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microimmunodiffusion test for detection of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in bovine serum.a microimmunodiffusion test (midt) specific for detection of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) in bovine serum has been developed. the antigen used in the midt was prepared from ibr virus-infected madin-darby bovine kidney cells grown in tissue culture. the antigen was stable, and relatively high yields were obtained readily. results of the midt were obtained within 48 hours and agreed with those of the serum-neutralization test.197715490
structural proteins of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus grown in bovine embryo kidney cell cultures was concentrated and purified in ficoll density gradients. the polypeptide composition of the virus was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the mature virion was found to contain 18 structural proteins with molecular weights from 250,000 to 29,000 daltons; 8 of them were glycosylated. the similarity of ibr virus protein composition to proteins of other herpetoviruses is discussed.197720761
serological evidence of ibr and bvd infection in caribou (rangifer tarandus) 197942188
use of corticosteroids to isolate ibr virus from cattle in cyprus after respiratory disease and ataxia.an outbreak of ataxia, blindness, respiratory disease and kerato-conjunctivitis occurred in october 1972 in a beef feedlot in cyprus. fifteen animals died and 10 that were severely ataxic were slaughtered; many animals became blind. there was no opportunity to isolate virus when the disease was active but in march and october 1973 infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus was isolated from cattle after they had been treated corticosteroids to stimulate virus excretion. it is probable that ...197549119
the influence of complement on the neutralization of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by globulins derived from early and late bovine antisera.calves were inoculated at four week intervals with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv). sera were obtained at eight days (early sample) and 21 days (late sample) after each inoculation. kinetic neutralization was carried out with 7s and 19s globulins derived from these sera, both in the presence and in the absence of guinea pig complement (c). in all instances the 19s neutralizing antibody (ab) was dependent on c for neutralization of ibvr. however, c dependency was not observed with ...197551677
defense mechanisms against bovine herpesvirus: relationship of virus-host cell events to susceptibility to antibody-complement cell lysis.the interaction of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and susceptible host cells was examined to determine whether an infected cell could be destroyed by humoral immune mechanisms before or after the transmission of virus to susceptible adjacent cells. viral antigens were detectable on cell membranes at 6 h postinfection, but cells were not susceptible to antibody-complement lysis until 10 h postinfection. intracellular infectious virus was also detectable at 10 h postinfection, and transmi ...197553206
in vitro transmission and propagation of the bovine leukemia virus in monolayer cell cultures.this study demonstrates that the bovine leukemia virus (blv) can infect in vitro cells of human, simian, bovine, canine, caprine, ovine, and bat origin. cultures of these cells, cocultivated with blv-infected cells or inoculated with cell-free blv preparations, continuoously showed the presence of cells with the internal blv antigen as well as blv-induced syncytia. virus replication was abundant and increased with passage in bat lung cells and was moderate but constant in fetal canine thymus cel ...197661801
[demonstration of the infectious rhinotracheitis-pustular vuluovaginitis virus (ibr-ipv) in the placenta and aborted fetuses of cows].a well expressed correlation was found to exist between the immunofluorescence and the histologic methods in the demonstration of ibr-ipv infection of fetuses and placentae in 75 cases of spontaneous undiagnosed abortions. if those that were positive by the immunofluorescence method were 100 per cent as many as 87 per cent of them showed coincidence with the results obtained by the histologic method. the isolation of the virus of ibr-ipv coincided in 44 per cent of the cases only. clearest speci ...197771782
contamination of primary embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures with parainfluenza type 2 simian virus 5 and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.two different viruses were isolated from bovine embryonic cell cultures after two subcultures from the primary cells. one virus was identified as parainfluenza type 2 simian virus 5 (sv-5), and the other was identified as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. six months later, stock cultures of pig kidney (pk-15) cells were found to be contaminated with sv-5 virus. we believe that the source of the sv-5 virus in the bovine cells was a cross-contamination from monkey kidneys during preparation ...197875889
specificity of the blastogenic response of human mononuclear cells to herpesvirus antigens.peripheral blood mononuclear (pbm) cells from donors with a history of prior infection with herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and/or cytomegalovirus were cultured for 2 to 8 days with glycine-extracted antigens prepared from these viruses and from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. the proliferative response of pbm cells from all donors was specific during the first 6 days in culture. during this period the cellular immune responses of the seronegative donors were clearly diffe ...197878901
the use of frozen cells in the microtitre serum neutralization test for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis.some parameters of the microtitre serum neutralization test were examined when using bovine fetal kidney cells derived from stocks stored in liquid nitrogen. in replicate tests with one serum there was no significant difference (p greater than 0.05) between titres calculated on the basis of cytopathic effect when either two or four wells were used per serum dilution. also, there was no significant difference between titres calculated on the basis of a cell staining method when either two or four ...1975163125
infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis i. experimental production.one or both eyes of 20 calves were inoculated one or more time with variou(s combinations of microorganism (live oor killed moraxella bovis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine adenovirus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus and mycoplasma bovoculi) by conjunctival instillation or direct inoculation of the conjunctivea or cornea. the eyes of all the calves received natural or artificial ultraviolet irradiation. neither the adenovirus nor parainfluenza-3 virus became established in the eye o ...1975163126
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infectious pustular vulvovaginitis viral isolates from cattle with epididymitis and vaginitis.infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr-ipv) viral isolates were obtained from cattle affected with epididymitis-vaginitis. isolation of virus from the diseased animals indicated that the genital form of ibr-ipv virus infection exists in kenya and that epididymitis-vaginitis may be associated with ibr-ipv virus. serums prepared from cattle having the genital form of the disease did not always have detectable antibody titers.1975163602
defense mechanisms against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus: inhibition of virus infection by murine macrophages.an in vitro method is described to measure the inhibitory activity of murine peritoneal exudate cells against viral plaque formation by a bovine herpes-virus-infectious bovin'e rhinotracheitis virus. microtiter plates containing 96 bovine kidney cell monolayers were infected with a range of virus concentration and peritoneal exudate cells were subsequently added. when a sufficient number of cells was added, viral plaques were not detectable and free infectious virus did not occur in the culture ...1975163796
structure and function of herpesvirus genomes. i. comparison of five hsv-1 and two hsv-2 strains by cleavage their dna with eco r i restriction endonuclease.the restriction endonuclease eco r i cleaves hsv-1 and hsv-2 dna into specific fragments that can be resolved by agarose gel electrophoresis. comparison of hsv-1 strains kos, 14-012, mp, f, and ci 101, and hsv-2 strains 333 and 186, suggests that the dnas from type 1 strains are similar but not identical, and that the type 2 strains differ greatly from type 1 strains. the molecular lengths of the fragments have been determined by electron microscopy and can be used to calibrate gel electrophoret ...1975163917
the densities of herpesviral dnas. 1975164053
serologic response of lambs to live virus vaccines containing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine myxovirus parainfluenza-3. 1975164079
[influence of calves' age on a program of intranasal vaccination against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and para-influenza 3]. 1975164272
recovery of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus following corticosteroid treatment of vaccinated animals. 1975164274
on ibr virus and its serological demonstration in cattle. 1975164715
[examination of serological tests for viral diseases of the respiratory tracts in livestock. the participation of respiratory viruses in the infections and their present epizootological assessment]. 1975164716
[isolation and identification tests for the parainfluenza-3 and bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) viruses. the comparative value of serum neutralization, hemadsorption inhibition and immunofluorescence reactions in the diagnosis of pi-3 and ibr viral infections of calves]. 1975164717
a contribution to the pathogenesis of respiratory infections of complex aetiology in calves. 1975164720
recrudescence of chronic ibr infections in feeder cattle by corticosteroid therapy. 1975164722
vaccination of calves against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis using a temperature sensitive mutant. 1975164729
correlation between the serum neutralization test and the indirect immunofluorescent test for the detection of specific antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.comparative titrations show that immunofluorescence on infected rabbit kidney cells is relatively as sensitive as the neutralization test for the detection of antibodies to the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. when calf testis cells infected with this virus are used for the detection of antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescent test nonspecific staining is high. this nonspecific reaction is absent when rabbit kidney cells are used.1975164993
host defense mechanisms against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. ii. inhibition of viral plaque formation by immune peripheral blood lymphocytes. 1975165005
local and systemic response after simultaneous intranasal inoculation of temperature-sensitive mutants of parainfluenza 3, ibr and bovine adenovirus 3.triple seronegative calves were exposed by the nasal route to three (ts) mutants of bovine respiratory viruses (pi3, ibr, adeno3). after a single exposure, they responded with significant levels of serum antibodies to the three viruses. nasal antibodies were demonstrated for pi3 and adenovirus antigens. the failure to demonstrate nasal antibodies to ibr may be due to lack of sensitivity of the procedure used. when reexposed six weeks later, calves had sharp increases in levels of serum antibodie ...1975165126
antibody levels and immunity to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr) infections in wisconsin dairy cattle.individual cows and calves in 7 holstein-friesian herds with a history of respiratory disease in green county, wisconsin, usa, were swabbed intranasally and bled monthly, some for periods over 1 year. virus isolation and serological procedures were completed on the samples in an attempt to recognize the problems and peculiarities that ibr virus continues to cause in dairy cows, in spite of, and possibly because of vaccines available for immunization against this agent. while ibr virus was isolat ...1975165127
immune response to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) following natural infection or vaccination by intranasally or parenterally administered vaccines.neutralizing antibody activity is present in serum and nasal secretions of cattle following ibr virulent virus challenge or intranasal vaccination with live, avirulent virus. levels of nasal secretion antibody activity (ns-aa) are low and short-lived following initial exposure, but are considerably enhanced following reexposure provided infection occurs. ns-aa has not been detected in calves following parenteral administration of live virus vaccine. such calves are subject to infection by challe ...1975165128
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. history and recent developments.the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus belongs to the group of herpes viruses. it causes in cattle a severe disease predominantly in the upper respiratory tract. morbidity rate is 100 percent, mortality - depending on hygienic and other factors - ranges from 0-15 percent. the ibr virus is serologically indistinguishable from the infect pustulat vulvovaginitis (ipv) virus which causes disorders of the genital tract in both male and female cattle. possibly the ipv virus is the older of ...1975165129
malignant transformation of hamster cells following infection with bovine herpesvirus (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.hamster embryo cells, following infection with ibr virus, showed malignant transformation. hamsters of all ages, inbred or random bred, inoculated with two of the transformed cell lines developed solid tumors. preliminary characterization of the tumors induced by one of the cell lines has indicated undifferentiated sarcomas. viral specific antigen was detected in about 5% of the transformed cells and 10% of primary tumor cells in culture. viral specific antibody was detected in the serum of ...1975165538
the incidence of antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in kenyan cattle.a total of 3204 cattle sera, collected between 1966 and 1974, from all seven provinces and 34 of the 42 districts of kenya were screened in a neutralisation test for antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv). antibody to ibrv was found in some sera from all the districts, with cattle over two years old showing the highest incidence. a small number of goat sera also showed some antibody. from the results obtained it is concluded that ibrv infection is widespread in kenyan cattle.1975165572
[concurrent vulvovaginitis, respiratory syndrome and keratoconjunctivitis in calves].studied was a disease course in calves caused by the ibr/ipv virus with symptoms characteristic of vulvovaginitis, respiratory distrubances and keratoconjunctivitis. concurrent infections of such type were observed primarily in several-month-old calves (aged from 6--7 weeks to 6 months). in older calves (aged 1--2 years) vulvovaginitis predominated, it being more rarely associated with changes typical of pneumonia, and, as an exception accompanied by keratoconjunctivitis. dairy cows exhibited pr ...1975165613
some factors influencing the microtest method for neutralizing antibodies to the virus for neutralizing antibodies to the virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. 1975165873
observations on abortions in cattle: a comparison of pathological, microbiological and immunological findings in aborted foetuses and foetuses collected at abattoirs.fifty nonaborted and 50 aborted bovine foetuses were examined utilizing histology, immunoelectrophoresis, bacteriology and the fluorescent antibody technique. lesions were observed in 12 of the nonaborted foesuses and in four of these immunoglobulins were demonstrated. in addition, two of the nonaborted foetuses had immunoglobulins in the absence of observed lesions. lesions were observed in 48 of the aborted foetuses and immunoglobulins were detected in 22 of these. an etiological diagnosis was ...1975166738
a serologic survey of pronghorns in alberta and saskatchewan, 1970-1972.to determine the exposure of free-ranging pronghorns (antilocapra americana ord) to selected pathogens, serum samples were obtained from 33 live-trapped animals from southwestern saskatchewan in 1970, and from 26 and 51 animals from southeastern alberta, in 1971 and 1972, respectively. antibodies were found to the agents of parainfluenza 3, bovine virus diarrhea, eastern and western encephalomyelitis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the chlamydial group. no serologic reactors were found to ...1975167203
prevalence of ibr-bvd-pi3 infections. 1975167273
[i.b.r (author's transl)].the clinical pictures which may be produced by ibr/ipv virus in cattle are briefly reviewed. up to the autumn of 1972, infection occurred only sporadically in the netherlands, no typical cases of ibr having been reported up to the fall of that year. since the winter of 1972-1973 ibr has increasingly been diagnosed, particularly during the winter months. it may, however, be mistaken for other infections of the respiratory tract. the infection apears to be spreading. the clinical features, diagnos ...1975168664
synthesis and cell culture studies on the antiviral activity of 5-mercaptomethyl-2'-deoxyuridine.treatment of 5-mercaptomethyluracil (i) with trimethylsilyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine gave 2,4,5-tris-(trimethylsilyl)-5-mercaptomethyluracil (ii) which, upon coupling with 2-deoxy-3,5-di-o-(p-toluoyl)-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl chloride, furnished as anomeric mixture of fully substituted 2'-deoxy ribonucleosides. the nucleoside with beta configuration (iii) was predominantly formed and was isolated as a crystalline solid. the free nucleoside iv was obtained by removal of blocking ...1975169351
[incidence, diagnosis and prevention of infectious rhinotracheitis and pustulous vulvovaginitis in switzerland]. 1975169568
[bovine viruses and methods for their detection]. 1975169627
evaluation of inactivated infectious bovine rhinotracheitis vaccines.sixty-five calves of approximately three months of age and of mixed sex were vaccinated twice at four week intervals with either attenuated or inactivated infectious bovine rhinotracheitis vaccines. following initial vaccination there was no demonstrable serum infectious bovine rhinotracheitis titer in any of the calves receiving the inactivated vaccine with 20.7% of the calves receiving the attenuated vaccines having demonstrable titers. following a second administration of vaccine at eight wee ...1975169968
letter to the editor: a field trial to evaluate an intranasal infectious bovine rhinotracheitis vaccine. 1975169981
isolation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from mustelidae.herpesviruses isolated from either domesticated or wild carnivores should be immunologically compared with known viruses of this group which could have been included in the diet of the animal before being considered to be previously undescribed herpesviruses native to the carnivore in question.1975170300
methods for the detection of viruses in bovine serum.an evaluation of selected commonly used procedures for the recovery of endogenous viral contaminants in bovine serum was undertaken. low speen centrifugation (25,000 x g) was found to be efficient for the recovery of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) and parainfluenza virus type 3(pi-3) in bovine serum. decreased infectivity titers were obtained when parainfluenza virus type 3, and to a lesser extent bovine herpes virus type 1, were concentrated using high speed centrifugation (100,000 x g) for ...1975170306
bovine nasal granuloma. 1975170568
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus: experimental attempts at inducing bovine abortion with a new zealand isolate. 1975170570
immunoglobulins and their relative neutralizing efficiency in cattle immunized with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis--parainfluenza-3 (ibr-pi-3) virus vaccine.the localization of anti-ibr and anti-pi-3 activity in the serum and nasal secretory immunoglobulins following intranasal immunization of cattle with a mixed vaccine (ibr-pi-3, mlv, tco) was studied and was found to reside in the nasal secretory iga, serum igm and igg fractions. the computation of their relative virus neutralizing efficiencies from kinetic data revealed their order of neutralizing efficiencies to be igm greater than iga greather than igg.1975170885
the effect of natural and artificial breeding using bulls infected with, or semen contaminated with, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.ten cows and heifers (group b) were inoculated into the uterus at oestrus with semen followed by ibr virus for the first insemination and semen alone if a second insemination was necessary. all animals developed infectious pustular vulvo-vaginitis (ipv), and 2 cows conceived to the first and 2 to the second insemination (pregnancy rate of 40 percent requiring 4.5 services per conception). this group was compared with 10 control animals (group a) which were treated similarly but received tissue c ...1975172055
studies on the effects of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus on reproduction in heifers.natural venereal infection of heifers with ibr virus resulted in vulvovaginal lesions in 9 of 12 heifers at 3 weeks after introducttion to bulls, and virus was isolated from 5 of the 9 affected animals. the infection was not associated with any effect on conception. experimental nasal and conjunctival infection of 18 heifers pregnant for 3, 5 or 7 months with a genital strain of ibr virus caused mild rhinitis or conjunctivitis in all inoculated animals and virus was recovered from 14 animals at ...1975172056
isolation of ibr virus from a heifer with meningoencephalitis. 1975172213
detection of bovine viruses in fetal bovine serum used in cell culture.this investigation employed a viral screening method detect endogenous bovine virus contaminants in commercially supplied fetal bovine serum. fifty-one lots of fetal bovine serum from 14 suppliers were examined. over 30% of the lots tested were found to contain bovine viruses; they included bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type3-like virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine enterovirus type 4, and an unidentified cytopathogenic agent. of the 51 lots, 20 had been pretested by the suppliers ...1975172434
pathogenicity of a caprine herpesvirus.a herpesvirus isolated from neonatal angora kids (capra hircus) with a relatively severe generalized infection was shown to be infective for adult goats as well as for kids. however, the virus lacked pathogenicity for either lambs or calves. although a nonreciprocating serologic overlap exists between the caprine virus and the antibody to bovine herpesvirus (bhv-1), results of cross immunity tests in calves indicated that the 2 viruses are immunologically distinct. on the basis of these findings ...1975173212
effect of anti-herpesvirus drugs on human and bovine lymphoid function in vitro.lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) antigens were evaluated in the presence of various concentrations of the anti-herpesvirus drugs, methylmethoxydeoxyuridine (och3ch2udr), cytosine arabinoside was inhibitory at 25 mug/ml and cytosine arabinoside was inhibitory och3ch2udr per ml, lymphocyte proliferative responses were unaffected and were not abolished even by concentrations ...1975173654
sensitivity of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus to ether.the sensitivity of 12 field isolates of infectious boviine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus and four commercial modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine strains was determined after exposure to 20% ethyl ether (anesthetic) for 16 h at 4 c. the infectivity of five field strains was reduced by varying degrees, whereas seven were found to be resistant. three vaccine strains were moderately sensitive, and one strain was resistant. four of the sensitive field strains were isolated fro ...1975173737
vaccination programs for bovine respiratory diseases. 1976173981
the prevalence of antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses in diagnostic sera from new zealand cattle. 1975174036
neutralising antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (ibr/ipv) virus in foetal calf serum. 1975174414
purification and buoyant density of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.a purification scheme for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus utilizing rate-zonal centrifugation in a 10-40% potassium tartrate gradient was described. the density of ibrv in the potassium tartrate gradient was found to be 1.22 g/cm3. electron microscopic examination of purified virus preparations revealed homogeneous populations of enveloped virions with minute projections on the envelope surface.1976175368
growth characteristics of bovine herpesvirus 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) in human diploid cell strain wi-38.ibr virus was found to replicate in wi-38 cells. at a high input multiplicity the virus yield was comparable to that obtained in bovine cells, but comparable degree of cpe took longer to achieve. at a low input multiplicity of ibr virus, such as may be encountered in virus contaminated bovine serum, virus yield was only about 1% of that in bovine cells, with 50% of the cells showing cpe, followed by cell regrowth. infectious virus was not recoverable from the regrown cells by 5 weeks after initi ...1976175382
[localization of viral antigen in cell cultures infected with the ibr-ipv virus].using the immunofluorescence method and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labelled antibodies against the ibr-ipv virus the dynamics was followed up of the production of the viral antigen in primary cell cultures of calf kidney and a permanent cell line of calf kidney infected with ibr-ipv strains isolated in this country. to avoid nonspecific reactions in the fluorescence-and-serologic demonstration of the viral antigen a method was employed for the contrast staining with evans blue. a positive reacti ...1975175554
trigeminal ganglionitis and encephalitis in calves intranasally inoculated with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. 1976176186
the prevalence of antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in some game animals of east africa.antibody to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was present in the sera of 10 of 25 species of game animals from kenya, tanzania and uganda during 1960-1973. prevalence of antibody varied considerably between, but not within, species.1976176477
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus: studies on the venereal carrier status in range cattle.genital samples collected at autopsy from 193 beef cows representing 22 different herds in northern australia yielded only one isolate of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus. serological evidence showed 59 per cent of similar cows had prior infection with this virus and of 19 sero-positive cows tested, 11 (58-2 per cent) shed detectable ibr virus from the vagina after treatment with corticosteroids. transitory lesions of the vagina and vulva developed in five of the treated cows. twent ...1976176707
an outbreak of acute pneumonia in young, single-suckled calves.an outbreak of acute severe pneumonia which affected six to 14-week-old single-suckled calves, resulted in 45/77 requiring treatment. the examination of paired sera from all affected calves revealed that neither an adenovirus, non infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus nor parainfluenza 3 virus was involved. the acute exudative interstitial pneumonia found at post mortem was typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis.1976176764
[studies of the complement fixation reaction in infectious rhinotracheitis in cattle].the complement-fixation reaction was used in the diagnosis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis establishing its specificity and effectiveness. highest titers of the antigens tested (up to 1:16) showed antigens that were concentrated with the use of poly ethylene glycol. in performing the test both the antigen and the complement were used in a dose that contained two units of each of them. thus the use of the complement-fixation test proved instrumental in determining specific complement-fixing ...1976176770
effects of crude extracts of various plants on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-plaque production.extracts of 28 plants were tested without demonstable antiviral activity in an agar-overlay plaque-reduction antiviral assay system, using infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and bovine endocardial cell cultures. ethanolic extract of narcissus tazetta l bulb elicited antiviral activity by inhibition of viral plaque formation. antiviral activity was demonstrated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses. narcissus tazetta l bulb did not directly inactivate ...1976176907
effects of vaccination infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and simultaneous administration of levamisole on primary humoral responses in calves.in a study on the primary humoral response of calves vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) and simultaneously given levamisole, mild but consistent suppression of the group's geometric mean serum-neutralization titer to ibr virus occurred between 12 and 59 days later. the quantitative determination of circulating immunoglobulins (ig) over the same period indicated a slight decrease in the igg concentrations from an initial geometric mean concentration of 18.28 mg/ml before c ...1976176908
[electron microscopy studies of the early stages of mosquito cell infection in vitro by the chilo iridescent virus and the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (author's transl)].the early stage of the viral infection in vitro of mosquito cells were studied by electron microscopy using a microculture technique. we demonstrate in this paper that two viruses: iridescent (civ) and herpetic (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) can enter by viropexis and be uncoated in several lines of mosquito cells.1976176972
the "herd approach" to bovine reproductive disorders. part i: the diagnosis and management of infectious infertility.the authors describe the methods employed by the artificial insemination section of the division of veterinary services in collaboration with the reproduction and bacteriology section of the veterinary research institute, onderstepoort when herds are examined for infertility. a "herd" rather than an "individual animal" approach is advocated and certain infectious causes of infertility are discussed.1976177780
[virological studies on insemmination bulls in hessen. 1st communication: studies on the occurrence of ibr-ipv virus infections]. 1975178298
[identification of the infectious rhinotracheitis virus by the immunofluorescence method]. 1976179187
ribonucleotides in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus dna.infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus was grown in the presence of 5-3h-uridine in a continuous line of bovine kidney cells. 5-3h-uridine was found to be associated with viral nucleocapsids. furthermore, purification of the viral nucleic acid present in nucleocapsids illustrated that 5-3h-uridine was part of the viral nucleic acid. purification of viral dna from infected cells also indicated that 5-3h-uridine was associated with viral nucleic acid possibly as ribonucleotides. the label w ...1976180241
effects of swab materials on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.the recovery rates of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from swab materials were compared. the adsorptive and elutive properties of cotton, polyester, and calcium alginate wool were examined by direct exposure of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus to swab materials in buffered tissue culture medium. calcium alginate wool was virucidal; this was apparent after 2 hours' exposure. cotton and polyester swab materials exhibited little virucidal effects. the addition of wooden applicator st ...1976180853
letter to the editor: prevention of experimental bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis by exposure to ibr virus. 1976181120
[study of the immunogenic properties of inactivated vaccines prepared with the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr)].tested were the chemical and physico-chemical means for the inactivation of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. formalin and saponin were shown to decrease the immunogenic activity of the virus. the inactivation of the virus, preserving its immunogenic properties, was achieved with the use of two inactivating factors (1 and 2), and the concentrated vaccines produced containing an oil adjuvant at amounts of 10 cu. cm per dose in the vaccination and revaccination at a 28-day interval prov ...1976181897
oral immunization of ducklings with attenuated duck hepatitis virus.duck hepatitis, a highly fatal disease of ducklings, must be controlled in successful commercial duck enterprises. several procedures which have been effective in controlling the disease are 1) vaccination of adult breeders with passive transfer of antibodies through the yolk to the duckling, 2) administration of antisera to ducklings at the onset of signs of disease, and 3) parenteral vaccination of ducklings with attenuated dh virus after the loss of passive immunity. however, in each of these ...1976182594
immunity studies in calves vaccinated with a multivalent live respiratory vaccine composed of i.b.r., parainfluenza 3 and bovine adenovirus type 3.the persistence of systemic and local antibodies was studied after two intranasal administrations of the vaccine, six weeks apart. systemic antibodies to i.b.r. and adenovirus 3 evoked by the vaccine were still present 21 weeks following the second dose of the vaccine. inconslusive results were obtained regarding the persistence of systemic and local pi-3 antibodies because of an intercurrent natureal pi-3 infection occurring during the observation period. local antibodies to adenovirus type 3 w ...1976182597
intranasal vaccination of cattle against ibr and pi3: field and laboratory observations in dairy, beef, and neonatal calf populations.the author first summarizes the development of intranasal vaccination by nasalgen p and particularly nasalgen ip, previously reported, and then reviews present knowledge regarding safety and efficacy of nasalgen ip in feeder calves, dairy animals and neonates. the minimal immunogenic dose is evaluated, as well as the secretory antibody response and the development of interferon. two studies are reported on the transmission from vaccinates to susceptible non-vaccinates and the evaluation of the p ...1976182599
[adsorption of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by aluminum hydroxide]. 1976183341
[immunogenic properties of a polyvalent inactivated vaccine from respiratory viruses (ibr, pi-3, ad-1, ad-3].studied was the authors' inactivated polyvalent vaccine having an adjuvant, prepared from the respiratory viruses ibr, pi-3, ad-1 and ad-3. it was found that at the subcutaneous vaccination of calves and pregnant cows there were virus-neutralizing, hemagglutination-inhibition, and complement-fixing antibodies as established by the 14th day following treatment. revaccination was carried out on the twenty-eighth day when the antibodies reached high titers. the latter showed peak values on the 14th ...1976183342
[use of polyethylene glycol (peg) in the isolation of the ibr virus].experiments were carried out to use polyethylene-glycol (peg)--6000 in the isolation of the ibr virus from field material. the sedimentation with peg proved easy, fast and selective. large amounts of field material suspension could be treated which made it possible to attain volume concentration of such suspensions and to raise the relative concentration of the virus in them. thus the virus could be isolated more quickly and in a more dependable way, avoiding the toxic effect of some of the init ...1976183343
[local interferon production in cattle after intranasal infection with avirulent ibr/ipv virus and its effect on a subsequent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 1976183421
envelopment and the envelopes of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in ultrathin sections.an electron microsopic study of cell cultures and bovine foetal tracheal organ cultures infected with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus showed the following. a) the difference in the site at which the outer envelope is acquired in the infected cell is responsible for some morphological differences between the virions. where envelopment of the capsids occurs by budding into cytoplasmic tubules, dense material adjacent to the tubules is often incorporated between the capsid and the out ...1976183630
ibr virus and occurrence of metritis at parturition in the bovine belgian blue white breed. 1976183854
a comparison of methods for demonstrating antibodies to the virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis. 1976183857
antibody class and complement requirement of neutralizing antibodies in the primary and secondary antibody response of cattle to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine.calves responded to a single intramuscular injection of an attenuated strain of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus by producing igm followed by igg antibody. both igm and igg antibody produced during the first month were primarily complement-requiring neutralizing antibody (crnab), especially igm antibody. after a month, igg had replaced igm as the predominant immunoglobulin, and titers with and without complement (c') decreased in both igg and igm fractions. the largest decrease was in the ...1976184759
[micro-epidemiology and micro-plaque titration of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus on primary calf kidney cells by means of immunofluorescence].immunofluorescence was used to study the virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the course of infection in cell cultures of calf kidney. an indirect relationship was found to exist between the magnitude of inoculation and the onset of specific fluorescence. fluorescent plaques are formed as a result of inoculate dilution. the plaques will grow along with incubation time. release of virus into the culturing medium will first lead to the formation of secondary plaques, then followed by gen ...1976185980
[service infections, especially ibr/ipv--a problem for state animal disease control]. 1976186020
lymphocyte activation by cell separation procedures.cell separation techniques normally used to obtain subpopulations of lymphocytes were shown, under certain conditions, to render the cells cytotoxic towards a number of target-cells including autologous lymphocytes. to cause cytotoxicity, it was necessary to pass cells through glass wool and/or nylon wool columns equilibrated with media containing fresh plasma or serum. cells lost activation upon overnight in vitro culture or treatment with trypsin. in addition to direct cell cytotoxicity, cells ...1976186400
in vitro interferon production by bovine tissues: effects of hydrocortisone.the effect of hydrocortisone on bovine interferon production in vitro was studied. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was used as an inducer. interferon was assayed by the plaque-reduction method in bovine fetal kidney cultures, using vesicular stomatitis virus as challenge virus. hydrocortisone decreased interferon production in bovine fetal spleen and peripheral blood leukocyte cultures. hydrocortisone did not decrease interferon production by bovine alveolar macrophages, in 1 experiment. ...1976187092
in vitro interferon production by bovine tissues: induction with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.the interferon-inducing ability of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus was determined in tissue cultures of bovine origin inoculated with untreated and ultraviolet (uv) irradiated ibr viruses. interferon was assayed by the plaque-reduction method in bovine fetal kidney (bfk) cell cultures, using vesicular stomatitis virus as challenge virus. highest interferon concentrations were produced by cultures of bovine fetal (bf) spleen cells and aveolar macrophage cultures derived from adult c ...1976187093
the isolation and characterization of a strain of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from stillbirth in swine.a virus, designated 5089, which was isolated from tissue samples from two stillborn pig fetuses was identified on the basis of its morphology, cytopathology, physiocochemical and serological characteristics as a strain of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus. three piglets inoculated intranasally with 5089 virus did not respond serologically and no virus was isolated from their tissues at intervals after inoculation. they showed neither clinical signs nor significant lesions. a colostru ...1976187299
ibr virus neutralizing substance in bull seminal fluid and its removal prior to attempts at virus isolation from semen. 1976187311
[studies on the ibr-ipv virus in the semen of insemination bulls]. 1976187400
a survey of new zealand cattle sera for antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. 1976189260
[the presence of antibodies to ibr/ipv virus in cattle in the environs of leyden (author's transl)].the appearance of ibr among cattle in the environs of leyden is reported. possible explanations of local differences in the incidence of ibr and possible effects on ibr immunisation of cattle in these areas are referred to in the discussion.1976189454
use of restriction endonucleases to analyse the dna of herpesviruses. 1975190115
persistent infection with bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus) in cultured hamster cells.bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in hamster embryo cells was found to be dependent upon input multiplicity; productive infection was achieved at input multiplicities greater than one, while persistent infection was established when input multiplicities were about 0.5. this persistence was characterized by a noncyclic, minimal degree of cytopathic effect with a low level of released virus. maintenance of the persistently infected cultures did not require external supportive measures. subcultivation ...1976190164
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