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biophysical properties of a non-cultivable 29-nm enteric virus.a 29 nm non-cultivable virus (ncv) was detected in faecal extracts from children hospitalized for gastroenteritis. the ncv had a density of 1.35 g/ml in glycerol-potassium tartrate density gradients and was resistant to degradation by proteolytic enzymes, non-ionic detergents and ph extremes. the surface of these virus particles had knob-like projections which appeared to have a symmetrical arrangement. when heated to 56 degrees c, the virus was completely degraded to soluble components which co ...197943359
importance of a new virus in acute sporadic enteritis in children.in a year-long survey of children admitted with acute enteritis to hospital in melbourne, australia, an aetiological agent was found in approximately 75% of patients. during most months of the year a newly described virus belonging to the family reoviridae was detected by electron microscopy of faecal extracts from more than 50% of patients. recovery of this virus reached a peak (73%) during the winter. all age-group up to five years of age were susceptible to infection, which was occasionally f ...197546387
editorial: rotaviruses of man and animals. 197546393
letter: rotavirus infections in a maternity unit. 197549677
letter: rotavirus infections in obstetric hospitals. 197549709
letter: isolation of human rotavirus using human embryonic gut monolayers. 197553455
letter: child-mother transmission of rotavirus. 197654622
is lactase the receptor and uncoating enzyme for infantile enteritis (rota) viruses?rotaviruses are now regarded as important causes of diarrhoea in man, cattle, pigs, mice, and possibly other animals. characteristically, disease occurs in newborn and young animals, and infection seems limited to the differentiated gut epithelial cells. the major surface polypeptide of the calf scours rotavirus is glycosylated, and highly purified beta-galactosidase (lactase) interacts with the virus in vitro causing removal of the outer shell of the capsid (uncoating). it is suggested that lac ...197659021
haemagglutinin from rotavirus. 197662238
cell culture studies with a cytopathic bovine rotavirus.the growth characteristics in mdbk cells of a calf rotavirus isolated in northern ireland are described. of a range of cell cultures tested, the virus grew in secondary bovine kidney and mdbk cells, but consistently produced a cpe only in mdbk cells. the cpe consisted of cytoplasmic vacuolation, development of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions, and degeneration and detachment of cells from the monolayer. the onset of cpe was more rapid and its effects more severe in rolled cultures than s ...197770198
elisa for rotavirus. 197771624
rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in adults. 197673889
rotavirus infection in high-incidence lactase-deficiency population. 197875362
anti-rotavirus antibody in human colostrum. 197876105
recurrent rotavirus gastroenteritis. 197876904
in-vitro detection of human rotaviruses. 197578193
rotavirus infections of neonates.faecal specimens from 628 newborn babies in the nurseries of six metropolitan hospitals were examined by electron microscopy for rotaviruses. 304 babies (49%) were found to be excreting virus. all those infected were in five nurseries; viruses were not detected in specimens from the sixth nursery. two nurseries were studied for 9 mo and another for 11 mo and rotaviruses were found consistently in 40-50% of stools examined. there was no seasonal variation. none of the neonates under the age of on ...197773060
comparison of sucrose with glucose in oral therapy of infant diarrhoea.in a randomised double-blind trial, 51 5--10% dehydrated infants were rehydrated with oral electrolyte solutions containing sucrose or glucose. most infants in both groups were successfully rehydrated, but the sucrose solution produced a slower correction of electrolyte abnormalities and a higher percentage of patients who needed more than 24 h of therapy. where there is adequate knowledge of the oral therapy method sucrose can substitute for glucose in many cases; where there is a choice glucos ...197879080
sugar intolerance in rotavirus gastroenteritis. 197879824
detection of infantile gastroenteritis virus (rotavirus) by elisa. 197769078
serological relationships between rotaviruses from different species as studied by complement fixation and neutralization.human, piglet, mouse, foal, lamb, calf and rabbit rotaviruses all infected, but could not readily be subcultured in llc mk2 cells. cells infected with mouse and calf rotaviruses reacted by indirect immunofluorescence (fa) with convalescent serum from children, piglets, mice, foals, lambs, calves or rabbits, taken after rotavirus infection. human, calf, piglet, mouse and foal rotaviruses reacted with human, calf, mouse, foal and lamb convalescent serum by complement fixation (cf). it was not poss ...197768765
secretory iga antibody to rotavirus in human milk 6--9 months postpartum. 197880554
more serotypes of human rotavirus. 197880556
rotavirus antibodies in crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. 197768365
identification of rotaviruses. 197765702
location of type-specific antigens in calf rotaviruses.rotavirus antisera with and without neutralizing activity to calf rotavirus were compared for their ability to agglutinate calf rotavirus particles with and without an outer capsid layer. particles without the outer capsid layer were agglutinated by antisera with immunofluorescent antibody activity and by antisera with immunofluorescent antibody and neutralizing activity. particles with the outer capsid layer were agglutinated only by antisera with neutralizing activity. the neutralization test ...197884819
antigenic relationship between human and simian rotaviruses.the simian rotavirus, sa 11, and the murine rotavirus, edim, were investigated for antigenic relatedness to the human rotavirus, by immunoelectron-microscopy. these studies led to the recognition of two types of rotavirus antibody. one agglutinated "rough" virus particles only and was group-reactive; it appears to be widely distributed in various animal species, including human infants. the second antibody agglutinated "smooth" virus particles and was more species-specific, demonstrating only a ...197765473
an antigenic subunit present in rotavirus infected faeces.it has been found by immune electron microscopy that rotavirus-infected faeces, calf or human, contain an antigenic subunit associated with the inner of the two virus capsids. this internal component represents the group specific antigen for the rotavirus group and the subunit reacts with both homologous and heterologous antiserum. it can therefore be used in diagnostic tests and in this paper its use as a reagent for immunodiffusion is described.197765444
letter: rotavirus growth in bovine monolayers. 197656573
the rotavirus syndrome. 197989290
isolation and cell culture propagation of rotaviruses from turkeys and chickens.rotaviruses were detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of turkey poults and broiler chickens with diarrhoea. apparently symptomless infection was also observed in broilers. the avian rotaviruses could not be isolated in cell cultures by conventional techniques, but were adapted to serial growth in chick cell cultures following trypsin treatment of the virus and the cells. immunofluorescence studies showed that the avian and mammalian rotaviruses are antigenically related. antibodies to r ...197992979
letter: rotavirus infections in neonates. 197551252
simian rotavirus sa-11 plaque formation in the presence of trypsin.incorporation of 5 micrograms of trpsin per ml of the overlay (eagle minimal essential medium-0.7% ionagar no. 2) was found to be necessary for plaque formation by simian rotavirus sa-11. plaques of 3 to 4 mm in diameter were produced in ma-104 cells after 5 days of incubation at 37 degrees c. plaque size was even larger (5 to 6 mm) in monolayers of african green monkey kidney cells. addition of diethyl-aminotheyl-dextran, protamine sulfate, or 5-bromodeoxyuridine to the trypsin-containing overl ...197994597
morphological and immunological studies of rotaviruses. (1) electron microscopic observation of heterologous agglutinations between human and calf rotaviruses. 197995587
rotavirus enteritis in the west midlands during 1974.during 1974 in the west midlands of england, 38% of children less than 6 years old with enteritis were excreting rotaviruses. children aged from 6 months to 3 years were those most commonly infected. rotavirus infections were most common during winter with only a few sporadic cases during summer. a possible pathogen was detected in 59% of patients examined.197549794
letter: rotaviruses of man and animals. 197547983
epidemic viral enteritis in a long-stay children's ward.two outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis occurred in 1974 in a long-stay children's ward. electron microscopy demonstrated rotaviruses in faeces from the affected children in the first outbreak, and adenoviruses in faeces from affected children and a nurse in the second outbreak. the illness in both outbreaks was very mild; but the diarrhoea associated with rotavirus infection usually lasted 5-8 days (in one patient it lasted for 28 days) and sometimes started with vomiting; whereas the adenovirus ...197546358
epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases in singapore.diarrhoeal diseases in the form of bacterial food poisoning are prevalent in singapore. common food poisoning organisms implicated were staphylococcus aureus, non-thypoid salmonellae and vibrio parahaemolyticus. el tor cholera, believed to be introduced through intra-regional trade and travel, occurred sporadically with a common source outbreak, probably food-borne, in september 1978. shigellosis and amoebiasis were mainly confined to areas where poor personal hygiene was prevalent. the incidenc ...1979120734
comparative adsorption of human enteroviruses, simian rotavirus, and selected bacteriophages to soils.virus adsorption to soils is considered to be the most important factor in removing viruses after land treatment of wastewater. most of the studies on virus adsorption to soils have utilized poliovirus as the model system. in the present study, comparative adsorption of a number of different types and strains of human enteroviruses and bacteriophages to nine different soil types was studied. under the experimental conditions of this study, greater than 90% of all viruses adsorbed to a sandy loam ...197942350
characterisation of a rotavirus.20b. 1975173999
an epidemic of diarrhoea in human neonates involving a reovirus-like agent and 'enteropathogenic' serotypes of escherichia coli.during december 1974, an epidemic of diarrhoea occurred in the royal children's hospital, melbourne, in a ward caring for neonates with acute or chronic medical and surgical problems. electron microscopy of diarrhoeal faeces revealed a reovirus-like particle ('duovirus' or 'rotavirus') known to cause acute enteritis in older children. this virus is considered to have been primarily involved in the aetiology of the epidemic. in addition, three 'enteropathogenic' serotypes of escherichia coli were ...1976175099
rotavirus stability and inactivation.the stability of the infectivity of simian rotavirus, sa11, has been analysed and compared to the stability of reovirus type 1. sa11 infectivity was stable to freeze-thawing, sonication, incubation at 25 degrees c overnight or at 37 degrees c for 1 h and to treatment with acid, ether, chloroform and genetron. in contrast to reovirus, the infectivity of sa11 was more rapidly inactivated by heating at 50 degrees c. sa11 infectivity was inactivated above ph 10.0 and by heating at 50 degrees c in 2 ...197939115
physicochemical properties of nebraska calf diarrhea virus hemagglutinin.highly purified nebraska calf diarrhea virus (ncdv) was prepared by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. the effect of temperature, ph, different concentrations of formaldehyde, chloroform, ether, ethyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol on ncdv hemagglutinin and virus morphology was studied. ncdv hemagglutinin was inactivated by temperature, ph 2.0, chloroform, ethyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol.197833758
ribonucleic acid polymerase activity associated with purified calf rotavirus.the presence of an rna-dependent rna polymerase is demonstrated in purified rotavirus particles. optimum polymerase activity was found between 45 to 50 degrees c, at ph 8, and in the presence of 10 mm-magnesium ions. the polymerase product was highly sensitive to pancreatic rnase (97%) in low or high salt concentration. the enzyme was activated by edta treatment of intact particles or heat shock. the similarities between reovirus, blue-tongue virus and rotavirus polymerases are discussed.197721225
sequential enteric illnesses associated with different rotavirus serotypes. 197878225
gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with neonatal calf diarrhoea reovirus-like agent (rotavirus).gnotobiotic piglets were infected with a strain of rotavirus that had been isolated from a calf and passaged four times in piglets. the resulting disease was studied by light and electron microscopy at 21, 44 and 68 h after inoculation. in the small intestine infection caused desquamation of the epithelial cells of the villi resulting in severe stunting. there was severe damage to microvilli and accumulation of lipid within the cytoplasm. virus particles were seen in epithelial cells covering th ...1976180653
comparison of methods for diagnosis of rotavirus infection of calves. 1976180654
asymptomatic endemic rotavirus infections in the newborn.between may 1, 1976, and may 14, 1977, 343 (32.5%) of 1056 5-day-old babies in newborn nurseries excreted rotaviruses. the infection-rate was highest during winter (49%). 76% of infected babies at this time were bottle-fed. 41% of neonates excreted low amounts of virus (less than or equal to 10(8) particles/g faeces); older children tended to excrete greater than 10(10) particles/g faeces. infected breast-fed babies excreted less virus than those who were bottle-fed. stools of breast-fed babies ...197877944
characterization of pig rotavirus rna.pig rotavirus was purified from faeces. the rna from this virus was resistant to pancreatic ribonuclease, indicating that it is double-stranded. when electrophoresed on polyacrylamide-agarose gels, pig rotavirus rna migrated as 9 bands comprised of 11 or 12 rna segments with a total mol. wt. of approx. 11 x 10(6). co-electrophoresis experiments revealed that the rnas from the pig virus and two isolates of the calf rotavirus were indistinguishable.1976185325
the rotaviruses. 197877663
rotavirus infections of neonates. 197876780
rotavirus and rabbits. 1976185782
anti-rotavirus antibody in human colostrum. 197874515
serotypes of human rotavirus. 197874514
different serotypes of human rotaviruses. 197874513
rotavirus infections of apes. 197879844
rotaviruses. 197880441
search by immunofluorescence for antigens of rotavirus, pseudomonas maltophilia, and mycobacterium kansasii in crohn's disease.crohn's-disease tissue was tested by indirect immunofluorescence for antigens of rotavirus, pseudomonas maltophilia, and mycobacterium kansasii. no reactions were obtained with anti-serum to p. maltophilia and m. kansasii, and a granular fluorescence seen with rotavirus antibody was probably non-specific.197880631
[rotaviruses as pathogen organism of acute gastroenteritis in adults]. 1976187550
classification of rotaviruses: report from the world health organization/food and agriculture organization comparative virology program.the reoviridae working team was established under the world health organization/food and agriculture organization comparative virology program in 1975. the generic name rotavirus has been adopted for the reovirus-like agents associated with diarrhea in man and animals, and the nebraska calf diarrheal virus strain of bovine rotavirus has been selected as a candidate reference virus. stocks of this virus and of gnotobiotic calf antiserum have been prepared. antigenic differences among rotaviruses ...197881198
gradual reintroduction of full-strength milk after acute gastroenteritis in children.46 children (26 boys and 20 girls) admitted with mild acute gastroenteritis were randomly allocated to a regimen of continuing on full-strength milk, or to one of taking clear fluids until the diarrhoea settled before full-strength milk was reintroduced either immediately, or gradually in quarter-strength steps. there was no difference in length of hospital stay between the three groups.197986003
rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in two adults probably caused by virus reinfection.rotavirus infection was diagnosed by virus detection and by serological methods in 2 women with acute gastroenteritis, aged 22 and 29 years, respectively. both patients had been in close contact with children with rotavirus gastroenteritis. rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in serum specimens obtained prior to the illness in one of the patients, and the serological response in both patients suggested a reinfection with rotavirus as cause of the disease.1976188119
simian rotavirus (sa 11) in serodiagnosis of human rotavirus infections.tests were made on 169 sera from children up to 10 years of age for rotavirus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests. the simian strain sa 11 served as a substitute antigen for the human rotavirus. furthermore, the sa 11 complement-fixing antigen was compared with a commercial antigen of the bovine rotavirus strain ncdv. it was demonstrated that sa 11 which can be more easily propagated than most bovine strains, may be used as a substitute antigen in complement f ...197986940
cell free transcription and translation of rotavirus rna. 197988940
use of antisera against bovine (ncdv) and simian (sa11) rotaviruses in elisa to detect different types of human rotavirus.two elisa systems for the detection of human rotaviruses were developed. in the first system antibodies to nebraska calf diarrhea virus (ncdv) were used for coating the solid matrix and for the preparation of the enzyme conjugate. in the second system antibodies to human rotavirus and antibodies to simian rotavirus (sa11) were used for coating the solid matrix and for the preparation of the enzyme conjugate respectively. the second elisa system proved to have a broader spectrum for the detection ...197994274
neonatal calf diarrhea caused by a virus that induces villous epithelial cell syncytia.intestinal lesions caused by a virus serologically unrelated to the calf diarrheal rotavirus or coronavirus were studied in gnotobiotic calves. the virion purified from feces from infected calves was a fringed particle with a diameter of about 100 nm. the incubation period from time of inoculation per orum to onset of diarrhea in calves was as short as 8 hours. the viral infection in bacteria-free calves or calves not contaminated with pathogenic bacteria caused severe illness for only 24 hours. ...197898080
pattern of shedding of two noncultivable viruses in stools of newborn babies.noncultivable viruses have been associated with diarrhea affecting newborn babies in obstetric hospital nurseries. persisting infection in a special care nursery in melbourne, australia, permitted a study of the pattern of excretion of these viruses. ten babies admitted to the nursery within 2 hr of birth were randomly selected for prospective study. feces were collected daily for 14 days and were examined by electron microscopy. all ten babies excreted detectable amounts of duovirus (rotavirus, ...197898612
infantile gastroenteritis virus.the authors demonstrated presence of virus particles of 55--75 nm manifesting morphological properties of the virus of infantile gastroenteritis (rotavirus, orbivirus, reo-like virus) by means of the electron microscopy, when investigating samples of stools of children sufferring from non-bacterial diarrheal diseases. stool extracts were incubated with commercial gamma globulins or with convalescent sera provoking formation of extensive immunocomplexes. the complexes do not form when stool extra ...1979118211
neonatal calf diarrhoea: identification of a reovirus-like (rotavirus) agent in faeces by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy. 1975172192
a reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) in gastroenteritis of children. virus detection and serological studies.a reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) was detected in 26 children (44%) when fecal specimens from 59 children with acute gastroenteritis were examined by electron microscopy. no rotavirus was detected in the feces of 49 children with other diseases. sera from the acute and the convalescent phase from 40 children with acute gastroenteritis and from 18 other patients were examined for antibodies against a bovine rotavirus by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. 26 of the patients with gastroenteriti ...1976178049
[infantile diarrhea and rotavirus (author's transl)].the acute and convalescent sera of 328 children with acute enteritis were checked with the bovine diarrhea virus as antigen in complement fixation test. 13% had a seroconversion. some cases were associated with skin rashes or signs of respiratory infection.1977191779
influence of ph, salinity, and organic matter on the adsorption of enteric viruses to estuarine sediment.this study was designed to determine the degree of adsorption of enteric viruses to marine sediment and factors controlling this association. adsorption and elution characteristics of several enteroviruses and one rotavirus to estuarine sediments were studied under varying conditions of ph, salinity, and presence of soluble organics. greater than 99% of the added poliovirus type 1 (lsc), coxsackievirus type b3 (nancy), echovirus type 7 (wallace), and rotavirus (sa-11) adsorbed to sediment. echov ...197939508
rotavirus epidemic in adults. 1977193006
characterization of two particle types of calf rotavirus.two distinct types of rotavirus particle were isolated in caesium chloride density gradients. the higher density particle banded at 1-38 g/ml and measured 55 +/- 0-4 nm in diameter while the less dense particle banded at 1-36 g/ml, measured 66 +/- 0-4 nm in diameter and appeared to possess an extra outer capsid layer. some forms intermediate between the two types were seen. since the two particles had a similar but not identical morphology and polypeptide composition, they were considered to be ...1976180243
isolation of a cytopathic calf rotavirus.the isolation and serial passage in secondary and continuous cultures of calf kidney cells of a cytopathic calf rotavirus is described.1976181805
[gastroenteritis due to rotavirus and spreading of the infection through the hospital]. 1977195230
studies on rotavirus infection and diarrhoea in young calves.the occurrence of diarrhoea in calves was monitored during the first three weeks of life. calves fed amounts of colostrum sufficient to produce serum ig levels in excess of 30 mg per ml did not develop diarrhoea, whereas calves fed less colostrum did. rotaviruses and mycoplasma-like particles were observed in the faeces of calves with and without diarrhoea. the epidemiology of rotavirus infection in calves is discussed.1976185778
rotavirus in calves... 1976185781
quantitation of antibody to non-hemagglutinating viruses by single radial hemolysis: serological test for human coronaviruses.a single radial hemolysis test was developed for quantitation of specific antibody to non-hemagglutinating viruses. with the human coronaviruses as models, this test utilizes the binding properties of the chromic cation to attach viruses to glutaraldehyde-treated sheep erythrocytes. the most satisfactory system consisted of stabilizing washed sheep erythrocytes with 0.0073% glutaraldehyde for 15 min at 23 degrees c, binding a high concentration of virus to a 25% erythrocyte suspension with 0.001 ...1977195976
solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detecting bovine (neonatal calf diarrhea) rotavirus antibody.an indirect solid-phase microradioimmunoassay is described for detecting antibodies against rotaviruses. the test involved ethanol fixation of microcultures of bovine rotavirus-infected bsc-1 cells and reacetion with bovine antirotavirus serum, followed by 125i-labeled rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin g. the technique was shown to be virus specific and highly sensitive. the fixed microcultures could be stored at 4 degrees c for at least 2 months without affecting the sensitivity of the test. th ...1977195982
reovirus-like agent (rotavirus) associated with neonatal calf gastroenteritis in france.a reo-like virus (calf rotavirus) was shown to be associated with cases of neonatal calf diarrhea in france. the virus could be detected in more than 50 p. 100 of diarrheic fecal samples, while it was practically absent in control samples originating from healthy calves that had never had diarrhea. the results obtained by electron microscopy and immunofluorescent studies indicate that the virus is closely related or identical to the agent isolated originally in the united states.1976185934
implications of recent virological researches.rotaviruses (duoviruses) can be found in more than half the cases of acute diarrhoea in children up to the age of six or seven. about that age almost everyone has antibodies to them. second infections occur and may not be as rare as laboratory findings so far suggest. very young infants sometimes get subclinical disease-the effect of maternal antibody transmitted across the placenta? very similar viruses, all possessing a common antigen detectable by immunofluorescence, are known to infect and/o ...1976186237
pathogenic rotaviruses isolated from pigs and calves.rotavirus is commonly isolated from diarrhoeic calves and pigs. bacterium-free faecal filtrates containing rotavirus from five different outbreaks of disease in calves all caused diarrhoea and clinical illness in gnotobiotic calves and five different isolates from pigs were inoculated into gnotobiotic pigs with similar results. the author was unsuccessful in finding an avirulent strain although one of the calf isolates was from a non-diarrhoeic calf. the laboratory strain of calf virus retained ...1976186238
recent advances in the aetiology of viral gastroenteritis.studies with the human reovirus-like (hrvl) agnet, also designated rotavirus and duovirus, have revealed that it is a major aetiological agent of diarrhoea of infants and young children in many parts of the world. in a study of patients admitted with a diarrhoeal illness to the children's hospital of the district of columbia in the united states from january 1974 to june 1975, it was found that half of the patients studied by both virus shedding (by electron microscopy) and serological (compleme ...1976186239
experimental rotavirus infection in lambs. 1976186496
human rotavirus and intussusception. 1977198658
[application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to the detection of calf rotavirus and rotavirus antibodies (author's transl)]. 1977199102
[rotavirus in children with severe malnutrition].the study comprised 19 children with severe protein-calorie malnutrition admitted to hospital nacional de niños. with one exception, all of the patients complained of diarrhea at the examination. samples of stools were collected for bacteriologic, parasitologic and virologic studies. rotavirus was shown in 4 cases and adenovirus in another 4. enteropathogenic escherichia coli, shigella and salmonella were isolated in 9 different children. it was possible to demonstrate at least one potentially p ...1977199211
rotavirus infections. 1976186931
virus-specific igm antibodies in acute gastroenteritis due to a reovirus-like agent (rotavirus).62 serum samples from 24 patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were tested for igm antibodies against a bovine rotavirus by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique. igm antibodies were detected in one or more of the serum samples from all but one of the patients. igm antibodies were not detected in samples obtained from 11 of the patients after the 5th week of illness. absorption of sera for igg with staphylococcus aureus increased the sensitivity of the igm antibody test. it is concluded t ...1976188117
the clinical features of infantile gastroenteritis due to rotavirus.the symptoms of 100 hospitalised cases of rotavirus infantile gastroenteritis are described. most patients presented with high fever between the 2nd and 5th day, having started with diarrhoea or vomiting or both. 42% of the infants had upper respiratory tract symptoms. severe electrolyte disturbance did not occur, although there was a suggestion of a correlation between the higher blood ureas and the number of rotavirus particles in the stools. the mean duration of illness of uncomplicated cases ...1976188118
plaque assay of neonatal calf diarrhea virus and the neutralizing antibody in human sera.neonatal calf diarrhea virus (a bovine rotavirus) formed distinct plaques in monolayers of ma-104 cells, an established macacus rhesus monkey kidney cell line, when diethylaminoethyl dextran and trypsin were included in the overlay medium. by using this plaque assay method, titration of neutralizing antibody to neonatal calf diarrhea virus was made feasible. it was demonstrated that some human sera contained neutralizing antibody to this agent.1977188863
[rotavirus: a frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in children]. 1977189452
immune electron microscopy of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus (reovirus-like agent) of swine.immune electron microscopy (iem) was developed as a diagnostic aid for detecting and identifying transmissible gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus (reovirus-like agent) in fecal and intestinal contents from cases of gastroenteritis in young pigs. variables involved in use of direct iem and its sensitivity were determined. aggregates of virus coated with specific antibody were seen in virus samples mixed with homologous convalescent antiserum, but not in control samples containing preexposure ser ...1977189646
rotavirus infections in a maternity unit.between may and august 1975, rotaviruses were detected in the stools of 76 out of 174 (44%) newborn babies in the maternity unit at this hospital. infection occurred less frequently in breast-fed than in bottle-fed babies (p less than 0.001). however, only 7 out of 76 (8%) babies who excreted rotaviruses had symptoms and these were mild. complement fixation tests did not show any apparent difference in the antibody titres or serological responses between mothers of rotavirus positive or negative ...1976189702
probable role of viruses in calfhood diseases.bovine enteroviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus, rotavirus (formerly called reovirus-like agent), coronavirus-like agent, bovine adenovirus, and bovine parainfluenza-3 virus have been isolated from calves suffering from neonatal disease. the experimental disease produced by these viruses is not necessarily severe or fatal, but under farm and ranch conditions, each probably serves as an added to mortality from neonatal disease. after initial losses following the introduction of a virus into a h ...1977190279
human rotavirus in young dogs. 1976190523
cell culture propagation of porcine rotavirus (reovirus-like agent).two isolates of porcine rotavirus (reovirus-like agent) were isolated and passaged in primary procine kidney cell cultures. viral infectivity for cells was monitored by immunofluorescence because viral cytopathic effect was moderate. successful passage of virus in cell culture required that viral suspensions obtained from infected cell cultures be treated with pancreatin prior to inoculation onto cell monolayers. porcine rotavirus passage in cell culture also was accomplished, using trypsin trea ...1977201198
detection of rotavirus in experimentally infected piglets.scouring and vomiting was induced in piglets by experimental infection with a field strain of rotavirus. virus or viral antigen was detected in the small intestine by the fluorescent antibody technique and virus could also be demonstrated in infected tissue culture cells by immuno-fluorescence. progeny particles in the epithelial layer of the small intestine were identified by electron microscopy. three morphological types could be distinguished, often associated with electron-dense inclusion, a ...1977190658
hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition studies with a strain of nebraska calf diarrhea virus (bovine rotavirus).a hemagglutinin has been prepared from nebraska calf diarrhea virus (ncdv) propagated in bs-c-1 cell line. after cesium chloride centrifugation, the hemagglutinin of the bovine rotavirus was found to be associated with intact virions (density 1.355 g/ml) but not with virions lacking an outer capsid layer (density 1.375 g/ml). in hemagglutination-inhibition (hai) tests, the hemagglutinin reacted specifically with ncdv serum, and hai seroconversions were detected in some sera tested. cross-reactio ...1978201585
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