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vasculitis with hepatitis b antigenemia: long-term observation in nine patients.the development of generalized necrotizing vasculitis in association with hepatitis b antigenemia is the first example in man of a chronic rheumatic disease presumably caused by a viral infection. this report reviews the experience in nine biopsy-proven cases of hepatitis b-associated necrotizing vasculitis followed for up to six years. the natural history of the disease is emphasized and the manifestations of patients with vasculitis who carry hepatitis b antigen are compared with those of vasc ...19761628
experimental studies on the transmission of hepatitis b by mosquitoes.culex tarsalis and aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on chimpanzees carrying hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag) of known infectivity and pools were tested by radioimmunoassay daily for the presence of hbs ag. hbs ag continued to be detected at low levels in mosquito tissue after digestion of the blood meal. inoculation of susceptible chimpanzees with macerated pools of a. aegypti mosquitoes at two intervals after digestion of the blood meal did not produce hepatitis or serologic evidence of he ...19769000
polyarteritis nodosa with hb antigens. 197610558
immunochemical and morphological studies of hepatitis b core antigen isolated from the nuclei of hepatocytes.immunochemical and morphological properties of hepatitis b core antigen (hbc ag) were studied in intranuclear particles isolated from human liver. immunochemical integrity of the purified particles was indicated in the production by guinea pigs of antibody to hbc ag (anti-hbc) that was immunochemically identical to human anti-hbc. the hbc ag particles were 27-30 nm in diameter, displayed apparent icosahedral symmetry, and consisted of distinct subunits. the susceptibility of hbc ag particles to ...197715037
immune complexes of hepatitis b surface antigen in the pathogenesis of periarteritis nodosa. a study of seven necropsy cases.in 7 unselected necropsy cases of clinically diagnosed periarteritis nodosa, the detection of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and hepatitis b core antigen (hbcag) in the cytoplasm and nuclei of hepatocytes indicated an ongoing infection with hepititis b virus (hbv). in all these cases histologic changes found in the liver varied from "minimal" to chronic aggressive hepatitis. in all the cases, deposits of hbsag, immunoglobulins, beta1c-globulin and c1q were detected in vascular lesions. that ...197824342
arthritis and hepatitis.the evidence relating four clinically distinct rheumatologic syndromes to infection by the hepatitis b virus is reviewed. acute hepatitis b is not infrequently heralded by a prodromal rash and rheumatoidlike polyarthritis. chronic active hepatitis b more rarely is associated with transient arthritis or arthralgias. polyarteritis nodosa may be a manifestation of hepatitis b infection in as many as 40 percent of cases, and recently the syndrome of "essential" mixed cryoglobulinemia has also been l ...197933489
influence of different disinfection conditions on the structure of the hepatitis b virus (dane particle) as evaluated in the morphological alteration and disintegration test (madt). 197834296
the localization of hepatitis viruses in tissues. 197943841
[periarteritis nodosa in an addict with a hepatitis b injection (author's transl)].the authors describe a case of a drug addict with a hepatitis b who was found to have periarteritis nodosa and a nephrotic syndrome. the course was rapidly fatal and autopsy confirmed the diagnosis. this new case questions the hypothesis suggested of possible toxicity of hard drugs (especially the amphetamines) as being an etiological factor for periarteritis nodosa observed in addicts. hepatitis b virus, which is involved in the etiology of periarteritis nodosa and some nephrotic syndromes (als ...197944162
hepatitis b virus-induced immune complex disease. 197944376
severe viral hepatitis type b in infancy;.fourteen infants aged from 2 to 5 months were admitted to hospital with acute viral hepatitis. their clinical presentation ranged from severe disease to fulminant hepatitis. in all patients the prothrombin-time was 10% or less of normal and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and bilirubin were increased. in eight cases liver-biopsy specimens were obtained during liver failure and showed a widespread necrosis without inflammatory cells. hepatitis-b-surface antigen (hbsag) and antibody (hbsab) we ...197547420
letter: infectivity of blood containing hepatitis-b antibody. 197547509
hb antigen: incidence of 'ad' and 'ay' subdeterminants among blood donors. 197547665
indian childhood cirrhosis. 197547794
letter: hepatitis-b-virus infection and active chronic hepatitis. 197549595
editorial: non-a, non-b? 197549656
hepatitis-b virus and indian childhood cirrhosis.the surface and core componenets of hepatitis-b virus have not been detected in livers of patients suffering from indian childhood cirrhosis using procedures such as immunoperoxidase, immunofluorescence, and orcein staining as well as electronmicroscopy. this finding, together with the other features of the disease, suggests that infection by this virus plays no significant role in the aetiology of indian childhood cirrhosis.197549699
hepatitis-b immunoglobulin in prevention of hbs antigenaemia in haemodialysis patients.in a double-blind study, hepatitis-b immunoglobulin significantly protected patients in a haemodialysis unit against the development of hbs antigenaemia, compared to control patients receiving normal human immunoglobulin (p less than 0-01). injections were given at the beginning and after 6 months, and observations extended over 16 months. analysis of antihbc and anti-hbs antibodies suggested that neutralisation of the virus inoculum, as well as modification of infection, may be implicated in th ...197551188
integrator enzyme hypothesis for replication of hepatitis-b virus.a hypothetical model for the replication of hepatitis-b virus is presented. it is suggested that the d.n.a. polymerase associated with dane particles facilitates integration of viral d.n.a. into the genome of the liver cell. the viral d.n.a. is then replicated with the host genome. the hypothesis accounts for certain curious experimental and clinical observations and makes several predictions which are amenable to laboratory investigation.197551241
letter: unresolved hepatitis in a patient with hepatitis a and b. 197552074
letter: seroepidemiology of hepatitis-b infections. 197552075
letter: e antigen in hbs ag-carrier mothers. 197552116
[viral hepatitis b (serum hepatitis). ii. laboratory study]. 197552124
[nature, character, occurrence, and demonstration of hepatitis b antigens (author's transl)].the morphological, chemical and physical properties of hbag suggest that the 42 nm component of the antigen, the dane particle, represents the agent of viral hepatitis b. its core contains a circular, double stranded dna, a dna polymerase and carried hbc-ag. hbc-ag is localized on the 21 nm particle, the tubular structures and the surface of the dane particles. at least 8 different subdeterminants of hbs-ag could be distinguished by means of specific animal anti-sera. hbs-ag activity was demonst ...197552590
[morphological characteristics and pattern of hepatitis b antigen expression in liver tissue in acute and chronic forms of hepatitis (author's transl)].immunofluorescent and electron microscopic methods allow the localization of hepatitis virus b-components at the cytologic and histologic level. the acute and chronic forms of viral hepatitis are re-evaluated in the light of these new findings. in hb-ag-positive hepatitis four types of correlation between the expression pattern of hg-ag components and different forms of hepatitis are recognized which are of diagnostic and prognostic relevance (elimination type, immunosuppression type, aggression ...197552591
acute and chronic hepatitis in adolescents. 197552765
evidence against breast-feeding as a mechanism for vertical transmission of hepatitis b.a follow-up study of 147 babies born to mothers known to be carriers of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) revealed no evidence for a relationship between breast-feeding and the subsequent development of antigenaemia in the babies. all babies were tested at three or more months of age, and the mean age at last follow-up was eleven months with a mean of three serum specimens per baby (not counting cord-blood specimens). the frequency of acquisition of hbsag and anti-hbs was almost identical amon ...197552772
letter: the nature of hepatitis-b virus. 197552807
hepatitis b surface antigen and human serum proteins.the purification of hbs ag is briefly discussed with emphasis on the immunochemical characterization of the resulting preparations. results of experimental work in various laboratories aimed at establishing presence or absence of human serum proteins as integral parts of (highly purified) hbs ag particles do not yet allow definite conclusions.197553009
antibody to hepatitis b core antigen.two distinct antigen-antibody systems are associated with the hepatitis b virus (hbv): hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag) and antibody (anti-hbs) and the more recently described hepatitis b core antigen (hbc ag) and antibody (anti-hbc). testing of serial serum samples from patients with type b hepatitis demonstrates the regular occurrence of anti-hbc during the course of this disease. in general, highest titers of anti-hbc are seen with prolonged circulation of hbs ag as in the chronic carrier ...197553010
hepatitis b surface antigen and liver cell carcinoma.the frequency distribution of hbs ag in different parts of the world reveals a relatively high frequency among healthy members of population groups inhabiting areas of high incidence of liver cell carcinoma. similar high frequencies of hbs ag are also found in those areas where macronodular cirrhosis is relatively common and is usually complicated by liver cell carcinoma. in geographic areas with low incidence of liver cell carcinoma and macronodular cirrhosis, a relatively low frequency of hbs ...197553011
relationship of hepatitis a antigen to viral hepatitis.progress in research on hepatitis type a has begun to accelerate because of the recent discovery of an antigen associated specifically with hepatitis type a infection and the development of tests for antibody to the antigen. hepatitis a antigen is associated with 27 nm virus-like particles found in the liver and stool of animals experimentally infected with hepatitis type a and in the stool of humans experimentally or naturally infected with the virus. the density of the particulate antigen when ...197553012
mode of inhibition of herpes simplex virus dna polymerase by phosphonoacetate.phosphonoacetate is a highly specific inhibitor of herpes simplex virus-induced dna polymerase. sensitivity of herpesvirus type 1 or type 2 induced dna polymerase to the drug was similar. however, dna polymerases from other sources such as the host cells (wi-38), micrococcus luteus, and hepatitis b virus were highly resistant. in addition, escherichia coli rna polymerase and reverse transcriptase of rous sarcoma virus were also insensitive to the drug. enzyme kinetic studies showed that inhibiti ...197553071
clinical and serological analysis of transfusion-associated hepatitis.of 108 prospectively followed, multiply transfused, open-heart-surgery patients, 12 (11%) developed hepatitis. patients received only volunteer donor blood tested for hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag) prior to transfusion by counterelectrophoresis (c.e.p.). 4 of the 12 patients developed hepatitis-b-virus infection. subsequent testing of donor serums by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.) revealed that an r.i.a.-positive, c.e.p.-negative blood unit was transfused to 3 of the 4 type-b hepatit ...197553329
letter: vertical transmission of hepatitis-b surface antigen. 197553695
antigenic subgroups of hepatitis b (surface) antigen in berlin (west) and their epidemiological aspects.sera of 334 hepatitis b patients and 118 sera of hbsag carriers were tested for the distribution of the subgroups ad and ay by means of rheophoresis technique or solid phase radiommunoassay. the distribution of subgroups revealed a typical pattern. the ad-antigen determinant was more frequent in hepatitis b patients, blood donors and hemodialysis patients whereas the ay determinant was detected in drug users, guest workers and juveniles at a considerably higher percentage. the difference in dist ...197553969
spread of hepatitis-b infections. a seroepidemiologic study.a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.), allowing simultaneous detection and quantitation either of hb, ag or of anti-hbs, was applied to check the spread of hepatitis-b virus (h.b.v.) infections in various groups of population. r.i.a. procedures were also used to validate positive reactions and to determine the subtype specificity of sera. the overall prevalence of neutralizing anti-hbs in tested sera was almost 4-fold higher, although generally at rather low titres, than prevalence of hbs ag. ...197554186
serotypes of hepatitis b antigen (hbs ag): the problem of "new" determinants, as exemplified by "t".the principal antigenic determinants of hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbs ag) are specified by distinct genotypes of hepatitis-b virus (hbv). this hypothesis still stands undisproven. these specificities include the common antigen(s), called a, and two pairs of subdeterminants, d/y and w/r. the members of each pair are in general mutually exclusive, resulting in four "primary" phentoypes of hbs ag: adw, adr, ayw, and ayr. the newer "a(w) subcategories" probably also reflect differences in viral g ...197553008
letter: hepatitis-b antibody in polymyalgia rheumatica. 197654548
two immunologic reactions in the pathogenesis of hepatitis? 197654877
localization of hepatitis b surface antigen in conventional paraffin sections of the liver. comparison of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and orcein staining methods with regard to their specificity and reliability as antigen marker.hepatitis b antigen (hbag) has been demonstrated in conventional formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue by peroxidase and fluorescent immunostaining as well as by orcein. complete locational and morphologic identity is seen between material stained by specific immunologic methods and by orcein. the antigen is restricted to the cytoplasm and is generally observed in the hepatocyte; it is present in three morphologic forms. certain morphologic forms can even be identified in hematoxylin and ...197555076
letter: detection of e antigen by immunofluorescence in cytoplasm of hepatocytes of hbsag carriers. 197655751
hepatitis b antigen subtypes-history, significance and immunogenicity.initial work showed that all hepatitis b surface antigens (hbs ag) were identical. subsequent, additional studies revealed that hepatitis b surface antigens have a group reactive determinant, a, plus additional specificities which are not universally present on all antigens. four well-defindd subtypes of hbs ag exist (hbs ag/adw, hbs ag/ayw, hbs ag/adr, hbs ag/ayr) but additional subtypes will be forthcoming as newly described determinants are confirmed. the subtype specificities are determined ...197553007
structural and immunoreactive characteristics of hepatitis b core antigen.the ultrastructural study of liver tissues from 38 patients with type b viral hepatitis consistently showed the presence of hepatitis b core antigen of 21-25 nm size in the liver cell nuclei and to a lesser extent in the cytoplasm. this finding and the demonstration of the tubular form of hepatitis b surface antigen in the proliferative degranulated endoplasmic reticulum constituted the etiologic criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. the double-shelled dane-like particles were frequently f ...197553006
biophysical and biochemical properties of purified preparations of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag).two antigenically distinct subtypes, adw and ayw, of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag), have been purified from the plasma of anicteric hepatitis patients. biophysical studies of these purified preparations revealed considerable heterogeneity in their overall surface charge, morphology and molecular weights. chemical studies revealed that the composition of the particles is complex in that four to six different polypeptides and three glycoproteins were identified. in addition, cholesterol, th ...197553005
an epidemic of infantile papular acrodermatitis (gianotti's disease) in japan associated with hepatitis-b surface antigen subtype ayw.an epidemic of infantile papular acrodermatitis (i.p.a.) (gianotti's disease) occurred in matsuyama city, in south-east japan in 1974-75. patients ages ranged from less than one year to eight years. hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag) was detected by an immune adherence haemagglutination method in the serum samples of 48 of the 54 patients tested. hbsag subtypes were determined by a haemagglutination-inhibition method. ayw antigens were identified in 42 patients and adr antigens in 3; it was not ...197656530
seroepidemiological study of hbv infections in athens, greece.a seroepidemiological survey of a sample-roughly representative by age and sex - of 2744 persons of the greater athens area revealed that hepatitis b virus (hbv) infections are highly endemic in greece. hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) was detected in 72(2-6%) of them. the subtype was identified in 70 of the 72 carriers, and 69 were ay; the other was ad. determinant w was present in all 61 that were capable of being typed further, and a23y(w) was twice as common as a11y(w). antibody to hbsag ...197657193
letter: infectivity of serum containing hbsag and antibody to e antigen. 197657433
biophysical and biochemical characterization of hepatitis b antigen.hepatitis b surface antigens specified by the genome of the hepatitis b virus are shared by various particulate forms which circulate in the sera of chronic hbs ag carriers. as purified from sera, hbs ag consists of at least seven polypeptides, two of which appear to be glycoproteins. most or all of these polypeptides contain both group-specific (a) and subtype-specific (d or y) determinants aspart of their structure. one particulate form, the dane particle, is present as a minor component in mo ...197553004
hepatitis b antigen - an incomplete history.hepatitis b virus still cannot be grown in an in vitro system; therefore, research into hepatitis b antigen (hb ag) is limited to laboratory methods such as serology, electron microscopy, and biochemistry. these have established the presence of two distinct antigenic components of hb ag, that associated with the small forms and the outer covering of the dane particle (hbs ag), and that of the dane particle core (hbc ag). current findings make it almost certain that the dane particle represents ...197553003
[can therapeutic measures cause a hepatitis virus infection to become chronic? (author's transl)].the question whether a hepatitis b virus infection can become chronic as a result of prophylactic or therapeutic measures is investigated. experience with standard or hepatitis b gamma-globulin has shown no negative influence on the development of chronic hepatitis b virus infections. on the other hand it cannot be excluded that a hepatitis b virus infection may be so modified by steroid therapy, by immunosuppressive or cytostatic treatment that the disease runs a milder course and then tends to ...197658376
viral hepatitis. 197658754
detection of surface and core antigens of hepatitis b virus in the liver of 164 human subjects. a study by immunoperoxidase and orcein staining.the surface (hbsag) and core (hbcag) antigens of hepatitis b virus (hbv) have been searched by optic microscopy in the liver specimens from patients hospitalized for various conditions and from 38 hgsag chronic carriers. the study was done blindly using shikata et al.'s orcein staining on fixed and frozen material and direct immunoperoxidase on frozen material with antisera specific for surface (anti-hbs) and core (anti-hbc) antigens of hbv. no liver staining could be found in the 98 hbsag seron ...197658802
some epidemiological and clinical aspects of hepatitis b antigen and its subtypes.the close association between hepatitis b antigen (hbag) and the infectious agent of hepatitis b is clear. many investigations have shown hbag to be a useful tool for epidemiological studies of hepatitis b. the relation between hbag and the postulated hepatitis b virus (hbv) is as yet not clear. in light of recent results a possible candidate could be the so-called dane particle, which has hbag reactivity on the surface, but possesses an antigenically distinct core. the core has been shown to ha ...197552189
behaviour of e antigen and antibody during chronic active liver disease. relation to hb antigen-antibody system and prognosis.serial determinations of e antigen and e antibody were made in 20 patients with chronic active liver disease and hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag) or antibody (anti-hbs). the presence of e antigen was associated with failure to clear hbsag, produce anti-hbs, or respond to treatment with steroids. it is proposed that the presence of the e antigen is associated with impaired host immune responses to hepatitis-b virus infection and a poor prognosis.197659188
an outbreak of hepatitis associated with intravenous injection of factor-viii concentrate.an outbreak of jaundice associated with three out of four batches of a commercial brand of freeze-dried factor-viii concentrate occurred at the bournemouth haemophilia centre between april and june, 1974. seven cases of non-b hepatitis and four of hepatitis b occurred within 6 months of the first use of this product. two patients contracted both types of hepatitis; thus nine patients became ill out of a total of twenty regularly seen at the centre, eighteen of whom received commercial factor-vii ...197551975
promising developments in viral hepatitis. 197551539
serology and epidemiology. 197551538
administration of human fibroblast interferon in chronic hepatitis-b infection.one patient with hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag)-positive chronic aggressive hepatitis, and two chimpanzee carriers of hbsag, were each given seven doses of 10(7) i.u. of human fibroblast interferon over two weeks. the main differnce observed after treatment was a depression of the nucleocapsid hepatitis-0 core antigen in the liver, indicating that hepatitis-b virus infection is sensitive to interferon. except for a short febrile reaction, no undesirable effects were seen after the administr ...197660513
predicting progression of acute type-b hepatitis to chronicity. 197660583
host responses to hepatitis-b infection in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma and their families. a case/control study in senegal, west africa.a case/control study of patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (p.h.c.) and their families was carried out in dakar, senegal. 28 p.h.c. cases were matched by age,sex, and ethnic group with 28 controls. serum was collected from cases, controls, parents (28 mothers, 27 fathers) of cases, parents of controls, 71 siblings of cases, and 58 siblings of controls. assays of their sera for hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag), antibody to hbsag (anti-hbs) and antibody to hepatitis-b core antigen (anti-hb ...197660621
letter: decreasing frequency of e antigen with age in serum of symptom-free carriers of hepatitis b antigen. 197660656
[hepatitis: an international problem (author's transl)].three kinds of virus hepatitis are recognized today: hepatitis a, b, and "non a-nonb". hepatitis a is transmitted mainly by the anal-oral route, hepatitis b and probably also the third form of hepatitis principally by direct inoculation or close physical contact. normal human immune serum globulin protects against hepatitis a, but only gives limited protection against hepatitis b and "non a-non b" hepatitis. special immune serum globulin provides better protection but it is only available in sma ...197660698
intrahepatic localization of the surface (hbsag) and core (hbcag) antigenic determinants associated with hepatitis b virus in biopsy samples from patients with liver disease.109 biopsy samples from 35 hbag serologically positive and 74 negative patients were examined by ifl for the presence of the surface and core antigenic determinants associated with the dane particle. in no serologically negative case was specific ifl detected. different patterns were observed in serologically positive patients: negative in acute hepatitis, strongly positive cytoplasmic hbs fluorescence in chronic hbag carriers with normal liver, and discrete hbsag parenchymal and mesenchymal sta ...197660776
[prevention of the post-transfusion hepatitis].for prophylaxis of posttransfusion hepatitis three procedures can be considered: 1. recognition of "infectious" blood donors, 2. elimination of the infectious agent from the blood units (or blood derivatives), 3. protection of the recipient by immunophrophylaxis. among all available methods screening of blood donors for hepatitis b antigen (hb-sag) by a sensitive test (e.g. radioimmunoassay or reversed passive hemagglutination) is presently the most efficient. despite this precaution it can be e ...197549924
detection of e antigen and antibody: correlations with hapatitis b surface and hepatitis b core antigens, liver disease, and outcome in hepatitis b infections.testing for e antigen and antibody (anti-e) was performed by immunodiffusion and counterelectrophoresis in patients with polyarteritis nodosa fulminant hepatitis, and chronic active hepatitis (cah), in 59 asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) who underwent liver biopsy, and in 150 carriers followed with sequential sgpt determinations. counterelectrophoresis was more sensitive that immunodiffusion. neither e antigen nor anti-e was found in the absence of hbsag. among hcsag- ...197661146
antibody to hepatitis-b core antigen in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma.antibody to hepatitis-b core antigen (anti-hbc) was assayed in the serum of patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (p.h.c.) and controls from hong kong, west africa, and the united states. in each region the prevalence of anti-hbc was higher in p.h.c. patients than in controls, ranging from 70 to 95% in the patients and from 20 to 68% in the controls from asia and africa; 24% of p.h.c. patients and 4% of controls from the u.s. had anti-hbc. these data support the hypothesis that chronic infec ...197549648
letter: evidence of exposure to hepatitis-b surface antigen in a burns unit. 197549640
the virus of hepatitis, type b (first of two parts). 197662280
structure and nature of hepatitis b antigen. 197662373
induction of antibody to the "y" determinant of hbsag in a chimpanzee carrier of hbsag subtype "adw".antibody to the y determinant of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) was induced in a chimpanzee chronically infected with hepatitis b virus and circulating hbsag subtype adw. the chimpanzee was immunized with purified preparations of hbsag subtypes adw and ayw. six weeks after immunization, antibody to hbsag (anti-hbs) specific for the y determinant, appeared. no change occurred in titers of hbsag or antibody to hepatitis b core antigen (anti-hbc) and "e" antigen remained detectable. the circul ...197662804
current status of post-transfusion hepatitis. 197663244
the prevention of viral hepatitis.studies with heat-inactivated ms-2 serum have indicated that active immunization against hepatitis b infection can be achieved even though the virus has not been cultivated in tissue culture. the development of new biophysical, biochemical and immunological techniques has increased knowledge of the hepatitis b virus and its associated antigens. in the wake of these recent developments the accumulating evidence indicates that active immunization could be achieved by the use of purified hepatitis ...197663266
coincident hepatitis b surface antigen and antibodies of different subtypes in human serum.three patients with simultaneously detectable hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) and antibody (anti-hbs) in their sera were studied for subtypes of hbsag and anti-hbs. in each case anti-hbs was found to be directed to a different subtype than that of the circulating hbsag, indicating that reinfection (or simultaneous infection) with a second subtype occurred.197763520
[the core antigen of hepatitis b virus]. 197664022
viral hepatitis research leading towards control by vaccination. 197664239
the clinical significance of hepatitis b virus antigens and antibodies.there are two well-characterized antigen-antibody systems which relate specificially to viral hepatitis b. tests for hbsag and anti-hbs are readily available and of great benefit to the diagnosis, prevention and understanding of hepatitis b. tests for hbcag and anti-hbc are still research techniques which requires further development before they can be used at the level of everyday medical practice. hbsag in an individual indicates that he harbors the virus of hepatitis b; it may be present in t ...197549464
a clinical and laboratory evaluation of immune serum globulin from donors with a history of hepatitis: attempted prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis.a controlled trial of passive immunization for prevention of post-transfusion viral hepatitis was carried out in order to determine whether effective levels of antibody were present in the "convalescent" immune serum globulin used in the study. this globulin was prepared selectively from plasma of donors giving a history of overt viral hepatitis two or more years earlier. the proportion of contributors to the globulin who had b hepatitis was unknown but the final product contained a low titer of ...197665126
non-a, non-b post-transfusion hepatitis.to clarify the role of hepatitis-a virus (h.a.v.) in the aetiology of post-transfusion hepatitis unrelated to hepatitis-b virus, we have tested and titred pre-transfusion and convalescent serum samples from 32 patients for antibody to hepatitis-a antigen (anti-ha) by quantitative immune adherence haemagglutination. 12 patients had no detectable anti-ha in either pre-transfusion or late convalescent serum; the other 20 had anti-ha in pretransfusion serum and no significant chance in titre during ...197765657
reactivation of hepatitis-b virus. 197765666
hepatitis b antigen, alpha1 fetoprotein and liver disease in the eastern highlands of papua new guinea.the sera from 89 patients from the eastern higlands of papua new guinea, all with histologically diagnosed liver disease, were tested for hepatitis b antigen (hb ag) and hepatitis b antibody (hb ab) and alpha1 fetoprotein (afp) by a variety of techniques which included radioimmunoassay. in the three main forms of liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatoma, hb ag was found with a higher frequency than in patients with non specific liver disease. the frequency of hb ab was decreased in ...197549112
a case report of primary hepatic carcinoma with prolonged hb virus infection and mono-clonal gammopathy.a case of alpha-feto protein (afp) positive hepatic cell carcinoma has been presented in which the appearance of a mono-clonal gammopathy can be explained by persistent infection with hb virus (hbv). the patient, a fifty year old male, developed acute jaundice with hepatitis in july, 1952, and died of an hepatic cell carcinoma in december, 1973. the interest of this case lies in the fact that during the seven months prior to be patient's demise, a mono-clonal gammopathy of igg (l type), together ...197767980
correlation of e antigen, dna polymerase activity, and dane particles in chronic benign and chronic active type b hepatitis infections.the e determinant of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbs ag) was found in 23 of 42 patients with chronic hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection. presence of e antigen was associated with increases in dna polymerase activity and in the number of circulating dane particles. in the group with detectable e antigen, the average dna polymerase activity was 367+/-78 counts per minute (cpm; mean+/-standard error [se]), and the average number of dane particles counted in electron micrographs was 4.4% of the tota ...197768088
forecasting the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma by the use of risk factors: studies in west africa.an association between hepatitis b virus (hbv) and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (phc) has been found in several studies in africa, asia, and elsewhere. in this paper we considered the interrelations between several events related to hbv infection, which include the presence of: 1) hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag), 2) antibody to hepatitis b core antigen (anti-hbc), 3) antibody to the surface antigen (anti-hbs), 4) chronic liver disease, 5) elevated alpha-fetoprotein, and 6) phc. with the ...197768119
the incidence of hepatitis-b-antigen and anti-hepatitis-b among blood donors in ndola, zambia.hepatitis-b antigen (hbsag) was detected in the sera of 29 or 250 (11.6%) blood donors in ndola, zambia, most of whom were prisoners or students. the incidence among prisoners was 15.1%, among students only 1.6%. thirteen sera were subtyped, nine carried the y and four the d antigenic determinant. although there was a marked difference in the incidence of hbs antigen between prisoners and students, when donors were tested for antibody to hbsag (anti-hbs) this positive. overall, anti-hbs was dete ...197549111
anti-hbbrno: a new ciep hepatitis b marker, more sensitive than hbsag radioimmunoassay.evidence is presented for the new hbbrnoag-anti-hgbrno system association with the hbsag. the association is displayed particularly in a prevalence of ausria detectable hbsag carriers among the anti-hbbrno carriers, suggesting the anti-hbbrno to be a marker of contact with hepatitis b or, possibly, an indicator of co-existing hbsag antigenaemia, not detectable by radioimmunoassay. identity of hbbrnoag with hbsag/a, d, y, w, is ruled out, the identity with the other hbv associated antigenic speci ...197769570
incidence and nature of cytoplasmic hepatitis b antigen in hepatocytes.hepatitis b antigen (hb ag) in the hepatocytic cytoplasm is detected by immunofluorescence after reaction with fluoresceinated antiserum to hb ag or by electron microscopy as numerous 20- to 30-nm. tubular and circular structures in dilated cisternae of excess endoplasmic reticulum. on light microscopy, these hepatocytes can be recognized because their cytoplasm has a ground-glass appearance and stains with gomori's aldehyde fuchsin. aldehyde fuchsin-positive ground-glass hepatocytes were detect ...197546330
hepatitis b virus and associated pathology. 197610617
hepatitis-b virus in bedbugs (cimex hemipterus) from senegal.bedbugs of the species cimex hemipterus (f) were collected on four separate occasions from the bedding in the huts of village dwellers in senegal, west africa. hepatitis-b surface antigen (hbsag) was detected in unengorged nymph and adult bedbugs in each of the first three collections. 3 of 28 such specimens were hbsag(+) in the first collection and 3 of 17 specimens were positive in the second collection. in the third, 6 of 9 were hbsag(+) when the bed occupant was known to be hbsag(+). 2 of th ...197769829
early lesions and development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in man--association with hepatitis b viral infection.it is well known that primary hepatocellular carcinoma could be derived from chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in epidemiologic studies. however, it is still not clear what kinds of hepatocyte are premalignant cells. recently we have focused on liver cell dysplasia as a possible premalignant cell, and showed localization of alpha-fetoprotein in the cytoplasma of these cells. although the dysplastic cells were often seen in the liver of chronic active hepatitis, hepatitis b virus associated d ...197770387
the demonstration of subtype (d or y)-specific determinants on the surface of the presumed hepatitis b virus.dane particles isolated from the sera of hbsag/ad and hbsag/ay carriers were reacted with monospecific antibodies to the d and y subtype-specific determinants of hbsag/. dane particles from hbsag/ad expressed the d determinant on their surfaces and those from hbsag/ay sera contained the y specificity. both complete (dna-p and hbcag) and defective (hbcag alone) dane particles expressed the subtype-specific determinants.197770490
[hepatitis b virus and primary liver carcinoma: evidences for a filiation hepatitis b, cirrhosis and primary liver cancer].many arguments have been developed for a filiation hepatitis b, cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (plc). the hypothesis in favour of the hepatitis b virus (hbv) as an indirect agent of plc was supported by epidemiological and anatomo-clinical data. the study of the serological markers of hbv has been performed in groups of senegalese patients who were suffering from hepatitis b, cirrhosis or plc and two control groups (blood donors and other cancers). the results concern the sequence leeding fr ...197771006
continuous lymphoblastoid suspension cultures from cells of haematopoietic organs of baboons with malignant lymphoma. report iii: immunological studies.lymphoblastoid cultures established from haematopoietic organs of baboons with lymphoma belong to the b-cell type. cytoplasmic antigen is revealed in 2--6% of suspension culture cells established from lymphomatous baboons by indirect immunofluorescence reaction using serum from human burkitt's lymphoma patients with antibody titer to capsid antigen of epstein-barr virus 1: 320. there is a correlation between the number of antigen-containing cells in these cultures and the number of cells in whic ...197771245
expression of hepatitis b virus-specific markers in asymptomatic hepatitis b surface antigen carriers.a study was undertaken to assess the state of hepatitis b virus infection in a group of asymptomatic hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) carriers. this study confirmed that the presence of hepatitis b e antigen (hbeag) in serum was closely associated with serum hbsag-specific deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase activity, hepatitis b core antigen (hbcag) in serum and liver cell nuclei, and a histological picture of chronic hepatitis. no hbsag-specific deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase activity or hbc ...197771267
anti-e and rheumatoid factor. 197771433
incidence of hbe antigen and hbe antibody in blood-donors. 197771584
association of human hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis with hepatitis b virus surface and core antigens in the liver. 197772736
[new aspects of therapy and prophylaxis of virus hepatitis (author's transl)].the etiology of viral hepatitis is well known, since the hepatitis a virus and the hepatitis b virus were detected. there is, however, no specific treatment of the disease. steroids should not be used, since a therapeutical value in viral hepatitis is not definitely proven and since they may contribute to the development of chronic hepatitis. the application of hepatitis b immunoglobulin (hbig), interferon or interferon inducers in hepatitis b infections has yielded some interesting results, whi ...197773114
approaching the control of viral hepatitis type b. 197654398
antigenicity of the major polypeptides of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag).the major polypeptides (p-1, p-2, and p-6) of hbsag were isolated from purified preparations of 22-nm hbsag particles, iodinated, and analyzed by double-antibody radioimmunoprecipitation assays for the presence of hepatitis b virus (hbv)-specific antigens. each polypeptide fraction contained both group (a) and subtype (d) specific determinants in common by virtue of their immunoreaction with antiserum to native hbsag and antisera to the other structural polypeptides. the antigenic and structural ...197874391
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