Publications

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the specificity of cellular immune reactions to three dna virus induced tumours, as measured by the macrophage migration inhibition test. 197548461
covalent integration of viral dna into cell dna in hamster cells transformed by an avian adenovirus. 1975165621
transplatation resistance to adenovirus-induced hepatocellular carcinomas.two transplantable hepatic carcinomas of the hamster contained celo virus-induced tsta, confirming the etiological role of this avian adenovirus in the induction of hepatic tumors. transplantation resistnace could not be induced with oncogenic adenoviruses of human, simian, or canine origin.1975170623
[study of the pathogenic qualities of 4 celo-virus strains isolated in bulgaria].four celo virus strains, isolated in this country, were used to infect 3-day-old chicks via the trachea, muscularly, orally, subcutaneously, and cerebrally. the chicks were killed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 9th and 16th day following inoculation. material was taken from each chick for morphologic, virologic, and serologic examination. the clinical course of the disease was also followed up. prior to killing some birds showed infirmity, difficult breathing, slightly expressed diarrhia, going off food, ...1975179190
[the significance of celo virus as a hatching egg contaminant with special reference to its oncogenic properties].a group of young hamsters was injected subcutaneously in the neck region with allantoic fluid containing celo virus. a second group received transplants of cells from tumours induced by celo virus. tumours developed in both groups. the latent period was shorter after transplantation than after virus inoculation. the tumours grew progressively, histologically resembling fibrosarcoma. it is recommended that hatching eggs infected with celo virus should not be used in vaccine production.1975180924
serotyping avian adenoviruses by a microneutralization procedure.a microneutralization procedure, using chicken kidney cell monolayers as an indicator system, was developed and applied to the serotyping of isolates characterized as avian adenoviruses. the method was determined to be reproducible, since coefficients of variation were low for 12 replicate titrations of homologous reagents of 9 prototype avian adenoviruses. prototype reagents were specific according to results of reciprocal end point-neutralization tests and comparison of antigenic relatedness, ...1977192109
chick embryo lethal orphan (celo) virus-induced early and late polypeptides. 1977193270
serological response of chickens exposed to a type 1 avian adenovirus alone or in combination with the adeno-associated virus.the avian adenoviruses (av) are common infectious agents of poultry and other avian species throughout the world (1,4,8). limited observations suggest that the adeno-associated virus (a-av) coinfects many of the chickens that carry av (8). the presence and persistence of these infections in a flock is often determined by serological methods. in the current study, the immune response of chickens to type 1 av alone and to a dual exposure, av plus a-av, was followed over a 12-week period with a var ...1977199153
effect of maternal antibody on experimental infections of chickens with a type-8 avian adenovirus.mortality was 60% when chickens without detectable maternal antibody to avian adenoviruses were inoculated intra-abdominally with 10(6) plaque-forming units of amg 5(2a), a type-8 avian adenovirus. other results were macroscopic and microscopic lesions in a wide range of organs, statistically significant depression of body weights, amg 5(2a) virus in the liver and feces, and high virus-neutralizing antibody titers to amg 5(2a). the disease produced was similar to that described in a previous rep ...1977190997
involvement of a type-8 avian adenovirus in the etiology of inclusion body hepatitis.type-8 avian adenoviruses were isolated from chickens in a commerical flock suffering an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis. serum-neutralizing titer to this type, but not to 7 other types of avian adenovirus, was more than 4 times as high in convalescing chickens as in chickens from the flock bled 2 weeks previously, during the disease outbreak. a disease similar to that in the commercial flock and to inclusion body hepatitis as described in the literature was produced by intra-abdominal inoc ...1977190994
avian adenoviruses isolated from poultry in queensland.adenoviruses isolated from queensland poultry flocks with respiratory disease and/or egg production problems have been serotyped by comparison with japanese and irish types. two serological types were recognized among 14 isolates examined; 4 were type 112 (celo type) and the remaining 10 type 506. isolates b1363 and b4015 were further characterized by immunodiffusion. both isolates were shown to contain the avian adenovirus group antigen and b1363 also shared a second (type) antigen with celo (p ...1976190991
effect of formaldehyde on disinfection of filtered air under positive pressure (fapp) type house.effect of formaldehyde liberated from formalin on disinfection of the surface of a filtered air under positive pressure (fapp) house and the surface of equipment placed in the house was studied. escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and avian adenovirus were used in this study as a indicator to evaluate degree of disinfection. satisfactory degree of disinfection of the house and equipment was obtained when formaldehyde was liberated from 40 ml. of formalin per 1 m.3 capacity. bacteria and viru ...1976190599
a study of two avian adenovirus serotypes alone or in combination with avian infectious bronchitis in day-old chicks. 1977190275
further studies on the classification of fowl adenoviruses.in addition to the 8 fowl adenovirus serotypes described previously, 3 new serotypes were recognized. two, a-2 and c2-b, were isolated in the u.s.a., and one, 380, in northern ireland. in addition another isolate, x-11, has a broader antigenicity than yr-36 and therefore should be used instead of yr-36 as prototype strain. it is concluded that there are at least 11 distinct fowl adenovirus serotypes on the basis of the serum-neutralization test.1977204279
antigenic analysis of several turkey respiratory adenoviruses by reciprocal-neutralization kinetics.five turkey adenoviruses were classified into four serologic groups by reciprocal-neutralization kinetics. two viruses were found to be serologically homologous, while three others were found to be heterologous and placed in separate serologic groups.1977204280
a technique for isolating turkey respiratory adenoviruses.several turkey respiratory adenoviruses were isolated in turkey embryonic liver cells from nasal turbinate filtrate collected from clinically ill turkey poults during postmortem examination. suspect adenovirus inoculum had to remain in cell culture for 5 to 7 days, and 9 blind passages were required before a sample was declared negative. once isolated, the turkey adenoviruses adapted rapidly to turkey kidney cells.1976186007
the oncogenic potential of some avian adenoviruses causing diseases in chickens.the oncogenic potentials of three different strains of avian adenoviruses (the tipton strain of the inclusion body hepatitis virus, the dpi-2, and the indiana c viruses) were investigated in newborn hamsters. animal inoculations were via two routes, subcutaneous and intracerebral. all three viruses proved nononcogenic for the hamsters observed over a period of 225 days. however, lesions of hepatitis similar to those of inclusion body hepatitis of chickens were seen in three hamsters inoculated w ...1976176986
infection of the chicken with an avian adenovirus and myocoplasma gallisepticum. 1976176183
hemagglutinating properties of celo, an oncogenic avian adenovirus.chicken-embryo-lethal-orphan (celo) virus, phelps strain, agglutinated erythrocytes at 37 c. the hemagglutinating activity, which is a function of complete and incomplete virus particles, was sensitive to heat but not to ph. the soluble components of the virus were similar in sedimentation characteristics to those obtained from human adenovirus type 1. the effects of chemical and physical agents on celo hemagglutinin, celo infectivity, and red-cell receptors suggested that the last were protein ...1975173279
a study of the sequences of chicken embryo lethal orphan (celo) virus dna present in a transformed hamster cell line with use of specific fragments of the virus genome. 1975173080
cell-to-cell attachments and associations in tumors induced by celo virus or virus-transformed cells in hamsters.cell-to-cell attachments or associations in expermentally induced sarcoma of chicken embryo lethal orphan virus (avian adenovirus) origin were studied in hamsters by electron microscopic examination. in many instances, the neoplastic cells seemed to be held together either by desmosome-like structures or an "interlocking" of their apposing plasma membranes. less frequently, the cells were attached by button-like projections between the cell surfaces. only rarely, interdigitation occurred between ...1975171984
a circular dna-protein complex adenoviruses and its possible role in dna replication. 1975169089
chicken embyro lethal orphan (celo) virus dna present in hamster cell lines derived from celo-induced hepatomas.the kinetics of renaturation of the isolated dna fragments of chicken embryo lethal orphan (celo) virus generated by the restriction enzyme ecor1 was measured in the presence of dna extracted from two lines of celo virus-induced hamster hepatoma cells and from control hamster cells. one hepatoma cell line (cilt-2), which did not produce the celo virus tumor (t) antigen, lacked sequences from about one-half the virus genome while the other hepatoma cell line (cehep), which did produce the celo vi ...1978202577
avian adenoviruses: effect on egg production, shell quality, and feed consumption.four avian adenovirus isolants (indiana c, dpi-2, ibh-2, and b-3)were examined for pathogenicity in laying birds. none affected shell quality, and only one (ibh-2) had even a minimal effect on egg production (faster decline). of three isolants tested (indiana c, dpi-2, and ibh-2), only ibh-2 caused feed intake to be reduced. no other clinical signs were observed during these experiments. egg transmission, virus excretion, and antibody production were found to mimic patterns reported for serotype ...1978212004
pathology of adenoviral infection in turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) with respiratory disease and colisepticemia.nuclear inclusion bodies typical of the adenovirus group were widespread in in the spleen and other tissues of 8-week-old turkeys with severe respiratory disease and concomitant evidence of colisepticemia. adenoviral virions were seen in affected nuclei of splenic tissue and in negatively stained preparations of ground spleen. in splenic tissue, inclusions were most prominent in reticular cells and macrophages in the periarterial lymphoid sheaths, the red pulp and the marginal zones of the peria ...1977201075
broad antigenicity exhibited by some isolates of avian adenovirus.ten of 16 isolates of avian adenovirus could be readily classified as members of serotypes 2, 5, or 7. however, 6 exhibited broad neutralization reactions which created typing problems. detailed studies of these interactions revealed that our prototype for serotype 5 (i.e., t-8; subsequently found to be an "intermediate" strain) contributed to this broad cross-reactivity because it shared antigens with members of serotypes 5 and 7. as a result of this study, tr-59 or 58-1 is recommended as the s ...1977196532
procedure for the isolation of avian adeno and avian adeno-associated viruses. 1977194575
virus-neutralizing antibody titers against 8 avian adenovirus serotypes in breeder hens in georgia by a microneutralization procedure.serums from 16 chicken-breeder flocks in georgia were tested for virus-neutralizing antibody to 8 serotypes of avian adenovirus. titers to all 8 serotypes were demonstrated in 8 of the flocks, titers to 7 in 6, and titers to fewer than 7 in the other 2 flocks. although titers were high overall to some serotypes (types 2 and 8) and low to others (types 1, 4, and 5), with statistically significant differences between many titers, the data were difficult to interpret because of possible heterotypic ...1977194569
tenosynovitis in chickens. 1977194565
isolation of a virus indistinguishable from adenovirus 127 from chickens in the united states. 1978221936
adenovirus-associated virus-precipitating antibody as an early indicator of an adenovirus infection. 1979223478
adenovirus of ring-necked pheasants: purification and partial characterization of marble spleen disease virus.a method for purification of marble spleen disease virus (msdv) from the spleens of infected turkeys and pheasants is described. it combines chloroform or fluorocarbon extraction with subsequent purification by centrifugation on a cushion of cesium chloride (cscl). further purification of msdv was accomplished with a cscl equilibrium density gradient. a viral buoyant density of approximately 1.32 to 1.33 g/cm3 was determined. negative-stain electron microscopy revealed that virus isopycnically b ...1977193796
some adenovirus dna is associated with the dna of permissive cells during productive or restricted growth.we have investigated the association of viral dna with cell dna in chicken embryo kidney (cek) cells productively infected with chicken embryo lethal orphan (celo) virus and in human (hek) cells infected with mutants ts36 and ts125 of human adenovirus type 5 under permissive and restrictive conditions. cell and viral dna molecules were separated after celo virus infection of cek cells by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation, network formation, and cscl density gradient centrifugation, method ...1978202728
immunization of chickens against adenovirus infection.chickens were vaccinated with monovalent and polyvalent adenovirus vaccines using three different serotypes, types 1, 2, and 3. no cross-protection was elicited by the heterologous serotypes but satisfactory protection from lesions and the shedding of challenge virus was induced by the homologous serotypes in the monovalent and polyvalent vaccines. the virus neutralizing (vn) titers were occasionally lower where the polyvalent vaccines were used when compared to those from chickens given the mon ...1977203922
subclinical pneumonia associated with an experimental adenovirus infection in the domestic fowl and the effect of concurrent infectious laryngotracheitis virus.a celo-type adenovirus (av) isolated from fowls with respiratory disease was inoculated experimentally into the tracheas of young birds. no symptoms referable to respiratory infection were evident. post mortem examination between days 2 and 5 after inoculation revealed pneumonia involving up to 30 per cent of the surface of the lungs. histologically, a focal to diffuse interstitial lymphocytic infiltration and bronchiolar degeneration were present. concurrent infections with a mild strain of inf ...1978203988
physicochemical characterization and pathogenicity studies of two turkey adenovirus isolants.two turkey adenoviruses were isolated from poults with respiratory disease, and their physicochemical properties were studied. the virus particles were unenveloped. contained dna genome, replicated within the nuclei of infected cells, and were icosahedral in shape. pathogenicity studies in poults indicated that north carolina kennedy isolant was a pathogen of relatively low virulence whereas the north carolina jackson isolant was nonpathogenic in commercial turkey poults.1977204278
an adenovirus survey of poultry flocks during the growing and laying periods.chicken adenoviruses were isolated from asymptomatic chickens on each of 7 farms tested; a majority of them induced cytopathology by the second serial passage. although adenoviruses were isolated from chickens ranging in age from 8 to 34 weeks, the highest isolation rate was from those 8 to 14 weeks. eight serotypes (1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) were identified in a relatively small geographic area; serotypes 1, 4, 7, and 9 were isolated most frequently. multiple serotypes were found on 6 of 7 fa ...1978206248
[hemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys-- 1]. 1977189984
tenosynovitis in chickens.an adenovirus was isolated from the tendon fluid of broilers and meat breeders with clinical tenosynovitis. the viral infection was in many cases accompanied by a staphylococcal infection. the significance of the adenovirus is not yet known, although initial transmission studies indicate that it may play a role in the tendon thickening process.1976189747
demonstration of an avian adenovirus as the causative agent of marble spleen disease.a purification procedure, using chloroform or fluorocarbon extraction and centrifugation on a cushion of cesium chloride (cscl), was designed to isolate the causative virus of marble spleen disease. virus was purified, inoculated into turkeys, and subsequently reisolated by purification from the spleen of inoculated turkeys, thus fulfilling koch's postulates. splenic antigen was detected by the agar gel precipitin test, and viral inclusions with viral particles were observed by light and electro ...1977189649
serologic and pathogenicity studies of avian adenovirus isolated from chickens with inclusion body hepatitis.a virus initially thought to be inclusion body hepatitis virus (ibhv), tipton strain, was classified as an avian adenovirus (aav) and shown to be antigenically related to 2 serotypes of aav, 764 and yr36. the virus was antigenically unrelated to aav serotype tr-22, which included ibhv, tipton strain. inoculating specific-pathogen-free chickens with the virus produced hepatitis with basophilic and eosinophilic staining intranuclear inclusion bodies.1978206251
failure to detect common antigenic hemagglutinating components in avian adenoviruses. 1978206254
[physico-chemical properties of celo virus strains isolated in bulgaria].studied were some physico-chemical properties of four celo virus strains isolated in bulgaria. their behaviour to ether, chloroform and 25 per cent trypsin, and their state at 56 degrees c and at ph 3, 0 were determined through their infectious titer as obtained on 9--10-day old chicken embryos. it was found that the size of the investigated viruses is within the range of 50 to 100 mmu, they belong to the dna-possessing group, are resistant at 56 degrees c and at ph equals 3,0. they are not sens ...1975236618
adenoviridae.the elevation of the genus adenovirus to a family named adenoviridae is described. this family at the present stage contains two genera, mammalian adenoviruses--mastadenovirus--and avian adenoviruses--aviadenovirus. the two genera are separated primarily on the basis of difference in immunological properties of the virions.19761002415
egg drop syndrome 76. 1978207005
avian adenoviruses and tenosynovitis. 1978207011
characterization of the avian adenovirus penton base.a portion of the fowl adenovirus 10 (fav-10) penton base gene was located within a sau3a genomic dna fragment by the combination of a plasmid expression library and colony immunoassays with rabbit anti-fav-10-sera. the coding portion of the sequence contained in the expression vector was mapped to a 11.6-kb bg/ii fragment and more precisely mapped to the right-hand end of the 11.6-kb fragment at map units 37.7 to 41.3. nucleotide sequence analysis of the region revealed an open reading frame of ...19921316685
[isolation and detection of avian adenoviruses on cell cultures].it is important, from the hygienic and epizootological view-point, to detect the presence of various microbiological agents in birds. the authors present the results of the virological examination of poultry, avian adenoviruses being the main object of investigation. ninety-eight virus strains were isolated from chickens of different age categories and were included in the group of avian adenoviruses according to the form of cytopathic changes on the cell cultures of hen kidneys, according to th ...1978208217
some properties of avian adenoviruses isolated from chickens with inclusion body hepatitis in japan.outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis were observed in broiler chickens on a poultry farm during 3 years. avian adenovirus-like agents were isolated during these years from livers of diseased chickens. round-cell-type cytopathogenic effect and intranuclear inclusion bodies were produced in chicken kidney cell cultures inoculated with these agents. properties of the agents were as follows: resistant to ether, chloroform, socium deoxycholate, trypsin, heating at 50 c, and ph 3.0; sensitive to 5-io ...1976186009
an adenovirus from a turkey pathogenic to both chicks and turkey poults.an adenovirus, designated t-75 isolant, was isolated from the cloacal swab of a clinically normal turkey, 13 weeks old. the t-75 isolant was identified as an adenovirus on the basis of physicochemical properties, cytopathology, and agar-gel precipitin test. producing two-way cross-neutralization reactions with celo virus, the isolant was classified as an avian adenovirus of serotype 1. the t-75 isolant was pathogenic to both chicks and turkey poults, causing hepatitis, respiratory disease, atrop ...1976186010
avian cell cultures grown in an open system (dishes) without co2 incubator, and their use for virus cultivation.an organic buffer, n-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-n'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (hepes), in a culture medium made it possible to culture chick embryo fibroblast (cef), duck embryo fibroblast (def), and chick kidney (ck) cells in an open system (dishes) under incubation in a bacteriological incubator, requiring no co2 incubation. cef, def, and ck cells cultured with this system were suitable for cultivation of avain viruses such as newcastle disease virus, celo virus, marek's disease virus, and turkey her ...1976186014
egg-drop syndrome 76 in danish poultry.after a more general mention of egg drop syndrome 76 (eds 76) an account is given of 3 cases of eds 76 in broiler parent flocks. in all cases the animals involved originated from ireland and were imported as day-olds, either directly from ireland or via sweden. serological examinations indicate that the infectious agent has not previously been present in danish hen flocks, but that it is presumably stationary in danish flocks of ducks. in 2 of the 3 cases of eds 76 animals from 2 different forei ...1978214753
effect of adenovirus infection on adiposity in chicken.excessive fat accumulation has been observed in the field in chickens infected with adenovirus. in the present study this has been verified under experimental conditions. chickens inoculated with adenovirus showed lesser weight gain but excessive adiposity compared to normal control chickens. these changes could not be explained by variation in food consumption. chickens acquiring adenovirus naturally from the inoculated group showed similar adiposity. serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels o ...19921320784
[structure of inclusion bodies and electron microscopic virus detection in naturally occurring inclusion body hepatitis in chickens].electron microscopy was used to examine the liver of chickens with spontaneous inclusion body hepatitis. eosinophilic inclusion bodies only were established from two flocks, mainly amphophilic from one flock, and primarily basophilic from another two flocks. eosinophilic inclusion bodies were predominant in broiler chickens with dystrophic fatty degeneration of the liver, while basophile inclusion bodies were recorded primarily from parental or laying-hen chickens with reduced metabolic stress o ...1978219796
experimental induction of hemorrhagic-aplastic anemia in chickens. i. etiology.exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv) at 1 day old followed by inclusion body hepatitis virus (ibhv) inoculation at 36 days produced typical lesions of hemorrhagic-aplastic anemia syndrome (has). the lesions included severe anemia, widespread hemorrhages, and dermatitis. has could not be induced in the first 4 weeks of life in chickens inoculated at one day old with ibhv alone or in combination with ibdv. it was concluded that the immunosuppressive effects of ibdv failed to alter th ...1978219831
avian adenoviruses--distribution of infection in commercial flocks of fowls in argentina.group-specific avian adenovirus antibodies were surveyed in broiler, layer, and breeder chickens in three poultry-producing areas of argentina: north, middle, and south. the method used was the agar double-immunodiffusion test. of the flocks examined, 89% had antibodies to avian adenovirus, with the percentages higher in layers and breeders than in broiler chickens. a close relation was found between poorer hygienic condition and high adenovirus antibodies values.1978219837
hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies against an adenovirus (virus-127) in white pekin ducks in the united states. 1978219838
susceptibility of ducks to the ote strain (celo) of avian adenovirus. 1979225595
transmission of acute respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) of turkeys.clinical signs of acute respiratory disease of turkeys were transmitted to susceptible day-old poults by direct contact, litter contact, and drinking water. attempts failed to transmit the disease by air (cage-to-cage) or by oral and nasal inoculation with feces, nasal exudates, or nasal turbinate extracts. the disease was not transmitted by inoculation with white blood cells. chicks were not affected by the disease, but young quail developed signs of respiratory disease when exposed to contamin ...1979226051
[distribution of adenovirus in the organ system of chickens (preliminary report)]. 1979226060
egg drop syndrome, 1976 (eds'76).a description is given of the new clinical condition in fowl now known as eds 76. this is characterised by the production of thin shelled, soft shelled and shell less eggs by apparently healthy birds. the effects on egg production are seen around 30 weeks of age and are seen either as an apparent fall in production or as a failure to obtain predicted production targets. haemagglutinating viruses have been isolated from these flocks and evidence from experimental and field investigations suggest ...1979227136
[dna fragmentation of chicken adenovirus celo by specific endonucleases r. hpai, r. ecori, r. hindiii].the effect of specific endonucleases on dna chiken adenovirus celo was studed. it was shown that endonucleases r. hpai, r. ecori and r. hindiii cleaved viral dna into 5,7 and 9 specific fragments, respectively. the sequence of fragments (physical map) was determined and found to be: d-a-e-c-b for enzyme r. hpai; b-(eg)-c-a-d-f for enzyme r. ecori; h-f-a-c-g-b-d-e-i for enzyme r. hindiii.1979228178
a serological survey for the presence of antibodies to 'egg-drop-syndrome-1976' adenovirus. 1979229445
inhibition and enhancement of avian adenovirus plaque production by heavy and light avian adenovirus-associated viral particles.the effect of heavy and light avian adenovirus-associated viral (a-av) particles on the replication of several adenovirus serotypes was studied in chicken embryo kidney cells. there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) in the number and size of adenovirus-induced plaques at a-av multiplicities of infection greater than 40. enhancement of plaque production was observed when a-av multiplicities of infection were 1 to 40. there was a significant increase in the number and size of infective ...1979229748
unusual features of the oncogenicity of chicken embryo lethal orphan (celo) virus in hamsters. 1979230532
egg transmission of avian adenovirus-associated virus and celo virus during a naturally occurring infection.both avian adenovirus-associated virus (a-av) and celo virus were isolated from the embryonating eggs of 25-week-old black sex-linked hens during a naturally occurring infection. in the first 7 days of egg collection, a-av was isolated from 10 of 43 (23.2%) embryonating eggs, and celo virus was isolated from 8 of 43 (18.6%) embryonating eggs. both viruses were isolated from six eggs. in the next 16 days of egg collection, a-av and celo virus were coisolated from 1 of 127 (0.8%) eggs; all other s ...1979230761
experimental infection of broiler and leghorn chickens with virulent and avirulent isolates of hemorrhagic enteritis virus.the effects of virulent and avirulent isolates of hemorrhagic enteritis virus were studied in leghorn and broiler chickens. the viruses caused subclinical infections in both strains of birds. the avirulent isolate produced enlarged spleens, inclusion bodies, and antibody in all inoculated leghorns. in broilers the avirulent virus produced infection in only half of the inoculated birds. inclusion bodies were widely dispersed in the spleens of both types of birds. the virulent virus produced infec ...1979230804
isolation of a serotype 8 avian adenovirus associated with inclusion body hepatitis. 1979231963
respiratory adenovirus-like infection in a rose-ringed parakeet (psittacula krameri).intranuclear inclusions were observed under light microscopy in the bronchial epithelial cells of a recently purchased female rose-ringed parakeet that died of chlamydiosis. transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous particles of adenovirus morphology. a latent adenovirus infection may have become more severe following chlamydiosis and the stress of handling.19911664716
viral tracheitis in goslings in saskatchewan.up to 12% mortality occurred in goslings between 4 and 11 days of age in two sequential hatches from a single breeder flock. respiratory signs were noted before the birds died. the most consistent necropsy finding was a white opaque plug of fibrin and cellular debris in the trachea. the tracheal epithelium was hyperplastic and metaplastic with intranuclear inclusion bodies present in superficial cells. an adenovirus was isolated in both chicken and goose embryo liver cells.19921314554
relationship between age of flock seroconversion to hemorrhagic enteritis virus and appearance of adenoviral inclusions in the spleen and renal tubule epithelia of turkeys.a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the temporal relationship between flock seroconversion to hemorrhagic enteritis virus (hev) and the appearance of adenoviral inclusions in the spleen and renal tubular epithelium. the study was conducted on samples of turkey poults submitted to the fresno branch of the california veterinary diagnostic laboratory system during may to december 1988. the study included 78 submissions (four to eight poults per submission) of ages ranging from 6 to 15 w ...19921314556
inclusion bodies containing adenovirus-like particles in the intestine of a psittacine bird affected by inclusion body hepatitis.this paper reports a case of inclusion body hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the liver and the intestine of a yellow-naped amazon parrot (amazona ochrocephala). structurally, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in hepatic cells and enterocytes. ultrastructurally, icosahedral adenovirus-like particles, 60-75 nm in diameter, were found in the same cells.19921318426
comparative study of experimental inclusion body hepatitis of chickens caused by two serotypes of avian adenovirus.twenty 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens each were given an intraabdominal inoculation of either a type-8 avian adenovirus, [amg 5 (2a], or a type-5 avian adenovirus, inclusion body hepatitis virus (ibhv). the diseases produced were similar. high (60-100%) mortality and statistically significant depression of body weights occurred in both infections. there were necrotizing hepatitis and pancreatitis, lymphoid depletion in the spleen, bursa of fabricius and thymus, hydropericardium, nephr ...1978208221
virus-specific markers and virus-like particles in cell lines of tumors produced by celo virus in syrian golden hamsters.cell lines were established from 2 primary hepatocellular carcinomas (hc's) and 3 sarcomas produced in syrian golden hamsters inoculated as newborns with chicken embryo lethal orphan (celo) virus. cell lines from 2 sarcomas (cot, cmt) and 1 hc (cehep) produced celo virus-specific t-antigen. the antigen was not detected in cells of the third sarcoma line (rct) until they had undergone more than 34 passages in vitro. although 5-10% of cells in the second hc line (cilt/2) contained t-antigen during ...1978209200
cell cycle-dependent multiplication of avian adenoviruses in chicken embryo fibroblasts.propagation of celo virus employing confluent monolayers of chicken enbryo fibroblasts (cef) yielded virus titers one to two logs lower than those from confluent chicken kidney (ck) cells. an enhancement of virus production in cef as measured by plaque formation was obtainedby infectng cultures in the growing non confluent state. measurements of 3h-thymidine incorporation revealed a positive correlation between the dna synthesis of cef cultures at the time of inoculation and the amount of progen ...1978209769
effect of avian adeno-associated virus on pathogenicity of tipton virus in chicks.the avian adeno-associated virus (a-av) reduced the pathogenicity of an adenovirus infection in vivo. groups of chicks were infected with tipton virus alone or in combination with high or low doses of a-av. in both trials, the associated virus delayed and reduced chick mortality. this effect was dose-dependent and significant at the higher dose level.1978209781
[attempts to demonstrate and identify avian adenoviruses by an immunofluorescence method].a specific conjugate of a hyperimmune serum, obtained from rabbits with the use of the reference phelps-celo strain, was employed in a direct immunofluorescence method to investigate more than 320 lamelles with cell cultures infected with 4 field celo virus strains and the reference phelps-celo strain. it is stated this method is specific and prompt for the early diagnosis and identification of adenoviruses (celo viruses).1978210562
detection of type ii avian adenoviral antigen in tissue sections using immunohistochemical staining.an immunohistochemical staining technique for the detection of marble spleen disease (msd) viral antigens and other type ii avian adenoviral antigens was developed using a mixture of monoclonal antibodies produced against hemorrhagic enteritis (he) virus and a commercial streptavidin-biotin peroxidase indicator system. this technique was applied to both frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. the immunohistochemical staining technique was used on tissues from pheasants with ...19921320863
avian adenovirus isolated from pigeons affected with inclusion body hepatitis.avian adenoviruses were isolated from two pigeons affected with inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) by using chicken embryo liver cell cultures. one of the isolates, designated strain s-pl1, replicated in the cell nuclei forming intranuclear inclusion bodies, showed adenovirus-like morphology by electron microscopy, and cross-reacted serologically with strain sr-48 known as serotype 2 of fowl adenovirus. the strain s-pl1 killed day-old chicks by subcutaneous inoculation, and its 50% chicken lethal do ...19902161475
immune function in pheasants experimentally infected with marble spleen disease virus.two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of marble spleen disease virus (msdv) infection on the immune response of pheasants. in the first, 15 ring-necked pheasants were inoculated orally with cell-culture-propagated msdv and 15 received saline (controls). on days 7, 21, and 35 postinoculation (pi), all birds received sheep erythrocytes intravenously. hemagglutination titers to sheep erythrocytes were determined for serum samples collected weekly for 6 weeks. the virus-inoculated gr ...19921320870
increased numbers of duodenal mucosal mast cells in turkeys inoculated with hemorrhagic enteritis virus.the relation between average duodenal mast cell count, duodenal mucosal mast cell numbers, duodenal connective tissue mast cell numbers, circulating basophil numbers, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and lesion score were studied to gain an understanding of the events that may lead to intestinal lesion formation associated with hemorrhagic enteritis virus (hev) infection. changes in vascular permeability in the duodenum in birds inoculated with hev were examined, using colloidal carbon and ferrit ...19921326244
characterization of the structural proteins of hemorrhagic enteritis virus.the structural proteins of hemorrhagic enteritis (hev), a turkey adenovirus, were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) and western blotting using polyspecific, monospecific and monoclonal antibodies for detection. in purified hev preparations, eleven polypeptides with apparent molecular weights ranging from 96,000 to 9,500 (96k to 9.5k), were specifically recognized by convalescent turkey serum. six of these polypeptides were further characterized by page, western blotting, elis ...19921326260
outbreaks of egg drop syndrome due to eds-76 virus in quail (coturnix coturnix japonica).two outbreaks of the egg drop syndrome were observed in quail flocks maintained on a farm together with chickens. the decrease in egg production ranged from 10.6 per cent to 50.6 per cent, and the number of soft-shelled eggs increased with the decline in egg production. in both the outbreaks haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies to eds-76 virus were detected. fluorescent viral antigen specific to eds-76 virus was also detected in the lining epithelial and glandular cells of the uterus.19921329304
hemorrhagic enteritis virus inclusions in turkey renal tubular epithelium.commercial turkeys from four iowa flocks, two illinois flocks, and three california flocks were submitted to state diagnostic laboratories because of a variety of health problems. the turkeys ranged in age from 5 to 12 weeks, included both hens and toms, and were owned by five different companies. some flocks had previously been immunized with live hemorrhagic enteritis vaccine, and other flocks were unvaccinated. in all accessions, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in renal ...19921336658
[analysis of the nucleotide sequence of a fragment (92-100%) of the celo avian adenovirus genome].the nucleotide sequence of 92-100% of the adenovirus celo (fav1), strain phelps, genome has been determined. the computer analysis of the sequences revealed a clai site methylated by m*ecodam. a recognition site for xbai and two sites for psti, not found in the corresponding genome of celo, strain ote, have been determined. three extensive (more than 100 amino acid residues) open reading frames exist, coding for the polypeptides with molecular weights of 31.5, 19.3 and 14.5 kd (276, 178 and 128 ...19921338734
investigation of a chronic feed-passage problem on a broiler farm in northwest arkansas.a commercial broiler farm with a history of poor feed conversion and chronic feed-passage problems was chosen for investigation. chickens were taken from the broiler flock at specified intervals during growout and tested by virus isolation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for avian reovirus. abnormal tissue pathology was first seen in the broilers at 9 days of age and continued sporadically throughout the growout period. antireovirus antibody levels began to increase at 24 days of a ...19911649595
pathogenesis of marble spleen disease in bursectomized and non-bursectomized ring-necked pheasants following oral inoculation with cell-culture-propagated virus.seventy-two 13-week-old ring-necked pheasants were inoculated orally with 5.0 x 10(2) tissue-culture infective dose (tcid) of cell-culture-propagated marble spleen disease virus. inoculated birds exhibited neither mortality nor clinical disease. gross and histologic lesions were typical of marble spleen disease. the mean splenic weight was significantly (p less than 0.02) higher in inoculated birds than in controls between 6 and 10 days postinoculation (pi). the histologic splenic lesions, which ...19911659370
isolation and identification of adenovirus 127, the causative agent of egg drop syndrome (eds), from commercial laying hens in south africa.a drop in egg production associated with loss of pigment and soft-shelled eggs was experienced on a farm in the western cape. investigations revealed high levels of antibodies against adenovirus 127, the causative agent of egg drop syndrome (eds) in chickens which were not vaccinated against eds. a cytopathic agent was subsequently isolated in chicken embryo liver cell cultures and identified as eds virus by haemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests.19911664076
inclusion body hepatitis associated with an adenovirus in racing pigeons in australia. 19921318715
sequence of an avian adenovirus (celo) dna fragment (0-11.2%). 19911849634
serological surveillance for antibodies against different avian infectious agents on turkey flocks naturally infected with turkey rhinotracheitis.turkey rhinotracheitis (trt) in the state of baden-württemberg, germany appears to have become endemic affecting all farms and every new restocking. in 5 meat turkey flocks, serological surveillance for antibodies to trt-, ib- and ibd-viruses, as well as to pasteurella multocida were carried out using elisa tests. furthermore, sera were examined for the presence of antibodies to avian adenovirus (celo virus), reo- and paramyxo-viruses 1 and 3. the birds were bled at 4 week intervals starting at ...19902168612
expression of fowl adenovirus type 10 antigens in escherichia coli.in an attempt to construct a genetic map of the fowl adenovirus (fav) and to determine which viral proteins are natural immunogens in chickens and hence may be relevant to protective immunity we have constructed an expression library of fav type 10 dna. the genomic dna was partially digested with the restriction endonuclease sau3a, and this dna was inserted into the 3' terminal end of the beta-galactosidase gene in a plasmid vector. to date, approximately 600 clones have been identified that exp ...19902173247
effects of fowl adenovirus infection on the immune system of chickens.a virulent strain of serotype 8 fowl adenovirus (fav) was isolated from an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis (ibh) in broiler flocks. post-mortem changes included characteristic liver lesions with intranuclear inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes and severe lymphocytic depletion in the bursa, thymus and spleen. the packed cell volume was reduced by 50 per cent or more and varying amounts of cell depletion were observed in the bone marrow. typical ibh was reproduced in specific pathogen-free ch ...19921334981
cell mediated immune response of chicks following fowl adenovirus type-1 infection.cellular immune response of 6-week-old chickens infected with fowl adenovirus type-1 was evaluated by both in vivo and in vitro assay. in vitro assay, enumerating peripheral t lymphocyte by alphanaphthyl acetate esterase staining, revealed that cellular immunity appeared as early as 1 week post-infection and was maintained up to 5 weeks post-infection. in vivo assay by phytohaemagglutin skin test showed cellular immunity until 2 weeks post-infection. thereafter no immunity was observed by this a ...19911647932
comparison of reporter molecules for viral in situ hybridization.a number of streptavidin-linked reporter molecules at the endpoint of a five-step detection protocol for viral in situ hybridization using biotinylated probes were examined. dna-dna and rna-rna model systems were used. streptavidin linked to either peroxidase or fluorescein was found to be optimal in terms of sensitivity and resolution within individual cells. all other reporter molecules labelled similar numbers of cells with low background reaction. however, streptavidin-5 nm gold followed by ...19911849911
propagation of group ii avian adenoviruses in turkey and chicken leukocytes.an avirulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus isolate (hev-a) as well as a virulent one (hev-v), both belonging to the group ii avian adenoviruses, were successfully propagated in turkey leukocyte cell cultures. hev antigens were detected as early as 12 hr after infection of the cells, using hev-specific monoclonal antibodies in a fluorescent antibody test, and virus particles were observed by electron microscopy in the nuclei of infected cells at 18 to 24 hr after infection. electron microscopy reve ...19902157387
efficacy of avirulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus propagated in turkey leukocyte cultures for vaccination against hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys.avirulent hemorrhagic enteritis virus (hev-a) propagated in turkey leukocyte cell culture was tested as a vaccine to prevent hemorrhagic enteritis (he) in turkeys in experimental and field trials. immunization of turkeys with live hev-a resulted in protection against a challenge with virulent hev (hev-v) as measured by the serological response and the absence of clinical disease and hev antigen in spleens. in field trials, 19 out of 20 flocks seroconverted within 21 days after vaccination with l ...19902157395
effect of adrenal blocking chemicals on viral and respiratory infections of chickens.in a series of experiments chickens were treated with chemicals which block the production of corticosterone by the adrenal cortex prior to being challenged with respiratory disease (and other) agents in order to determine if the course of the diseases could be altered. some chickens received a single intramuscular injection (14 mg/kg) of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis/p-chlorophenyl/ethane (abc) dissolved in corn oil (20 mg/ml) at least 12 h before challenge. other chickens received feed containing 500 m ...19892536580
detection of latent avian adenovirus-associated virus proteins in chicken cells.chicken kidney cells, derived from the eggs of white leghorn chickens that had serological evidence of prior exposure to both adenovirus and the adeno-associated virus (aav), produced aav antigenic proteins upon challenge with purified adenovirus. antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibody to aav. the number of fluorescent cells were few and did not increase during the course of adenovirus infection. similar results were obtained using cells prepared from speci ...19892539071
the influence of age on the response of ring-necked pheasants to infection with marble spleen disease virus.ring-necked pheasants that were negative for maternal antibody against type ii avian adenoviruses were orally inoculated with 5.0 x 10(2) tissues-culture-infective doses of marble spleen disease (msd) virus at 1-week intervals through 6 weeks of age, and at 9 and 13 weeks of age. groups of four virus-inoculated birds and two control birds were necropsied at 4, 6, 8, and 10 days postinoculation, and the spleens were evaluated for gross and microscopic lesions. no lesions consistent with msd were ...19911664723
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