h3n2-3), b/14/55 and b/ussr/69 differing in the level of their reactogenicity for adults and children was studied. an inverse relationship was established between reactogenicity of the strains and their interfering activity in the resistant chick embryo cell (cec) cultures. virulent strains did not interfere with vesicular stomatitis virus. vaccine strains used for commercial live influenza vaccine s ...19769798
transcriptase activity associated with rabies virion.rabies virion-associated transcriptase activity was investigated in vitro and compared with that of the new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus. the concentration of detergent that affected 3hgmp incoporation into acid-insoluble material was significantly different for both viruses. vesicular stomatitis virus new jersey required 0.05 to 0.1% nonionic detergent, whereas rabies virion could not be fully activated unless 4 to 5% detergent was used. other optimal conditions were as follows ...197722766
pseudotype particles of vesicular stomatitis virus with surface antigens of bovine leukaemia virus--vsv (blv) -- as a sensitive probe for detecting antibodies in the sera of spontaneously infected cattle.phenotypically mixed particles containing the genome of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and envelope antigen corresponding to bovine leukaemia virus (blv) -- the vsv (blv) pseudotypes -- can be employed as a rapid, specific and sensitive probe for detecting blv-neutralizing antibodies in bovine sera.197826209
an rna polymerase activity in purified rabies virions.an rna polymerase activity has been demonstrated in purified rabies virions. efficiency of the reaction is low since the rate of incorporation was equal to 3 to 5 pmol of uridine per hour, per mg of protein. as with other mammalian rhabdoviruses the optimal temperature was 31 degrees c. unlike vesicular stomatitis virus, manganese could be substituted for magnesium as a divalent cation, at an optimum concentration of 10 to 20 mm.197829077
diminution by vesicular stomatitis virus of acute graft vs host mortality in mice. 197939680
cross-neutralization between vesicular stomatitis virus type indiana and chandipura virus.using highly potent immune sheep sera, it was possible to demonstrate that: (1) two rhabdoviruses, classified in the vesiculovirus genus on morphological grounds but previously considered unrelated, viz., the vesicular stomatitis virus type indiana (vsv), and chandipura virus (chv), show a low-level, but distinct cross-neutralization. this was, in most combinations, considerably increased by complement. (2) the species of cells used for growing the viruses for immunization and for neutralization ...197940419
selective viral immunosuppression of the graft-versus-host reaction.graft-vs.-host (gvh) reactivity of parental lymph node (ln) cells was assayed by measurements of 3h-thymidine incorporation in vivo in spleens of irradiated f1 recipients. preincubation of parental ln cells with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) for 2 h at 37 degrees c followed by washing resulted in an 85-90% reduction in splenic radioactivity, as did injection of vsv on days 0-2 after recipients received untreated parental ln cells. in contrast, 3h-thymidine incorporation in the spleens or irra ...197745590
immunologically specific production of interferon in cultures of rabbit blood lymphocytes: association with in vitro tests for cell-mediated immunity.lymphocytes of animals with delayed hypersensitivity produce mediators of cellular immunity when challenged in vitro with specific antigen. among these are macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) and interferon (if). nonspecific mitogens also induce the production of these lymphokines. in the following study leukocytes and column-purified lymphocytes of the same peripheral blood sample from tuberculin (purified protein derivatives [ppd])-sensitive rabbits were concurrently cultured in mediu ...197553204
differential sensitivity of rauscher murine leukaemia virus (mulv-r) to interferons in two interferon-responsive cell lines.the effect of interferon on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and type-c oncornavirus in two balb/c mouse cell lines, jls-v5 and jls-v9r, infected with mulv-r was examined. vsv replication was inhibited threefold (0-5 log10) in both cell lines by 10 to 20 units of interferon/ml. in jls-v5 cells c-type virus yields, as measured by 3h-uridine incorporation and reverse transcriptase activity, were also reduced threefold by 10 to 20 units of interferon/ml. however, in jls-v9r cells ...197658965
reverse plaque formation by hog cholera virus of the gpe-strain inducing heterologous interference.a simple and rapid plaque procedure was developed for the assay of hog cholera virus (hcv) of a particular strain, gpe-, based on its intrinsic interference with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) on the primary swine testicle cells and on an established swine kidney cell line; the procedure is called the reverse plaque formation (rpf) method. the plaques were produced as colonies of hcv-infected cells which were vsv-sensitive, disintegrated cell sheet. these plaques became visible after 15 to 20 ...197661176
vesicular stomatitis virus (measles) pseudotypes: tool for demonstrating defective measles infections.mixed infection of vero cells with measles and vesicular stomatitis viruses gives rise to phenotypically mixed infections virus particles possessing the properties of pseudotypes. similar results were obtained when vesicular stomatitis virus was used to superinfect a defective measles system.197561189
interactions of vesicular stomatitis virus with murine cell surface antigens.the process of maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) results in the loss of 70% of the h-2k antigenic activity from l-cell plasma membranes. this phenomenon is also demonstrated during vsv infection of cells of the h-2d haplotype. using the method of inhibition of immune cytolysis, vsv-infected l5178y tissue culture cells and vsv-infected meth a fibrosarcoma cells grown in vivo show a loss of h-2d activity of 73 and 76%, respectively. using monospecific antisera, it is seen that vsv inf ...197661285
identification of infectious virions which are vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes of murine type c virus. 197657669
inhibition of oncornavirus functions by 2'-azido polynucleotides.the 2'-azido analogs of poly(u) and poly(c), poly(duz) [poly(2'-azido-2'-deoxyuridylic acid)], and poly-(dcz [poly(2'-azido-2'-deoxycytidylic acid)], were found to inhibit the rna-directed dna polymerase (reverse transcriptase) activity of murine leukemia (moloney, rauscher) and sarcoma (moloney) virus, and feline leukemia (theilen) and sarcoma (gardner) virus, while under the same conditions the unsubstituted parent compounds failed to do so. in addition, poly(duz) and poly(dcz) inhibited the r ...197547174
human histocompatibility determinants and virus antigens: effect of measles virus infection on hla expression.histocompatibility antigens on the surface of human lymphoblastoid cells were quantified by a microadsorption technique. during the course of measles virus infection, no quantitative or qualitations in surface hla antigens were observed. in contrast, infection with poliovirus type 1 or vesicular stomatitis virus, or treatment with puromycin (50 microgram/ml) resulted in a significant decrease in surface hla. these experiments suggest that an inhibition of host protein synthesis rather than the i ...197768989
sv40 tumor rejection induced by vesicular stomatitis virus bearing sv40 tumor-specific transplantation antigen (sv40-tsta). i. specificity of immunoprotection and effect of enzyme treatment on tsta activity.highly purified vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) was obtained from vsv-infected sv40-transformed hamster cell lines. immunization with this virus protected hamsters against challenge with sv40-transformed cells (tsv5-cl2). this protection was obtained regardless of the source of the sv40-transformed cells (e.g. cat, rat, hamster) used to produce vsv, and was therefore associated with the sv40 tumor-specific transplantation antigen (sv40-tsta). furthermore, when grown on spontaneously transformed ...197771274
sv40 tumor rejection induced by vesicular stomatitis virus bearing sv40 tumor-specific transplantation antigen (sv40-tsta). ii. association of sv40-tsta activity with liposomes containing vsv glycolipids.highly purified vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) was obtained from vsv-infected sv40-transformed and from "normal" hamster cell lines. a glycolipid extract was prepared from these vsv preparations according to the folch partition procedure. these glycolipids were rendered immunogenic to the syrian hamsters when incorporated within liposomal membranes composed of lecithin/sphingomyelin/cholesterol (1/1/2 by weight). when the glycolipids were extracted from vsv grown on cell lines (tsv5-cl2 and eh ...197771275
classification of the new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus into two subtypes.we propose a reclassification of five strains of the new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus into two subtypes designated concan and hazelhurst. this subclassification into two subtypes is based on reciprocal differences in antibody neutralization of virion infectivity, nucleotide base sequence homology, oligonucleotide maps of virion rna, and interference by defective-interfering particles.197874423
the use of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype production in the study of a temperature-sensitive murine leukemia virus. 197765826
pretreatment of hamster cells with phenethyl alcohol alters cell surface glycoproteins and inhibits vesicular stomatitis virus growth.chinese hamster ovary cells cultured in the presence of phenethyl alcohol exhibit obvious changes in cell surface galactose and galactosamine glycoproteins as determined by the galactose-oxidase[3h]borohydride technique and sds gel electrophoresis. cells pretreated with phenethyl alcohol (drug was removed before infection) were not as effective as hosts for vesicular stomatitis virus as untreated cultures. a minimum pretreatment time with 0.1% phenethyl alcohol of about 8 h was required before a ...197768807
inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus multiplication in vero cells by 2-deoxy-d-glucose.2-deoxy-d-glucose (dog) effectively inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) multiplication in vero cells when pyruvate-containing medium was used as an energy source. the effectiveness of the antimetabolite was markedly reduced by substituting glucose for pyruvate in the maintenance medium. addition of dog at intervals during the viral growth cycle caused a notable decrease in viral yields. this inhibiting effect was reversed by mannose and to a lesser extent by glucose. vsv-rna synthesis was ...197941433
use of uv irradiation to identify the genetic information of vesicular stomatitis virus responsible for shutting off cellular rna synthesis.uv irradiation of infectious vesicular stomatitis virus was employed to study the relationship between the expression of certain viral gene functions and viral inhibition of rna synthesis in mouse myeloma (mpc-11) cells. viral infectivity, protein synthesis, and viral mrna synthesis were all highly susceptible to inactivation by uv radiation; however, low levels of viral transcriptase activity were detected in vitro in virus preparations subjected to large doses of uv radiation. in sharp contra ...197990165
tetracycline-mediated photodynamic inactivation of animal viruses.demethylchlortetracycline (dmct), doxycycline and, to a lesser extent, chlortetracycline were capable of mediating the in vitro photoinactivation of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) virus. other tetracyclines tested were found to be inactive in this respect. however, no correlation between chemical structure and photosensitizing activity could be established. the photoinactivation of vee virus by dmct proceeds through a photodynamic mechanism as shown by the absolute requirement of o2 for th ...1979120411
cell killing by viruses. ii. cell killing by vesicular stomatitis virus: a requirement for virion-derived transcription. 1975163045
virus development in enucleate cells: echovirus, poliovirus, pseudorabies virus, reovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and semliki forest virus.a group of rna viruses, echovirus, poliovirus, reovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and semliki forest virus have been examined for ability to grow in enucleate african green monkey kidney (bsci) cells. semliki forest virus produced an almost normal yield of virus but poliovirus, echovirus, reovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, although showing clear evidence of virus replication when compared with a nuclear dna virus (pseudorabies virus) gave much lower yields than those from nucleate cell ...1975163289
screening procedure for complementation-dependent mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus.to isolate new types of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) mutants, a four-stage screen was developed which identifies and characterizes mutants capable of complementing the defect in the vsv temperature-sensitive mutant tsg11. two types of mutants of vsv, indiana serotype, have been found by using the screen; they are new temperature-sensitive mutants which are, of necessity, not in complementation group i and mutants which do not produce plaques under conditions of single infection at 31 c (the ...1975163345
action of interferon in enucleated cells.interferon induces protection of enucleated bsc-1 cells against infectious vesicular stomatitis virus production if cells are treated before, but not after, enucleation.1975163365
porcine parvovirus: frequency of naturally occurring transplacental infection and viral contamination of fetal porcine kidney cell cultures.the frequency of naturally occurring transplacental infection of swine with porcine parvovirus (ppv) and one of the possible consequences of such infection--the presence of ppv in cell cultures prepared from fetal tissues--were investigated. transplacental infection was indicated by the presence of high titers of hemagglutination inhibiting (hi) antibody for ppv in serums of 0-day-old, hysterectomy-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs of 3 of 82 litters. all letters were farm-raised dams. moreover, ...1975163603
inactivation of viruses and bacteria by ozone, with and without sonication.selected organisms with public health significance were placed in a reaction chamber for treatment by ozonation, by ozonation and sonication, by sonication, or by sonication during oxygenation. vesicular stomatitis virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, gdvii virus, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas fluorescens, salmonella typhimurium, enteropathogenic escherichia coli, vibrio cholerae, and shigella flexneri were inactivated by treatment with ozone. when microorganisms were suspended in phosphate-b ...1975163616
messenger rna species synthesized in vitro by the virion-associated rna polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus.the virion-associated rna-dependent rna polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) synthesizes in vitro two size classes of rna products similar to those observed in vsv-infected cells. one rna product sediments at 31s with an approximate molecular weight of 2.1 x 106. the smaller products consist of at least three classes of rna sedimenting at 17s, 14.5s, and 12s with molecular weights of 0.7 x 106, 0.52 x 106, and 0.37 x 106, respectively. hybridization experiments show that both the 31s a ...1975163702
cell-free synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus proteins: translation of membrane-bound polyribosomal mrnas. 1975163768
characterization of an in vitro persistent-state measles virus infection: species characterization and interference in the bgm/mv cell line.serological methods of mixed agglutination and indirect immunofluorescence showed the bgm/mv cell line to possess monkey antigens. as a means of further characterizing the species constitution of the bgm/mv cell line, the species specificity of viral-induced interferon from these cells, as well as the response of these cells to exogenous interferons, was determined. low titers of spontaneously elaborated interferon capable of protecting monkey but not mouse cells were detected in bgm/mv culture ...1975163789
cellular adsorption function of the sialoglycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus and its neuraminic acid.exposure of vesicular stomatitis (vs) virions to neuraminidase resulted in loss of their ability to agglutinate goose erythrocytes and to attach to l cells concomitant with hydrolysis of sialic acid. these viral adsorptive functions were also destroyed by tryspsinization. sialyl transferase resialylation in vitro of neuraminidase-treated vs virions restored their hamagglutinating and adsorptive functions almost to original levels. erythrocyte and l cell receptors for attachment of vs virions wer ...1975163924
translation and identification of the mrna species synthesized in vitro by the virion-associated rna polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus.vesicular stomatitis virus messenger rna has been transcribed in vitro from the viral genome by the virion-associated rna polymerase in quantities suitable for translation. wheat germ cell-free extracts programmed with the isolated in vitro 12-18s rna fraction synthesize polypeptides similar to the viral n, ns, and m proteins, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tryptic peptide mapping of the in vitro products and the viral marker polypeptides. in addition, ...1975164017
sub-cellular localization of vesicular stomatitis virus messenger rnas. 1975164182
novel initiation of rna synthesis in vitro by vesicular stomatitis virus. 1975165428
sequence of 200 nucleotides at the 3'-terminus of the genome rna of vesicular stomatitis virus.the sequence of 200 nucleotides at the 3'-terminus of the genome rna of vesicular stomatitis virus, indiana serotype, was determined by adding a poly(a) tract to the 3'-terminus of genome rna, then using the poly(a) as a binding site for a primer to initiate reverse transcription of the rna, and analysing the complementary dna sequence by the dideoxynucleoside triphosphate chain termination method. proceeding 3' to 5', the genome rna sequence consisted of a sequence complementary to the leader r ...197990365
structure-function relationships and mode of replication of animal rhabdoviruses.recently accumulated knowledge allows more precise comparison of the structural (and possibly evolutionary) relationships of several different animal rhabdoviruses: vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, kern canyon virus, and spring viremia of carp virus. each virus is composed primarily of a glycoprotein, an rna-associated nucleoprotein, and one or two membrane proteins. vesicular stomatitis virus group viruses contain lesser amounts of two additional distinct polypeptides, ns and l. the se ...1975165494
selective blockage of initiation of host protein synthesis in rna-virus-infected cells.poliovirus mrna and mrna transcribed from vesicular stomatitis virus and reovirus genomes efficiently direct protein synthesis in vivo under experimental conditions where the initiation of host protein synthesis is selectively blocked. the selective blockage of host peptide chain initiation after exposure to hypertonic medium indicates that the translation of viral mrna is more efficiently initiated than is the translation of host mrna. it further suggests that virus directed suppression of host ...1975165500
analysis of the 3'-terminal nucleotide sequence of vesicular stomatitis virus n protein mrna.the sequence of 205 nucleotides adjacent to the poly(a) tract at the 3'-terminus of the mrna encoding the n polypeptide of vesicular stomatitis virus has been determined by copying with reverse transcriptase and using 2', 3'-dideoxynucleoside triphosphates as specific chain terminators. the method appears highly suitable for sequence determination in any purified mrna. an examination of the sequence did not locate without ambiguity the limit of polypeptide coding rna. the hexanucleotide aauaaa, ...197882934
changes in the virus-host cell relationship in a stable non-virogenic cell line persistently infected with measles virus (bgm/mv).a non-virogenic african green monkey kidney cell line bgm/mv persistently infected with a neurotropic mouse brain-adapted strain of measles virus, was found to have undergone significant changes in the virus-host cell relationship between passages 35 and 119. rather than the stable non-cytopathic relationship previously reported in which approximately 100% of the cells contained measles antigens and less than 1% of the cells expressed cell surface measles antigen, we observed cyclic manifestatio ...1979118238
structure of the gene n:gene ns intercistronic junction in the genome of vesicular stomatitis virus. 197989911
melanoma skin test antigens of improved sensitivity prepared from vesicular stomatitis virus-infected tumor cells.crude membrane (cm) extracts from three different cultured human melanoma lines that were "virus-augmented" (infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) and subsequently inactivated by ultraviolet light) produced positive skin tests in 17 of 20 (85%), 11 of 20 (55%), and 13 of 18 (72%) tests, respectively, performed in 20 melanoma patients. identical cm extracts from the same melanoma lines that had not been infected with vsv gave positive skin tests in 2 of 20 (10%), 4 of 20 (20%), and 2 of ...197877181
vesicular stomatitis virus deficient in protein kinase is infectious. 197770378
a possible effect of viral proteins on the specificity of interference by defective vesicular stomatitis virus particles. 197770105
both ns and l proteins are required for in vitro rna synthesis by vesicular stomatitis virus.vesicular stomatitis virions, indiana serotype, were solubilized with high salt solubilizer and separated by ultracentrifugation into a supernatant fraction containing l, g, ns, and m proteins and pellet fraction containing the rna complexed with n protein. ns protein was purified from the supernatnat fluid by sequential chromatography on phosphocellulose and diethylaminoethyl cellulose columns. the purified ns protein was assayed in a standard transcription system in combination with purified l ...1975167189
the 5' terminal structure of the methylated mrna synthesized in vitro by vesicular stomatitis virus.the 5' terminal structure of the mrna synthesized in vitro by the virion-associated rna polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus in the presence of s-adenosyl-l-methione consists of 7-methyl guanosine linked to 2'-o-methyl adenosine through a 5'-5' pyrophosphate bond as m7g(5')ppp(5')a-m-p ... the alpha and beta phosphated of gtp and alpha phosphate of atp are incorporated into the blocked 5' terminal structure.1975165900
methylated and blocked 5' termini in vesicular stomatitis virus in vivo mrnas.methyl groups derived from 3h-methyl methionine were incorporated into vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) mrnas isolated from infected cells. sequential degradation of the 12-18s viral mrna species with ribonuclease t2, penicillium nuclease, and alkaline phosphatase yielded a single 3h-labeled dinucleotide. a similar resistant 32p-labeled fragment was obtained by digesting vsv mrna uniformly labeled with 32p. this methylated and blocked oligomer was further cleaved with nucleotide pyrophosphatase, ...1975165901
restitution of infectivity to spikeless vesicular stomatitis virus by solubilized viral components.noninfectious spikeless particles have been obtained from vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv, indiana serotype) by bromelain or pronase treatment. they lack the viral glycoprotein (g) but contain all the other viral components (rna, lipid, and other structural proteins). triton-solubilized vsv-indiana glycoprotein preparations, containing the viral g protein as well as lipids (including phospholipids), have been extracted from whole virus preparations, freed from the majority of the detergent, and ...1975166210
abortive infection of a rabbit cornea cell line by vesicular stomatitis virus: conversion to productive infection by superinfection with vaccinia virus.an abortive infection of a rabbit cornea cell line (rc-60) by vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), yielding less than 1 pfu/cell, was converted to a productive infection, yielding 1,900 pfu/cell, when cells were superinfected with vaccinia. studies on the synthesis of vsv-directed rna in rc-60 cells suggest that the abortive infection by vsv alone may be due in part to (i) a limited production of 40s virion rna and (ii) a markedly reduced activity of virion-bound transcriptase activity in rc-60 cel ...1975168405
influence of interferon on the synthesis of virus particles in oncornavirus carrier cell lines. iii. survey of effects on a-, b- and c-type oncornaviruses.the effect of interferon on the synthesis and release of a-, b- and c-type viruses by oncornavirus carrier lines was studied. murine cell lines were selected which carry either of these viruses and are sensitive to the antiviral effect of interferon, as measured by inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus. release of c-type virus was found to be highly sensitive. release of b-type virus, on the contrary, was only marginally inhibited. synthesis of intracisternal a-type particles was finally not ...197550292
inhibition of viral transcriptase by immunoglobulin directed against the nucleocapsid ns protein of vesicular stomatitis virus.in search of an anti-transcriptase, antibody was raised in rabbits to partially purified, soluble ns protein present in cytoplasmic extracts of cells infected with the indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis (vsind) virus. this antiserum gave specific reactions of identity by agar immunodiffusion with both cytoplasmic and virion ns protein. ns antiserum also preferentially precipitated ns 3-h-labeled protein from infected cytoplasmic extracts, whereas anti-whole vsind virion serum also precipit ...197549440
in vitro studies on borna virus. ii. properties of the virus.successful cultivation and titration of borna disease virus in cell cultures enabled detailed studies of the virus properties. borna virus is labile towards treatment with heat, ph 3.0 and lipid solvents. it is relatively stable at low temperatures and in frozen state. it is easily inactivated by ultraviolet light as e.g. vesicular stomatitis virus. after ultrafiltration studies, the size of the infectious virus unit is between 80 and 100 nm. its buoyant density in cesium chloride is 1.165 g per ...197942376
effects of phosphorylation and ph on the association of ns protein with vesicular stomatitis virus cores.the proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) were analyzed on the basis of charge as well as size in polyacrylamide gels containing urea and acetic acid. the phosphorprotein ns was resolved into two major species. the less phosphorylated ns1 species contained about 10% fewer phosphate residues than the second species, ns2. these two phosphorylated forms were compartmentalized both in the virus and in the infected cell cytoplasm. cores from virions and the core-containing fraction of the infe ...197829135
interferon induction and action in transformed poikilothermic cells.the production and effect of interferon in the virus-transformed cell line tgk1, originating from kidney cells of testudo gracea were studied and compared to those in the primary cell culture. west nile virus and newcastle disease virus were used as inducers. interferon production in tgk1 cells began 6 hr later than in the primary cell culture and reached the maximum 64 iu, 18 hr after virus inoculation. in the primary culture, interferon production increased till the 48th hr reaching a fourfold ...1975168742
virus-replicating t cells in the immune response of mice. i. virus plaque assay of the lymphocytes reactive to sheep erythrocytes.virus plaque-forming cell assay with vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), which had been originally introduced by bloom and his colleagues as a tool for the enumeration of activated lymphocytes, was first applied to the immune response of mice to a widely used antigen, i.e. sheep red blood cells (srbc). when spleen cells taken from mice previously primed with srbc were cultured in the presence of the antigen, lymphocytes capable of replicating vsv (antigen-induced virus plaque-forming cells, ag-v-p ...197764584
the shape of vesicular stomatitis virus. 197658471
rubella and rheumatoid arthritis: hyaluronic acid and susceptibility of cultured rheumatoid synovial cells to viruses.synovial cell lines were established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (ra) and from normal human embryos. high levels of hyaluronic acid (ha) were produced by some ra cell lines, some of which were partially or completely resistant to infection with newcastle disease virus (ndv), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and rubella virus (rv). normal fetal synovial cells lines were susceptible to ndv, vsv, and rv. infection with virus became possible after treatment of ra cells with hyaluronidas ...1975167379
temperature-sensitive defect of vesicular stomatitis virus in complementation group ii.the prototype member of the complementation group ii temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus, ts ii 052, has been investigated. in ts ii 052-infected hela cells at the restrictive temperature (39.5 degrees c), reduced viral rna synthesis was observed by comparison with infections conducted at the permissive temperature (30 degrees c). it was found that for an infection conducted at 39.5 degrees c, no 38s rna or intracytoplasmic nucleocapsids were present. for nucleocapsi ...197715135
physical properties of new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus and its defective particles.the wild-type new jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus generated two types of defective interfering t-particles. the physical properties of these particles and the wild-type virion were determined by laser light scattering spectroscopy, sedimentation measurements, and electron microscopy.1975165488
effect to tween 80 and aquasol a on virus plaque formation.the enhancement of vesicular stomatitis virus plaques on human embryonic lung cells in the presence of tween 80 or aquasol a was studied to determine the optimal conditions for the enhancement. enhanced numbers and sizes of vesicular stomatitis virus plaques occurred when aquasol a or tween 80 was added to the cell culture 30 min before virus adsorption but not when added after adsorption. these substances did not have a direct effect on the virus and did not have an effect on virus adsorption o ...1975170202
methylation-dependent translation of viral messenger rnas in vitro.methylated reovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus mrnas, synthesized in vitro in the presence of s-adenosylmethionine by the virion-associated polymerases (rna nucleotidyltransferases, ec 2.7.7.6), stimulate protein synthesis by wehat germ extracts to a greater extent than unmethylated mrnas. addition of s-adenosylmethionine to a cell-free extract programmed with unmethylated mrna stimulates protein synthesis and results in methylation of the mrna. an inhibitor of mrna methylation. s-adenosylho ...1975165487
nucleotide sequence complexities, molecular weights, and poly(a) content of the vesicular stomatitis virus mrna species.poly(a)-containing vesicular stomatitis virus mrna species synthesized in vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells have been separated into four bands by electrophoresis on formamide-polyacrylamide gels. two-dimensional fingerprints of ribonuclease t-1 and ribonuclease a digests of the rna from each band show that they contain unique oligonucleotide sequences as well as 60 to 125 nucleotides of poly(a). the fingerprints were used to determine the nucleotide sequence complexities of rna from thr ...1975163928
sulfated components of enveloped viruses.the glycoproteins of several enveloped viruses, grown in a variety of cell types, are labeled with 35so4(-2), whereas the nonglycosylated proteins are not. this was shown for the hn and f glycoproteins of sv5 and sendai virus, the e1 and e2 glycoproteins of sindbis virus, and for the major glycoprotein, gp69, as well as for a minor glycoprotein, gp52, of rauscher leukemia virus. the minor glycoprotein of rauscher leukemia virus is more highly sulfated, with a ratio of 35so4- [3h]glucosamine abou ...1975170420
nongenetic complementation of group v temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus by uv-irradiated virus.cells infected with temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of complementation group v of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) give an enhanced yield at nonpermissive temperature when co-infected or superinfected with uv-irradiated virus. virions produced in these mixed infections are temperature sensitive and do not complement ts v45. rescue of group v mutants is multiplicity dependent. it can occur in the presence of cycloheximide; kinetics of rescue are similar in the absence or in the presence of the ...1975163919
coupled in vitro transcription and translation of vesicular stomatitis virus messenger rna.the virion transcriptase (nucleosidetriphosphate: rna nucleotidyltransferase, ec 2.7.7.6) of vesicular stomatitis virus was fully active when ribonucleoprotein cores from purified virions were added to cell-free protein synthesizing systems of eukaryotic origin. synthesis of mrna was linear for at least 3 hr and the newly synthesized viral mrna was efficiently utilized for the synthesis of viral proteins n (nucleoprotein), ns, and m (matrix); small amounts of a putative g (glycoprotein protein p ...1975170604
mosquito cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus yield unsialylated virions of low infectivity.vesicular stomatitis virus propagated in and released from aedes albopictus cells had the normal complement of viral proteins; the glycoprotein contained carbohydrate but no sialic acid. these virions had markedly reduced hemagglutinating activity and exhibited a very high ratio of physical particles to infectious virus. in vitro sialylation of vesicular stomatitis virions grown in mosquito cells resulted in a 100-fold increase in both infectivity and hemagglutination titers to levels approachin ...1975163913
phenotypic mixing between vesicular stomatitis virus and avian rna tumor viruses. 1975169046
translation and identification of the viral mrna species isolated from subcellular fractions of vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells.the cytoplasm of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv)-infected bhk cells has been separated into a fraction containing the membrane-bound polysomes and the remaining supernatant fraction. total poly(a)-containing rna was isolated from each fraction and purified. a 17s class of vsv mrna was found associated almost exclusively with the membrane-bound polysomes, whereas 14,5s and 12s rnas were found mostly in the postmembrane cytoplasmic supernatant. poly(a)-containing vsv rna synthesized in vitro by p ...1975163912
conditional lethal mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus. 1975169102
translation of individual species of vesicular stomatitis viral mrna.vesicular stomatitis virus mrnas from three of the four bands fractionated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 99% formamide have been eluted from gels and translated in the krebs ii ascites cell-free system. band 2 mrna (0.7 times 10-6 daltons) directed the synthesis of the protein moiety of the glycoprotein (g), and band 3 (0.55 times 10-6 daltons) coded for the nucleocapsid (n) protein. band 4 mrna (o.28 times 10-6 daltons) directed the synthesis of the ns and matrix (m) proteins. the au ...1975163911
rna synthesis by temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus, new jersey serotype. 1975163530
viral replication and interferon production in fetal and adult ovine leukocytes and spleen cells.peripheral blood leukocyte and spleen cell cultures derived from adult sheep and from third-trimester (107 to 145 days of gestation) and second-trimester (70 to 98 days of gestation) fetal lambs were examined for their ability to support viral replication and to produce interferon. bluetongue virus, herpesvirus hominis type 2, and chikungunya virus failed to replicate in either leukocyte or spleen cell cultures derived from adult ewes or in cultures from second- or third-trimester fetal lambs. s ...1975172452
persistence of vesicular stomatitis virus in interferon-treated cell cultures. 1975163524
effect of tetraethyl thiuram disulfide (disulfiram) on the multiplication of enveloped viruses.disulfiram at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.3 mm inhibits the multiplication of semliki forest virus (sfv), fowl plague virus (fpv), newcastle disease virus (ndv), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and pseudorabies virus (prv), when administered 1 hour before and during adsorption. there is, however, no inhibition of virus multiplication, when the drug is added after adsorption onto chick embryo cells. disulfiram interferes neither with the receptors of the virus nor of erythrocytes, and it d ...1975173261
on the mechanism of neurotropism of vesicular stomatitis virus in newborn hamsters. studies with temperature-sensitive mutants.the virulence of temperature-sensitive mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) injected subcutaneously into newborn hamsters was positively correlated with their tendency to generate revertants and with their leakiness in cultured hamster embryo fibroblasts maintained at 37 degrees c, the measured body temperature of the animals under our experimental conditions. the complementation group of the mutants seemed important only in that it tended to determine reversion frequency and leakiness. o ...1975173795
inhibition of cellular protein synthesis by simultaneous pretreatment of host cells with fowl plague virus and actinomycin d: a method for studying early protein synthesis of several rna viruses.a method is described for analysis of viral protein synthesis early after infection when minute amounts of viral proteins are effectively concealed by large amounts of produced host-specific proteins. the method is superior to a radioimmune assay, since all virus-induced proteins can be measured independent of their immunological reactivity. host-specific protein synthesis can be suppressed by infection with fowl plague virus. addition of actinomycin c 1.25 h postinfection does not prevent this ...1975173875
scanning electron microscopic studies of virus-infected cells. i. cytopathic effects and maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus in l2 cells.l2 cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus under single-cycle conditions have been studied by scanning electron microscopy after preparation by the critical point drying technique. three dimensional images of intact cells show bullet-shaped vesicular stomatitis virus virions budding singly and in radiating clusters both from the plasma membrane between cellular microvilli and from the sides of microvilli. virus-induced cytopathic effects observed by scanning electron microscopy include in ...1975163360
analysis of uridine incorporation in chicken embryo cells infected by vesicular stomatitis virus and its temperature-sensitive mutants: uridine transport.the shut-off of rna synthesis in chicken embryo cells, after infection with vesicular stomatitis virus, is partially due to a reduced capacity of the infected cells to transport uridine. permeability to uridine decreases exponentially after infection. this loss of ability to transport uridine may be caused either by structural components of the input virions or may result from the expression of the viral gene products. in the latter case, only minor levels of viral transcription is sufficient to ...1975163348
phenotypically mixed vesicular stomatitis virus particles produced in human tumor cell lines. 1975169045
virus envelope markers in mammalian tropism of avian rna tumor viruses.pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus were prepared with avian sarcoma viruses and avian leukemia viruses representing five different subgroups. these pseudotypes display a host range restricted to that of the avian tumor virus when assayed on avian cells and are neutralized by subgroup-specific antisera. the efficiency of penetration of mammalian cells was assayed by using these vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes. pseudotypes of avian tumor viruses belonging to subgroup d and of b77 vir ...1975163337
inhibition by aurintricarboxylic acid and polyethylene sulfonate of rna transcription of vesicular stomatitis virus.the in vitro activity of the ribonucleoprotein-dependent rna transcriptase of vesicular stomatitis virions was found to be completely inhibited by low concentrations of aurintricarboxylic acid (ata) and polyethylene sulfonic acid (pes) when these inhibitors were added before the start of the rna polymerase reaction. however, if rna synthesis was allowed to occur before ata or pes was added, rna synthesis continued for a short time (10 min or less) in the presence of either inhibitor at a concent ...1975171445
progeny resulting from complementation between mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus.the complementation properties of the virus progeny released from cells mixedly infected with mutants of vesicular stomatitis virus belonging to four different complementation groups have been examined. the group iv mutant, tsw16b, was tested in combinations with three group i mutants (tsw4, tsw28, and tsg11), one group ii mutant (tsg22), and one group iii mutant (tsw29). virus stocks were grown from isolated plaques appearing on the cell monolayers used to assay the mixed infection yields and t ...1975163131
studies on the in vivo and in vitro messenger rna species of vesicular stomatitis virus. 1975171836
inhibition of herpesvirus hominis replication by human interferon.the effect of human interferon on single-cycle replication of herpesvirus hominis type 1 (hv-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) in human foreskin fibroblast cultures (hff) was studied. after treatment of hff cultures with low concentrations (58 u) of human interferon, a variable but statistically significant inhibition of hv-1 was observed. at higher concentrations (greater than 95 u) yield reduction of hv in interferon-treated cultures approached that of vsv. preliminary data indicate that ...1975166922
the size and the cistronic origin of defective vesicular stomatitis virus particle rnas in relation to homotypic and heterotypic interference. 1976176367
replication of reticuloendotheliosis viruses in cell culture: chronic infection.after an initial acute infection with cell killing, chicken or duck embryo fibroblasts infected in culture with reticuloendotheliosis viruses set up a chronic infection with no cell killing or morphological transformation. essentially all of the chronically infected cells produced virus. the virus production was not sensitive to cytosine arabinoside or mitomycin c as was virus production in an acute infection. the chronically infected cells had a strong group-specific resistancto the c.p.e. of s ...1975167114
factors involved in the generation and replication of rhabdovirus defective t particles.previous indications that cloned b virions might be genetically predisposed to generate a particular defective t particle are shown to be inaccurate. t particle generation was found to be a much more random process than was previously believed. we show that the previously observed generation of particular sizes of t particles by b virion pools is due to the random generation of t particles during preparation of first-passage pools of cloned b virions, and these breed true during the additional p ...1976176445
oligosaccharide moieties of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus.vesicular stomatitis virus contains a single structural glycoprotein whose carbohydrate sequences are probably specified by the host cell. the glycopeptides derived by pronase digestion of the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus grown in hela cells have an average molecular weight of 1,800. there are multiple oligosaccharide chains on the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein with protein-carbohydrate linkages that are cleaved only by strong alkali under reducing conditions, suggesting ...1976176458
virus-dependent glycosylation.the oligosaccharides of the membrane glycoproteins of sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and rous sarcoma virus were compared on the basis of apparent size and sugar composition. it appears that each virus acquires a different set of oligosaccharides during growth in a single type of cell.1975173894
efficacy of exogenous interferon treatment initiated after onset of multiplication of vesicular stomatitis virus in the brains of mice.initiation of treatment with potent interferon preparations (6-4 x 10-6 units per dose) 4 days after intranasal inoculation of vsv (at a time when virus has already multiplied in the brains of most mice) resulted in a marked increase in mouse survival. in a series of 6 experiments only 11 to 18% of control mice survived whereas 52% of interferon treated mice survival. these results suggest the usefulness of exogenous interferon even when treatment is begun late in the course of an acute virus di ...1975167120
polykaryocytosis induced by vesicular stomatitis virus infection in bhk-21 cells.cytopathological effects by vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) infection were studied in several cell lines. marked polykaryocyte formation was observed in monolayers of certain strains of bhk-21 cells infected with vsv. the bhk-21-kb cells were found to be the most susceptible to virus-induced cell fusion. this type of cell fusion was related to intracellular growth of the viruses, and strong cytolytic changes were found to occur following the development of large multinucleated giant cells. the ...1975174526
lethal synergy between sarcoma-180/tg cells and vesicular stomatitis virus in mice.an interaction between sarcoma-180/tg cells and vesicular stomatitis virus in adult mice resulted in the rapid onset of extensive mortality. this interaction, termed lethal synergy, occurred only at early stages of ascites induction in animals with no prior virus contact. a significant sparing effect conferred by the serotonin antagonist dibenamine was reversed by the administration of serotonin. the cause of death was not determined, but a mechanism involving hypersensitivity is indicated.1975174141
the pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus, serotype indiana, in aedes aegypti mosquitoes. i. intrathoracic injection.analysis of infectious virus particles after intrathoracic injection revealed that aedes aegypti mosquito tissues are capable of supporting the growth of vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), serotype indiana. although all tissues assayed (salivary gland, midgut, diverticulum, malphigian tubules, and ovary) were capable of supporting vsv growth, the salivary gland was the only organ capable of maintaining an appreciable amount of virus for periods longer than 9 days postinfection. electron microscop ...1976176893
inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus by kethoxal bis (thiosemicarbazone).kethoxal bis (thiosemicarbazone) (kts) inhibited replication of, and plaque formation by, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) in chick embryo cells. no other thiosemicarbazones tested were effective. virus-specific m-rna and protein synthesis were inhibited by kts. however, virion rna-dependent rna synthesis was not inhibited by the drug. treatment of vsv virions directly with kts produced enhancement, rather than inactivation, of plaque formation. kts inhibited cellular dna and rna synthesis by 67 ...197772131
association of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein with virion membrane: characterization of the lipophilic tail fragment.the proteolytic enzyme, thermolysin, degraded the external segment of the membrane glycoprotein of intact vesicular stomatitis (vs) virions but left behind a small nonglycosylated fragment, presumably embedded in the virion membrane. other proteases generated membrane-associated glycoprotein fragments differing somewhat in molecular weight. the thermolysin-resistant, virion-associated fragment, which can be selectively solubilized by either triton x-100 or chloroform/methanol, has a molecular we ...1975168400
further evidence for the existence of a viral envelope protein defect in the bryan high-titer strain of rous sarcoma virus.electron microscopy observations of purified bryan high-titer rous sarcoma virus (bh rsv) using the freeze-drying technique showed that progeny made in the absence of a helper virus lacked visible surface projections or spikes. phenotypic mixing experiments employing bh rsv and a thermolabile mutant of vesicular stomatitis virus, tl 17, yielded no evidence of pseudotype formation. since tl 17 is known to be defective for an envelope glycoprotein, the lack of successful phenotypic mixing with bh ...1975168409
association of ribosomes with intracellular vesicular stomatitis virus particles.ribosomes are observed intimately associated with nucleocapsids of vesicular, stomatitis virus, especially those that line structures that are either cytoplasmic vesicles or invaginations of the plasma membrane.1975168410
parental g protein reincorporation by a vesicular stomatitis virus temperature-sensitive mutant of complementation group v at nonpermissive temperature. 1976176787
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