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intestinal infection of neonatal dogs with canine coronavirus 1-71: studies by virologic, histologic, histochemical, and immunofluorescent techniques.enteritis induced in neonatal dogs by oral inoculation of coronavirus 1-71 was studied by virologic, histologic, histochemical, and immunofluorescent antibody methods. the enteritis, accompanied by diarrhea, developed in 4 to 7 days and was characterized by atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi and deepening of crypts, increase in cellularity of the lamina propria, flattening of epithelial cells, and discharge of goblet cells. intra-epithelial enzyme activities generally were depressed. specifi ...19761259219
seroconversion of pigs in contact with dogs exposed to canine coronavirus.in order to determine if canine coronavirus (ccv) could be transmitted to pigs, two dogs were inoculated orally with virulent ccv. after 24 h, the dogs were moved to an isolation room that contained three three-day-old pigs. a wire mesh fence, allowing close contact between the animals, separated the dogs from the pigs. the dogs and pigs were observed for 14 days for clinical signs of disease. samples of blood were obtained from dogs and pigs immediately before the dogs were inoculated with viru ...19921316800
a serologic survey of the island fox (urocyon littoralis) on the channel islands, california.the island fox is listed as a threatened species in california. a serologic survey of 194 island foxes (urocyon littoralis) was conducted over the entire range of the species on the channel islands (california, usa). antibody prevalence against canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus reached 97% and 59%, respectively, in some populations sampled. antibody prevalence of canine herpesvirus, canine coronavirus, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis were low. antibodies against canine distemper virus were ...19921318424
genomic organization and expression of the 3' end of the canine and feline enteric coronaviruses.the genomic organization at the 3' end of canine coronavirus (ccv) and feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) was determined by sequence analysis and compared to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) of swine. comparison of the latter two has previously revealed an extra open reading frame (orf) at the 3' end of the fipv genome, lacking in tgev, which is currently designated orf 6b. both ccv and fecv possess 6b-related orfs at the 3' ends of ...19921329312
induction and enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis by canine coronavirus.preexisting antibody to feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) causes acceleration and enhancement of disease on subsequent infection of cats with fipv. other workers have shown that canine coronavirus (ccv) can infect cats subclinically, but have found no evidence of enhancement of, or protection against, subsequent fipv infection. with various isolates of ccv, we determined that 1 strain of ccv can induce transient mild diarrhea in cats and, furthermore, that previous infection with ccv ca ...19921329586
diseases, parasites and survival of coyotes in south-central georgia.serologic testing, radio-telemetry and post-mortem diagnostic evaluations were used to investigate survival and causes of mortality among 17 coyotes (canis latrans) in south-central georgia (usa). prevalence of canine heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) microfilariae was lower (p = 0.057) among fall-captured (22%) than among winter-captured (75%) coyotes. prevalence of heartworm was higher among adults than juveniles in the fall, but no significant difference was detected between animals captured in ...19921474655
diseases and parasites of red foxes, gray foxes, and coyotes from commercial sources selling to fox-chasing enclosures.fifty-six red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 18 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 13 coyotes (canis latrans) obtained by the south carolina wildlife and marine resources department during an investigation of suspected illegal wildlife translocation were examined for diseases and parasites. red foxes and coyotes were confiscated from an animal dealer based in ohio (usa), and gray foxes were purchased from an animal dealer in indiana (usa). emphasis was placed on detection of pathogens representi ...19921474656
differentiation between transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus using a cdna probe.a plasmid, pg3bs, containing a cdna clone from the 5' coding region of the peplomer glycoprotein gene appears to be specific for enteric transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) strains and for live-attenuated tgev vaccines. this cdna probe is used to differentiate porcine respiratory coronavirus (prcv) isolates from tgev field and vaccine strains by a slot blot hybridization assay. probe pg3bs also hybridizes to canine coronavirus (ccv) rna but does not hybridize to antigenically related feli ...19911645595
characterization of monoclonal antibodies against feline infectious peritonitis virus type ii and antigenic relationship between feline, porcine, and canine coronaviruses.seven monoclonal antibodies (mabs) with neutralizing activity against feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) strain 79-1149 (type ii) were prepared. when the polypeptide specificity recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (mabs) was investigated by western immunoblotting, all of the mabs reacted with peplomer glycoprotein (s) of the virus. by competitive binding assay these mabs were found to recognize at least 3 different epitopes. the reactivity of these mabs with 6 viruses classified as ...19911706593
the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in the netherlands.complex trapping blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) and indirect elisas for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (cpv), canine coronavirus (ccv) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. double antibody sandwich elisas for the detection of cpv-, ccv- and rotavirus antigens in fecal samples were also developed. both the serological and antigen-detection elisas were used to screen samples from dogs in the netherlands, with or without a history of acute dia ...19911850889
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine coronavirus and its antibody in dogs.two methods of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) were developed for the diagnosis of canine coronavirus (ccv) infection in dogs. one elisa, in which ccv-infected crfk cell lysate is used as antigen, is for the detection and titration of antibody against ccv, and the other elisa uses the double antibody sandwich method for the detection of ccv antigen. the first elisa procedure demonstrated antibody responses in dogs inoculated with ccv, as did the virus neutralization test; the second el ...19911850890
canine coronavirus infection in cats; a possible role in feline infectious peritonitis. 19901966440
systemic autoimmune disease and concurrent nematode infection in a dog.systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed in a dog with concurrent nematode infection. the clinical signs of disease were unusually severe and included multiple neurologic deficits, polyarthritis, and weight loss. the dog was thrombocytopenic, and serotest results included positive lupus erythematosus test, positive rheumatoid factor test, positive antinuclear antibody test, hypergammaglobulinemia, and high platelet-associated igg concentration. after treatment of hookworm, whipworm, and heartw ...19892551867
an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using canine coronavirus-infected crfk cells as antigen for detection of anti-coronavirus antibody in cat.from the reasons that canine coronavirus (ccv) grows more efficiently than feline coronavirus in a cell culture and they are mutually related in their antigenicities, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using ccv-infected feline kidney (crfk) cells as substrate antigens was developed for detection of anti-coronavirus antibodies in cats. it was indispensable for generating coronavirus-specific elisa antibody activities that the sample was applied to the mock-infected, normal crfk cells i ...19892558837
relatedness of rabbit coronavirus to other coronaviruses.rabbit coronavirus (rbcv) was apparently first encountered in 1961 when scandinavian investigators observed occasional mortality in rabbits used to propagate the nichols strain of treponema pallidum. mortality rates reached 50 percent by 1968 and 75 percent by 1970. contaminated samples of t. pallidum were brought to the johns hopkins university school of medicine, a world health organization center for the study of treponematoses. there it was established that the causative agent was filterable ...19872829566
isolation and identification of caliciviruses from dogs with enteric infections.caliciviruses were isolated from 7 dogs and 1 captured coyote with enteritis. there was a high fatality rate in dogs 4 to 16 weeks of age. the occurrence in these dogs of concurrent infection with known enteric pathogens such as salmonella sp, canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, and canine rotavirus did not allow making any conclusions regarding the pathogenicity of this newly recognized calicivirus. the caliciviruses were characterized by electron microscopy and were further identified as be ...19852982299
serologic survey of canine coronavirus in wild coyotes in the western united states, 1972-1982. 19853001373
comparative properties of feline coronaviruses in vitro.two feline coronaviruses were characterized to determine their biological properties in vitro and their antigenic relatedness to a previously recognized feline infectious peritonitis virus and canine coronavirus. the viruses, designated wsu 79-1146 and wsu 79-1683, were shown to have comparable growth curves with the prototype feline infectious peritonitis virus. treatment of the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains with 0.25% trypsin indicated that they were relatively resistant to prote ...19873038290
micro-neutralization test with canine coronavirus for detection of coronavirus antibodies in dogs and cats. 19873039227
plaque assay for canine coronavirus in crfk cells. 19873613358
multiplication of canine coronavirus in crfk cells. 19863820910
experimental inoculation of cats with canine coronavirus and subsequent challenge with feline infectious peritonitis virus.oronasal inoculation of minimal-disease cats with a virulent field isolate of canine coronavirus elicited a neutralizing antibody response that increased steadily over a two-month period, indicating in vivo amplification of the inoculated dose. a heterologous neutralizing antibody response to transmissible gastroenteritis virus could be detected three weeks after titers to canine coronavirus were first observed and was found to parallel the homologous response at a level approximately one log10 ...19846097763
an immunoelectron microscopic and immunofluorescent study on the antigenic relationship between the coronavirus-like agent, cv 777, and several coronaviruses.a possible antigenic relationship between the porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus-like agent (cvla) and 6 known coronaviruses was examined by immunoelectron microscopy (iem) and by immunofluorescence (if). cvla did not show cross reactivity with infectious bronchitis virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), canine coronavirus (ccv) hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (hev), neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus (ncdcv) or feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv). antigenic relatio ...19816166280
antigenic relationships among homologous structural polypeptides of porcine, feline, and canine coronaviruses.transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (tgev), feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv), and canine coronavirus were studied with respect to their serological cross-reactivity in homologous and heterologous virus neutralization, immune precipitation of radiolabeled tgev, electroblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using individual virion polypeptides prepared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. tgev was neutralized by feline anti-fipv serum, and the reaction was potentiated ...19826182101
acute hemorrhagic enteritis associated with canine coronavirus and parvovirus infections in a captive coyote population. 19806256330
the polypeptide structure of canine coronavirus and its relationship to porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus.canine coronavirus (ccv) isolate 1-71 was grown in secondary dog kidney cells and purified by rate zonal centrifugation. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed four major structural polypeptides with apparent mol. wt. of 203800 (gp204), 49800 (p50), 31800 (gp32) and 21600 (gp22). incorporation of 3h-glucosamine into gp204, gp32 and gp22 indicated that these were glycopolypeptides. comparison of the structural polypeptides of ccv and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) by co-e ...19816267172
an enteric coronavirus infection of cats and its relationship to feline infectious peritonitis.an enteric coronavirus that is antigenically closely related to feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) is ubiquitous in the cat population. this virus has been designated feline enteric coronavirus to differentiate it from fipv. the virus is shed in the feces by many seropositive cats; in catteries it is a cause of inapparent to mildly severe enteritis in kittens 6 to 12 weeks of age. the virus may produce a more severe enteritis in young specific-pathogen-free kittens. feline enteric corona ...19816267960
viral antibody studies of laboratory dogs with diarrheal disease.viral antibody studies were done on laboratory dogs in an epizootic of gastrointestinal disease. increased hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers to a parvovirus (pv) antigenically related to feline panleukopenia virus were found in convalescent serum specimens of 78% (20/26) of the affected dogs and in 83% (5/6) of apparently healthy dogs. with one exception, all dogs tested had significant levels of hemagglutination-inhibition antibody to this pv. similar increased antibody titers were fo ...19816275746
case report on mixed infection of canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus--electron microscopy and recovery of canine coronavirus. 19836314016
macrotiter assay for coronavirus-neutralizing activity in cats using a canine continuous cell line (a-72).a heterologous neutralization assay for feline infectious peritonitis virus serology was developed using a single continuous cell line of canine origin, a-72, which is susceptible to cytopathic infection with both transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs and canine coronavirus. of several coronavirus isolates tested, the 1-71 isolate of canine coronavirus demonstrated the most effective neutralization by serum and body fluids of cats with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious perito ...19836319813
serologic response of captive coyotes (canis latrans say) to canine parvovirus and accompanying profiles of canine coronavirus titers.fifty-five of 66 (83%) coyote pups from bitches vaccinated against canine parvovirus (cpv) were seropositive for cpv antibodies at birth. the cpv antibody titer in the pups declined with a half-life of 6.7 days until by the 8th week, only two of 41 (5%) pups were seropositive for cpv antibodies. at 8 wk, 41 of the pups were vaccinated against cpv (killed feline origin vaccine), but only one of 37 (3%) was positive for cpv antibodies at 11 wk. the 8-wk-old pups were either too young to respond to ...19846325726
epizootic of viral enteritis in dogs in thailand.an epizootic of enteritis occurred in dogs in thailand during 1979. observations were made on 44 dogs that had clinical signs of enteritis or had a recent history compatible with a clinical diagnosis of enteritis. eight of the 44 dogs died. gross and histopathologic examinations performed on these dogs revealed that the lesions were similar to those described for canine viral enteritis. antigens that agglutinated rhesus macaque rbc were detected in feces from 4 of 20 dogs. cytopathic effects wer ...19827149420
characterization of a feline infectious peritonitis virus isolate.a virus isolated in cell culture from the spleen of a cat with feline infectious peritonitis was identified by physicochemical, morphological and antigenic criteria as a coronavirus. the feline infectious peritonitis virus was compared in vitro with canine coronavirus, a reported enteric pathogen of dogs. the feline isolate was characterized, by chloroform sensitivity and resistance to 5-iododeoxyuridine, respectively, as containing essential lipid and an rna genome. other traits of the isolate ...19817467085
enhancement of fip in cats immunised with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing ccv and tgev spike glycoproteins. 19937516108
the molecular genetics of feline coronaviruses: comparative sequence analysis of the orf7a/7b transcription unit of different biotypes.feline coronaviruses (fcovs) have been subdivided into feline enteric coronaviruses (fecvs) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (fipvs) on the basis of pathogenic properties. serologically, a distinction has been made between type i and ii fcovs, the latter of which more closely resemble canine coronavirus (ccv). to gain more insight into the genetic relationships between different fcov biotypes, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the orf7a/7b transcription unit of nine strains. the ...19957571432
[electron microscopic demonstration of viruses in feces of dogs with diarrhea].4044 stool samples of dogs with diarrhoea were examined by electron microscopy. the samples were sent for routine diagnostics in the years 1988-1993. over the examination period virus was detected in 32% of the samples. parvovirus was diagnosed in 17.2% and coronavirus in 12.4% of the cases. the number of parvovirus-positive samples was lower than in former years, whereas the number of coronavirus-positive samples was higher. other virus particles (paramyxo-, picorna-, calici- and astrovirus or ...19957792778
studies on the survival of canine coronavirus under different environmental conditions.canine coronavirus (ccv) is a common faecal agent which is difficult to isolate. this study shows ccv to survive well at temperatures below -20 degrees c but not at temperatures above 4 degrees c. the presence of faecal material markedly reduced ccv survival times at temperatures ranging from 20 degrees c to -70 degrees c. thus, it is suggested that diagnostic faecal material should be diluted 1:10 (w/v) with growth medium and examined at the earliest opportunity.19947886936
further characterization of aminopeptidase-n as a receptor for coronaviruses.we recently reported that porcine aminopeptidase-n (papn) acts as a receptor for transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). in the present work, we addressed the question of whether tgev tropism is determined only by the virus-receptor interaction. to this end, different non-permissive cell lines were transfected with the porcine apn cdna and tested for their susceptibility to tgev infection. the four transfected cell lines shown to express papn at their membrane became sensitive to infection. ...19937911642
nucleotide sequence and expression of the spike (s) gene of canine coronavirus and comparison with the s proteins of feline and porcine coronaviruses.we have cloned, sequenced and expressed the spike (s) gene of canine coronavirus (ccv; strain k378). its deduced amino acid sequence has revealed features in common with other coronavirus s proteins: a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids at the amino terminus (the putative signal sequence), another hydrophobic region at the carboxy terminus (the membrane anchor), heptad repeats preceding the anchor, and a cysteine-rich region located just downstream from it. like other representatives of the same ...19948021609
serologic survey of giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca), and domestic dogs and cats in the wolong reserve, china.sera from captive and recently rescued giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the wolong reserve, china, were examined by serum neutralization or hemagglutination inhibition for antibodies to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine coronavirus (ccv), canine herpesvirus (chv), pseudorabies virus (prv), canine adenovirus type 2 (cav), and canine parvovirus (cpv). serum samples from village domestic dogs and cats, which run free throughout the reserve also were examined. antibodies against cpv were ...19948151830
studies on the epizootiology of canine coronavirus.the seroprevalence and, or, incidence of canine coronavirus infection was determined in several dog populations in the uk. seroprevalence ranged from 76 per cent for a rescue kennel to 100 per cent in a commercial breeding colony. in the rescue kennel there was no difference in seroprevalence of the virus between dogs less than or more than four months of age. in the breeding colony, subclinical seroconversion occurred between six and 10 weeks of age. the virus was isolated from faecal samples f ...19938382389
establishment of a canine cell line: derivation, characterization, and viral spectrum.a cell line, designated a-72, for virus studies was established from a tumor surgically removed from a female, 8-year-old golden retriever dog. following explant culture, the cells were serially passaged 135 times. the a-72 cells maintained a fibroblastic appearance and, at the 123rd passage, had a population doubling time of approximately 27 hours. karyotypic analysis of the high passage cells showed the modal 2n chromosome number was 92 to 93. using starch gel electrophoresis for enzyme charac ...19806254399
immune response in sows given transmissible gastroenteritis virus or canine coronavirus.twelve pregnant sows were inoculated oral-nasally 8 weeks before farrowing with attenuated transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), tissue culture-adapted canine coronavirus (ccv), or fluids from mock-infected culture (controls). a 2nd dose of the same inoculum, one-half oral-nasally and one-half intramammarily, was given 6 weeks later. neutralizing antibodies for tgev and ccv were demonstrated in sera, colostrum, and milk whey from the virus-vaccinated sows. homologous geometric mean neutral ...19863014928
comparison of the amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the peplomer, integral membrane and nucleocapsid proteins of feline, canine and porcine coronaviruses.complete nucleotide sequences were determined by cdna cloning of peplomer (s), integral membrane (m) and nucleocapsid (n) genes of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) type i strain ku-2, ucd1 and black, and feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) type ii strain 79-1683. only m and n genes were analyzed in strain ku-2 and strain 79-1683 which still had unknown nucleotide sequences. deduced amino acid sequences of s, m and n proteins were compared in a total of 7 strains of coronaviruses, which i ...19968839428
feline aminopeptidase n serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup i.two members of coronavirus serogroup i, human respiratory coronavirus hcv-229e and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), use aminopeptidase n (apn) as their cellular receptors. these viruses show marked species specificity in receptor utilization, as hcv-229e can utilize human but not porcine apn, while tgev can utilize porcine but not human apn. to determine whether feline apn could serve as a receptor for two feline coronaviruses in serogroup i, feline infectious peritonitis viru ...19968970993
immunization against feline coronaviruses.feline infectious peritonitis (fip) is caused by one of several strains of feline coronaviruses which are grouped into 2 general types of viruses. infection of cats with fip virus results in production of serum antibodies which may be protective in conjunction with cell mediated immunity, may provided no protection at all, or may produce an immune enhancement to subsequent exposure to another fip virus or a recrudescence of the original infecting virus. attempts at immunization of cats against f ...19872829570
development of a nested pcr assay for detection of feline infectious peritonitis virus in clinical specimens.a diagnostic test for feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) infection based on a nested pcr (npcr) assay was developed and tested with fipv, feline enteric coronavirus (fecv), canine coronavirus (ccv), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and clinical fluid samples from cats with effusive feline infectious peritonitis (fip). the target sequence for the assay is in the s1 region of the peplomer protein e2 gene. a vaccine strain of fipv and two wild-type fipv strains tested positive ...19979041410
serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in brown bears from italy.blood samples were collected from six captive bears and nine free-ranging marsican brown bears (ursus arctos marsicanus) in the abruzzo national park, italy, between 1991 and 1995. sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine adenovirus type 2, canine coronavirus, and canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2). serologic evidence of cdv and cpv-2-exposure was found in both captive and free-ranging bears. this may be the first report of cdv exposure in free-ranging bear ...19979131563
protection of dogs against canine distemper by vaccination with a canarypox virus recombinant expressing canine distemper virus fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins.to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a live canarypox virus recombinant-canine distemper virus (cdv) combination vaccine against virulent cdv challenge exposure, and to document lack of interference among the other modified-live virus (mlv) components.19979256965
development and evaluation of an elisa to measure antibody responses to both the nucleocapsid and spike proteins of canine coronavirus.a rapid and reproducible enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detection of canine coronavirus (ccv) specific antibodies directed to both the nucleocapsid (nc) and the spike (s) proteins. the coating antigen, a methanol-treated, s-protein enriched preparation, was produced by subjecting infected cells to triton x-114 detergent followed by phase separation. the sensitivity of this assay was determined by following the course of infection in dogs experimentally infected with ...19989530608
seroepidemiological survey of sympatric domestic and wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in tsumkwe district, north-eastern namibia.disease is a potential threat to many endangered populations and may originate from sympatric domestic species. this paper describes a cross-sectional serological survey of canine pathogens carried out in domestic (n = 70) and wild dogs (lycoan pictus) (n = 6), in tsumkwe district, northeastern namibia. evidence of past exposure to canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and parainfluenza virus was evident in both wild and domestic dogs with this, the first, documented exposure of free-living ...19979551484
feline coronavirus type ii strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 originate from a double recombination between feline coronavirus type i and canine coronavirus.recent evidence suggests that the type ii feline coronavirus (fcov) strains 79-1146 and 79-1683 have arisen from a homologous rna recombination event between fcov type i and canine coronavirus (ccv). in both cases, the template switch apparently took place between the s and m genes, giving rise to recombinant viruses which encode a ccv-like s protein and the m, n, 7a, and 7b proteins of fcov type i (k. motowaka, t. hohdatsu, h. hashimoto, and h. koyama, microbiol. immunol. 40:425-433, 1996; h. v ...19989557750
differentiation of transmissible gastroenteritis virus from porcine respiratory coronavirus and other antigenically related coronaviruses by using cdna probes specific for the 5' region of the s glycoprotein gene.two cdna clones prepared from the virulent miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) were identified, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. the clones were nonoverlapping and located in the 5' region of the s glycoprotein gene. their nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were compared with published sequences of the attenuated purdue strain of tgev and feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv). tgev clone pe21 contained 381 bp of the s glycoprotein gene and h ...19911847152
antigenic analysis of feline coronaviruses with monoclonal antibodies (mabs): preparation of mabs which discriminate between fipv strain 79-1146 and fecv strain 79-1683.we prepared 31 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against either fipv strain 79-1146 or fecv strain 79-1683, and tested them for reactivity with various coronaviruses by indirect fluorescent antibody assay (ifa). sixteen mabs which reacted with all of the 11 strains of feline coronaviruses, also reacted with canine coronavirus (ccv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev). in many of them, the polypeptide specificity was the recognition of transmembrane (e1) protein of the virus. we succeeded i ...19911653482
antigenic variation among transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and porcine respiratory coronavirus strains detected with monoclonal antibodies to the s protein of tgev.five nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mab) generated to the virulent miller strain of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) and specific for the s protein were characterized. competition assays between purified and biotinylated mab indicated that mab 75b10 and 8g11 mapped near a new subsite, designated v and 2 mab, 44c11 and 45a8, mapped to a previously designated subsite d. a fifth mab mapped between subsites v and e. these mab were tested with 3 previously characterized mab to subsi ...19921379786
electron microscope study of experimental enteric infection in neonatal dogs with a canine coronavirus.neonatal dogs, inoculated orally with coronavirus 1-71, grown in canine kidney cell cultures, developed diarrhea and a severe enteritis characterized by atrophy of the villi, changes in the enterocytes, and accelerated epithelial cell loss. electron microscopy of the mucosal epithelium, 4 days after challenge, showed that the virus penetrated into the enterocytes between microvilli, possibly by pinocytotic mechanism. in the enterocytes, virions were most often enclosed, singly or in groups, in c ...1976933465
antigenic relationship of the feline infections peritonitis virus to coronaviruses of other species.utilizing the direct and indirect fluorescent antibody procedure, the antigenic relationship of the feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) to 7 other human and animal coronaviruses was studied. fipv was found to be closely related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) of swine. transmissible gastroenteritis virus and fipv were in turn antigenically related to human coronavirus 229e (hcv-229e) and canine coronavirus (ccv). an interesting finding in the study was that the 8 coronavirus ...197881044
canine viral vaccines at a turning point--a personal perspective.the most important canine viral infections are distemper and cpv-2. problems of variable cd vaccine safety and efficacy persist, but cd vaccines have greatly reduced the prevalence of disease and cases in vaccinated dogs are now rare. canine hepatitis (ich, cav-1 infection) also has been controlled well by vaccines for more than 35 years and it is now rare; the sporadic cases seen in the 1990s have usually occurred in unvaccinated dogs. cav-2 vaccines should, therefore, continue to be given sinc ...19999890023
one-tube fluorogenic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the quantitation of feline coronaviruses.a one-tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for absolute feline coronavirus (fcov) quantitation was developed. the assay is based on the 5' nuclease activity of the thermus flavus (tfl) polymerase and a fluorogenic probe which generates fluorescence when it is cleaved. the fluorogenic probe, also called taqman(tm) probe (perkin elmer, foster city, usa), is an oligonucleotide designed to bind between the two pcr primers to the target cdna and is labeled with a reporter and ...199910029323
cardiovascular pathology possibly associated with ketamine/xylazine anesthesia in dutch belted rabbits.after myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was observed in five rabbits which had been anesthetized a variable number of times, the potential relationship of these lesions and anesthesia was evaluated in 35 other rabbits.199910331545
transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus: molecular characterization of the s gene using cdna probes and nucleotide sequence analysis.two transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev, miller strain) cdna clones were identified and their nucleotide sequences determined. the clones were non-overlapping and were located in the 5' region of the s glycoprotein gene. the tgev clone pe21 contained 381 bp of the s glycoprotein gene and had > 98% nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology with the purdue (p115) strain of tgev and over 87% sequence homology with feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv). the tgev clone, pd24, contained 2 ...19938209764
sequence analysis of ccv and its relationship to fipv, tgev and prcv. 19938209747
genomic organization and expression of the 3' end of the canine and feline enteric coronaviruses.the genomic organization at the 3' end of canine coronavirus (ccv) and feline enteric coronavirus (fecv) was determined by sequence analysis and compared to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev) of swine. comparison of the latter two has previously revealed an extra open reading frame (orf) at the 3' end of the fipv genome, lacking in tgev, now designated orf 6b. both ccv and fecv possess 6b-related orfs. the ccv orf 6b is colinear with ...19938209715
canine-coronavirus (ccv) characterization in spain. epidemiological aspects.in this paper the characterization of a canine-coronavirus (ccv) strain isolated in spain is reported. the ccv cellular-infection cycle on a-72 cells was studied using electron-microscopy techniques. the isolate was found to have similar electrophoretic profile and antigenic properties to an american reference strain. sera samples were obtained from several canine populations and tested for viral antibodies using two immunoenzymatic methods. sera specificity was confirmed using immunoblot analys ...19947839745
serologic survey of selected viral agents in recently captured wild north american river otters (lontra canadensis).blood samples were collected from 64 wild north american river otters (lontra [lutra] canadensis) from northern and eastern new york state and analyzed for serologic evidence of exposure to selected viral agents during a 1995 1996 translocation program. no clinical signs of disease nor lesions suggestive of prior viral exposure were seen. titers were detected for antibodies against canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus-1, and canine parvovirus-2 but not for antibodies against canine adenovi ...200010982127
molecular cloning and sequence determination of the peplomer protein gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus type i.cdna clones spanning the entire region of the peplomer (s) gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) type i strain ku-2 were obtained and their complete nucleotide sequences were determined. a long open reading frame (orf) encoding 1464 amino acid residues was found in the gene, which was 12 residues longer than the orf of the fipv type ii strain 79-1146. the sequences of fipv type i and mainly -tpv type ii were compared. the homologies at the n- (amino acid residues 1-693) and c- (resi ...19957733820
canine coronavirus in australian dogs.to estimate the frequency of serum antibodies (igg and igm) to canine coronavirus (ccv) in the australian dog population and evaluate the role of ccv as a causative agent of gastroenteritis.200111256282
genomic relationship of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus to bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus oc43 as studied by the use of bovine coronavirus s gene-specific probes.the genomic relationship of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (hev) to bovine coronavirus (bcv) and human coronavirus (hcv) strain oc43 was examined by dot blot hybridization assays. two bcv s gene-specific probes were generated by polymerase chain reaction from the avirulent l9-strain of bcv. probes were located in the s1 and the s2 region of the peplomeric (s) glycoprotein gene. the s1 probe (726 bp) hybridized with bcv and hcv-oc43, but not with hev under moderate stringency hy ...19957646353
recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and giardia infection in japan.epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from january to june of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and giardia lamblia (g. lamblia). most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and g. lamblia (48.2%). canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and cpv-2b was the predominant antigenic type. ...200111411507
the structure of the canine coronavirus. 19816278898
severe enteric disease in an animal shelter associated with dual infections by canine adenovirus type 1 and canine coronavirus.an outbreak of dual infection in dogs with canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1) and canine coronavirus (ccv) infection is reported in an animal shelter that comprised approximately 200 adults stray dogs and 30 puppies. twenty puppies died 7-8 days after the onset of the clinical signs (severe enteritis, leucopoenia, respiratory distress and dehydration). both cav-1 and ccv were isolated from tissue or swab samples. antibodies to ccv and, at high levels, to cav-1 also were detected in several puppies ...200111471849
canine viruses and multiple sclerosis.serum and cerebrospinal fluid from multiple sclerosis (ms) patients and control subjects were tested and compared for presence and titer of neutralizing antibody against the most common canine viruses. canine viruses included canine distemper virus (cdv), canine adenovirus 1 (cav-1), canine parainfluenza virus (cpiv), canine herpesvirus (chv), canine coronavirus (ccv), and canine parvovirus (cpv). neutralizing titers against measles virus (mv) and human adenovirus 8 (ha8) were also tested. signi ...19816267515
serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from alaska.wolves (canis lupus) were captured in three areas of interior alaska (usa). four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). prevalence was lowes ...200111763737
efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against clinical disease caused by canine coronavirus.canine coronavirus (ccv) is a causative agent of diarrhea in dogs. the reproduction of severe clinical disease with experimental ccv infection has been difficult. we have recently developed a ccv challenge model which reproduced clinical signs of disease in susceptible dogs. the following study was designed to determine whether immunization with an inactivated ccv vaccine would protect dogs from clinical disease induced using this model. dogs (n = 13) were vaccinated with an inactivated ccv vacc ...19958830484
familial canine dermatomyositis: clinicopathologic, immunologic, and serologic studies.laboratory studies were performed on 3 collies with familial canine dermatomyositis, 6 progeny from a breeding of 2 of the collies (incross litter), and 4 progeny from the breeding of an affected collie male and a normal labrador retriever (outcross litter). hematologic abnormalities were leukogram changes consistent with inflammation, and, in 2 severely affected incross dogs, anemia of inflammatory disease. serum muscle enzyme activities were not markedly increased. high concentrations of immun ...19853901838
molecular characterization confirms the presence of a divergent strain of canine coronavirus (uwsmn-1) in australia.canine coronavirus (ccv) uwsmn-1 was originally identified from an outbreak of fatal gastroenteritis in breeding colonies. in this report, we examined whether uwsmn-1 represents a novel divergent strain or is the result of recombination events between canine and feline coronavirus strains. sequencing of various regions of the spike and polymerase genes confirms that uwsmn-1 is widely divergent from other ccv and feline coronavirus strains. these data raise the possibility that this strain is the ...200212202609
pcr assay for the detection and the identification of atypical canine coronavirus in dogs.comparative sequence analysis of the pcr products of the m gene and fragments of the pol1a and pol1b genes of canine coronavirus (ccov) have demonstrated that two separate clusters of ccov are present in dogs. this note describes a pcr assay to identify atypical ccov strains with nucleotide substitutions in the m gene. a total of 177 faecal samples from dogs ccov positive previously with the pcr assay were analysed. sixty-two of the 177 samples were amplified with the pcr described in the presen ...200212393151
identification of coronaviruses in dogs that segregate separately from the canine coronavirus genotype.the genetic diversity of 16 canine coronavirus (ccov) samples is described. samples were obtained from pups infected naturally living in different areas. sequence data were obtained from the m gene and pol1a and pol1b regions. the phylogenetic relationships among these sequences and sequences published previously were determined. the canine samples segregated in two separate clusters. samples of the first cluster were intermingled with reference strains of ccov genotype and therefore could be as ...200312505636
virucidal efficacy of physico-chemical treatments against coronaviruses and parvoviruses of laboratory animals.virucidal efficacy of chemical disinfectants, heating and ultraviolet radiation against mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), canine coronavirus (ccv), kilham rat virus (krv) and canine parvovirus (cpv) were examined. coronaviruses (mhv and ccv) were inactivated by ethanol, isopropanol, benzalkonium chloride, iodophor, sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, cresol soap and formaldehyde as well as by heating at 60 degrees c for 15 minutes, whereas parvoviruses (krv and cpv) appeared to be inactivated by di ...19883416941
recombinant m protein-based elisa test for detection of antibodies to canine coronavirus.the membrane (m) protein of canine coronavirus (ccov) was cloned and expressed in e. coli. the purified recombinant protein was then evaluated for its antigenicity and reliability in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for detection of ccov antibodies in dog sera. fifty serum samples, screened previously by whole virus elisa and western blotting, were tested. when the performance of the new test was compared with those of whole virus elisa and western blotting, an excellent correlation ...200312711056
efficacy of an inactivated canine coronavirus vaccine in pups.the efficacy of an inactivated ccov vaccine (duramune pc) was evaluated in four pups. two dogs were maintained non-vaccinated. ten days after the booster shot all the pups were challenged with a field ccov strain administered by oro-nasal route. the vaccinated pups did not display clinical signs and shed the challenge-virus for 11.25 days, evaluated by virus isolation, and 13.5 days, evaluated by pcr assay. the two non vaccinated pups displayed mild diarrhoea at day post-challenge 4 and shed the ...200312737196
interspecies aminopeptidase-n chimeras reveal species-specific receptor recognition by canine coronavirus, feline infectious peritonitis virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus.we report that cells refractory to canine coronavirus (ccv) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv) became susceptible when transfected with a chimeric aminopeptidase-n (apn) cdna containing a canine domain between residues 643 and 841. this finding shows that apn recognition by these viruses is species related and associated with this c-terminal domain. the human/canine apn chimera was also able to confer susceptibility to the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), whereas i ...19978985407
experimental inoculation of cats with human coronavirus 229e and subsequent challenge with feline infectious peritonitis virus.minimal-disease cats exposed to live human coronavirus 229e developed homologous antibody responses that suggested little or no replication of the virus in inoculated animals. oronasal and subcutaneous inoculation of coronavirus 229e did not elicit an antibody response by heterologous (transmissible gastroenteritis virus, canine coronavirus) neutralization or by heterologous (transmissible gastroenteritis virus) kinetics-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. no clinical signs attributable to ...19852994865
small envelope protein e of sars: cloning, expression, purification, cd determination, and bioinformatics analysis.to obtain the pure sample of sars small envelope e protein (sars e protein), study its properties and analyze its possible functions.200312791175
fatal coronavirus infection in puppies following canine parvovirus 2b infection. 199912968743
molecular modelling of s1 and s2 subunits of sars coronavirus spike glycoprotein.the s1 and s2 subunits of the spike glycoprotein of the coronavirus which is responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) have been modelled, even though the corresponding amino acid sequences were not suitable for tertiary structure predictions with conventional homology and/or threading procedures. an indirect search for a protein structure to be used as a template for 3d modelling has been performed on the basis of the genomic organisation similarity generally exhibited by cor ...200314511651
fecal immunoglobulin a antibodies in dogs infected or vaccinated with canine coronavirus.fecal secretory immunoglobulin a (iga) antibodies in dogs infected or vaccinated with canine coronavirus (ccv) were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the study was carried out with 32 fecal samples collected just before inoculation and at 28 days postinoculation. five groups were studied: naturally infected dogs, experimentally infected dogs, dogs inoculated with a modified live (ml) ccv vaccine by the intramuscular route, dogs inoculated with an ml ccv vaccine by the oronasal r ...200414715553
attempted immunisation of cats against feline infectious peritonitis using canine coronavirus.specific pathogen free kittens were vaccinated with an unattenuated field isolate of canine coronavirus (ccv) either by aerosol or subcutaneously, and received boosting vaccinations four weeks later. aerosolisation elicited a homologous virus-neutralising (vn) antibody response that increased steadily over a four-week period and levelled off one to two weeks after revaccination. the initial aerosolised dose produced an asymptomatic infection with excretion of ccv from the oropharynx up to eight ...19882850601
characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase n.feline aminopeptidase n (fapn) is a major cell surface receptor for feline infectious peritonitis virus (fipv), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (tgev), human coronavirus 229e (hcv 229e) and canine coronavirus (ccv). by using chimeric molecules assembled from porcine, human and feline apn we have analysed the determinants involved in the coronavirus receptor function of fapn. our results show that amino acids 670-840 of fapn are critically involved in its fipv and tgev receptor function where ...19989634079
cloning and expression of two fragments of the s gene of canine coronavirus type i.two fragments, s66 and s55, of the s glycoprotein of the newly identified canine coronavirus type i (ccov type i), were expressed in a procariotic system. the purified recombinant proteins of 350 and 366 amino acids in length, respectively, were employed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of ccov type i antibodies in dog sera. four canine sera-positive for ccov type ii, four sera-positive for ccov type i and 10 negative control sera were examined. only the ...200415019260
two genotypes of canine coronavirus simultaneously detected in the fecal samples of dogs with diarrhea.sixty-nine fecal samples from diarrheic puppies were examined by reverse transcription-pcr assays for the m and the s genes of canine coronaviruses (ccovs). the isolates in 10 samples were recognized as ccov type i, and the isolates in 6 samples were recognized as ccov type ii, while isolates of both genotypes were simultaneously detected in 53 samples.200415071054
the pros and cons of vaccinating the dog population against canine coronavirus and one of the serovars of leptospira interrogans. 200315086088
differences in virus receptor for type i and type ii feline infectious peritonitis virus.feline infectious peritonitis viruses (fipvs) are classified into type i and type ii serogroups. here, we report that feline aminopeptidase n (apn), a cell-surface metalloprotease on the intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells, is a receptor for type ii fipv but not for type i fipv. a monoclonal antibody (mab) r-g-4, which blocks infection of felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells by type ii fipv, was obtained by immunizing mice with fcwf-4 cells which are highly susceptible to fipv. this m ...19989645192
canine distemper and related diseases: report of a severe outbreak in a kennel.an outbreak of canine distemper in a kennel of german shepherds in the province of bari is reported. six 42-day-old pups developed typical signs of canine distemper (fever, conjunctivitis, respiratory distress and enteritis) and died within 7-10 days. neurological symptoms were observed only in one pup. four additional pups, which had shown no sign of illness, were separated and vaccinated, but two of these developed a severe, fatal nervous form 15 days later. post-mortem examination, carried ou ...200415164629
molecular characterization of a virulent canine coronavirus bgf strain.molecular characterisation of a canine coronavirus (ccov) isolate (bgf), associated with an outbreak of diarrhoea in puppies, showed 92.7% identity with attenuated insavc-1 strain. canine coronavirus bgf revealed a full length non-structural protein 3b (nsp 3b), associated with virulence in other coronaviruses, and a highly divergent region at the amino terminal domain of the membrane protein that may be implicated in avoiding the host immune reaction. this new canine coronavirus strain could he ...200415177889
coronavirus infection of spotted hyenas in the serengeti ecosystem.sera from 38 free-ranging spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta) in the serengeti ecosystem, tanzania, were screened for exposure to coronavirus of antigenic group 1. an immunofluorescence assay indicated high levels of exposure to coronavirus among serengeti hyenas: 95% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:10 and 74% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:40. cubs had generally lower mean titer levels than adults. exposure among serengeti hyenas to coronavirus was also con ...200415288921
antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in canada.antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [cav-2], feline herpesvirus [fhv], phocine herpesvirus [phv-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [dmv], phocine distemper virus [pdv], parainfluenza virus type 3 [pi3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [drv], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, borrelia burgdorferi and toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mam ...200415338705
canine coronavirus infection in turkish dog population.canine coronavirus (ccov) is one of the most important viral agents affecting the gastrointestinal system of dogs. in this study virological and serological investigations were performed to demonstrate the existence and prevalence of ccov infection in a turkish dog population. a total of 269 animals were subjected to the study. of 179 dogs tested for ccov antibodies, 112 (62.5%) were found to be positive by serum neutralization test, while 133 (74.3%) were positive by elisa. the highest prevalen ...200415525364
investigation into the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease: antibody responses to canine respiratory coronavirus and canine herpesvirus in two kennelled dog populations.two training centres for working dogs were monitored for one year to determine the presence of viruses and viral antibodies and their association with canine infectious respiratory disease (cird). tonsillar swabs and serum were obtained from dogs on entry into the kennels and in regular intervals thereafter. additional samples were collected during outbreaks of cird. the swabs were examined by virus culture and pcr for canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus, canine herpesvirus (chv) and c ...200515841339
[two genotypes of canine coronavirus simultaneously detected in the fecal samples of healthy foxes and raccoon dogs].61 fecal samples from healthy foxes and 24 from healthy raccoon dogs were examined by rt-nested pcr assays for the presence and genotypic identification of canine coronaviruses (ccvs). 77.0% fox samples were recognized as ccv positive, 43 of which belonged to type ii and 29 to type i, as well as both genotypes were simultaneously detected in 25 samples. out of the total 24 fecal samples from raccoon dogs, 22 were ccv positive for type ii and 16 for type i. m gene fragments of 8 samples were sequ ...200515989282
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