specific immunity and nonspecific resistance to infection: listeria, protozoa, and viruses in mice and hamsters,.specific immunity developed by mice against protozoan (toxoplasma gondii and besnoitia jellisoni) and bacterial (listeria monocytogenes) infections was compared with nonspecific protection conferred by prior infections. the results indicated that homologous immunity protected mice from more than 10-5 ld50 of t. gondii or b. jellisoni, but from only 10-2 ld50 of l. monocytogenes. heterospecific protection among these organisms was for 10-0.4 minus 10-1.2 ld50. in studies in hamsters specific immu ...1975165241
mitochondrial and herpesvirus-specific deoxypyrimidine characterize and compare the thymidine (tdr) and deoxycytidine (cdr) kinase isozymes of uninfected and herpesvirus-infected cells: (i) the subcellular distribution of the isozymes has been studied; (ii) a specific assay for cdr kinase has been devised; (iii) the tdr kinase isozymes have been partially purified; and (iv) the purified enzymes have been analyzed by disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and glycerol gradient centrifugation and by substrate competition and ...1975169387
replication of equine herpesvirus type i: resistance to hydroxyurea. 1975170739
virus-induced abortion. studies of equine herpesvirus 1 (abortion virus) in hamsters.a hamster-adapted strain of equine herpesvirus-1 (equine abortion virus) caused severe hepatic degeneration in both pregnant and nonpregnant hamsters and, in addition, regularly induced abortion in pregnant hamsters inoculated at midgestation. in nonpregnant hamsters, the only consistently affected organ was the liver despite a prolonged viremia. newborn animals usually died 1 to 2 days after inoculation; adults died 5 to 9 days after inoculation. in pregnant hamsters, the virus had a tropism fo ...1975171478
equine herpesvirus-induced alterations in nuclear rna and dna polymerase activities. 1975173079
transcription of equine herpesvirus type 1: evidence for classes of transcripts differing in abundance. 1975173082
experimental studies on equine herpesvirus type 1 infections.the ehv-1 viruses of fetal origin grew better and had a wider tissue culture host range than those isolated from horses with respiratory diseases. comparisons of a fetal isolate (f/304) and a respiratory disease isolate (r/nm-3) in partly immune horses showed that the f/304 virus infected horses more readily, grew better in the nasopharynx, was more likely to cause abortion, and was excreted to a greater extent into the environment.1975173849
equine herpesvirus in vivo: cyclic production of a dna density variant with repetitive sequences. 1976176793
[developmental stages of herpesvirus-equi-1 in nasal mucosa cells]. 1976176846
capsomeres of herpesvirus-equi-l in thin sections. 1976176974
viral respiratory infections. 1976177853
abortion associated with mixed leptospira/equid herpesvirus 1 infection. 1976178087
practical aspects of equine virus abortion in the united kingdom.the current knowledge of the clinical signs, epidemiology and pathogenesis of abortion due to the equid herpesvirus (ehv 1) is reviewed. the relationship between the respiratory and abortigenic forms of the disease is discussed as well as the low incidence of virus abortion in the uk compared to some other parts of the world. some practical aspects of the disease as they affect stud management are considered including methods of diagnosis, prophylaxis and the necessary action to be taken to prev ...1976178088
[case of rhinopneumonia in horses in kirghizia]. 1976178089
serological study of an outbreak of paresis due to equid herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1).six cases of paresis occurred in a swedish stud with 48 mares and a stallion. complement-fixation tests revealed a recent infection with ehv-1 in most horses of the stud. serumneutralisation tests showed rapid antibody-titre increases during the course of the disease. this type of antibody response was interpreted as induced by reinfection or, possibly, recurrent infection. two diseased mares were sacrificed. no virus could be isolated from their central nervous system (cns), liver or spleen, bu ...1976181891
letter: isolation and characterisation of equine herpes virus type 1. 1976183339
equine herpesviruses. 6. sequential infection of horses with types 2, 3 and 1.the immunological and virological status of 3 foals in respect of equine herpesviruses (ehv) was established and the foals were sequentially infected with ehv2, ehv3 and ehv1. following experimental infection with ehv2, no clinical signs of disease were observed in any foal. the inoculation of ehv3 into the genital tract resulted in lesions of the mucous membrane and perineal skin that were considered typical of equine coital exanthema. following intransal inoculation of ehv3 extensive ulceratio ...1976183644
[infection of hela cells by herpes virus of horses type 1 in different temperature and dose of the virus (author's transl)]. 1976183896
[persistent infection of stable cell cultures by herpes virus of horses type 1 (author's transl)]. 1976183897
[combined vaccination plan against influenza, equine rhinopneumonitis and tetanus for thoroughbred horses]. 1976183944
in vitro cytotoxicity of serum and peripheral blood leukocytes for equine herpesvirus type 1-infected target cells.the immune response in horses following experimental infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was assessed by measuring cytotoxicity for ehv-1-infected target cells. a technique was developed, using [125i]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([125i]iudr)-labeled equine fetal kidney cells infected with ehv-1 as the target cells. it was shown that peripheral blood leukocytes from a recovered horse were capable of lysing target cells, as measured by the loss of radio-active label. following the experimen ...1977189645
failure to demonstrate equine rhinopneumonitis virus as a cause of abortion in mares in new zealand. 1976190568
herpesvirus transcription: altered regulation induced by fudr. 1977190769
infectious causes of equine respiratory disease on ontario standardbred racetracks.upper respiratory disease has been a serious problem in standardbred horses on racetracks in ontario, with outbreaks occurring once or twice annually in late winter and early spring seasons. to determine the causes of these epidemics, a 3-year investigation was carried out in which nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained at intervals from apparently healthy horses and from horses suffering from upper respiratory disease. the nasal swabs were used to isolate bacteria and viruses. the serum sa ...1977192757
effects of equine rhinopneumonitis vaccination on an epizootic of race track cough (tracheopharyngitis). 1977193232
protective immunity in equine herpesvirus type i infection of hamsters. 1977194753
ribonucleotide reductase activity in hydroxyurea-resistant herpesvirus replication. 1977195286
in vitro stimulation of foal lymphocytes with equid herpesvirus 1. 1977195321
equine herpesvirus 1 infection of horses: studies on the experimentally induced neurologic disease.experimental infection with equine herpesvirus 1 (rhinopneumonitis) resulted in neurologic disease in 8 of 15 inoculated horses. nonpregnant animals did not develop clinical disease, and microscopic examination of tissues revealed no changes. in all mares between 3 and 9 months of gestation, a neurologic syndrome appeared 6 to 8 days after inoculation. mares inoculated when 10 months pregnant did not develop neurologic disorders, but several aborted. the histopathologic change common to both seq ...1977195494
[several years of diagnostic studies on the ehv 1 abortion in thoroughbred studs following the introduction of vaccination]. 1977195571
electrophoretic separation of double-stranded rna genome segments from warrego and mitchell river viruses. 1977196574
antiviral activity of arabinosylthymine in herpesviral replication: mechanism of action in vivo and in vitro.1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylthymine (ara-t), a metabolite of the sponge tethya crypta, has shown selective activity against herpes simplex virus (hsv) replication (g. a. gentry and j. f. aswell, virology 65:294-296, 1975). analysis of hsv-infected and uninfected cell lysates by cscl isopycnic centrifugation showed that ara-t blocked the incorporation of [(3)h]hypoxanthine into viral deoxyribonucleic acid and, to a large extent, into host deoxyribonucleic acid of infected (but not uninfected) cells. ...1977197886
equine rhinopneumonitis virus (herpesvirus type 1): attenuation in stable monkey cell isolate of virulent equine herpesvirus (ehv) type 1 was adapted to vero stable cell line by 13 serial passages at 37 c and 50 serial passages at 26 c. characteristics of the attenuated ehv-1 were found to be avirulent, but immunogenic in horses if injected intramuscularly. the attenuated virus was regularly isolated from peripheral leukocytes in inoculated horses, but was not recovered from nasal turbinate tissues. a mild leukopenia was noticed. the attenuated virus produced characteristic la ...1977199093
safety of rhinoquintm, rhinopneumonitis vaccine in foals and pregnant mares. 1977199978
cell mediated immunity in equine herpesvirus type 1 infection i. in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis and serum neutralization antibody in normal parturient and aborting mares.blastic transformation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum neutralization antibody levels for equine herpesivurs type 1 were measured in 19 mares from three farms at the time of termination of their pregnancy by normal foaling or viral abortion. the stimulation indexes of lymphocytes obtained from the mares from two farms (farm 1 and 2) which had virus abortions, ranged from 2.1 to 10.8. but there was no significant difference in stimulation index levels between the aborting and norm ...1977200317
effect of age and pregnancy on the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses of horses to equine herpesvirus 1.the cell-mediated immune response and antibody response of horses of varying ages and of pregnant horses to equine herpesvirus 1 antigen were examined. six to eight month old horses showed either no increase or slight increases in anti-equine herpesvirus 1 serum neutralizing antibody following vaccination and revaccination with a modified live equine herpesvirus 1 vaccine. however, these same horses showed a marked increase in the cell-mediated immune response to equine herpesvirus 1 as measured ...1977200320
comparative analyses of the proteins and antigens of five herpesviruses. 1977200709
genetic relatedness of equine herpesvirus types 1 and 3.the genetic relatedness of two types of equine herpesviruses (ehvs), 1 (ehv-1) and 3 (ehv-3), was determined by dna-dna reassociation kinetics. denatured, labeled viral dna probe was allowed to reassociate in the presence or absence of the second unlabeled viral dna. the initial rate of reassociation of either labeled viral dna was increased by the presence of the heterologous viral dna to an extent indicating only 2 to 5% homology between the two ehv genomes. moreover, labeled rna extracted fro ...1977201775
equine rhinopneumonitis vaccine: immunogenicity and safety in adult horses, including pregnant mares. 1978205144
[electron microscopy studies on the multiplication of herpesvirus-equi-1 in brain cells of hamsters]. 1978207056
perinatal foal mortality associated with a herpesvirus. 1977207253
generalised congenital equine herpes virus infection in a neonatal foal. 1977207256
measurement of neutralizing antibody to equid herpesvirus 1 by single radial hemolysis.antibody to equid herpesvirus 1, which mediates single radial hemolysis, is that responsible for neutralization. hemagglutination inhibition antibody is not necessarily involved in neutralization or hemolysis.1978207720
the protective antigens of equine herpesvirus type 1.equine herpesvirus type 1 was cultivated in swine testis cell cultures and partially purified by differential centrifugation and centrifugation in a linear sucrose density gradient. the viral envelope was separated from the nucleocapsid by treatment with rexol 25j followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. the envelope and nucleocapsid preparations were then electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gel after solubilization with sodium dodecyl sulphate. hamsters were immunized with various preparation ...1978208736
natural intra-uterine infection of foals with equine herpes virus type 1 in victoria. 1978210752
equine abortion associated with herpesvirus. 1978210753
skin hypersensitivity to equid herpesvirus type 1 in horses. 1978211756
biochemical transformation of deoxythymidine kinase-deficient mouse cells with uv-irradiated equine herpesvirus type 1.a line of 3t3 mouse cells lacking deoxythymidine kinase (dtk-) was stably transformed to the dtk+ phenotype after exposure to uv-irradiated equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). biochemical transformants were isolated in a system selective for the dtk+ phenotype (eagle minimal essential medium containing 10(-4) m hypoxanthine, 6 x 10(-7) m aminopterin, and 2 x 10(-5) m deoxythymidine). transformation was accompanied by the acquisition of a dtk activity with immunological, electrophoretic, and bioch ...1978212607
effect of ribavirin on viral hepatitis in laboratory animals. 1977212975
induction of deoxythymidine kinase activity in several mammalian cell lines after infection with six different strains of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). 1978214953
biological properties of equine herpesvirus type 1 dna: transfectivity and transforming capacity.dna extracted from purified virions of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) was examined for its transfectivity and transforming ability. the infectivity of the herpesvirus dna was demonstrated by addition of calcium phosphate-dna coprecipitates to monolayers of permissive horse cells, with resultant plaque formation. the efficiency of transfection (50 to 100 plaque-forming units/microgram of dna) was reduced by treatment of the viral dna with deoxyribonuclease or sonication but not with pronase o ...1978215545
case report: an outbreak of herpesvirus myeloencephalitis in vaccinated the foaling season of 1977, five vaccinated horses in a standardbred breeding stable were affected with herpesvirus myeloencephalitis. respiratory and abortigenic forms also occurred in other individuals on the premises. equine herpesvirus type 1 was isolated from the brain of one case of myeloencephalitis and from lungs of two aborted fetuses. twelve of 16 horses demonstrated fourfold or greater increases in titres to equine herpesvirus type 1.1979216473
proteins of equine herpesvirus type 3. i. polypeptides of the purified virion. 1979217165
purification and characterization of deoxythymidine kinase (dtk) induced in dtk- 3t3 mouse cells by equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1). 1979218350
biological and biochemical properties of defective interfering particles of equine herpesvirus type 1. 1979218357
epidemiology of equine upper respiratory tract disease on standardbred racetracks.the outbreaks of upper respiratory tract infections in horses at standardbred racetracks were investigated over a three year period. the most serious epidemics of respiratory disease occurred in the winter and spring seasons. both influenza viruses and equine herpesvirus 1 were shown to be present in the horse population. the herpesvirus was associated with respiratory disease particularly in the winter but the equine influenza viruses apparently were responsible for the major epidemics of respi ...1979218705
a comparative study of bovine herpesvirus 1247 and equine herpesvirus 1 in ponies.the clinical and immunological response of ponies exposed to a bovine herpesvirus isolate and equine herpesvirus 1 were compared. each virus was inoculated into two ponies by the intranasal route. one uninoculated pony was used with each group as a contact control. the four inoculated ponies developed a mild rhinitis with an increase in rectal temperature. virus was recovered from nasal secretions collected from the four inoculated and one contact pony. all ponies developed a serum neutralizing ...1979218710
prevalence of antibodies to equine viruses in the netherlands.the prevalence of antibodies to various viruses was investigated in a series of serum samples collected from horses in the netherlands between 1963 and 1966 and from 1972 onwards. neutralizing antibodies to equine rhinopneumonitis virus, equine arteritis virus and to equine rhinovirus types 1 and 2 were detected in respectively 76%, 14%, 66% and 59% of the equine serum samples tested. the observed incidence of serum samples positive to equine adenovirus in the complement fixation test was 39%. p ...1979219560
viral induced cytopathic effect & release of lysosomal enzyme. 1978220188
oncogenic transformation of non-permissive murine cells by viable equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and ehv-1 dna.primary cultures of balb/c mouse embryo fibroblasts infected with as much as 100 pfu per cell of ehv-1 do not exhibit cytopathology or synthesize detectable amounts of ehv-1 specific rna, dna, or infectious virus. addition of 1--2 microgram of non-fragmented ehv-1 dna as a co-precipitate with calcium phosphate to monolayers of such non-permissive mouse cells resulted in the appearance, after 4--6 weeks, of foci of piled-up, morphologically altered cells. cell lines established from such transfor ...1978221355
arabinosylthymine: in vivo effectiveness in a systemic herpesvirus infection. 1978221367
vaccination against diseases associated with herpesvirus infections in animals: a account is presented of the development and use of herpesvirus vaccines in domestic animals, with particular reference to those viruses causing cytolytic rather than oncogenic infections. the chief infections covered are aujeszky's disease (ad or pseudorabies), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) and equine rhinopneumonitis (equine abortion; ehv-1). others mentioned are feline viral rhinotracheitis and malignant catarrhal fever of cattle. both live-modified and inactivated vaccines are wi ...1978221416
persistent infection of a human lymphoblastoid cell line with equine herpesvirus 1.infection of a human lymphoblastoid cell line (jijoye line derived from a burkitt lymphoma which contains epstein-barr virus) with equine herpesvirus 1, maintained and observed for 53 days, was characterized by the continuous production of infectious extracellular and intracellular virus. maximum virus production correlated with active cell multiplication. less than 15% of the cells possessed viral capsid antigen at any one time. five percent of the cells in the jijoye line possess epstein-barr ...1979222688
differentiation of field strains and a vaccine strain of equine herpesvirus 1, using plaque characteristics. 1979223480
equine rhinopneumonitis: more deaths--warning issued. 1979224565
equine rhinopneumonitis outbreak at newmarket. 1979224566
immunity to equine herpesvirus 1 infection in foals during the first year of life.a band of 23 pregnant mares on a thoroughbred breeding farm all had serum virus-neutralizing antibody titres to equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1). antibody was not transferred to their foals in utero. all foals received antibody from colostrum and developed antibody titres similar to their dams. the serum virus-neutralizing antibody titres were observed in 10 of these foals for 1 year. decay of passive immunity occurred at the rate of 3.25 two-fold dilutions in 100 days and reached zero at the mean t ...1979225497
antigenic comparisons between herpesviruses isolated from fallow deer in alberta and the viruses of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, equine rhinopneumonitis and dn-599, a non-ibr bovine herpesvirus.antigenic comparison studies of three herpesviruses isolated from fallow deer (dama dama) in alberta and herpesviruses from some domestic species were carried out by the alpha serum-virus neutralization test. complete cross neutralization was demonstrated among the deer herpesviruses and equine herpesvirus type 1.1979225575
equine herpesvirus 1 infection in mares vaccinated with a live-virus rhinopneumonitis vaccine attenuated in cell culture.vaccination, in july and again in either november or december 1976, of 55 pregnant standardbred mares with a live-virus rhinopneumonitis vaccine attenuated in cell culture failed to protect some mares from infection with equine herpesvirus 1. from 1976-12-08 to 1977-03-08, 33 mares foaled healthy foals, 16 mares foaled dead foals or live foals which died usually within 48 hours and six mares aborted. gross and histological examinations and virus isolation studies confirmed that equine herpesviru ...1979226261
neurologic disease induced by equine herpesvirus 1. 1979227824
epidemiology of equine infectious respiratory disease. 1979228462
viral respiratory disease. 1979228463
newmarket outbreak: indirect contacts to be traced. 1979228468
[central nervous system form of rhinopneumonitis virus infection]. 1979231877
equine herpesviruses: on the differentiation of respiratory from foetal strains of type 1. 1979231960
an outbreak of foal perinatal mortality due to equid herpesvirus type 1: pathological observations.twenty-nine cases of ehv1 infection occurred on a property, mainly in full term foals. some foals were stillborn, some were born alive but weak and soon died and others were healthy at birth, became ill and died within 3 days of birth. apart from voluminous, oedematous and atelectic lungs there were no gross lesions. microscopically the lungs showed oedema, pneumonitis and bronchiolitis with intranuclear inclusions and, in many of the foals that survived over 6 hours, there was also hyaline memb ...1979232044
herpesvirus-induced availability of host dna to exogenous endonuclease.deoxyribonuclease i penetrates herpesvirus-infected l cells and degrades host dna without interfering with viral multiplication. the dna of uninfected control monolayers of l cells, disrupted by scraping, is similarly attacked. in contrast, undisturbed l cells are not affected. this suggests that altered cell membrane permeability allows the nuclease to enter the cell, thereby permitting access of exogenous deoxyribonuclease to cellular dna.1975241244
the virus neutralizing activity of antibodies specific to the envelope and nucleocapsid of equine herpesvirus type 1.antibodies specific to the envelope or nucleocapsid of the kentucky-d strain of equine herpesvirus type 1 were isolated from convalescent horse serum by immunoadsorption on cyanogen bromide-activated sepharose conjugated with equine herpesvirus type 1 envelopes or nucleocapsids, with subsequent elution by glycine buffer. in double immunodiffusion and immunolectrophoresis reactions, the eluted proteins appeared to belong to the igg fraction of horse serum. antibodies directed against the viral en ...1979497891
replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 3: resistance to hydroxyurea and thymidine.the replication of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 3 (ehv-3) was unimpeded in three different cell types-equine epithelial cells, equine fibroblasts, and mouse fibroblasts-which had been blocked in their capacity to synthesize host dna by 2.5 mm hydroxyurea (hu) or 2 mm thymidine (tdr). the rate of dna synthesis in uninfected or equine herpesvirus-infected cells in the presence of hu or tdr was measured by pulse-labeling cell samples with a labeled dna precursor at different times aft ...1978563855
characterization of three species of nucleocapsids of equine herpesvirus type-1 (ehv-1). 19751167720
immune responses of specific pathogen free foals to ehv-1 infection.four foals were raised under specific pathogen free (spf) conditions. at 3 to 4 months of age, spf foals and 1 other non-spf foal were intranasally inoculated with equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv-1). clinical signs included depression, fever, inappetence and intermittent coughing. clinical recovery was complete by seven days but high titres of virus were detected in nasal mucus for at least 10 days after inoculation. clinical illness was less severe in the non-spf foal. interferon was detected i ...19921280876
characterization of the regulatory functions of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early gene product.use of the translation-inhibiting drug cycloheximide has indicated that the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) immediate-early (ie) gene, the sole ehv-1 ie gene, encodes a major viral regulatory protein since ie mrna translation is a prerequisite for all further viral gene expression (w.l. gray, r. p. baumann, a. t. robertson, g. b. caughman, d. j. o'callaghan, and j. staczek, virology 158:79-87, 1987). an ehv-1 ie gene expression vector (psvie) in combination with chimeric ehv-1 promoter-chlorampheni ...19921309921
rapid identification and differentiation of the vaccine strain rac h from ehv 1 field isolates using a non-radioactive dna probe.a method for rapid differentiation between the ehv 1 live vaccine strain rac h and field isolates is described. total dna was isolated from virus-infected small scale cell cultures. dna fragments digested with restriction endonuclease bamhi were separated, transferred and immobilized on filter membranes. a digoxigenin-labeled probe derived from ehv 1 was used for hybridization. this probe hybridized specifically to sequences of the inverted terminal repeat region which in case of rac h include a ...19921311132
characterization of enveloped tegument structures (l particles) produced by alphaherpesviruses: integrity of the tegument does not depend on the presence of capsid or envelope.recent studies have shown that infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) strain 17 generates in addition to virions a novel type of non-infectious particle. these particles, termed l particles, lack capsids and viral dna, and consist predominantly of tegument and envelope proteins. we show that l particle production is not restricted to one strain of hsv-1, and that pseudorabies virus and equine herpesvirus type 1 also release particles which are similar in composition to and morphologi ...19921311356
an immunoperoxidase method applied to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus abortion, using conventional and rapid microwave indirect immunoperoxidase (imp) technique was applied to cryostat and paraffin sections of liver from ten aborted equine foetuses. equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) had been isolated from seven of them and ehv-4 from one: the remaining two were virologically negative and were not used as controls. in the eight virus-infected cases the immunostaining revealed foci of cells exhibiting a distinct brown cytoplasmic and inclusion body pigmentation. no specific signal was present in the non-infected ...19921313357
pathological findings in horses dying during an outbreak of the paralytic form of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) 1988 an outbreak of the paralytic form of equid herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) infection occurred on a stud farm and several animals died. this provided an opportunity to perform detailed pathological investigations to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this spontaneous disease. two paretic mares, three foals, an aborted foetus and its non-paretic dam were examined. the endotheliotropism of the virus was clearly demonstrated by the use of an indirect immunoperoxidase (ip) stain. at autopsy, e ...19921313358
equine herpesviruses: are new techniques the solution to a practical problem? 19921313359
diagnosis of equid herpesviruses -1 and -4 by polymerase chain reaction.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is a sensitive technique used to detect dna of viral pathogens. we have applied the technique to the detection of equid herpesviruses-1 and -4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) dna within nasopharyngeal swab samples from horses. ninety-eight samples from suspected field cases and in-contact horses were analysed. the assays were conducted blind and later decoded and compared with virus isolation data. our results indicate that pcr is a sensitive and rapid technique for the dia ...19921313360
[the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of dna of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4].formalin-fixed and paraplast-embedded tissue samples of 42 aborted equine fetuses were examined by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of equine herpesvirus dna. the used set of primers was located in the glycoprotein 13 open reading frame and allowed the amplification of both ehv 1 und ehv 4. by cleaving pattern analysis after hinf i digestion ehv 1 could be distinguished from ehv 4. in 9 of the cases investigated ehv 1-dna was detected. this finding is in absolute context with the resul ...19921313672
pathogenesis of equine herpesvirus-1 in specific pathogen-free foals: primary and secondary infections and reactivation.six specific pathogen-free foals shown to be free of equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 (ehv-1 and -4) and lacking in maternally-derived antibodies were used to investigate the pathogenesis of ehv-1 in horses. following primary intranasal inoculation with ehv-1 all foals showed signs of a mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infection. a leucopenia was observed, comprising both a lymphopenia and neutropenia. virus was isolated from nasal mucus and buffy coat cells over several days during the cli ...19921314051
reinfection and reactivation of equine herpesvirus-1 in the mouse.balb/c mice were inoculated with equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) by the intranasal (i.n.) route. mice developed respiratory signs; virus replication occurred in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected; some mice died. recovered mice were given a second inoculation with the same strain 5 months later. following the second infection no mice died, however, virus replication was again observed in the respiratory tract and viraemia was detected once more. administration of an antiviral agent dur ...19921314054
vaccination of mares against equine herpesvirus-1. 19921314446
characterization of the glycoprotein d gene products of equine herpesvirus 1 using a prokaryotic cell expression vector.the gene encoding equine herpesvirus 1 (equine abortion virus; ehv-1) glycoprotein d was engineered into the prokaryotic vector pex, and expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion product, which was recognized by pooled equine sera and anti-ehv-1 rabbit sera. antibodies raised against the ehv-1 gd fusion product identified strong bands in infected cells at 66 and 68 k and at 138 k in purified virus, thus characterizing the several forms of this major envelope glycoprotein which is an important can ...19921316667
open reading frames encoding a protein kinase, homolog of glycoprotein gx of pseudorabies virus, and a novel glycoprotein map within the unique short segment of equine herpesvirus type 1.dna sequence analysis of the unique short (us) segment of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 1 kentucky a strain (ehv-1) by our laboratory and strains kentucky d and ab1 by other workers identifies a total of nine open reading frames (orf). in this report, we present the dna sequence of three of these newly identified orfs, designated eus 2, eus 3, and eus 4. the eus 2 orf is 1146 nucleotides (nt) in length and encodes a potential protein of 382 amino acids. cis-regulatory sequences upstream ...19921316673
identification and characterization of an equine herpesvirus 1 late gene encoding a potential zinc this report, we present the dna sequence and transcriptional characterization of a gene (ir5) that maps within each of the inverted repeat (ir) segments of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) genome. the ir5 open reading frame (orf) is located within both ir sequences (nucleotides 9932-10,642 of the ir). dna sequence analyses of the ir5 gene region revealed an orf of 236 amino acids (24,793 da) that showed significant homology to orf64 of varicella-zoster virus and orf3 of ehv-4 both of whi ...19921316680
identification of the equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein 17/18 as a homologue of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein d.the dna sequence of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) gd gene homologue has been determined for the strain ab1 and compared with previously published sequences. a portion of the gene has been located to a region of the genome which also encodes homologues of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genes for ge and gi and is known to encode an epitope of the virion protein gp17/18. analysis of the ehv-1 strain kentucky a (kya) by dna hybridization showed the presence of a gd gene homologue and establ ...19921316942
the dna sequence of equine herpesvirus-1.the complete dna sequence was determined of a pathogenic british isolate of equine herpesvirus-1, a respiratory virus which can cause abortion and neurological disease. the genome is 150,223 bp in size, has a base composition of 56.7% g + c, and contains 80 open reading frames likely to encode protein. since four open reading frames are duplicated in the major inverted repeat, two are probably expressed as a spliced mrna, and one may contain an internal transcriptional promoter, the genome is co ...19921318606
the pathogenicity of ab4p, the sequenced strain of equine herpesvirus-1, in specific pathogen-free foals.the sequencing of the genome of equine herpesvirus-1 (ehv-1) is reported in elizabeth a. r. telford, moira s. watson, kathryn mcbride, and andrew j. davison, 1992, virology, 189, 304-316. the sequence was derived using a plaque-purified clone of ehv-1 strain ab4 (designated ab4p). to ensure that ab4p shares the pathogenic characteristics of parental ab4 (hereafter ab4), both were inoculated intranasally into foals, specifically free from ehv-1 and ehv-4. clinical signs, including rectal temperat ...19921318607
cloning and restriction endonuclease mapping of the genome of an equine herpesvirus 4 (equine rhinopneumonitis virus), strain 405/76.purified virion dna of an australian isolate of equine herpesvirus 4(ehv 4.405/76) was digested with restriction enzymes and the dna fragments were cloned into puc19. the resulting recombinant plasmid library, representing 92% of the virus genome, was used in hybridization analyses to construct restriction maps for bamhi, ecori, and sali for the ehv4 genome. the results show that the genome of ehv 4.405/76 was approximately 145 kb and comprised a unique long (ul) region of 112 kb and a unique sh ...19921318713
epizootiological aspects of type 1 and type 4 equine herpesvirus infections among horse populations.the dissemination of equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) among various horse populations in japan was investigated through the isolation and typing of virus strains from horses with respiratory diseases. type specific monoclonal antibody pools were used for the typing of isolates. the 42 strains of ehv-1 and 64 strains of ehv-4 were isolated from 4593 nasal swabs and/or blood plasma samples collected from 3326 horses during a period from 1979 to 1990. all the strains of ehv-1 were i ...19921318750
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