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sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a petting zoo.in a privately owned petting zoo in arizona, 17 deer from five different species, white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), reeve's muntjac (muntiacus reevesi), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus), and axis deer (axis axis), died of suspected malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) over a period from late 1992 to early 1995. a pcr assay specific for ovine herpesvirus 2, the putative causative agent of sheep-associated mcf, and a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorb ...199910572865
malignant catarrhal fever: polymerase chain reaction survey for ovine herpesvirus 2 and other persistent herpesvirus and retrovirus infections of dairy cattle and bison.using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test for sequences of ovine herpesvirus 2 (ohv2), this virus was shown to be significantly associated with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) in terminal cases of disease in 34 cattle and 53 bison. ovine herpesvirus 2 was not detected in cattle (38) and bison (10) that succumbed to other diseases. other persistent herpesviruses, retroviruses, and pestivirus, some of which have been previously isolated from cases of sa-mcf, were not associa ...200011021426
production of malignant catarrhal fever virus-free sheep.the study was designed to better define the variables affecting the success of the establishment of ovine herpesvirus 2 (ohv-2)-free sheep flocks. a total of 38 lambs born to ohv-2-positive ewes was selected and divided into four groups. three groups of 10 lambs each were separated from the positive ewes at 2, 2.5 and 3 months of age, respectively, and maintained in isolation facilities. one group of eight remained in the positive flock as controls. peripheral blood samples from each lamb were e ...199910078600
serosurvey for antibodies to malignant catarrhal fever-associated viruses in free-living and captive cervids in germany.a total of 486 serum samples collected from several species of both free-living and captive cervids in germany was examined for antibodies against malignant catarrhal fever (mcf)-associated viruses (mcfv) by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa). eleven (2%) of these samples were positive for antibodies against mcfv. among 157 serum samples collected from 16 different species of captive deer including four (7%) of 54 fallow deer and one (7%) of 14 sika deer (cervu ...19989813848
[malignant catarrhal fever in zoo ruminants].an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in indian gauer (bos gaurus gaurus) and javan banteng (bos javanicus javanicus) occurred in the year 1964 and killed almost all animals of the groups of these species kept at the munich zoo at that time. in the consecutive years at highly irregular intervals cases of the head-and-eye-form of mcf occurred sporadically at the zoo in european and american bison (bison bonasus, b. bison' bison, b. bison athabascae), elk (alces alces), red deer (cervus e ...19989810608
malignant catarrhal fever caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 in pigs in norway.this paper describes the first cases of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in pigs in which the diagnosis was verified aetiologically by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and dna analysis and by the demonstration of antibodies. three pigs on two separate premises showed clinical signs, gross pathological and histopathological lesions which were in many respects similar to those of mcf in ruminants. the pigs were housed adjacent to sheep and dna of ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) was detected by pcr in ti ...19989829302
field validation of laboratory tests for clinical diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever.until recently, sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) was diagnosed mainly on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathological changes. using clinically diagnosed field cases, we have evaluated a seminested pcr and a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) and compared these assays in the diagnosis of sa-mcf in cattle with histopathology as a provisional "gold standard." samples from 44 cattle with clinical signs suggestive of sa-mcf were examine ...19989738052
chronic and recovered cases of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in cattle.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is traditionally regarded as a disease with a short clinical course, low morbidity and high case fatality rate. owing to the limitations of the assays used for laboratory diagnosis. it was difficult in characterise the clinical spectrum of sheep-associated mcf, particularly when the cattle recovered from an mcf-like clinical syndrome. over a period of three years, 11 cattle that survived mcf for up to two-and-a-half years were identified on four premises. a clinic ...19979178482
transmission of ovine herpesvirus 2 among adult sheep.previous studies from this laboratory have defined the pattern of acquisition of ovine herpesvirus 2 (ohv-2) in lambs under natural flock conditions. this study examined the question of whether ohv-2 could be transmitted between adult sheep. two potential routes of transmission were examined: (1) direct inoculation of either viable leukocytes or whole blood from ohv-2 positive sheep, and (2) horizontal transmission through natural contact with ohv-2 positive sheep. two groups of ohv-2 negative a ...200010665531
recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats.a novel gammaherpesvirus in goats that is herein tentatively designated as caprine herpesvirus-2 was identified based on the sequence of a fragment from the herpesvirus dna polymerase gene. sequence alignment analysis revealed that the virus sequence isolated from goats was 67% identical to the homologous sequence from alcelaphine herpesvirus-1, 71% identical to ovine herpesvirus-2 and 73% identical to a recently recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer. comb ...200111125175
malignant catarrhal fever in bison, acute and chronic cases.acute malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was diagnosed in 10 bison from 6 herds and ranging from 1 to 6 years of age. the pattern of clinical signs and morphologic lesions differed among bison. combinations of corneal opacity, lacrimation, nasal discharge, depression, excess salivation, anorexia, diarrhea, melena, and hematuria were observed. vasculitis characterized by lymphoid infiltrates in the adventia with variable extension into media and intima was found in multiple tissues in each animal. f ...19989683074
identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 infection in sheep.a polymerase chain reaction test for the detection of ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) dna was used to identify sites of ohv-2 infection in peri-natal lambs and in adult sheep. ohv-2 was detected in the nasal secretions from all lambs within a period of two months following birth. subsequently, ohv-2 dna was identified in a number of epithelial tissues including the cornea, turbinates and pharynx. in addition, ohv-2 dna was detected exclusively in b-lymphocytes from six of ten adult sheep tested. an ...19979170507
epizootic malignant catarrhal fever in three bison herds: differences from cattle and association with ovine herpesvirus-2.three bison herds in colorado experienced high mortality from malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). in comparison with cattle, the bison had a more rapidly progressive disease, fewer clinical signs, and milder inflammatory histologic lesions. there was consistent association with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2). contact with sheep was not consistent. of 17 animals in herd a, 15 died of acute mcf; 1 was slaughtered while healthy; and 1 developed clinical signs of mcf, was treated with corticosteroids and ...200011108448
characterisation of the lymphoproliferation in rabbits experimentally affected with malignant catarrhal fever.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in rabbits caused by the three herpesviruses: alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1), ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) and hippotragine herpesvirus-1 (hiphv-1) induced hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues and accumulations of mononuclear lymphoid cells in non-lymphoid tissues. however, certain lymph nodes were affected preferentially. the lymphoid cells in non-lymphoid tissues were cd43+ t-cells which showed evidence of in situ multiplication. a more detailed phenotypic analysis ...19969011003
quantitative fluorogenic pcr assay for measuring ovine herpesvirus 2 replication in sheep.a fluorogenic pcr specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) dna was developed and compared to a previously established conventional seminested pcr. testing of a total of 152 blood samples from both positive and negative animals revealed that the results of both assays corresponded to each other in 100% of the cases. a second fluorogenic pcr for genomic sheep dna was required to normalize the quantity of viral dna in the sample. separate standard curves had to be constructed for each pcr. the ana ...200111139205
newly recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus).malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in a north american zoo. the clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of mcf. antibody to an epitope conserved among the mcf viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. pcr failed to amplify viral sequences from dna extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ...200010747100
an unusual outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in a beef herd in israel.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf. corrizza contagiosa) is an invariably fatal communicable disease in cattle, whose causative agent is the ovine herpes virus-2, or the alcelaphine herpes virus-1. in one feed-lot family farm, 34 calves out of 100 became ill at the rate of one to four calves per week, and all of them subsequently died over a period of 4 months. most of the initial cases were manifested clinically as the head and eye form, but most of the entire clinical spectrum of forms (the respir ...200212241033
recovery of a herpesvirus from a roan antelope (hippotragus equinus).a herpesvirus was recovered in culture from the cells of a roan antelope (hippotragus equinus) following cryopreservation in dmso and it is thought that the dmso may have been involved in reactivation. the virus was shown to be antigenically related to alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) of wildebeest and ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) of domestic sheep (formerly designated the sheep-associated agent of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf]. cloned dna fragments of ahv-1 and ohv-2 cross hybridised with dna ...19911897131
constitutive activation of lck and fyn tyrosine kinases in large granular lymphocytes infected with the gamma-herpesvirus agents of malignant catarrhal fever.large granular lymphocytes (lgl) with a t or natural killer (nk) lymphoblast morphology and indiscriminate (non-major histocompatibility complex-linked) cytotoxicity for a variety of target cells can be derived in culture from the tissues of animals infected with either alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2). in this study, lgl survival in the absence of exogenous interleukin-2 was inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor genestein, but not the p70 s6 kinase inhibito ...200111168636
diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever by pcr using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.a previously described polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay (amplification of a 238-bp fragment of ovine herpesvirus 2 [ohv-2] genomic dna) for diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was adapted for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. variables affecting its use were examined. archived tissues from cattle, white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and bison (bison bison) diagnosed with mcf by clinical signs or histologic lesions were obtained from 2 veteri ...199910098680
levels of ovine herpesvirus 2 dna in nasal secretions and blood of sheep: implications for transmission.a recently developed competitive pcr for ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) was used to examine the levels of viral dna in nasal secretions and peripheral blood leukocytes (pbl) of lambs and adult sheep. viral dna first appeared in the pbl of most lambs after about 3 months of age and the levels remained relatively constant thereafter. in most of the lambs (83%, n=12), viral dna was undetectable by pcr in nasal secretions prior to 5 months of age. a dramatic rise of ovhv-2 dna levels in the nasal secr ...200111267790
experimental transmission of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever from sheep to japanese deer (cervus nippon) and cattle.the assumption that sheep carry ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf), is widely accepted, albeit ovhv-2 has not been isolated. we attempted experimental contact transmission of mcf from japanese sheep persistently infected with ovhv-2 to japanese deer (cervus nippon) and cattle. in experiment 1, a deer was kept in close quarters with an infected ewe. in experiment 2, a second deer was kept with the same ewe. in experiment 3, two ...200111230931
phenotype, growth regulation and cytokine transcription in ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2)-infected bovine t-cell lines.the causal agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2), can be propagated in il-2-dependent lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from diseased cattle and deer providing a useful model for the investigation of the pathogenesis of mcf. in this study, five interleukin-2 (il-2)-dependent cell lines were established from affected cattle to examine their growth regulation and cytokine transcription. all cell lines expressed cd2, cd5 and cd25. three of the cell l ...19989847021
[malignant catarrhal fever in switzerland. 1.epidemiology].malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a usually fatal infectious disease of cattle with global distribution. based on the recent introduction of a diagnostic pcr assay and a competitive inhibition elisa (cielisa) epidemiological data were collected on field cases in switzerland. throughout a three-year period, an mcf incidence of 0.6@1000 was observed, with a gradient of cases from eastern to western switzerland. while the cantons wallis, vaud and geneva reported no and the remaining western canton ...200111344942
ovine herpesvirus-2 glycoprotein b sequences from tissues of ruminant malignant catarrhal fever cases and healthy sheep are highly conserved.ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) infection has been associated with malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in susceptible ruminants. in order to further investigate whether ohv-2 is an aetiological agent for sheep-associated (sa) mcf in cattle and bison, the entire sequences of ohv-2 glycoprotein b (gb) from different sources of viral dna were compared. target dna was derived from tissues of bovine and bison cases of sa-mcf, from a lymphoblastoid cell line established from another bovine case of sa-mcf, and ...200111602790
transmission of ovine herpesvirus 2 in lambs.the pattern of acquisition of ovine herpesvirus 2 (ohv-2) infection in lambs was examined by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pcr. newborn lambs (n = 118) did not exhibit antibody at birth. viral dna in peripheral blood leukocytes was detected in only 3% (n = 77) of newborn lambs before suckling. after nursing, viral dna was sporadically present in about 10 to 20% of lambs until about 3 months of age. thereafter, strong dna signals began to appear in increasing numb ...19989431952
detection and multigenic characterization of a novel gammaherpesvirus in goats.evidence for the existence of a caprine gammaherpesvirus was obtained by analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes of goats with pcr assays that target the herpesvirus genes encoding the glycoprotein b (gb), the dna polymerase (dpol) and the terminase (term) with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. a contiguous 3.6 kbp sequence extending from the gb to the dpol gene was then determined with specific primers. all sequences (gb, dpol and term) showed a close relationship with the corres ...200111311431
evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (ovibos moschatus), nubian ibex (capra nubiana), and gemsbok (oryx gazella).six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1) carried by wildebeest (connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (cphv-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic mcf in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus; mcfv-wtd). ...200314733283
detection of a novel bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus.degenerate pcr primers which amplify a conserved region of the dna polymerase genes of the herpesvirus family were used to provide sequence evidence for a new bovine herpesvirus in bovine b-lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc). the sequence of the resultant amplicon was found to be distinct from those of known herpesvirus isolates. alignment of amino acid sequences demonstrated 70% identity with ovine herpesvirus 2, 69% with alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, 65% with bovine herp ...19989557713
seroprevalence of ohv-2, bvdv, bhv-1, and brsv in ranch-raised bison (bison bison).serum samples were collected at slaughter from 226 24-30-month-old american bison (bison bison) bulls from kansas, minnesota, north dakota, and manitoba and assayed for antibodies to ovine herpesvirus type-2 (ohv-2), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine herpesvirus type-1 (bhv-1), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). antibodies were detected by serum neutralization for bvdv, bhv-1, and brsv, while antibodies to ohv-2 were detected by competitive inhibition-elisa (ci-elisa). detec ...200212680649
detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 in kenyan sheep by polymerase chain reaction. 19979290198
investigation of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus infection in ruminants by pcr and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.development of control measures for the gammaherpesviral disease of cattle known as sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) has been hampered by a lack of accurate diagnostic tests either for the causative virus or for antibody against that virus. a recently developed competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) for the detection of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) virus (mcfv) in ruminants based on a monoclonal antibody to a widely conserved epitope ...19957559946
pcr detection of the sheep-associated agent of malignant catarrhal fever.from a genomic library previously constructed from a lymphoblastoid cell line (lcl) propagated from a bovine case of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf), caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2), several ohv-2 clones were identified and characterised by hybridisation using probes from the unique region of the alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (avh-1) genome. nucleotide sequence from one clone was generated and the predicted amino acid sequence was found to contain regions of homology with t ...19938352654
pcr detection of ovine herpesvirus-2 dna in indonesian ruminants--normal sheep and clinical cases of malignant catarrhal fever.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), a fatal viral disease of cattle and other large ruminants, has a worldwide distribution. there are two forms of the disease, one of which, is caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (ahv-1) and is derived from wildebeest. the other form is associated with domestic sheep and is caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2). the disease in indonesia is sheep-associated with the preferred livestock of this area, balinese cattle (bos javanicus) and water buffalo (bubalus bubalis ...19947839584
detection of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus antibodies by complement fixation tests.some serological diagnosis methods and examinations for detection of antibodies to sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) infection were investigated. the wildebeest-associated mcf virus strain wc11 propagated on fetal bovine thyroid cell cultures was used as an antigen. antibodies were detected by complement fixation (cf) tests in cattle pathologically diagnosed as having sheep-associated mcf, as well as in cattle experimentally infected with mcf virus strain wc11. however, immunodiff ...19968645750
serum antibody prevalence of malignant catarrhal fever viruses in seven wildlife species from alaska.blood samples were collected from seven species of free-ranging ungulates in alaska. sera were tested for evidence of exposure to malignant catarrhal fever viruses (mcfv) by means of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. antibody prevalences were as follows: muskox (ovibos moschatus) 100 positive samples of 104 tested (96%); dall sheep (ovis dalli) 212 of 222 (95%); elk (cervus elaphus) 14 of 51 (27%); bison (bison bison) 34 of 197 (17%); caribou (rangifer tarandus) nine of 232 (4%); ...200212238366
gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order artiodactyla at whipsnade wild animal park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) of wildebeest (connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. gamma herpesvirus dna was detected in the kno ...200212208112
analysis of the pathogenetic basis for shedding and transmission of ovine gamma herpesvirus 2.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), a member of the viral subfamily gammaherpesvirinae, shares numerous similarities with human herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8). both viruses are apathogenic in their healthy original host, may cause lymphoprolipherative diseases, cannot routinely be propagated in cell culture, and may be sexually transmitted. however, the pathways of sexual transmission of these viruses, as well as the underlying pathogenetic dynamics, are not well understood. organs from naturally ovhv-2-infect ...200212454175
outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in welsh black cattle in carmarthenshire.an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) resulted in the deaths of 12 cattle in a herd of 77 animals during seven weeks in 1999; in addition, one cow developed a milder disease which was confirmed as mcf by pcr for ovine herpesvirus 2 dna and an immunofluorescent antibody test for antibodies to the virus, but recovered. further pcr and serological testing revealed the infection in three other animals, none of which developed clinical disease. hypocuprosis and the possibility of a genetic p ...200212356235
caprine herpesvirus-2 in association with naturally occurring malignant catarrhal fever in captive sika deer (cervus nippon).three female sika deer from a single captive herd were submitted for postmortem examination over a 139-day period. the first 2 deer submitted were reported to have lost body mass for 20 days to 1 month before euthanasia. one of these deer had diarrhea, the other had a crusting dermatitis on the nasal planum and inner aspects of both pinnae. the third hind did not have any signs of disease before it was found seizuring and was immediately euthanatized. microscopically, all 3 animals had a lymphoc ...200312661731
ovine herpesvirus 2 lytic cycle replication and capsid production.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) causes malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, pigs and deer. we have observed intact circular and linear ovhv-2 genomes in infected t cell lines derived from cows and rabbits. bovine t cell lines were predominantly latently infected but rabbit t cell lines supported ovhv-2 productive cycle gene expression and virus capsids were demonstrated for the first time.200212466476
polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing for detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 in american bison (bison bison).serum samples were collected at slaughter from 226 24-30-month-old ranch-raised, clinically normal american bison (bison bison) bulls from north dakota, minnesota, kansas, and manitoba to assess the presence of antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 (ohv-2). antibodies to ohv-2 were detected by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 10 of 226 (4.40%) samples. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis of sera positive for ohv-2 dna demonstrated a 238 kilobase fragment. the nucleoti ...200212680642
detection of two novel porcine herpesviruses with high similarity to gammaherpesviruses.evidence for the existence of porcine gammaherpesviruses was obtained by pcr and sequence analysis. initially, samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc), spleens, lungs, kidneys and livers of pigs from germany and spain were tested with a pcr assay which targets conserved regions of the herpesvirus dna polymerase gene with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. amplicons of identical sequence were obtained from one spleen and two pbmc samples. this sequence showed a high per ...199910211967
a simpler, more sensitive competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever viruses.an earlier competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ci-elisa) was developed for detection of specific antibody against malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) viruses (mcfv) in ruminants. in this study, the indirect ci-elisa was improved by conjugating the monoclonal antibody 15-a directly with horseradish peroxidase and by developing a method of producing precoated, dried antigen plates. this new test is referred to as a direct ci-elisa. the reformatted test yielded a significantly imp ...200111478614
the vascular lesions of a cow and bison with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever contain ovine herpesvirus 2-infected cd8(+) t lymphocytes.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a herpesvirus disease syndrome of ruminants. the microscopic pathology of mcf is characterized by lymphoid proliferation and infiltration, necrotizing vasculitis and epithelial necrosis. because previous attempts to detect viral antigen or nucleic acids in lesions have been unsuccessful, the pathogenesis of the lesions in acute mcf has been speculated to involve mechanisms of autoimmunity and lymphocyte dysregulation. in this study, the vascular lesions in the ...200312867630
[malignant catarrhal fever in switzerland: 2. evaluation of the diagnosis].malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a mostly fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle. in 1995 a pcr based method was introduced for the detection of the ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), which is regarded as the causative agent of the sheep-associated form of the disease. this pcr can be regarded as a gold standard for the in vivo diagnosis of sheep-associated mcf in cattle (müller-doblies et al., 1998). this semi-nested pcr was now used as a reference test for the reassessment of diagnostic crit ...200111776716
sequence variation at a bmy i/rsa i restriction site in ovine herpes virus 2.dna samples extracted from a bovine brain, one blood and one buffy coat sample from three cattle with malignant catarrhal fever, and from 47 samples of pooled sheep sera, were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers specific for ovine herpes virus 2 (ohv-2). confirmation of the specificity of the amplified dna segment by restriction enzyme analysis with rsa i and bmy i as described by baxter et al. was obtained in most samples. nine amplified dna samples could not be di ...200314580394
identification and quantification of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 dna in fresh and stored tissues of pigs with symptoms of porcine malignant catarrhal fever.cases of porcine malignant catarrhal fever were analyzed by a combination of identification and quantitation of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 dna in a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues from diseased pigs, serology, and exclusion of primary porcine gammaherpesviruses. in spite of reduced signal due to fixation and paraffin embedding, ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 dna in pig brains exceeded the amounts found in sheep brains by orders of magnitude.200312574312
isolation and expression of three open reading frames from ovine herpesvirus-2.ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2), a member of the gammaherpesviruses (genus rhadinovirus), asymptomatically infects its natural host, the sheep, but causes malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in susceptible hosts, such as cattle, deer and pigs. a permissive cell culture system for virus replication has not been identified but viral dna is present within lymphoblastoid cell lines (lcls) established from cases of mcf. during this study, a cdna expression library generated from lcls was screened with sheep ...200211842248
detection and multigenic characterization of a herpesvirus associated with malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from missouri.between 1998 and 2001, tissues from four captive white-tailed deer were observed to have histologic lesions of systemic lymphocytic vasculitis. these lesions suggested malignant catarrhal fever, although epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue were included in the differential diagnosis. initial diagnostic efforts, including virus isolation and reverse transcription-pcr for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and bluetongue virus, failed to identify an etiologic agent. however, consensus pr ...200211923350
sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus: prospects for vaccine development.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever is emerging as a significant problem for several ruminant species worldwide. the inability to propagate the causative agent, ovine herpesvirus 2, in vitro has seriously hindered research efforts in the development of effective programs for control of the disease in clinically susceptible hosts. recent molecular technologic advances have provided powerful tools for investigating this difficult-to-study virus. identification of the infectious virus source ...200616451115
malignant catarrhal fever-like disease in sheep after intranasal inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2.a malignant catarrhal fever (mcf)-like disease was induced experimentally in 3 sheep after aerosol inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2). each of 3 ovhv-2-negative sheep was nebulized with 2 ml of nasal secretions containing approximately 3.07 x 10(9) ovhv-2 dna copies from a sheep experiencing an intensive viral-shedding episode. ovine herpesvirus-2 dna became detectable by polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood leukocytes of all 3 sheep within 3 days, and all 3 seroconverted ...200515825499
malignant catarrhal fever in a bison (bison bison) feedlot, 1993-2000.a fatal enteric syndrome was identified in american bison (bison bison) at a large feedlot in the american midwest in early 1998. an estimated 150 bison died of the syndrome between january 1998 and december 1999. the syndrome was identified as malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), primarily the alimentary form. clinical onset was acute, and most affected bison died within 1-3 days; none recovered. consistent lesions were hemorrhagic cystitis, ulcerative enterotyphlocolitis, and arteritis-phlebitis. ...200212033673
effect of passive transfer of maternal immune components on infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 in lambs.to define the role of passively tranferred immunity in protection against early infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) in lambs.200212013459
transmission of caprine herpesvirus 2 in domestic goats.caprine herpesvirus 2 (cphv-2) is a recently recognized gammaherpesvirus that is endemic in domestic goats and has been observed to cause clinical malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in certain species of deer. in this study, transmission of cphv-2 in goats was examined. a total of 30 kids born to a cphv-2 positive goat herd were selected and divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) remained in the positive herd; group 2 (n=14) was separated from the herd at 1 week of age after obtaining colostrum. p ...200515795075
mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.two sika deer from a zoo in florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. no common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. one deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. the predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polym ...200212322924
[virus in sheep's skin].in a double sense, the ovine gamma herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2) is a virus in sheep's skin. not only is it present world wide in all sheep breeds but also it causes malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in cattle pigs, elk, and bison. ovhv-2 cannot be propagated in cell culture. therefore, new results from ovhv-2 research are based on molecular techniques and may be summarized as follows. ovhv-2 is transmitted by respiratory routes as well as by sexual intercourse. lambs are infected within the first f ...200515861922
a real-time pcr assay for measuring alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 dna.alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) is a rhadinovirus that causes malignant catarrhal fever in certain ruminant species and is an important pathogen in africa and other areas where carrier species and clinically susceptible ruminants intermingle. in this study, a real-time pcr for alhv-1 dna was developed and compared to an established nested pcr. the nested pcr amplifies a region of the alhv-1 gene coding for a transactivator protein (orf 50), while the real-time pcr assay targets the alhv-1 gen ...200515998545
malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in colorado.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in january and february of 2003. diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and pcr identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (ohv-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. the animals were from the uncompahgre plateau of southwestern colorado. deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (ovis aries), the reservoir host of ...200717699095
evaluation of ovine herpesvirus type 2 infections, as detected by competitive inhibition elisa and polymerase chain reaction assay, in dairy cattle without clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever.to monitor ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2) infection status and the association between ovhv-2 infection and development of clinical signs of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in cattle.200516117071
characterization of bison bison major histocompatibility complex class iia haplotypes.american bison (bison bison) and domestic cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus) evolved from a common ancestor 1-1.4 million years ago. nevertheless, they show dramatic differences in their susceptibility to infectious diseases, including malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). although bison are highly susceptible to ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) associated mcf, about 20% of healthy domesticated and wild bison are positive for ovhv-2 antibody. we are interested in testing the hypothesis that, within the ...200516331512
a devastating outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in a bison feedlot.in early 2003, an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) occurred in a bison feedlot in southern idaho. the outbreak resulted in a 51.2% (n = 825) mortality rate among bison, which had been exposed to sheep for 19 days. diagnosis was made by detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 (sheep-associated mcf virus) dna in tissues or peripheral blood by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and by histological examination of tissue lesions. peak losses occurred between 41 and 55 days postmean exposure time (p ...200616566270
differential transcription of ovine herpesvirus 2 genes in lymphocytes from reservoir and susceptible species.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is a lymphotropic gammaherpesvirus that asymptomatically infects most sheep, but causes malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, bison, pigs and deer. there is no permissive cell culture system but ovhv-2-infected t lymphocytes can be cultured from diseased animals. we showed that the ovhv-2 genome was in a circular conformation in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells and that the latency-associated orf73 was transcribed, while expression of the productive cycle gene ...200616525732
pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections.gammaherpesviruses are members of an emerging subfamily among the herpesviridae. two genera are discriminated: (i) lymphocryptovirus, including its type species epstein-barr virus (ebv), and (ii) rhadinovirus, including viruses of interest for medicine, veterinary medicine, and biomedical research, i.e. alcelaphine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, equine herpesvirus 2, human herpesvirus 8, mouse herpesvirus 68, and ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). the perception that these viruses have a narrow ...200616332416
[porcine malignant catarrhal fever: diagnostic findings and first detection of the pathogenic agent in diseased swine in switzerland].for the first time ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) was identified in swiss pigs as the causative agent of porcine malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). diseased animals from two farms were observed to show weakness, anorexia, fever up to 41 degrees c, and neurological symptoms, i.e. ataxia, convulsions and hyperesthesia, erosion on the snout and in the oral and nasal mucosa, as well as multiple skin lesions. histopathological findings included severe non-purulent inflammation with mononuclear cell infil ...200312649951
an outbreak of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in bison (bison bison) after exposure to sheep at a public auction sale.an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) among bison sold at an auction market was studied for an 18-month period. forty-five of 163 bison submitted for sale from 8 different bison farms died on 7 other destination farms. the outbreak began on day 50 after the sale, peaked between days 60 and 70, and ended on day 220. twenty-one dead bison were confirmed to be mcf cases by clinical histories, pathology, and detection of ovine herpesvirus-2 dna in their tissues with polymerase chain reactio ...200515690951
resistance to malignant catarrhal fever in american bison (bison bison) is associated with mhc class iia polymorphisms.the rhadinovirus ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) is the most common causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in clinically susceptible ruminants including cattle and bison. american bison (bison bison) are highly susceptible to clinical mcf. nevertheless, approximately 20% of bison on ranches or in feedlots become infected with the virus without developing clinical disease. defining the genetic basis for differences in susceptibility between bison could facilitate development of improved ...200717326800
probable malignant catarrhal fever presented as transient generalised crusting dermatitis in a cow.case history: a 2-year-old crossbred cow developed crusting ulcerative lesions that covered approximately 40% of the body. they were first observed 2 weeks after the cow calved, and were most severe over the caudal aspect of the proximal hindlegs and perineum. clinical findings and diagnosis: generalised variably confluent 1-2-cm diameter foci of ulceration and crusting were visible. no ocular or oral lesions were visible, and the cow did not have diarrhoea. skin biopsies revealed lesions consis ...200818408797
experimental transmission of ovine herpesvirus-2 in sheep.transmission of ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) in sheep via natural contact and nasal secretions was examined. ovhv-2-free lambs were produced by separating newborn lambs from their mothers within 5 days of birth and raising them in an isolation facility. transmission experiments via natural contact were conducted by keeping ovhv-2-free lambs with ovhv-2-infected sheep of different ages. six of the infected ewes in this experiment were pregnant and gave birth during the experimental period. ovhv-2 ...200415528844
shedding of ovine herpesvirus 2 in sheep nasal secretions: the predominant mode for transmission.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), the major causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in ruminant species worldwide, has never been propagated in vitro. using real-time pcr, a striking, short-lived, peak of viral dna, ranging from 10(5) to over 10(8) copies/2 microg of dna, was detected in nasal secretions from over 60.7% of adolescent sheep (n = 56) at some point during the period from 6 to 9 months of age. in contrast, only about 18% of adult sheep (n = 33) experienced a shedding episode during ...200415583281
immunohistochemical study of experimental malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is an often-fatal lymphoproliferative disease of a variety of ungulates that occurs worldwide. it is caused by either of the highly related but distinct gammaherpesviruses alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1, wildebeest reservoir) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2, sheep reservoir). mcf in rabbits is an excellent model as it closely resembles the disease in susceptible ungulates that include cattle, deer and bison. in this study, newly available and previously characte ...200717374379
malignant catarrhal fever-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 infection in three goats.this is the first description of malignant catarrhal fever-like lesions associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) infection in goats with central nervous symptoms. the diagnosis was based on typical histological lesions characterized by systemic lymphohistiocytic and fibrinoid vasculitis and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the detected ovhv-2 sequences.200717543478
validation of nonnested and real-time pcr for diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in clinical samples.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf), a frequently fatal disease primarily of certain ruminants, is caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). molecular diagnosis of sa-mcf in affected animals has relied on detection of ovhv-2 dna using a nested pcr, which has significant potential for amplicon contamination as a routine method in diagnostic laboratories. in this report, a nonnested and a previously developed real-time pcr were validated for detection of ovhv-2 dna in samples from cl ...200717609352
outbreak of wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever in ankole cattle.during an outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in a herd of ankole cattle in a zoological collection, two adult cows and one adult bull from a herd of 15 died or were euthanased between july and november 2004. the clinical, gross postmortem and histological findings were typical of the disease in uk native domestic cattle. the diagnosis was confirmed by serology in two animals, and by pcr in all three; the pcr provided evidence of alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 infection in all three animals an ...200718024925
discrimination between sheep-associated and wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus by means of a single-tube duplex nested pcr.a single-tube duplex nested polymerase chain reaction (sdn-pcr) was developed for the detection of and discrimination between ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) and alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (aihv-1). these viruses respectively cause sheep- and wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf and wa-mcf). in the first step of the sdn-pcr, two primers with high annealing temperatures based on conserved regions of the tegument genes were used for dna amplification. in the second step, two primer ...200516562731
intra-nasal inoculation of american bison (bison bison) with ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) reliably reproduces malignant catarrhal fever.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) due to infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is common in commercial herds of american bison ( bison bison). inability to propagate ovhv-2 in vitro has been a constraint on experimental studies of the disease. we sought to establish whether nasal secretions from sheep that shed ovhv-2 might induce the disease in bison and to define a minimum challenge dose. fourteen bison were nebulized with sheep nasal sections containing 10(3)-10(7) ovhv-2 ...200717846237
experimental aerosol infection of cattle (bos taurus) with ovine herpesvirus 2 using nasal secretions from infected sheep.infection of clinically susceptible ruminants, including domesticated cattle and american bison, with ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) can result in the fatal lymphoproliferative and vasculitis syndrome known as malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). a reliable experimental infection model is needed to study the pathogenesis of mcf and to develop effective vaccination strategies to control the disease. an experimental aerosol infection model using sheep, the natural carriers of ovhv-2, has been developed ...200616621344
detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 major capsid gene transcripts as an indicator of virus replication in shedding sheep and clinically affected animals.the aim of this study was to identify tissues where ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) replication occurs in vivo. a reverse-transcriptase pcr targeting the ovhv-2 major capsid protein gene (orf 25) was developed and the presence of transcripts used as an indicator of virus replication in naturally infected sheep, and cattle and bison with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf). orf 25 transcripts were detected in 18 of 60 (30%) turbinate, trachea, and lung samples from five sheep experie ...200818054405
occurrence of ovine herpesvirus type-2 infection in sheep and cattle in samsun province, turkey.july 2004, a cow with clinical signs of ovine herpesvirus type-2 infection which is known as sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf) was reported in samsun province in turkey. blood samples were collected from the suspected cow, 10 sheep housed with it, and from 150 healthy sheep and 29 healthy cattle randomly selected from different places in samsun province. nested polymerase chain reaction (n-pcr) was used to detect ovine herpesvirus type-2 (ovhv-2) dna in the suspected cow and co ...200617009812
demonstration of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virions in sheep nasal secretions.ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) is the causative agent for sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever, which has never been propagated in vitro. previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated significantly high levels of ovhv-2 dna in sheep nasal secretions, suggesting a likely avenue of transmission. in the present study, real-time pcr was used to identify sheep experiencing an episode of intense ovhv-2 dna shedding in their nasal secretions. a nuclease-resistance assay was used to examine the ...200314659558
malignant catarrhal fever in pigs and a genetic comparison of porcine and ruminant virus isolates in finland.an outbreak of the sheep-associated form of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) in a finnish sow herd was diagnosed by histopathology and confirmed by pcr. several gilts and sows were suffering from high fever and anorexia and had aborted, and six of them had died. typical signs of lymphoproliferation and vasculitis were observed histologically in several tissues, including the uterus. ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) was detected by pcr in two sows. sequences of the ovhv-2 tegument protein gene obtaine ...200616997996
complete sequence and analysis of the ovine herpesvirus 2 genome.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is endemic in sheep populations worldwide and causes malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), a lymphoproliferative disease, in cattle, bison and deer. ovhv-2 has been placed in the gammaherpesvirus subfamily and is related closely to alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1). here, the cloning, sequencing and analysis of the complete ovhv-2 genome derived from a lymphoblastoid cell line from an affected cow (bj1035) are reported. the unique portion of the genome consists of 130,93 ...200717170433
comparison of ovine herpesvirus 2 genomes isolated from domestic sheep (ovis aries) and a clinically affected cow (bos bovis).the rhadinovirus ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever. ovhv-2 primarily affects ruminants and has a worldwide distribution. in this study, a composite sequence of ovhv-2 genomic dna isolated from nasal secretions of sheep experiencing virus-shedding episodes was determined and compared with the sequence of ovhv-2 dna isolated from a lymphoblastoid cell line derived from a clinically affected cow. the study confirmed the ovhv-2 sequence ...200717170434
malignant catarrhal fever in free-ranging cervids associated with ovhv-2 and cphv-2 dna.pathologic lesions were summarized in 18 free-ranging cervids (15 moose [alces alces], two roe deer [capreolus capreolus], and one red deer [cervus elaphus]) diagnosed with malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) after examination at the national veterinary institute, oslo 1982-2005. eye lesions (conjunctivitis, corneal opacity, fibrin clots in the anterior eye chamber) were the most frequent gross finding. erosive-ulcerative mucosal lesions in the nose and mouth were also commonly found. histopathology ...200617255446
experimental infection of sheep with ovine herpesvirus 2 via aerosolization of nasal secretions.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in clinically susceptible ruminants, including cattle, bison and deer. studies of ovhv-2 have been hampered by the lack of an in vitro propagation system. here, the use of nasal secretions collected from ovhv-2-infected sheep experiencing intense virus shedding episodes as a source of infectious virus for experimental animal infections was examined. ovhv-2 uninfected sheep were nebulized with nasal ...200515722516
molecular epidemiology of ovine herpesvirus type 2 infection in kashmir, india.the aims of this investigation were to determine the prevalence of ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2) (the causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever) infection in cattle, the carrier status of sheep and goats, and to define the pattern of acquisition of ovhv-2 in lambs under natural flock conditions in kashmir, india. none of the buffy coat samples from 21 lambs contained ovhv-2 dna sequences up to 28 days after birth, only one lamb had sequences of ovhv-2 dna as early as 29 days after birth, ...200617071670
systemic disease in vaal rhebok (pelea capreolus) caused by mycoplasmas in the mycoides cluster.in the winter of 2002, an outbreak of mycoplasma infection in vaal rhebok (pelea capreolus) originating from south africa occurred 15 weeks after their arrival in san diego, calif. three rhebok developed inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, signs related to pulmonary or arthral dysfunction, and sepsis. all three rhebok died or were euthanized. primary postmortem findings were erosive tracheitis, pleuropneumonia, regional cellulitis, and necrotizing lymphadenitis. mycoplasmas were detected in nume ...200515750104
malignant catarrhal fever: a review.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle and other ungulates caused by the ruminant gamma-herpesviruses alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). these viruses cause inapparent infection in their reservoir hosts (wildebeest for alhv-1 and sheep for ovhv-2), but fatal lymphoproliferative disease when they infect mcf-susceptible hosts, including cattle, deer, bison, water buffalo and pigs. mcf is an important disease wherever reser ...200918760944
bilateral perirenal hemorrhage in two stone's sheep (ovis dalli stonei): a possible manifestation of malignant catarrhal fever.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf)-like disease was diagnosed at postmortem in 2 stone's sheep (ovis dalli stonei). on gross examination, the predominant abnormality in both sheep was severe perirenal hemorrhage and multiple renal infarcts. microscopically, there was severe, multisystemic lymphocytic arteritis. both sheep were positive for ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) on polymerase chain reaction, and partial sequencing of the viral dna polymerase genes from the 2 sheep revealed >99% homology, with ...200818776110
development of a management program for a mixed species wildlife park following an occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever.during late 2001 and early 2002, a mixed species wildlife park in north carolina experienced an acute outbreak of morbidity and mortality in pere david's deer (elaphurus davidianus), axis deer (axis axis), blackbuck antelope (antelope cervicapra), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus). clinical signs varied from fulminant disease, progressing from depression to bloody scours to death in fewer than 4 days in pere david's deer, to a more protracted for ...200818817000
gammaherpesvirus carrier status of black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) in south africa.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is an economically important disease primarily of domestic cattle with a high case fatality rate. it is caused by either alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (alhv-1) or ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2). the major reservoir host of alhv-1 is the blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), but it is generally accepted that the black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) is also a reservoir host. no viral studies in the black wildebeest have been reported and the carrier status of ...200819244822
malignant catarrhal fever in a captive american bison (bison bison) in italy.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a fatal, systemic disease of cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants that, in europe, is caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2). american bison (bison bison) are highly susceptible to the disease. an adult american bison, housed in a zoo in southern italy in close cohabitation with a group of domestic sheep (ovis aries aries) displayed clinical signs that resembled the acute form of mcf. by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ovhv-2 dna was detected intra ...200818987244
prevalence of ovine herpesvirus type 2 in north-west portugal. 200818310564
a captured viral interleukin 10 gene with cellular exon structure.we have characterized a novel, captured and fully functional viral interleukin (il)-10 homologue ((ovhv)il-10) from the gammaherpesvirus ovine herpesvirus 2. unlike il-10 homologues from other gammaherpesviruses, the (ovhv)il-10 peptide sequence was highly divergent from that of the host species. the (ovhv)il-10 gene is unique amongst virus captured genes in that it has precisely retained the original cellular exon structure, having five exons of similar sizes to the cellular counterparts. howev ...200818796712
studies on the aetiology of non-suppurative encephalitis in pigs.thirty-eight natural cases of aetiologically unclear non-suppurative encephalitis in pigs were studied retrospectively. brain samples were examined for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv-2), porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (prrsv), porcine enteroviruses (pevs), ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2), borna disease virus (bdv) and suid herpesvirus type 1 (suhv-1) by molecular biological and immunohistochemical methods. histological examination of the brains revealed var ...200717951563
experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions.malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. outside of africa mcf is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. cell-free virus is present in nasal secretions of shedding sheep and aerosol is the primary mode of transmission. although ovhv-2 has never been propagated in vitro, experimental infection involving intranasal nebulization with nasal secretions ...200818539411
ovine herpesvirus 2 structural proteins in epithelial cells and m-cells of the appendix in rabbits with malignant catarrhal fever.sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), is a usually fatal disease of various ruminants and swine. a system for propagation of ovhv-2 in vitro has not yet been identified, although persistently infected cells have been derived from diseased animals and used to establish an animal model in rabbits. ovhv-2 structural proteins have not been detected in diseased animals and the pathogenesis of ovhv-2 infection is poorly understood. recently, the geno ...200919249164
ovine herpesvirus 2 replicates initially in the lung of experimentally infected sheep.ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), a rhadinovirus in the subfamily gammaherpesvirinae, is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (sa-mcf), a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease primarily of ruminants worldwide. inability to propagate the virus in vitro has made it difficult to study ovhv-2 replication. aerosol inoculation of sheep with ovhv-2 from nasal secretions collected from naturally infected sheep during shedding episodes results in infection of naive sheep, ...200818559941
ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis in sheep flocks.outbreaks of ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis occurred in three commercial sheep flocks in england and wales. between 29 and 44 per cent of the ewes were affected; most of the lesions resolved in three weeks. pathogens such as mycoplasmas, which have previously been associated with these conditions, were not detected despite using improved laboratory techniques. in one of the flocks, ovine herpesvirus type 2 was detected by pcr in the blood of two acutely affected ewes, from the vulval ulcers o ...200818641377
outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever among cattle associated with a state livestock exhibition.severe disease and death were identified in cattle exhibited at a state fair that were naturally infected with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (ovhv-2).201020590500
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