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cellular proteases increased in paramyxovirus (sendai virus) carrier cells possibly responsible for enhanced formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen.cowpox virus (cpv) growth and its s-ag (cell surface antigen) formation in hvj (sendai virus) carrier cells pre-treated with actinomycin d or puromycin were not affected as much as those in parent cells. these suggest the different cellular functions of carrier cells. the activity of carrier cell extracts causing a characteristic degradation of cpv reacted with them in vitro disappeared after the pre-incubation of extracts with hemoglobin or casein. measurements of cellular protease activities ...197715532
effect of double infection of cowpox virus-infected cells with paramyxovirus (sendai virus) on formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen.the formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen (cpv s-ag) was significantly enhanced by double infection with hvj (sendai virus). simultaneous double infection, superinfection with hvj and superinfection with cpv of cells persistently infected with hvj similarly enhanced the formation of cpv s-ag, while pre-infection with hvj was ineffective. to be effective, cells must be infected at a m.o.i. of greater than or equal to 1.0 and hvj gene functions had to be expressed. the hvj-infect ...197888002
factors involved in the expression of cowpox virus-specific antigen in sendai virus carrier cells.formation of cowpox virus-specific cell surface antigen (cpvs-ag) hvj (sendai virus) carrier cells compared to that in parent cells. temperature shifts from 32 to 35 to 37 degrees c for these carrier cultures reduced this enhancing activity, making them equivalent to parent cells. the eclips phase and one-step growth of cpv in the carrier cells were shorter than in normal cells. extracts of carrier cells exhibited a stimulating activity causing the temporary rise and subsequent lowering of cpv i ...1976185330
effect of tunicamyein on the morphogenesis of semliki forest virus and rous sarcoma virus.semliki forst virus (sfv) infected chick embroyo cells (cec) incubated in the presence of tunicamyein, a drug which specifically inhibits glycosylation, were studied under the electron microscope. no extracellular virions were produced although intracellular viral nucleocapsids in paracrystalline form were detected. under these conditions the structures, referred to as type 1 and 2 cytopathic vacuoles (cpv-1 and cpv-2, respectively) as well as membraneous spherules at the plasma membrane could s ...1977200200
canine viral enteritis. recent developments.two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (cpv) and one by a corona-like virus (ccv). a rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these ...1979224304
canine parvovirus--a new disease. 1979229621
the properties of two recent isolates of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses.cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (cpvs) were isolated from laboratory cultures of bombyx mori and spodoptera exempta. the electrophoretic profile of the rna segments of both viruses showed similarities with that of type 1 cpv. however, whereas the virus isolate from b. mori appeared identical to type 1 cpv (as assessed by serology, as well as the comparative mobilities of rna segments and structural polypeptides), the isolate from s. exempta was distinct. three of the ten viral rna segments did ...1977323189
"pretranscriptional capping" in the biosynthesis of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus mrna.the in vitro synthesis of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cpv) mrna was previously shown to be dependent upon the presence of the methyl donor s-adenosylmethionine (adomet). we now find that the competitive inhibitor of methylation, s-adenosylhomocysteine (adohcy), also stimulates cpv mrna synthesis efficiently, resulting in the synthesis of viral mrnas containing 5'-terminal gpppa and ppa, rather than m(7)gpppam as observed with adomet. in addition to adohcy, other adomet analogues, including s ...1978349555
the multicomponent genome of a different cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus isolated from heliothis armigera.the genome of a new cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cpv) isolated from heliothis armigera has been shown to consist of 10 double-stranded rna segments, as in other cpvs, but the genome profile on page bears no resemblance to previously described cpvs isolated from h.armigera.1978361635
a new host, simulium argyreatum meig., for the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus of blackflies in czechoslovakia.the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cpv) from the midgut of blackfly larvae is recorded from a population of simulium argyreatum in czechoslovakia. a 7.7% infection of 2766 sampled larvae was manifested by white spots in their body. 85% of the white-spotted larvae were infected with cpv when sampled in june. in august 9% of 1377 larvae had white spots but only 10.6% of them were with cpv. out of 823 collected pupae, only 3 imperfect pupae had the virus in apparent form. other infections producin ...1978369963
sudden death in young dogs with myocarditis caused by parvovirus.sudden death of pups in the 4- to 6-week age range has recently been occurring in western canada as a result of severe, primary, nonsuppurative myocarditis. at necropsy, the prominent macroscopic lesion was pulmonary edema, and microscopically, characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies were found within cardiac myofibers in association with myocarditis. ultrastructurally, numerous small particles resembling parvoviruses were found within the intranuclear inclusion bodies, which were positive ...1979438048
canine viral enteritis. ii. morphologic lesions in naturally occurring parvovirus infection.the morphologic lesions associated with naturally occurring canine parvovirus infection are described. the disease is characterized by necrosis of crypt epithelium in the small intestine and of lymphoid tissue in peyers patches, lymph nodes, spleen and thymus.1979467076
canine parvovirus isolated in uk. 1979516351
vaccination against canine parvovirus. 1979532070
an electron-microscopic study of avirulent and virulent semliki forest virus in the brains of different ages of mice.ultrastructural studies of brains infected with avirulent and virulent strains of semliki forest virus (sfv) were performed in 2-7, 14, 19, and 21-28 day old mice. mature virus particles, dense clumps of fine granules, spherules and advanced stages of viral development i.e. cytopathic vacuoles, type ii (cpv ii) are seen in the brains at all ages with the virulent strain which is pathogenic to all age group of mice. in the avirulent strain infection which is pathogenic to mice below 15 days old, ...1978739267
a provisional classification of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses based on the sizes of the rna genome segments.the rna genome segments of thirty-three isolates of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (cpvs) were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. major differences were observed in the gel profiles of the rna segments from many of the viruses; differences which were reinforced by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the virus structural proteins. as a result of these studies, a provisional classification scheme for cpvs is proposed, where viruses with similar rna gel profiles are included within ...1976789818
an electron-microscopic study of the development of virulent and avirulent strains of semliki forest virus in mouse brain.two strains of semliki forest virus (sfv), the avirulent and virulent, were used to study the development of virus in both baby and adult mouse brain. the development of sfv in the brain was similar in baby and adult brain using the virulent strain and in the baby mouse brain using the avirulent strain. mature virus could not be found in adult mouse brain using the avirulent strain. this paper shows that extracellular virus particles near the cell membrane stimulate the formation of coated vesi ...1976932776
acute inflammatory response to cowpox virus infection of the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo.the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane was used to study the acute inflammatory response in the absence of contributions from the immune system. in preliminary experiments, lesions of wild-type cowpox virus strain brighton (cpv-br) and a 38k gene deletion mutant of cpv-br (cpv-br.d1) were compared with vaccinia virus (strains wr and copenhagen), fowlpox virus, laryngotracheitis virus, and infectious tenosynovitis virus, and were ranked for degree of induced inflammation. the maximal and minim ...19921312273
fatal disease in nursing puppies associated with minute virus of canines.thirteen cases of a previously undescribed parvoviral infection affecting puppies ranging in age from 5 to 21 days is described. the cases were originally thought to represent an unusual pathologic manifestation of canine parvovirus-2 (cpv-2) infection. however, failure to confirm cpv-2 infection in any of the cases suggested a different parvovirus was involved. minute virus of canines (mvc) was subsequently isolated from a case by using the walter reed canine cell line, the only cell line which ...19921313305
recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.vp2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (cpv) capsids. the vp2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. a transfer vector that contains the lacz gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. the expressed vp2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic vp2. the recombinant vp2 shows also the capability to self-assem ...19921313899
a serologic survey of the island fox (urocyon littoralis) on the channel islands, california.the island fox is listed as a threatened species in california. a serologic survey of 194 island foxes (urocyon littoralis) was conducted over the entire range of the species on the channel islands (california, usa). antibody prevalence against canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus reached 97% and 59%, respectively, in some populations sampled. antibody prevalence of canine herpesvirus, canine coronavirus, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis were low. antibodies against canine distemper virus were ...19921318424
characterization of the stage(s) in the virus replication cycle at which the host-cell specificity of the feline parvovirus subgroup is regulated in canine cells.feline panleukopenia virus (fplv), mink enteritis virus (mev), and canine parvovirus (cpv) are classified as a host-range variants. they show different host-range specificity in vivo and host-cell specificity in vitro. for instance, fplv and mev cannot grow or can grow only inefficiently in canine cell lines such as mdck and the canine fibroma cell line a72. here we have studied the mechanism(s) by which the different cell tropism is mediated in vitro. when fplv or mev was inoculated to a72 cell ...19921322591
canine and feline host ranges of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus: distinct host cell tropisms of each virus in vitro and in vivo.canine parvovirus (cpv) emerged as an apparently new virus during the mid-1970s. the origin of cpv is unknown, but a variation from feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) or another closely related parvovirus is suspected. here we examine the in vitro and in vivo canine and feline host ranges of cpv and fpv. examination of three canine and six feline cell lines and mitogen-stimulated canine and feline peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that cpv replicates in both canine and feline cells, whereas fp ...19921323703
[ten years of clinical experiences with canine parvovirus infection cpv-2 infection)].clinical and laboratory data of 205 dogs with acute canine parvovirus infection were collected. seventy-six of these dogs underwent 179 clinical reexaminations. parvovirus infection can be clinically diagnosed if there are typical gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea) in combination with a leucopenia of under 4000 cells/microliters and/or a rise in antibody titer of two degrees or more. in typical parvovirus infection a distinct hyperthermia often precedes vomiting and diarrhoea. the c ...19921324535
mutations adjacent to the dimple of the canine parvovirus capsid structure affect sialic acid binding.the erythrocyte receptor on rhesus macaque erythrocytes used by canine parvovirus (cpv) for binding in hemagglutination (ha) was examined. erythrocyte membrane proteins were electrophoresed and blotted to nitrocellulose and probed with [125i]-labeled cpv capsids, showing seven virus-binding proteins. treatment of erythrocytes or isolated membranes with clostridium perfringens neuraminidase virtually abolished virus binding. binding was also affected by treatment with potassium periodate and inhi ...19921329321
response of pups with maternal derived antibody to modified-live canine parvovirus vaccine.the aa reports the results of vaccination against canine parvovirus (cpv) of pups with maternal antibody, utilizing a modified-live virus (mlv) cpv vaccine having a titer of 10(7) tcid50/dose. this vaccine was shown to be effective also when hi antibody titers of pups were < or = 1:80.19921330425
multiple amino acids in the capsid structure of canine parvovirus coordinately determine the canine host range and specific antigenic and hemagglutination properties.canine parvovirus (cpv) and feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) are over 98% similar in dna sequence but have specific host range, antigenic, and hemagglutination (ha) properties which were located within the capsid protein gene. in vitro mutagenesis and recombination were used to prepare 16 different recombinant genomic clones, and viruses derived from those clones were analyzed for their in vitro host range, antigenic, and ha properties. the region of cpv from 59 to 91 map units determined the ab ...19921331498
canine parvovirus empty capsids produced by expression in a baculovirus vector: use in analysis of viral properties and immunization of dogs.the vp-2 genes of canine parvovirus (cpv) and a recombinant consisting of cpv and feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) sequences were cloned into baculovirus expression vectors, fused to the baculovirus polyhedrin promoter. recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and the properties of the parvovirus proteins expressed in insect cells examined. the proteins produced were the same size as the authentic cpv vp-2 protein, and were produced late after infection; the quantity of proteins recovered from th ...19921371541
unique region of the minor capsid protein of human parvovirus b19 is exposed on the virion surface.capsids of the b19 parvovirus are composed of major (vp2; 58 kd) and minor (vp1; 83 kd) structural proteins. these proteins are identical except for a unique 226 amino acid region at the amino terminus of vp1. previous immunization studies with recombinant empty capsids have demonstrated that the presence of vp1 was required to elicit virus-neutralizing antibody activity. however, to date, neutralizing epitopes have been identified only on vp2. crystallographic studies of a related parvovirus (c ...19921376332
changes in blastogenic responses of lymphocytes and delayed type hypersensitivity responses after vaccination in dogs.to clarify the immunologic effects of vaccination in dogs, we monitored total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, humoral antibody responses, blastogenic responses of lymphocyte, and delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) responses after vaccination. mixed vaccines were administered on day 0 except for canine parvovirus (cpv) vaccine which was readministered on day 21. the puppy and adult dogs had a significant decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts on day 7. the puppies showed a significant incr ...19921420577
localization of an immunodominant domain on baculovirus-produced parvovirus b19 capsids: correlation to a major surface region on the native virus particle.an immunodominant region on baculovirus-produced parvovirus b19 vp2 capsids was localized between amino acids 259 and 426 by mapping the binding sites of a panel of monoclonal antibodies which recognize determinants on the particles. the binding sites of three monoclonal antibodies were fine-mapped within this antigenic domain. six vp2-specific monoclonal antibodies recognized determinants common to both the empty capsids and native parvovirus. the defined antigenic region is most probably expos ...19921433504
partial dna cloning and sequencing of a canine parvovirus vaccine strain: application of nucleic acid hybridization to the diagnosis of canine parvovirus disease.the cloning and sequencing of an eco ri-psti fragment derived from the replicative form of a canine parvovirus (cpv) vaccine strain are reported. the variability of the 5' end of ns 1 protein gene in the genome is confirmed by comparison with previously determined dna sequences. a 15 nucleotide deletion was also observed in this vaccine strain. in order to improve cpv diagnosis, radioactively labelled rna or dna and biotin labelled dna obtained by random priming of the recombinant plasmid were u ...19921456893
diseases, parasites and survival of coyotes in south-central georgia.serologic testing, radio-telemetry and post-mortem diagnostic evaluations were used to investigate survival and causes of mortality among 17 coyotes (canis latrans) in south-central georgia (usa). prevalence of canine heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) microfilariae was lower (p = 0.057) among fall-captured (22%) than among winter-captured (75%) coyotes. prevalence of heartworm was higher among adults than juveniles in the fall, but no significant difference was detected between animals captured in ...19921474655
diseases and parasites of red foxes, gray foxes, and coyotes from commercial sources selling to fox-chasing enclosures.fifty-six red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 18 gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), and 13 coyotes (canis latrans) obtained by the south carolina wildlife and marine resources department during an investigation of suspected illegal wildlife translocation were examined for diseases and parasites. red foxes and coyotes were confiscated from an animal dealer based in ohio (usa), and gray foxes were purchased from an animal dealer in indiana (usa). emphasis was placed on detection of pathogens representi ...19921474656
[changes in the dynamics of viral infectious diseases].modern methods of molecular biology are suitable to analyse evolutionary processes in the area of infectious diseases. visible expression of this evolution is the emergence of "new" infectious agents, e.g., canine parvovirus, the agent of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and phocine distemper virus. in addition a gradual change of disease syndromes may be observed, e.g., classical and african swine fever and myxoma. these processes are based on genomic changes of the respective ...19921516549
further analyses of the orthopoxviruses volepox virus and raccoon poxvirus.volepox virus (vpx) from skin lesions on a vole and a piñon mouse caught in california and raccoon poxvirus (rcn) from raccoons trapped in maryland were examined to begin elucidating their relationship to other orthopoxviruses, most of which are not known to be indigenous to the americas. vpx and rcn produced pinpoint, nonhemorrhagic pocks on chick embryo chorioallantoic membranes. in cell cultures both viruses produced 1-mm diameter, irregular plaques, a-type inclusions (atis), and despite prod ...19921529541
ab initio phase determination for spherical viruses: parameter determination for spherical-shell models.the structure determination of canine parvovirus depended on the extension of phases calculated initially from a spherical-shell model [tsao, chapman, wu, agbandje, keller & rossmann (1992). acta cryst. b48, 75-88]. such ab initio phasing holds the promise of obviating initial experimental phasing by isomorphous or molecular replacement, thereby expediting the structure determinations of spherical virus capsids. in this paper, it is shown how parameters such as radii, dna density and particle po ...19921605933
structure determination of monoclinic canine parvovirus.the three-dimensional structure of the single-stranded dna canine parvovirus has been determined to 3.25 a resolution. monoclinic crystals belonging to space group p2(1) (a = 263.1, b = 348.9, c = 267.2 a, beta = 90.82 degrees) were selected for data collection using primarily the cornell high energy synchrotron source and oscillation photography. there was one icosahedral particle per crystallographic asymmetric unit, giving 60-fold redundancy. the particle orientations in the unit cell were de ...19921616694
mapping specific functions in the capsid structure of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus using infectious plasmid clones.dna sequences between 0 and 98.8 genome map units (m.u.) from canine parvovirus (cpv) and feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) were cloned into plasmid vectors to form infectious molecular clones. those plasmids were transfected into permissive cells and viruses recovered were shown to contain intact genomes, having regenerated the complete viral 5' ends up to 100 m.u. the viruses derived from the plasmids were compared to the original viruses, and shown to be indistinguishable in antigenic type, he ...19911647068
the evolution of defective and autonomous parvoviruses.because of the small size and genetic simplicity of small dna viruses, parvoviruses would appear to be excellent models for studying viral evolution and adaptation. in an earlier publication we hypothesized the evolution of sequences of cellular "junk" dna into protective interfering transposons. these transposons would interfere with invading pathogenic viruses by competing with the pathogen dna for replicative enzymes. we speculated that a small, defective parvovirus, the adeno-associated viru ...19911648152
prevalence of antibodies against canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus in wild coyotes in southeastern colorado.serum from 72 wild coyotes (canis latrans) in southeastern colorado (usa) was collected and analyzed for prevalence of antibody to canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) from 1985 to 1988. the prevalence of antibodies to cpv and cdv was 71% and 57%, respectively, for the 4 yr of the study. prevalence of antibody to cpv did not differ among years, between sexes, or with age. prevalence of antibody to cdv did not differ among years or between sexes, but was significantly higher i ...19911648628
antigenic and genomic comparisons of some feline parvovirus subspecies strains.fourteen feline parvovirus (fpv) strains isolated from cats, mink and dogs were comparatively examined on their antigenic and genetic diversities by using monoclonal antibodies against feline panleukopenia virus (fplv) and restriction enzyme analysis of viral dna. mink enteritis virus (mev) strains recently isolated in the northeastern area of the people's republic of china were found to possess more similar antigenic and genetic properties to the antigenic variant virus of canine parvovirus (cp ...19911649516
isolation and enzymatic characterization of protein lambda 2, the reovirus guanylyltransferase.protein lambda 2 of reovirus serotype 3 has been purified to homogeneity from extracts of cells infected with hybrid vaccinia virus strain wr into whose tk gene of the reovirus l2 genome segment under the control of the cpv ati protein gene promoter had been inserted. protein lambda 2 is formed in large amounts (final purification factor about 180) as a monomer that shows no tendency to pentamerize into the reovirus core projections/spikes. isolated protein lambda 2 is reversibly guanylylated by ...19911656591
retrospective study of myocardial canine parvovirus infection by in situ hybridization.the diagnosis of myocardial canine parvovirus (cpv) infection used to depend on the presence of pathognomonic intranuclear inclusion bodies. the in situ hybridization technique, however, allowed to detect cpv specific nucleic acid in myocardial tissue where no inclusion bodies were found. hence, we applied this technique to check formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded myocardial tissue from puppies with heart lesions for the presence of cpv. the tissues had been collected between 1977 and 1989. a biot ...19911656656
immunohistological diagnosis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease in experimentally infected rabbits in spain.the immunoreactivity of routinely processed liver and lung tissue samples obtained from rabbits inoculated with tissue explants from naturally infected animals when antisera directed against parvovirus from different species (canine, feline and porcine) as well as a rhd virus antiserum were employed has been tested by different immunoperoxidase methods. cross-reactivity between rhd-virus antigens and parvovirus antigens was present. best results were obtained with rhd and canine parvovirus antis ...19911663682
establishment and characterization of canine parvovirus-specific murine cd4+ t cell clones and their use for the delineation of t cell epitopes.canine parvovirus (cpv)-specific t cell clones were generated by culturing lymph node cells from cpv-immunized balb/c mice at limiting dilutions in the presence of cpv antigen and interleukin-2 (il-2). all isolated t cell clones exhibited the cell surface phenotype thy1+, cd4+, cd8- and proliferated specifically in response to cpv antigen. after stimulation with cpv antigen in culture the t cell clones produced il-2 and proliferated in the absence of exogenous il-2. naive mice to which cpv-speci ...19901693162
delineation of canine parvovirus t cell epitopes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and t cell clones from immunized dogs.three synthetic peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of vp2 of canine parvovirus (cpv) which were recently shown to represent three distinct t cell epitopes for balb/c mice could prime balb/c mice for a cpv-specific proliferative t cell response upon immunization. proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from cpv-immunized dogs upon stimulation with these and other peptides, covering the major part of the sequence of vp2', identified the presence of t cell ep ...19901700064
a synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence of canine parvovirus structural proteins which defines a b cell epitope and elicits antiviral antibody in balb c mice.synthetic peptides, recombinant fusion proteins and mouse monoclonal antibodies were used to delineate a b cell epitope of the vp'2 structural protein of canine parvovirus (cpv). although this epitope is not preferentially recognized in the normal antibody response to cpv, virus-specific antibodies could be induced in balb/c mice with a synthetic peptide representing the epitope. the potential of this non-dominant b cell epitope to induce antiviral immunity in the presence of maternal cpv-specif ...19901701483
induction and characterization of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies reactive with idiotopes of canine parvovirus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.monoclonal anti-idiotypic (anti-id) antibodies (ab2) were generated against idiotypes (id) of canine parvovirus (cpv) specific monoclonal antibodies (moabs). the binding of most of these anti-id antibodies to their corresponding id could be inhibited by antigen, thus classifying these anti-id antibodies as ab2 gamma or ab2 beta. by inhibiting experiments it was shown that these anti-id antibodies did not recognize interspecies cross-reactive idiotopes, but recognized private idiotopes, uniquely ...19911719693
infectious entry pathway for canine parvovirus.we have investigated whether canine parvovirus (cpv) infection involves a low ph-dependent entry pathway. the effects of two lysosomotropic bases, nh4cl and chloroquine, on cpv entry were studied by immunofluorescence and ultrastructural and biochemical methods. in the presence of these reagents, input virions appear to accumulate in large vacuoles. ultrastructural studies indicated that uptake of virions takes place predominantly in small uncoated vesicles that appear to fuse with larger vesicl ...19921733094
nonreplicating viral vectors as potential vaccines: recombinant canarypox virus expressing measles virus fusion (f) and hemagglutinin (ha) glycoproteins.the development of canarypox virus (cpv) recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (ha) and fusion (f) glycoproteins of measles virus (mv) is described. inoculation of the cpv-mv recombinants into avian or nonavian tissue culture substrates led to the expression of authentic mvf and mvha as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation and surface immunofluorescence. in contrast to avian-derived tissue culture, no productive replication of the cpv recombinant was evident in tissue culture cells derived ...19921736535
entomopathogens of phlebotomine sand flies: laboratory experiments and natural infections.the susceptibility of different geographical strains of phlebotomus papatasi to a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cpv) was determined experimentally by feeding polyhedra to larvae. of the indian p. papatasi, 15.6% became infected, whereas egyptian p. papatasi were mostly refractory. infection rates were not augmented in colony flies from the jordan valley, 23.8% of which were naturally infected with cpv. the infectivity of serratia marcescens and beauvaria bassiana to p. papatasi were determined ...19911783777
cowpox/catpox infection.a 19-year-old veterinary nurse developed a cowpox/catpox virus (cpv) infection of her right third finger following a scratch from a tom cat suffering from pneumonia. the clinical course and investigation of the infection are described and the differential diagnosis discussed.19911847067
the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in the netherlands.complex trapping blocking (ctb) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) and indirect elisas for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (cpv), canine coronavirus (ccv) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. double antibody sandwich elisas for the detection of cpv-, ccv- and rotavirus antigens in fecal samples were also developed. both the serological and antigen-detection elisas were used to screen samples from dogs in the netherlands, with or without a history of acute dia ...19911850889
polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification for the detection of porcine parvovirus.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification method was developed and evaluated to detect porcine parvovirus (ppv). a pair of 20-base primers and an oligonucleotide probe were derived from the dna sequences common to two isolates of ppv, nadl-8 and nadl-2. the primers flanked 118-bp nucleotides within the region coding for the major structural protein vp2. after dna amplification of ppv replicative form (rf), a 158-bp fragment was detected in agarose gels. this amplified fragment was shown to ...19911874916
the lack of effect of parvovirus vaccination on the seminal characteristics of dogs.the onset of ejaculation and development of normal seminal characteristics in six young dogs vaccinated and seroconverting against canine parvovirus did not differ from the accepted range, and by 45 weeks of age the ejaculates were considered to be normal. at one year of age three of the dogs were given a large antigenic stimulus by vaccination once a week for four weeks; this produced no change in the output or characteristics of spermatozoa.19911897097
fine mapping of canine parvovirus b cell epitopes.in this report we describe the topological mapping of neutralizing domains of canine parvovirus (cpv). we obtained 11 cpv-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs), six of which are neutralizing. the reactivities were as determined by elisa and western blot (immunoblot) analysis. vp2, the most abundant protein of the cpv capsid, seemed to contain all the neutralization sites. also, an almost full-length genomic clone of cpv was constructed in the bacterial plasmid puc18 to enable expression of cpv p ...19911919526
rapid antigenic-type replacement and dna sequence evolution of canine parvovirus.analysis of canine parvovirus (cpv) isolates with a panel of monoclonal antibodies showed that after 1986, most viruses isolated from dogs in many parts of the united states differed antigenically from the viruses isolated prior to that date. the new antigenic type (designated cpv type 2b) has largely replaced the previous antigenic type (cpv type 2a) among virus isolates from the united states. this represents the second occurrence of a new antigenic type of this dna virus since its emergence i ...19911942246
[experimental parvovirus infection of puppies: immunohistological findings].formalin-fixed tissue samples obtained from puppies experimentally infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (cpv-2) were investigated immunohistologically with the direct immunoperoxidase method. besides cardiac muscle and lymphatic tissues, bone marrow, intestine, liver, kidney, pancreas and to a lesser degree lung stained positive for viral antigen and are considered as sites of viral replication. the distribution of viral antigen reveals a tropism of cpv-2 to numerous organs in puppies infected ...19901964045
the three-dimensional structure of canine parvovirus and its functional implications.the three-dimensional atomic structure of a single-stranded dna virus has been determined. infectious virions of canine parvovirus contain 60 protein subunits that are predominantly vp-2. the central structural motif of vp-2 has the same topology (an eight-stranded antiparallel beta barrel) as has been found in many other icosahedral viruses but represents only about one-third of the capsid protein. there is a 22 angstrom (a) long protrusion on the threefold axes, a 15 a deep canyon circulating ...19912006420
construction and nucleotide sequence analysis of an infectious dna clone of the autonomous parvovirus, mink enteritis virus.we have cloned the replicative form (rf-) dna of mink enteritis virus (mev), constructed an infectious recombinant plasmid containing mev dna and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned mev dna. rf-dnas were detected and infectious virus was generated when the recombinant plasmid containing the entire mev genome was introduced into feline kidney cell cultures. the mev genome was 5094 nucleotides (nt) in length; the 3' end of the virion strand contained a 205 nt palindromic sequence and ...19912016597
performance of high titre attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibody.the performance of live, attenuated, homologous, canine parvovirus vaccines was studied in 140 puppies aged from four to 11 weeks. in the presence of maternally derived antibody the ability of the vaccines to elicit a serological response, as determined by the haemagglutination inhibition test and a standardised elisa, was found to be dose (infectious titre) related. an experimental vaccine containing 10(7.0) tcid50 of virus induced seroconversion rates of 95, 89, 82 and 44 per cent in dogs with ...19912053262
[the use of genetic engineering in veterinary medicine with examples from epidemiology, diagnosis and drug production].the results of genetic engineering have reached practical veterinary medicine already. nevertheless there is a great lack of knowledge among those veterinarians who usually do not work with these methods. therefore we want to give an introduction into the advantages and dangers of this technology concerning veterinary medicine. some important analytical methods are explained. related viruses such as wee and eee or canine parvovirus, feline parvovirus and mink enteritis virus, or the related coro ...19902112273
comparison of the antiviral activity and toxicity of a protein magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate anhydride polymer with other antiviral drugs.1. sb-73, a magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate anhydride aggregate, exhibited antiviral action in vitro in the concentration range of 50 to 100 micrograms/ml against herpes simplex type 1, stomatitis vesicular virus, adenovirus type 5, and in vivo in the dose range of 0.7 to 1.3 mg/kg against canine parvovirus and distemper virus. 2. the lethal dose (ld50) was 2.71 +/- 1.55 g/kg body weight in mice inoculated intraperitoneally. oral ingestion of the aggregate up to 30 g/kg body weight by mice h ...19902136564
inactivated canine parvovirus vaccines: an alternative method for assessment of potency.groups of three-week-old chickens were given graded doses of inactivated canine parvovirus vaccines. blood samples were taken three weeks later and the sera examined by elisa for antibodies to canine parvovirus. reproducible, linear, log-dose serological responses were observed, enabling the potency of the vaccines to be compared. the simultaneous administration of other components of canine multivalent vaccines appeared to reduce the response to the parvovirus component. when its results have b ...19902142352
coliform septicemia and pulmonary disease associated with canine parvoviral enteritis: 88 cases (1987-1988).parvovirus infection was confirmed by fluorescent antibody staining or viral culturing in 137 (22%) of 615 necropsy accessions from dogs at the missouri veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory from jan 1, 1987 through sept 30, 1988. septicemic colibacillosis was diagnosed in 88 (90%) of the 98 canine parvovirus-positive accessions in which liver or lung was cultured bacteriologically. pulmonary edema or alveolitis similar to that seen in the human adult respiratory distress syndrome was observe ...19902155191
evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on monoclonal antibodies for the serology and antigen detection in canine parvovirus infections.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) system was developed for the detection of canine parvovirus (cpv) or cpv antigen in dog faeces and two other elisa systems were developed for the detection of cpv-specific antibodies in dog sera. the elisa's were based on the use of cpv-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies, which recognise different epitopes of the haemagglutinin of cpv and which also neutralise the virus. a double antibody sandwich (das) elisa for the detection of cpv in dog faeces w ...19902157312
serum protein electrophoresis in canine parvovirus enteritis.the serum protein concentrations of dogs with confirmed canine parvovirus enteritis were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis before treatment. a significant decrease was detected in the mean concentration and percentage of albumin and gammaglobulin and the percentage of alpha-1-globulin. the mean concentration and percentage of alpha-2-globulin were significantly increased.19902163717
[comparison of the diagnostic methods for studying parvovirus and rotavirus infections of dogs].79 feces samples of dogs between 7 weeks till 13.5 years of age, showing clinical signs of a hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, were tested by a commercial elisa (diasystems canine parvo, tech-america) for canine parvovirus (cpv) and by two latex-agglutination tests for rotavirus (30 probes were tested by rota screen, 49 samples by slidex rota-kit 2, both tests from biomerieux). all samples were also examined by electron microscopy. the results of the simultaneous investigations showed 28 times positi ...19902167658
nucleotide sequence of feline panleukopenia virus: comparison with canine parvovirus identifies host-specific differences.the nucleotide sequence of feline panleukopenia virus (fpv) strain 193 was determined and compared with the sequence of canine parvovirus (cpv) strain n and partial sequences of fpv strain carl and cpv strain b. base differences were identified at 115 positions in these 5.1 kb genomes and predicted amino acid differences occurred at 40 positions. the two overlapping capsid protein genes contained almost twice as many base differences as the single non-structural protein gene (49 compared to 26) ...19902174965
the complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of porcine parvovirus, strain nadl-2.the complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of porcine parvovirus, strain nadl-2, was determined. the nucleotide sequence organization of the viral genome was found to be similar to that of the other autonomous parvoviruses, such as canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice.19902219713
fine structure mapping and phenotypic analysis of five temperature-sensitive mutations in the second largest subunit of vaccinia virus dna-dependent rna polymerase.we have used plasmid clones spanning the region encoding the 132-kda subunit of the cowpox virus rna polymerase (cpv rpo 132) to marker rescue each of five vaccinia virus (vv) temperature sensitive (ts) mutants, ts 27, ts 29, ts 32, ts 47, and ts 62, which together constitute a single complementation group. the experiments fine-map the vaccinia mutations to a 1.3-kb region containing the 3' end of the cpv rpo 132 gene. phenotypic characterization shows that all five mutants are affected to varyi ...19902294648
[effect of maternally derived antibody levels on antibody responses to canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and infectious canine hepatitis virus after vaccinations in beagle puppies].antibody titers against canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and infectious canine hepatitis virus (ichv) in serum were measured in 6 beagle dams and their 38 puppies bred in our colony, in order to clarify the effects of maternally derived antibodies to antibody responses against the viruses after vaccinations in puppies. correlation coefficient on antibody titers between puppies and dams were cpv: r = 0. 7935, cdv: r = 0.8194 and ichv: r = 0.8105. mean maternal antibody positi ...19902303100
vaccine-associated canine distemper infection in a litter of african hunting dogs (lycaon pictus).four, 57 days old, african hunting dog puppies (lycaon pictus) from one litter died within three weeks following vaccination with modified-live canine distemper virus (cdv) and killed canine adenovirus type 1, canine parvovirus and leptospira icterohemorrhagiae and canicola. 18 days post vaccination, the animals developed neurologic disease characterized by episodes of grand mal seizures and circling. macroscopic, histological and immunohistochemical studies revealed acute systemic cdv infection ...19902385981
virus-specific early antigen expressed in the nucleus of cowpox virus-infected cells.two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were obtained from balb/c mice immunized with cowpox virus (cpv)-infected cells cultured in the presence of cytosine-1-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-hcl (ara c). in the immunofluorescence test, the specific antigen reacting with these mabs was restricted almost entirely to the nucleus in cpv-infected cells in the presence of ara c at any time. on the other hand, in cpv-infected cells in the absence of ara c, the antigen was first detectable within the nucleus 2 h after ...19902406369
cross-reactivity among cowpox, ectromelia and vaccinia viruses with monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct antigenic determinants in a-type inclusion bodies.several monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct antigenic determinants in a-type inclusion bodies (atib) induced by cowpox virus (cpv) were obtained to examine the cross-reactivity among various strains of poxviridae, comprising cpv, ectromelia virus (ev), vaccinia virus (vv) and shope fibroma virus (sfv). the monoclonal antibodies were classified into at least 3 groups on the basis of the results of an immunofluorescence test and immunoblotting; i. e., strain-specific, cpv and ev-specific an ...19862430550
antigenic relationships among autonomous parvoviruses.the antigenic relatedness of minute virus of mice (mvm), kilham rat virus (kr), h-1 virus (h-1), haemorrhagic encephalopathy of rats virus (her), porcine parvovirus (ppv), canine parvovirus (cpv), feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), goose parvovirus (gpv) and bovine parvovirus (bpv) was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy (fa) and by serum neutralization (sn). an antigenically related group comprising mvm, kr, her, ppv, cpv and fpv was recognized by fa and most reactions within the group were ...19862432167
monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody vaccines against poliovirus, canine parvovirus, and rabies virus. 19892481213
induction of anti-viral immune response by immunization with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies directed to private idiotopes.syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies were raised against idiotopes on neutralizing monoclonal antibodies with specificity for feline leukemia virus and canine parvovirus. the anti-idiotypic antibodies were shown to recognize paratope-related private idiotopes. mice were injected with the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies and the sera of these mice were screened for antiviral reactivities. antibodies to both feline leukemia and canine parvovirus could be induced as determined by elis ...19892482029
cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus classification by electropherotype; validation by serological analyses and agarose gel electrophoresis.serological analyses of several different cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (cpvs), including two type 1 cpvs from bombyx mori, type 1 cpv from dendrolimus spectabilis, type 12 cpv from autographa gamma, type 2 cpv from inachis io, type 5 cpv from orgyia pseudotsugata and type 5 cpv from heliothis armigera, demonstrated a close correlation between the antigenic properties of the polyhedrin or virus particle structural proteins and the genomic dsrna electropherotypes. the dsrnas of these viruses w ...19892499658
comparison of feline parvovirus subspecific strains using monoclonal antibodies against a feline panleukopenia virus.four monoclonal antibodies (mab) against a feline panleukopenia virus (fplv) tu 1 strain, one of the host range variants of feline parvovirus (fpv), were produced and applied for antigenic analysis of fplv, canine parvovirus (cpv) and mink enteritis virus (mev). all mabs were considered to be directed at epitopes on the virus capsid surface because they neutralized the infectivity and inhibited the hemagglutination (ha) of the homologous virus as well as other fpv strains. they were of the mouse ...19892544758
effect of canine parvovirus on erythroid progenitors in phenylhydrazine-induced regenerative hemolytic anemia in dogs.the effects of canine parvovirus (cpv) infection in dogs with hemolytic anemia was compared with the clinical effects of human parvovirus-induced aplastic anemia in human beings with chronic regenerative anemias. phenylhydrazine was used to induce a transient, severe, hemolytic anemia in dogs to evaluate the effects of cpv infection on rapidly dividing bone marrow precursors. erythrocyte colony-forming unit bone marrow cultures and cytologic examination of bone marrow were used to determine the ...19892548423
nucleotide sequence of the polyhedrin gene of euxoa scandens cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (escpv).the double-stranded rna genome of euxoa scandens cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (escpv) was reversely transcribed to the double-stranded dna and cloned into pibi30. the complete nucleotide sequence of cloned genome segment 10, which encodes the virus polyhedrin polypeptide, was determined. the escpv polyhedrin gene consists of 881 bp and possesses an open reading frame that codes for a polypeptide of 269 amino acids (mw 30.1k), consistent with an apparent mw of 30k determined by sds-page for pur ...19892650462
polarized entry of canine parvovirus in an epithelial cell line.the binding and uptake of canine parvovirus (cpv) in polarized epithelial cells were investigated by growing the cells on a permeable support and inoculating with the virus either from the apical or basolateral surface. binding of radiolabeled cpv occurred preferentially on the basolateral surface. in contrast, when a similar experiment was carried out on nonpolarized a72 cells, virus binding occurred regardless of the direction of virus input. binding appeared to be specific for cpv and could n ...19892657102
inhibition of an inflammatory response is mediated by a 38-kda protein of cowpox virus.the brighton red (br) strain of cowpox virus induces a flat, bright red pock on the chorioallantoic membrane (cam) of the 12-day-old chick embryo. in contrast, mutants with a deleted 38k gene (which is located 31 to 32 kb from the right-hand end of the virus genome) induced a raised, white, and opaque pock. during the first 24-hr p.i., both cpv-br and the 38k deletion mutants replicated similarly in the cam of the chick embryo, as indicated by immunocytochemical detection of similar amounts of v ...19892773318
porcine parvovirus: dna sequence and genome organization.we have determined the nucleotide sequence of an almost full-length clone of porcine parvovirus (ppv). the sequence is 4973 nucleotides (nt) long. the 3' end of virion dna shows a y-shaped configuration homologous to rodent parvoviruses. the 5' end of virion dna shows a repetition of 127 nt at the carboxy terminus of the capsid proteins. the overall organization of the ppv genome is similar to those of other autonomous parvoviruses. there are two large open reading frames (orfs) that almost enti ...19892794971
tandemly repeated sequences are present at the ends of the dna of raccoonpox virus.the dna of raccoonpox virus (rcn) has been characterized by restriction enzyme analysis. dna hybridization studies showed that all hindiii fragments of the 215-kbp rcn dna share some nucleotide sequence similarity with fragments of the dna of cowpox virus (cpv). this information was used to construct a hindiii restriction map of the rcn dna. the nucleotide sequence of the 2.2-kbp sal 1 end fragment of the rcn dna has been determined from a cloned copy of the hindiii o fragment. of this 2.2-kb re ...19872823468
comparisons of feline panleukopenia virus, canine parvovirus, raccoon parvovirus, and mink enteritis virus and their pathogenicity for mink and ferrets.parvoviruses from mink (mink enteritis virus [mev]), cats (feline panleukopenia virus [fpv]), raccoons (raccoon parvovirus [rpv]), and dogs (canine parvovirus [cpv]) were compared. restriction enzyme analysis of the viral replicative-form dna revealed no consistent differences between fpv and rpv isolates, but cpv and mev isolates could be distinguished readily from other virus types. feline panleukopenia virus, rpv, and mev, but not cpv, replicated to high titers in mink. however, on the first ...19872823648
detection of antibody to canine parvovirus in dog sera by enzyme immunoassay. 19872823765
nucleotide sequence and genome organization of canine parvovirus.the genome of a canine parvovirus isolate strain (cpv-n) was cloned, and the dna sequence was determined. the entire genome, including ends, was 5,323 nucleotides in length. the terminal repeat at the 3' end of the genome shared similar structural characteristics but limited homology with the rodent parvoviruses. the 5' terminal repeat was not detected in any of the clones. instead, a region of dna starting near the capsid gene stop codon and extending 248 base pairs into the coding region had b ...19882824850
electron microscopy of crfk cells infected with canine parvovirus. 19872824905
cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the major protein of the a-type inclusion body of cowpox virus.we have mapped and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cowpox virus (cpv) gene coding for the protein of a-type inclusion bodies (ati). the ati gene was mapped to the central part of the largest hindiii restriction fragment of the cpv genome. vaccinia virus (vv) also contained a similar sequence at the equivalent position in its genome, which even under stringent conditions hybridized with the cpv ati gene. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the upstream region of the coding frame ...19882826668
[the growth of attenuated strains of canine parvovirus, mink enteritis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and rabies virus on various types of cell cultures].the growth characteristics were studied in the attenuated strains of canine parvovirus cpva-bn 80/82, mink enteritis virus meva-bn 63/82 and feline panleucopenia virus fpva-bn 110/83 on the stable feline kidney cell line fe, and in the attenuated canine distemper virus cdv-f-bn 10/83 on chicken embryo cell cultures (keb) and cultures of the stable cell line vero. when the fe cultures were infected with different parvoviruses in cell suspension at moi 2-4 tkid50 per cell, the first multiplication ...19872827364
messenger rnas of a strongly-expressed late gene of cowpox virus contain 5'-terminal poly(a) sequences.we have identified and characterized one of the most strongly-expressed genes of cowpox virus (cpv). this is the gene encoding the major protein component of the a-type inclusion bodies produced by this virus. this gene (designated the 160k gene) is transcribed late during the infection. analyses of its mrnas showed that these late rnas, unlike all other characterized late mrnas of poxviruses, are uniform in length. however, the most remarkable feature of the mrnas of the 160k gene is the struct ...19872828037
inactivation of 12 viruses by heating steps applied during manufacture of a hepatitis b vaccine.the efficacy of two heating cycles (90 sec at 103 degrees c and 10 hr at 65 degrees c) used during manufacture of a plasma-derived hepatitis-b vaccine was validated for the inactivation of 12 virus families. a period of 15 min warming up to 65 degrees c had already completely inactivated representatives of nine virus families, ie, poxvirus (vaccinia), picornavirus (encephalomyocarditis virus), togavirus (sindbis virus), coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus), orthomyxovirus (influenza virus), rhabd ...19872828525
rapid detection of viral-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa).the development of three separate rapid elisas for detecting antibodies in host serum to three different viruses is described. these include: 1. a direct antigen assay using enzyme labelled anti-canine ig for detecting antibodies to canine parvovirus, 2. a competitive elisa using a feline infectious peritonitis virus-specific monoclonal antibody labelled with enzyme, and 3. a competitive elisa using an equine infectious anemia virus-specific monoclonal antibody and enzyme labelled antigen, p. 26 ...19872829416
outbreak of canine parvovirus infection and its elimination in a closed beagle dog colony. 19872829474
a solid-phase fluorescent immunoassay for detecting canine or mink enteritis parvoviruses in faecal samples.mink enteritis virus (mev) and canine parvovirus (cpv) were detected in faecal samples from experimentally or naturally infected minks and dogs, respectively, using antibody-coated polyacrylamide beads (immunobeads, ib) as the solid phase for immunofluorescence (if) tests. the specificity and sensitivity of the immunobead assay (iba) were studied by comparing it with an enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa), a haemagglutination (ha) test and an if test using tissue cultures. the iba was as sensitive ...19872830702
a latex agglutination test for the detection of canine parvovirus and corresponding antibodies.latex particles coated with rat monoclonal antibodies directed against a canine parvovirus are agglutinated by the virus antigens. in this study, the reaction was quantitated by a technique which had been described as immunoassay by particles counting. the method is as sensitive as a radioimmunoassay with the same antibody, but has the advantages of simplicity and safety. it allows the detection of parvoviral antigens to 4 ng/ml. incubation of these antigens with specific antibodies resulted in ...19882832435
detection of parvoviruses in wolf feces by electron microscopy.one hundred fifteen wolf (canis lupus) feces were collected between 1980 and 1984 from northeastern minnesota and were examined for canine parvovirus by negative contrast electron microscopy. of these, seven (6%) samples revealed the presence of parvovirus. some of these viruses were able to grow in cell cultures forming intranuclear inclusion bodies and giant cells.19882832624
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