effect of streptovirudin on parainfluenza 3 virus multiplication.streptovirudin (sv) in a concentration of 100 microng/ml reduced the multiplication of parainfluenza 3 virus by about 3.5 log units. when uninfected wish cells were treated for 2 and 12 hours with 100 mug/ml of sv, 3h-thymidineincorporation was decreased, but no marked differences were observed in the incorporation of 3h-uridine. the level of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-amp) was found to decrease in sv-treated cells.197715435
the use of igm antibody responses in the diagnosis of primary infections to measles, rubella, mumps, and m. parainfluenzae and twenty-seven sera were tested to determine whether a primary infection could be identified by a determination of the class of antibody (igm) detected in serum collected in the period after a viral infection. serum was collected from patients with a history of measles (18 cases), rubella (24 cases), mumps (12 cases), and m. parainfluenzae type 3 infections (9 cases). the results of the serological assays are compared with clinical observations and the limitations of the methods un ...197845605
studies on parainfluenza-3 virus neuraminidase.various parainfluenza-3 virus (piv-3) strains differ in neuraminidase (na) activity, some being neuraminidase strong (nas) and some neuraminidase weak (naw). no difference in the ability of these strains to elicit antibody activity to hemagglutinin (ha) or na of piv-3 was observed. samples of formalin-treated piv-3 released more n-acteylneuraminic acid (nana) than samples of piv-3 not treated with formalin when these samples were incubated with the substrate sialolactose for 16 h at 37 degrees c ...197547826
[level of viral antibodies in normal and specific swine and bovine gamma globulin preparations].studied were 15 series of normal bovine gamma-globulin, 5 series of normal swine gamma-globulin, 7 series of aujeszky gamma-globulin, 6 series of specific gamma-globulin against edema disease of pigs, 4 series of specific gamma-globulin against paratyphus, 5 series of mixoglobulin-70, and one series of swine poly-globulin. all series of gamma-globulin preparations were studied for the presence of antibodies against mixovirus parainfluenza-3 through the hemagglutinationinhibition reaction, antibo ...197558467
skin hypersensitivity to parainfluenza-3 virus in cattle. ii. induction by vaccination and specificity. 197665073
virus-antibody titres in chronic glomerulonephritis. 197878370
epidemiology of respiratory viral infection among paediatric inpatients over a six-year period in north-east england.during a 6-year, hospital-based study at newcastle upon tyne five consecutive winter epidemics of respiratory syncytial (r.s.) virus infection occurred; the virus was identified in 1428 cases, showing that 1 in 50 live-births were admitted to hospital with r.s. virus infection. epidemics were inversely related to temperature and to number of hours of sunshine. parainfluenzaviruses, the second largest group of pathogens, were identified in 543 cases; most infections by this group were due to para ...197882045
[use of the precipitation reaction for studying viral antibodies in blood sera]. 197989261
investigation of factors of probable significance in the pathogenesis of pneumonic pasteurellosis in cattle.six groups of ten beef calves six to eight months of age were shipped from western canada and observed untreated for one week after arrival. the following parameters were measured daily: body temperature, plasma fibrinogen, nasal bacterial mean colony counts of pasteurella hemolytica and pasteurella multocida, total and differential leukoyte counts, packed cell volumes and the following, twice during the week: serum and nasal antibody titres to p. hemolytica and parainfluenza-3 virus. the lungs ...1975164992
meaning of circulating antibody titers in the infections of parainfluenza 3 virus and rs is generally accepted that secretory antibodies play a very important role in the prevention of respiratory infections, but it is also considered that the circulating antibody level is a very significant indication of the establishment of infections. in parainfluenza 3 and rs virus infections, reinfections are very common but seem to depend more or less upon circulating antibody levels. there is a correlation between circulating antibody level and infection rate in parainfluenza 3 infection i ...1975165115
contribution to the study of the parainfluenza antigens.from epidemiological data it appeared that an epidemic of parainfluenza type 1 occurred in lyons in october-november 1967. thereafter a few sporadic cases were detected. then in 1970 strains were isolated which showed a change in the hemagglutinin antigen. the persistence of antibodies in the population is shorter than that of the other parainfluenza viruses (i. e. parainfluenza 3); it is not known if reinfections with parainfluenza 1 occur since there are cross-reactions by cf test between para ...1975165116
immune response of cattle to intranasally or parenterally administered parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccines.the principal significance of pi-3 virus in the bovine respiratory disease complex would seem to be its role in predisposing the respiratory tract to bacterial infection by (5) disrupting the integrity of the superficial mucosa and (3) producing a more favourable milieu for bacterial growth. attention has therefore been given to establishing local immunity to preclude infection of superficial cells of the mucosa. criteria used to evaluate the degree of such immunity are (5) presence of specific ...1975165124
local and systemic response after simultaneous intranasal inoculation of temperature-sensitive mutants of parainfluenza 3, ibr and bovine adenovirus 3.triple seronegative calves were exposed by the nasal route to three (ts) mutants of bovine respiratory viruses (pi3, ibr, adeno3). after a single exposure, they responded with significant levels of serum antibodies to the three viruses. nasal antibodies were demonstrated for pi3 and adenovirus antigens. the failure to demonstrate nasal antibodies to ibr may be due to lack of sensitivity of the procedure used. when reexposed six weeks later, calves had sharp increases in levels of serum antibodie ...1975165126
comparison of three methods for sampling the bovine upper respiratory tract for viruses.a modified naso-pharyngeal swab with nylon bristles had certain advantages for sampling the bovine upper respiratory tract for viruses. the titre of parainfluenza virus type 3 recovered was greatest when this type of swab was used compared with two other methods of sampling.1975165573
cytotoxicity of alveolar macrophages for virus-infected cells. 1975166319
a serologic survey of pronghorns in alberta and saskatchewan, determine the exposure of free-ranging pronghorns (antilocapra americana ord) to selected pathogens, serum samples were obtained from 33 live-trapped animals from southwestern saskatchewan in 1970, and from 26 and 51 animals from southeastern alberta, in 1971 and 1972, respectively. antibodies were found to the agents of parainfluenza 3, bovine virus diarrhea, eastern and western encephalomyelitis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the chlamydial group. no serologic reactors were found to ...1975167203
epidemiology of herpesvirus and respiratory virus infections. part 1. serologic findings.the majority of the population group studied had complement-fixation antibodies toward the following viruses: influenza type a, respiratory syncytial, cytomegalovirus, and epstein-barr. the herpesvirus infections (cytomegalovirus and epstein-barr virus) seemed to be prevalent. only low incidences of antibodies were found toward adenovirus, influenza type b, influenza type c, and parainfluenza type ii. a total of 70 aucte virus infections (increases of antibody titer) were diagnosed in 49 patient ...1975168127
a comparison of immunologic response to intranasal and intramuscular parainfluenza-3 live virus vaccines in beef calves challenged experimentally in the feedlot.feeder calves were vaccinated with modified live virus (mlv) bovine parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) vaccines by the nasal and parenteral routes. thirty days later they were challenged with the sf-4 strain of virus. serum hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in nasal secretions were compared with unvaccinated control calves. both vaccines produced satisfactory circulating antibodies, but intranasal vaccination produced higher levels of antibodies in nasal secretions. aft ...1975168620
the nasal secretion and serum antibody response of lambs following vaccination and aerosol challenge with parainfluenza 3 virus.the nasal and serum neutralising antibody responses of lambs was compared following vaccination with live or inactivated parainfluenza 3 (pi 3) virus by either intramuscular (im) or intranasal (in) routes. nasal antibody was only detected following inoculation of live virus in or inactivated virus in freund's complete adjuvant (fca) im. immunity to aerosol challenge, as assessed by viral shedding from the nose, was conferred by (1) live virus administered by either route, (2) two im inoculations ...1975168628
in vitro and in vivo effect of 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (ribavirin) on types 1 and 3 parainfulenza virus infections.1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (ribavirin) had significant in vitro activity against type 1 parainfluenza (sendai) and type 3 parainogenic (ha-1) viruses. activity was manifested as inhibition of both viral cytopathogenic effect and of recoverable virus or viral hemagglutinin titer. the minimum sendai virus inhibitory concentration was determined to be approximately 3.2 mug/ml. previous studies had determined the minimum concentration inhibiting ha-1 virus was approximately ...1975169109
antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus in cattle, sheep and goats from northern nigeria. 1975169621
effect of 2-deoxy-d-glucose and glucosamine on the growth and functions of respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza 3 viruses. 1975169626
[bovine viruses and methods for their detection]. 1975169627
[virological studies on insemination bulls in hessia. 2; studies on antibodies against bvd and pi-3 virus]. 1975169805
methods for the detection of viruses in bovine evaluation of selected commonly used procedures for the recovery of endogenous viral contaminants in bovine serum was undertaken. low speen centrifugation (25,000 x g) was found to be efficient for the recovery of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) and parainfluenza virus type 3(pi-3) in bovine serum. decreased infectivity titers were obtained when parainfluenza virus type 3, and to a lesser extent bovine herpes virus type 1, were concentrated using high speed centrifugation (100,000 x g) for ...1975170306
the response of normal and iron anemic calves to nasal infection with an attenuated strain of parainfluenza-3 virus. 1975170811
synthesis of 5-amino-1-(5-deoxy-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide and related 5'-deoxyimidazole ribonucleosides.5-amino-1-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (1, aica ribonucleoside) was converted in two steps to 5-amino-1-(5-deoxy-5-iodo-2,3-o-isopropylidene-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (3) which was hydrogenated in the presence of pd/c to yield 5-amino-1-(5-deoxy-2,3-o-isopropylidene-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (4). the dehydration of 4 yielded 5-amino-1-(5-deoxy-2,3-o-isopropylidene-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)imidazole-4-carbonitrile (7). the compounds 3, 4, and 7 w ...1975172632
[respiratory tract infections of viral origin in infants. examination of 103 serum pairs in autumn and following spring].in autumn 1973 und about four months later in spring 1974 blood samples were taken from the same 103 children aged from a few months to five years and coming from different parts of bavaria. we examined the samples for complement-fixing antibodies against the influenza virus types a, b and c, the parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, the adenoviruses and the respiratory-syncytial virus, and for neutralising antibodies against the echo virus type 25. at the commencement of the investigation the m ...1975172769
kinetics of neutralization of two strains of myxovirus parainfluenza 3 in the presence of complement and anti-gammaglobulin-serum.using the kinetics of neutralization, it was established that two strains of myxovirus parainfluenza 3 of cattle and sheep origin which are immunologicaly identical have a different sensitivity to early neutralizing antibodies of reconvalescent calf sera. complement-dependent neutralizing antibodies, supplied by adding 5% guinea pig serum to the calf serum, appear earlier than the usual neutralizing antibodies. goat anti-cattle gammaglobulin serum decreases the neutralizing activity of early rec ...1975173251
vaccination programs for bovine respiratory diseases. 1976173981
immunoglobulins, antibodies and inhibitors of parainfluenza 3 virus in respiratory secretions of sheep.virus neutralising and haemagglutination inhibiting (hi) activities were monitored in the serum, nasal secretions and tracheo-bronchial secretions of lambs infected with parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi3). hi activity was found in the secretions of both control and infected lambs, whereas neutralising antibody was found only in nasal secretions from infected lambs. fractionation revealed that most of the hi activity in the secretions was due to a large molecular weight protein which also inhibited ...1975174528
inhibition of multiplication of parainfluenza 3 virus in prostaglandin-treated wish cells.influence of prostaglandins e2 (pge2) and f2alpha (pgf 2alpha) on multiplication of myxovirus parainfluenza 3 was investigated. at concentrations of 0.01--1 mug/ml prostaglandins had no direct cytotoxic effects. pge2 and pgf2alpha inhibited multiplication of parainfluenza 3 virus at concentrations 0.1--10 mug/ml. the inhibitory effect was most pronounced when the prostaglandins were added to medium for the whole period of virus multiplication (48 hours) while little or no effect was found when p ...1975174532
experimental parainfluenza type 1 virus-induced encephalopathy in adult mice. pathogenesis of chronic degenerative changes in the cns.the pathogenicity of the 6/94 strain of parainfluenza type 1 virus, originally isolated from multiple sclerosis brain, was studied in adult mouse brains. intracerebral inoculation of the virus caused mononuclear cell infiltration in the form of perivascular cuffing and a diffuse exudation into the parenchymal tissue, preferentially in cerebral white matter, that resulted in marked degeneration over a 90-day observation period. immunofluorescent staining revealed viral antigen in the ependymal li ...1976174534
an outbreak of acute pneumonia in young, single-suckled outbreak of acute severe pneumonia which affected six to 14-week-old single-suckled calves, resulted in 45/77 requiring treatment. the examination of paired sera from all affected calves revealed that neither an adenovirus, non infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus nor parainfluenza 3 virus was involved. the acute exudative interstitial pneumonia found at post mortem was typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis.1976176764
effect of prostaglandins on cell function and multiplication of parainfluenza 3 viruses in wish cells.cytotoxic effect of prostaglandins e2 and f2alpha on cells grown in vitro and the influence of these compounds on multiplication of myxovirus parainfluenza 3 were investigated. the prostaglandins were added to culture medium (0-01-10 mug/ml) 24 hr before virus infection, or for 2 and 48 hr after inoculation with viruses. wish cells and monkey kidney cell cultures were used. no direct cytotoxic effect of prostaglandins at concentrations 0-01-1 mug/ml was found (viability, supravital staining, pha ...1976178579
elevated nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction test response in acute viral respiratory disease. 1976180486
effect of passive antibody on parainfluenza virus type 3 pneumonia in hamsters.both parainfluenza virus type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus may produce life-threatening pneumonia or bronchiolitis in infants less than 6 months old. almost all infants in this age group possess passively acquired maternal antibodies to both viruses. it has been suggested that maternal antibodies may actually participate in the pathogenesis of these diseases in early infancy. this investigation examined the effect of moderate levels of passive antibody on the development of pneumonia in ham ...1976181324
isolation and properties of reovirus from cattle in an outbreak of acute respiratory disease.a cytopathogenic virus was isolated in the primary culture of bovine kidney cells from a nasal swab of affected calves in an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in japan in 1971. it agglutinated human type o erythrocytes and produced cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. viral replication was inhibited by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, indicating that the viral nucleic acid was rna. the virus was resistant to ether, chloroform, sodium deoxycholate, and acid, and passed readily through sartorius' membrane fil ...1976181678
intranasal vaccination of cattle against ibr and pi3: field and laboratory observations in dairy, beef, and neonatal calf populations.the author first summarizes the development of intranasal vaccination by nasalgen p and particularly nasalgen ip, previously reported, and then reviews present knowledge regarding safety and efficacy of nasalgen ip in feeder calves, dairy animals and neonates. the minimal immunogenic dose is evaluated, as well as the secretory antibody response and the development of interferon. two studies are reported on the transmission from vaccinates to susceptible non-vaccinates and the evaluation of the p ...1976182599
[editorial: role of viral infection in the etiology of demyelinating diseases]. 1976183161
[effects of concanavalin a on the adsorption and penetration of paramyxoviruses into cells].the lectin concavaline a, when added to cell cultures of chick embryos and calf kidney one hour prior to their injection with the virus of the newcastle disease and that of parainfluenza-3 in cattle produces no adverse effect on the cell receptors of these viruses. on cells treated with concavaline 60 per cent and more virions are adsorbed as compared with the untreated cells. this is explained by the fact that concavaline binds to the cellular and viral glucoproteins. virions bound to concavali ...1976183345
isolation of parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus from cattle diseased with acute respiratory symptoms. 1975184703
the assessment in sheep of an inactivated vaccine of parainfluenza 3 virus incorporating double stranded rna (brl 5907) as adjuvant.the serological responses of conventionally reared sheep were compared after vaccination with inactivated parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus incorporated in three different adjuvants. inactivated pi3 virus with the double-stranded rna, brl 5907 in an oil emulsion was shown to stimulate higher serum antibody titres over the first 5 weeks after vaccination than virus with and without bcg emulsified in oil. the ability of this vaccine to protect specific pathogen-free lambs against challenge with pi3 viru ...1976185290
lymphocyte response to virus antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus.the cell-mediated immune response of lymphocytes to rubella, measles, parainfluenza types 1, 2, and 3, varicella-zoster and herpes virus type 1 virus antigens was evaluated in 15 sle patients and 15 matched controls by incorporating 3h-thymidine in whole blood cultures as a measure of blastic transformation. sle patients were less responsive than normal individuals to six of eight virus antigens tested. culture of washed sle cells in ab plasma did not reverse the hyporesponsiveness. the results ...1976187203
the pulmonary clearance of pasteurella hemolytica in calves infected with bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.the purpose of this study was to determine if parainfluenza-3 virus in calves interfered with normal pulmonary bacterial clearance. three groups (a, b and c) of four calves each were exposed to an aerosol of parainfluenza-3 virus. three days later the four hour pulmonary clearance of pasteurella hemolytica was determined on the first group (a), seven days later on the second (b) and 11 days later on the third (c). group a had a mean pulmonary bacterial retention of 3.6 +/- 3.5%. group b was 83.1 ...1976187305
[interaction of beta-hemolytic streptococcus and para-influenza virus]. 1976187909
elevated parainfluenza virus type 1 antibody in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.parainfluenza virus hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibodies were determined 3 times in the sera of 9 patients with subacute sclerosiing panencephalitis (sspe) and 20 healthy controls matched for age and place of residence. serum antibody against parainfluenza virus type 1 was significantly elevated in sspe patients as compared with controls, whereas antibodies against type 2 and 3 were found to be in normal ranges. higher titres of parainfluenza virus type 1 antibody might depend on: (1) dua ...1977188993
probable role of viruses in calfhood diseases.bovine enteroviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus, rotavirus (formerly called reovirus-like agent), coronavirus-like agent, bovine adenovirus, and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus have been isolated from calves suffering from neonatal disease. the experimental disease produced by these viruses is not necessarily severe or fatal, but under farm and ranch conditions, each probably serves as an added to mortality from neonatal disease. after initial losses following the introduction of a virus into a h ...1977190279
model systems for studying the pathogenesis of infections causing bronchiolitis in man. 1977191787
how etiologic, pathologic, and clinical diagnoses can be made in a correlated fashion. 1977191788
importance of associated viral and bacterial infections in the production of acute pneumonias.bacteriologic and virologic investigations carried out in a group of 85 patients with acute pneumonia have allowed the determination of the etiologic agent in 52.9% of the cases. of these, 40% showed combined viral and bacterial infections. mixovirus infections were frequently associated with staphylococcic ones (7 out of 8 cases) and adenovirus infections with the pneumococcic ones (6 out of 7 cases). the most severe and longdrawn clinical pictures with frequent pleuropulmonary complications (i ...1976191900
[use of novarsenol in parainfluenza-3 and polyetiological bronchopneumonias]. 1977191987
cell-mediated immunity to parainfluenza-3 (piv-3) in cattle. evaluation of in vivo and in vitro tests. 1977193320
components of parainfluenza-3 virus, slp-strain, reacting in assays of cell-mediated immunity in cattle.parainfluenza-3 virus was isolated by affinity chromatography, including a purification step with immobilized lectin vicia erwilia. the peplomers of disintegrated virus were similarily isolated using another carbohydrate-specific lectin vicia crotalaria. the whole virion and the peplomers were both active as antigens in the leucocyte migration inhibition, lymphocyte stimulation and skin hypersensitivity tests. the remaining virus material, freed of detergents used for virus disintegration and co ...1977194552
maintenance of viability and comparison of identification methods for influenza and other respiratory viruses of humans.a comparison of hanks balanced salt solution, veal infusion broth (vib), and charcoal viral transport medium for maintaining viability of type a influenza virus indicated approximately equal survival of virus on all three media at -70 and 4 degrees c, whereas at 25 degrees c virus survived best in vib. vib supplemented with bovine serum albumin was used as transport medium in a community-wide surveillance of febrile respiratory disease for influenza viruses. unfrozen throat swab specimens were p ...1977195979
correlation of exposure to various respiratory pathogens with farmer's lung disease.complement-fixing antibodies (cfa) to a panel of microorganisms commonly associated with respiratory disease were measured in a number of agricultural populations. the panel included mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza viruses a and b, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. the agricultural populations were grouped according to a clinical history of farmer's lung disease (fld) and the presence of antibodies to the thermophilic actinomycetes (ta). farmers ...1977197136
interspecific fusion of bovine and other cells with parainfluenza viruses (sendai and pi-3). 1977198439
[clinical and immunopathological studies of viral nephritis]. 1977199763
[interfering and interferonogenic activity of attenuated and original para-influenza viral strains].a higher interfering activity of attenuated (vaccine) strains of parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 which had undergone a long-term adaptation to cell cultures as compared to the original viruses was established. the interferon-inducing activity of vaccine parainfluenza virus types 2 and 3 was also higher than that of the original viruses. the high interfering and interferon-inducing activity of attenuated parainfluenza virus strains of type 2 and 3 correlated with reduced virulence of these v ...1977200011
[research on substances with antiviral activity. vii. activity and lipophilic of property n-alkyl-2-chloro-3-formylindole thiosemicarbazone].thiosemicarbazones of n-alkyl-2-chloroindole-3-carboxaldehydes were synthesized and investigated for antiviral activity against rna virus (parainfluenza type 3, ha-i/cr-8 stock) and dna virus (vaccinia virus, hid stock). the effect of lipophilicity on the activity against vaccinia virus was considered. relative lipophilicities were measured by a reversed phase thin-layer chromatographic technique. the most active compound n-isopropyl-2-chloroindole-3-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone appeared com ...1977200469
mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract of sheep [proceedings]. 1977200505
investigation of causative agents of bovine respiratory tract disease in a beef cow-calf herd with an early weaning program.serum samples were collected from early weaned fall calves shortly after the onset of respiratory tract disease. antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus, parainfluenza type 3 (pi-3) virus, bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, bovine adenovirus type 3 (bav-3), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) were determined on paired (acute and convalescent) serums. seroconversion rate (a fourfold or greater rise in antibody titer) for ibr virus was 4.3%, pi-3 virus--16.3%, bv ...1977201196
development of a guinea pig colony free of complement-fixing antibodies to parainfluenza virus.complement-fixing antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus were found in hartley strain [cds: (ha)] guinea pigs from the authors' production colony. the prevalence and distribution of these antibodies were determined by testing guinea pigs of five age categories: 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months to 1 year, and over 1 year of age. forty-seven percent (28 of 60) were positive to parainfluenza 3 antigen. positive reactors were found in all age groups except those 8 weeks old. the 12-week-old group h ...1977202800
[influenza, parainfluenza and rs virus antibodies in children with acute respiratory tract infections]. 1977202820
[serological response of rabbits following immunization with m. parainfluenzae-3, adenovirus i and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus associated antigens].the immunization of rabbits separately with virus suspensions of myxovirus parainfluenzae-3, adenovirus serotype i, and bovine rhinotracheitis virus or with combinations of each two of them and with a combination of all three viruses led to the production of sera having titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies acting against each of the antigens that participated in the combination. results showed that no inhibition existed of the antigens during immunization as established by the serologic respo ...1977202065
replication of parainfluenza type 3 virus in alveolar macrophages: evidence of in vivo infection and of in vitro temperature sensitivity in virus maturation.approximately 2% of cultured alveolar macrophages (am), originally lavaged from the lungs of parainfluenza type 3 virus (pi-3v)-infected calves, were observed to contain viral antigen (by fluorescent antibody method) or viral nucleocapsids (by electron microscopy). plaque assays, however, indicated that virus titers were generally low when cultures were incubated at 37 degrees c for 10 days. am, obtained from "in vivo infected" and "noninfected" calves, were found to be equally susceptible to fu ...1977201567
immunologic "memory" for microbial antigens in lymphocytes obtained from human bronchial mucosa.memory for previous immunologic contact with microbial antigens has been detected in lymphocytes from human bronchi as a secondary immune response, when tested in vitro. antigens stimulated a predominantly proliferative response in blood lymphocytes that was significantly greater than the response in mucosal lymphocytes with purified protein derivative and herpes simplex type 1 antigens. co-culture experiments with autologous blood lymphocytes showed that cell-dependent suppression was one mecha ...1978204236
[epidemiological evaluation of pneumotropic viral infections in children attending 2 selected creches in lublin. iii. epidemics of parainfluenza type 3 infection]. 1978204898
parainfluenza-3 virus exposure of beef heifers prior to natural breeding.ninety-six hereford heifers (approximately 7 months of age) were randomly divided into 2 equal groups and housed 1.6 km apart (with 2 replications in time, 1 year apart). at 15 months of age, 1 group/replicate was inoculated with parainfluenza-3 virus, and the other group was given virus-free spent culture medium. twenty-four hours later, 2 virgin bulls (2 years old) were placed with each group (24 cows) for natural breeding. viral inoculation caused a twofold increase in parainfluenza-3 titer a ...1978205150
[isolation of the parainfluenza-3 virus from lambs]. 1978205991
infections with viruses and mycoplasma pneumoniae during exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.the association of viral and mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis was studied by serologic or isolation techniques in 46 adult men during the five years from 1964 through 1968. serologic evidence of viral or m. pneumoniae infection was detected in 25% of 166 episodes of exacerbation and 14% of 138 remission periods (p = 0.02). influenza a virus, parainfluenza virus type 3, and coronavirus oc43 predominated; infections with other viruses were infrequent. ...1978206630
an inactivated parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine: the influence of vaccination regime on the response of calves and their subsequent resistance to challenge.calves maintained in insolated pens were vaccinated with an inactivated parainfluenza virus type (3) (pi3) vaccine usingparenteral and local route singly and in combination. the calves were subsequently monitored for serum antibody response and challenged intranasally with live virus to assess the protection derived from vaccination. calves receiving one subcutaneous dose of vaccine in oil adjuvant produced a marked antibody response and were partially protected against challenge. those receivin ...1978206935
experimental infection of specific pathogen-free lambs with parainfluenza virus type 3 and pasteurella haemolytica. 1978207749
the effect of vaccination with a parainfluenza type 3 virus on pneumonia resulting from infection with parainfluenza type 3 virus and pasteurella haemolytica. 1978207750
concurrent infection of lambs with parainfluenza virus type 3 and pasteurella haemolytica. 1977208027
a study of endemic viruses in a group of calves. 1977208032
[immunofluorescence with virus pi-3--immunofluorescent findings on calf kidney cell cultures infected with different doses and strains of the virus]. 1978208218
[antibodies against selected viruses and bedsonia in the body fluids of bovine abortions]. 1978208219
evaluation of respiratory disease in calves: comparison of disease response to different viruses. 1977200998
cell receptors for paramyxoviruses.treatment of chick embryo fibroblasts, calf kidney and bhk cells for 30 minutes with the enzyme neuraminidase from vibrio cholerae causes an enhancement of the per cent of attached ndv virions. this enhancement does not depend on the multiplicity of infection. the quantity of spontaneously eluted and cellbound virus is two times greater than the quantity of the same virus derived from control cells. n-acetyl-neuramin lactose inhibits the effect of vibrio cholerae neuraminidase. after prolonged a ...1977199141
ovine pneumonia. 1977209377
some characteristics of a natural infection by parainfluenza-3 virus in a group of calves.parainfluenza-3 (pi3) virus infection in a group of 25 calves is described. the virus was isolated from the lungs of four calve at days 6, 7, 13 and 55 after they were housed together at birth. intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen by light microscopy in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells of two of these calves. virus infected cells were detected by electron microscopy in three of the four calves. haemagglutination inhibition antibodies to pi3 virus were found in the sera of the ca ...1978209507
ovine pneumonia. 1978210432
synthesis and antiviral acticity of some phosphates of the broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside, 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (ribavirin).1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide 5'-phosphate (2) was prepared and converted into the following derivatives: the 5'-phosphoramidate 3, the 5'-diphosphate 4, the 5'-triphosphate 5, and the cyclic 3',5'-phosphate 6. the cyclic 2',3'-phosphate 7 was prepared from the parent nucleoside, 1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (1), and was opened to the 2'(3')-phosphate 8. these compounds were found to exhibit significant antiviral activity against several viruses in ce ...1978211234
neutralising antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus in african wildlife, with special reference to the cape buffalo (syncerus caffer).as part of a study to assess the prevalence of common viral agents in african wildlife, nearly 3,300 sera from 44 different wild species, from eight african countries, have been examined for neutralising antibodies to parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus. antibody was demonstrated in 20 of the 44 species examined, including seven species not previously reported as sero-positive. sera were collected between 1963 and 1977 and results indicated that infection has been widespread for a considerable time. the ...1978211274
immunoglobulins in the serum and nasal secretions of lambs following vaccination and aerosol challenge with parainfluenza 3 virus.serial changes in the concentrations of igm, igg and iga were compared in specific pathogen free (spf) lambs which had been vaccinated with live or inactivated parainfluenza 3 virus (pi 3) by either intramuscular (im) or intranasal (in) routes followed by aerosol challenge with pi 3. in the serum, an increase in igm was associated with the primary antibody response to the aerosol challenge, whereas increased igg was associated with the secondary antibody response. no changes in immunoglobulin co ...1976193171
the use of polyethylene glycol in concentration and purification of several bovine viruses.the polyethylene glycol (peg) precipitation method was used for the concentration and purification of eight bovine viruses. good results were obtained from four viruses, parainfluenza--3 virus, bovine enterovirus, bovine adenovirus, and bovine parvovirus. no satisfactory results of concentration were obtained from bovine reovirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. the failure of concentration of the four viruses seems to be ascribed rather to the resuspend ...1978211444
interactions between calf alveolar macrophages and parainfluenza-3 virus.cells washed from the lungs of freshly killed calves (lung wash cells; lwc) were cytotoxic for calf kidney (ck) target cells infected with parainfluenzavirus type 3 (pi-3) when assayed by chromium release. lwc collected from 25 calves, including two gnotobiotic animals that had not previously been infected with pi-3, were all cytotoxic, giving a specific chromium release between 11 and 50%. cytotoxicity was detected at ratios of lwc to target cell as low as 5:1. the cytotoxic reaction required v ...1977191403
fatal rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 3 infection. 1978213404
in vitro stimulation of bovine circulating lymphocytes by parainfluenza type 3 virus.bovine circulating lymphocytes from animals sero-positive to parainfluenza-3 virus (piv-3) could be stimulated by piv-3 antigen in a microculture system. a semiautomatic multiple sample harvester was used to collect the lymphocytes from the microplates. ultraviolet-killed piv-3 induced better stimulation values than formalin or heat-treated virus. the highest stimulation values were obtained after a stimulation time of three to five days.1977190660
parainfluenza type 3 in a transplant unit.we observed an epidemic of parainfluenza type 3 viral infection in a renal transplantation service among 16 recent transplant recipients. to assess the effect of infection on transplant function, we retrospectively compared the infected patients with a matched, uninfected control group. in addition to symptoms of a mild upper respiratory tract infection associated with the epidemic, there was an increase in the frequency of acute rejection episodes during the period of infection in the infected ...1979214588
experimental parainfluenzavirus infection. 1. hydrocephalus of mice due to infection with parainfluenza virus type 1 and type 3. 1978214671
parainfluenza-3 virus: difference in capacity of neuraminidase-weak and strong strains to infect young calves and to elicit cellular immune response.calves less than four weeks old could not be infected with a neuraminidase-weak strain of parainfluenza-3 virus (pi3) but were successfully infected with either of two neuraminidase-strong strains. the criteria for infection were virus excretion, cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses. in the lymphocyte stimulation test, calves infected with the neuraminidase-strong pi3 strain tüb-e6 responded more strongly to antigen prepared from this strain than to antigen from the heterologous ...1978214834
parainfluenza type 3 virus in cattle with upper respiratory disease. 1976190569
[infectious causes of perinatal mortalities in ruminants (author's transl)].the advantages and disadvantages of the different diagnostic techniques e.g. pathological and microbiological studies, immunoglobulin and specific antibody determinations and fluorescent antibody studies in relation to these mortalities are discussed. the most important pathological lesions in the placentas and foetuses are described.1978215769
observations on outbreaks of respiratory disease in housed calves--(2) pathological and microbiological findings.extensive pneumonic lesions were present in 42 out of 43 calves obtained for post mortem examination from 34 outbreaks of respiratory disease in northern ireland. bronchiolitis and alveolitis with necrosis of bronchiolar mucosa which progressed to bronchiolitis obliterans and peribronchiolar fibrosis were prominent histopathological features in the lungs of calves obtained live. the majority of calves which died within the first two months of these outbreaks had severe exudative bronchopneumonia ...1978217140
viruses isolated from captive and free-ranging wild ruminants in alberta.nasal secretions, leukocytes and preputial or vaginal swabs from a group of 15 captive wild ruminants, comprising six pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), seven fallow deer (dama dama) and two mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), and from 50 free-ranging pronghorns in southern alberta, were examined for viral agents. captive animals were given injections of dexamethasone daily for 6 days in attempts to reactivate latent infections. specimens were collected at 2-3 day intervals from days 0 to ...1977190422
activation of latent infectious bovine rhinotracheitis after experimental infection with parainfluenza 3 virus in young calves. 1976189532
6-aminopyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4(5h)-one, a novel analogue of guanine.treatment of dimethyl alpha-ethoxymethylidineacetonedicarboxylate with hydrazine gave methyl 3-(methoxy-carbonylmethyl)pyrazole-4-carboxylate which, upon ammonolysis and dehydration, afforded methyl 3-(cyanomethyl)pyrazole-4-carboxylate. this compound, when heated with liquid ammonia, gave 6-aminopyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4(5h)-one, a new guanine analogue, which did not possess any of the potent antiviral activity shown by 6-aminoimidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5h)-one (3-deazaguanine).1977189033
the occurrence of antibodies to parainfluenza3 virus in sera of some domestic animals of the sudan. 1979218672
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