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agrees with and adds to report of a link between equine herpesvirus 2 and chronic pulmonary disease in horses. 19957486409
equine herpesvirus 2 in pulmonary macrophages of horses.in a search of viral agents in pulmonary macrophages of horses with chronic pulmonary disease, equine herpesvirus 2 was found to be unique. in 8 of 9 horses with chronic pulmonary disease, antigens of equine herpesvirus 2 were detected by indirect immunofluorescence staining of scattered foamy macrophages immediately after harvesting by bronchoalveolar lavage and fractionation on metrizamide gradients. in a healthy horse, antigens were not found. after 1 week of cultivation of bronchoalveolar la ...19957653883
ultrastructural study of unidentified inclusions in the cornea and iridocorneal angle of dogs with pannus.the corneas and/or the iridocorneal angles of 13 dogs were examined morphologically by use of transmission electron microscopy. virologic identification techniques also were used for tissue from 2 dogs. four dogs had clinical signs of chronic superficial keratitis or pannus, 9 dogs had normal eyes. in the tissue from 7 dogs (4 german shepherd dogs with chronic superficial keratitis; 2 german shepherd dogs and 1 mixed-breed dog with normal eyes) we found unusual cytoplasmic inclusions. inclusions ...19957653888
an improved cosmid vector for the cloning of equine herpesvirus dna.we have modified the commercial cosmid vector, triple helix vector (thv), such that i-sce-i restriction endonuclease sites flank the cloning site. i-sce-i is a rare-cutting endonuclease which recognizes an 18-bp sequence. it does not restrict the genome of either of the equine herpesvirus 1 or 4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) strains we have cosmid cloned. thus, cosmid-cloned ehv fragments can be excised intact from the vector by i-sce-i digestion, facilitating production of large overlapping ehv fragments f ...19947821817
molecular characterization and determination of the coding capacity of the genome of equine herpesvirus type 2 between the genome coordinates 0.235 and 0.258 (the ecori dna fragment n; 4.2 kbp).the complete dna nucleotide sequence of the ecori dna fragment n (0.235 to 0.258 viral map units) of equine herpes virus type 2 (ehv-2) strain t400/3 was determined. this dna fragment comprises 4237 bp with a base composition of 55.23% g+c and 44.77% a+t. nineteen open reading frames (orfs) of 50-287 amino acid (aa) residues were detected. orf number 10 is located between the nucleotide position 2220 and 2756 coding for a protein of 179 amino acid residues. this protein shows significant homolog ...19947871763
comparative studies of the structural proteins and glycoproteins of equine herpesviruses 2 and 5.the structural proteins of equine herpesvirus 2 (ehv-2) and ehv-5, recently shown to be gammaherpesviruses, were identified and compared. labelled proteins and glycoproteins were separated by sds-page and although ehv-2 and ehv-5 had similar protein profiles, bands in some positions were virus-specific. six glycoproteins, with distinct profiles, were identified for both ehv-2 and ehv-5. rabbit antisera to ehv-2 and ehv-5 and horse antiserum to ehv-2 were used in radioimmunoprecipitations, wester ...19947931157
dna sequence and transcriptional analysis of the simian varicella virus glycoprotein b gene.the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) glycoprotein b (gb) is a major viral antigen which elicits immunity and neutralizing antibodies. in this study, the genomic map position and dna sequence of a simian varicella virus (svv) homologue of the vzv gb gene was identified and the transcript analysed. a 32p-labelled vzv gb dna probe hybridized to a subclone of the svv bamhi b restriction endonuclease fragment indicating the fine map position of svv dna sequences homologous to the vzv gb gene. the svv gb ...19947964632
transcriptional analysis of two simian varicella virus glycoprotein genes which are homologous to varicella-zoster virus gpi (ge) and gpiv (gi).simian varicella virus (svv) causes a natural, varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. the unique short region of the svv genome contains four open reading frames (orfs), two of which encode glycoproteins that exhibit extensive homology with varicella-zoster virus (vzv) gpiv (gi) and gpi (ge). northern hybridization, primer extension, and rnase protection analyses were employed to define precisely the transcripts mapping to the svv gpiv and gpi genes. a total of five transcripts composing t ...19947975231
molecular phylogeny of the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily and a proposed evolutionary timescale.phylogenetic trees were derived for the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of the herpesviridae using molecular sequences. sequences from the families of genes encoding glycoprotein b, thymidine kinase, s region protein kinase, immediate-early transcriptional regulator ie175 and ribonucleotide reductase large subunit were examined by means of both maximum parsimony and distance methods, and for both protein and dna alignments. trees obtained were evaluated by bootstrap analysis. a clear consensus tree ...19948145260
sequences of the ribonucleotide reductase-encoding genes of equine herpesvirus 4.the equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4) genes encoding the two subunits of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (rr) were cloned and their nucleotide (nt) sequences determined. the large subunit (rr1) is predicted to comprise 789 amino acids (aa), which compares with lengths of 790, 775 and 1137 aa for the rr1 proteins encoded by equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene 21, varicella zoster virus (vzv) gene 19 and herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1) ul39, respectively. in common with vzv rr1, the ehv-4 rr1 pro ...19948206376
detection and identification of equine herpesvirus-1 and -4 by polymerase chain reaction.a rapid method for detection and identification of equine herpesvirus-1 and -4 (ehv-1 and ehv-4) was developed using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). primers for pcr were designed from aligned nucleotide sequences of glycoprotein b genes of ehv-1 and ehv-4 to amplify specific regions for ehv-1 or ehv-4 or a common region of both viruses. by using type specific primer mixture, amplified fragments were identified as ehv-1 or ehv-4 in a one-step reaction. we have applied this technique on specimens ...19938236780
expression of small regions of equine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein c in escherichia coli.a series of truncated equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv1) glycoprotein c (gc) molecules was examined for use as serodiagnostic antigens for ehv1 and ehv4. small regions of ehv1 glycoprotein c, an immunodominant ehv1 glycoprotein, were expressed in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase (gst) fusion proteins using the bacterial expression vector pgex-2t. sera obtained from horses, including sera from specific-pathogen-free (spf) foals, following exposure to either ehv1, ehv4 or both viruses were u ...19958545955
high molecular weight polypeptide bands specific for equine herpesvirus 4.serum neutralisation (sn) and immunoblotting were used in attempts to distinguish between natural infections with the closely related viruses equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) and equine herpes-virus 4 (ehv-4). horse sera (n = 323) collected in 1990 from studs with no experience of ehv-1 abortions as well as 197 sera collected in 1992 from studs with a history of ehv-1 abortions were tested by sn. the two groups differed in the proportion with measurable ehv-1 antibody, the 1992 group being significa ...19958545957
molecular evolution of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv; gallid herpesvirus 1): an ancient example of the alphaherpesviridae?an analysis of two essential genes of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv), glycoprotein d (gd) and the immediate early gene, herpes simplex virus homologue icp27, was performed with the equivalent gene homologues from several alphaherpesviruses. amino acid (aa) sequence analysis revealed that these iltv genes shared limited homology to other alphaherpesvirus equivalents and were distinct from the two other avian herpesviruses, marek's disease virus (mdv) and herpesvirus of turkeys (hvt). s ...19958545960
characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gammaherpesviruses of north american and european pinnipeds.to study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. first, herpesviruses isolated from north american harbour seals (phoca vitulina), a californian sea lion (zalophus californianus) and a european grey seal (halichoerus grypus) were examined in an enzyme immunoassay (eia) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies which had previously been shown to allow typing of herpesviruses from european harbour seals int ...19968558126
gene organization in the ul region and inverted repeats of the canine herpesvirus genome.restriction mapping and the determination of scattered nucleotide sequences have permitted a description of the global structure and evolutionary affinities of the canine herpesvirus (chv) genome. the global structure closely resembles that of the totally sequenced genomes of varicella-zoster virus and equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) in having a 37 bp inverted repeat flanking a long unique region (ul) of approximately 100,000 bp, and a 10,100-10,700 bp inverted repeat flanking a short unique region ...19968558127
identification and analysis of the simian varicella virus thymidine kinase gene.the thymidine kinase (tk) of herpesviruses, in contrast to cellular tks, phosphorylates a variety of substrates including antiherpetic nucleoside analogues. this study reports the identification and dna sequence of the simian varicella virus (svv) tk gene. a 32p-labeled varicella zoster virus (vzv) tk dna probe hybridized to the hindiii b subclone of the svv bamhi b restriction endonuclease (re) fragment, indicating the presence of a svv dna sequence homologous to the vzv tk gene. dna sequence a ...19968629950
dna sequence and transcriptional analysis of the ul1 to ul5 gene cluster of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.we have cloned and sequenced the kpni l and m restriction fragments of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (iltv, gallid herpesvirus 1) dna, which are localized adjacently at the right end of the unique long region of the genome. within the 6930 bp dna sequence six complete open reading frames (orfs) were identified. the predicted amino acid sequences of four of them exhibit significant homologies to the ul5 (helicase), ul4, ul3 and ul2 (uracil-dna glycosylase) genes, which are conserved in simil ...19968811022
sequence of the canine herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene: taxon-preferred amino acid residues in the alphaherpesviral thymidine kinases.multiple sequence alignments of evolutionarily related proteins are finding increasing use as indicators of critical amino acid residues necessary for structural stability or involved in functional domains responsible for catalytic activities. in the past, a number of alignments have provided such information for the herpesviral thymidine kinases, for which three-dimensional structures are not yet available. we have sequenced the thymidine kinase gene of a canine herpesvirus, and with a multiple ...19958837896
viral isolates derived from simian varicella epizootics are genetically related but are distinct from other primate herpesviruses.epizootics of a natural varicella-like disease occur in populations of nonhuman primates. several primate herpesviruses have been isolated from these epizootics, but the relatedness of these isolates to each other is not well-defined. in this study, we demonstrated that the restriction endonuclease (ren) profiles of four epidemiologically distinct isolates were similar, although not identical, indicating that simian varicella epizootics are caused by various strains of simian varicella virus (sv ...19968862410
characterization of an abundant, unique 1.7-kilobase bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) late rna and mapping of a bhv-4 ie2 transactivator-binding site in its promoter-regulatory region.we characterized an abundant late 1.7-kb cytoplasmic polyadenylated rna (l1.7 rna) transcribed from the bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv-4) hindiii w fragment, in a region of the genome not conserved with epstein-barr virus and herpesvirus saimiri. l1.7 rna contains only extremely short (<100 nucleotides) open reading frames followed by two repeat arrays. the first repeat array contains 11 copies of a 23-bp unit, tggcacta gtagcatttaacccc. the second and third copies are each interrupted by 15- to 17-bp ...19978985381
molecular characterization and baculovirus expression of the glycoprotein b of a seal herpesvirus (phocid herpesvirus-1).a glycoprotein b (gb) gene homologue was identified in a 5.4-kb bamhl genomic fragment of the phocid herpesvirus type-1 (phhv-1) which represents a widespread and important pathogen of pinnipeds. sequence analysis revealed a gb-specific open-reading frame comprising 881 amino acids. phylogenetic analysis gave evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between phhv-1 and members of the varicellovirus genus of the alpha-herpesvirinae and canid herpesvirus in particular. in phhv-1-infected cran ...19979018133
equine herpesvirus 4 dna in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected horses detected by direct in situ pcr.neuronal and lymphoid tissues of 15 randomly selected horses were analysed post mortem by liquid nested-pcr to study the tropism of equine herpesvirus 4 (ehv-4). in four animals the trigeminal ganglia and in one case the lung were positive. using a direct in situ pcr the ehv-4 genome was localized in the nuclei of neurons and in the bronchiolar as well as alveolar epithelium of the lung. in none of these tissues could infectious virus or viral antigens be detected. applying the more sensitive li ...19979152430
sequence analysis of the bovine herpesvirus type 1 genes homologous to the dna polymerase (ul30), the major dna-binding protein (ul29) and icp18.5 assembly protein (ul28) genes of herpes simplex virus.the nucleotide sequence of a 10.5 kb region (map position 0.332 to 0.410) of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) was determined. this region contained three open reading frames (orfs) homologous to herpes simplex virus dna polymerase catalytic subunit (dnapol, ul30), major dna-binding protein (mdbp, ul29) and icp18.5 assembly protein (icp18.5, ul28). the bhv-1 dnapol. mdbp and icp18.5 orfs were 1246, 1203 and 826 amino acids long with a calculated molecular mass of 134.2 kda, 124.4 kda and 86.9 kd ...19979155875
autoimmune hemolytic anemia with anti-dc specificity following a primary infection by varicella virus. 19979299876
antibodies against equine herpesviruses in free-ranging mountain zebras from namibia.twenty-one blood samples of free-ranging mountain zebras (equus zebra) from namibia were tested for equine herpesvirus (ehv-1, -2, -3, -4) specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and neutralization test (nt). additionally, type-specific nested polymerase chain reactions (nested pcr) were employed for detection of ehv-1, -2 and -4 dna. equine herpesvirus-1 antibodies were detected by ifa in all zebras, while only seven serum samples contained ehv-4 ifa antibodies. sera with high ifa ...19979391966
the use of baypamun n in crowding associated infectious respiratory disease: efficacy of baypamun n (freeze dried product) in 4-10 month old horses.the efficacy of an immunomodulator, baypamun n, was tested in 4-10-month-old horses which were exposed to stress by weaning, transport and commingling with yearlings from different breeders (crowding). verum (n = 26) and placebo animals (n = 27) received three intramuscular injections of the investigational preparations (days 0, 2, 9) starting at the day of commingling in one stable. the incidence of acute respiratory disease was high during the first 4 weeks after commingling. approximately 50% ...19979451942
sequences of the ribonucleotide reductase-encoding genes of felid herpesvirus 1 and molecular phylogenetic analysis.the felid herpesvirus 1 (fhv-1) genes encoding the two ribonucleotide reductase (rr) subunits (rr1, large subunit and rr2, small subunit) were cloned and their nucleotide (nt) sequence determined. the rr1 open reading frame (orf) is 2358 nts long and is predicted to encode a protein of 786 amino acids (aa). in common with herpesviruses in the varicellovirus genus of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily, fhv-1 rr1 lacks the n-terminal serine threonine protein kinase region present in herpes simplex vir ...19979482586
the genome of salmonid herpesvirus 1.salmonid herpesvirus 1 (salhv-1) is a pathogen of the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). restriction endonuclease mapping, cosmid cloning, dna hybridization, and targeted dna sequencing experiments showed that the genome is 174.4 kbp in size, consisting of a long unique region (u(l); 133.4 kbp) linked to a short unique region (u(s); 25.6 kbp) which is flanked by an inverted repeat (r(s); 7.7 kbp). u(s) is present in virion dna in either orientation, but u(l) is present in a single orientation. ...19989499051
molecular biology of varicella-zoster virus. a review prepared for the uk advisory group on chickenpox.varicella-zoster virus (human herpesvirus 3; vzv) is one of eight herpes viruses that routinely infect humans. it is classified as a member of the genus varicellovirus, subfamily alphaherpesvirinae, family herpesviridae. of the other human herpes viruses it is most closely related to the herpes simplex viruses (also members of the alphalerpesvirinae). like all herpes viruses, the virus has a large double-stranded dna genome within an icosahedral nucleocapsid. this is surrounded by a proteinaceou ...19989514102
nucleotide sequences of glycoprotein i and e genes of equine herpesvirus type 4.the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein i (gi) and e (ge) genes of equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) strain th20 were determined. the predicted region encoding the ehv-4 gi gene is 1,263 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 420 amino acids in length. the predicted region encoding the ehv-4 ge gene is 1,647 nucleotides, corresponding to a polypeptide of 548 amino acids in length. the ehv-4 gi and ge genes show 74% and 85% identity at the amino acid level with those of equine herpes ...19989524947
the dna sequence of equine herpesvirus-4.the complete dna sequence of equine herpesvirus-4 (ehv-4) strain ns80567 was determined. the genome is 145597 bp in size and consists of a long unique region (ul, 112398 bp) flanked by a short inverted repeat (trl/irl, 27 bp) linked to a short unique region (us, 12789 bp) flanked by a substantial inverted repeat (trs/irs, 10178 bp). ehv-4 is predicted to contain 76 different genes; three of these are present twice in trs/irs, giving a total of 79 genes. the closely related virus equine herpesvir ...19989603335
monitoring and detection of acute viral respiratory tract disease in horses.to develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (i.e., nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.19989702229
pulmonary embolism associated with varicella infection. 19989753079
novel entry pathway of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5.herpesviruses enter cells by a yet poorly understood mechanism. we visualized the crucial steps of the entry pathway of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) and bhv-5 by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, employing cryotechniques that include time monitoring, ultrarapid freezing, and freeze substitution of cultured cells inoculated with virus. a key step in the entry pathway of both bhv-1 and bhv-5 is a unique fusion of the outer phospholipid layer of the viral envelope with the inner layer ...19989811689
diagnosis and sero-epizootiology of equine herpesvirus type 1 and type 4 infections in japan using a type-specific elisa.recently, a type-specific elisa using equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4) glycoprotein gs (ggs) was developed by crabb and studdert [1993]. to investigate the dissemination of ehv-1 and -4 among horses in japan, we applied their elisa as suitable for discriminating between ehv-1 and -4 infections serologically. type-specificity of the elisa was confirmed by using paired sera of infected horses with either ehv-1 or -4. application of the elisa to sera collected before and after t ...19989819768
possible case of ehv-4 ataxia in warmblood mare. 19989823615
the equine herpesvirus 1 us2 homolog encodes a nonessential membrane-associated virion component.experiments were conducted to analyze the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) gene 68 product which is encoded by the ehv-1 us2 homolog. an antiserum directed against the amino-terminal 206 amino acids of the ehv-1 us2 protein specifically detected a protein with an mr of 34,000 in cells infected with ehv-1 strain racl11. ehv-1 strain ab4 encodes a 44,000-mr us2 protein, whereas vaccine strain rach, a high-passage derivative of racl11, encodes a 31,000-mr us2 polypeptide. irrespective of its size, the ...199910074198
transcriptional analyses of the region of the equine herpesvirus type 4 genome encoding glycoproteins i and e.to map the transcripts encoding the equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) glycoproteins i (gi) and e (ge), transcriptional analyses were performed at the right part of the unique short segment of ehv-4 genome. the results revealed that the gi gene is encoded by a 1.6-kb transcript which is 3' coterminal with a 3.0-kb gd mrna while the ge gene is encoded by two transcripts of 3.5- and 2.4-kb in size. the transcriptional patterns described in this study for the ehv-4 gi and ge are similar to those fou ...199910226624
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a ge, gg and us2 gene-deleted bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) vaccine.the efficacy and safety of a gene-deleted bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) vaccine was determined in a bovine herpesvirus challenge trial in calves. three different doses of the vaccine were administered intramuscularly at 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) pfu/ml and compared to a commercial vaccine and non vaccinated control calves. challenge was performed by intranasal aerosolization with the cooper strain of bhv-1 (3 x 10(4) pfu/ml). the non-vaccinated calves shed significantly (p < 0.05) more virus than al ...199910403598
the cytosolic tail of class i mhc heavy chain is required for its dislocation by the human cytomegalovirus us2 and us11 gene products.the us2 and us11 glycoproteins of human cytomegalovirus facilitate destruction of mhc class i heavy chains by proteasomal proteolysis through acceleration of endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytosol dislocation. modification of the class i heavy chain was used to probe the structural requirements for this sequence of reactions. the cytosolic domain of the class i heavy chain is required for dislocation to the cytosol and for its subsequent destruction. however, interactions between us2 or us11 and the h ...199910411907
latency-associated transcripts of equine herpesvirus type 4 in trigeminal ganglia of naturally infected horses.equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) is a major respiratory pathogen of horses. unlike most other members of the alphaherpesvirinae, ehv-4 was regarded as non-neurotropic. here, neural and lymphoid tissues of 17 horses have been analysed post-mortem. ehv-4 dna was detected in 11 cases (65%) by pcr, exclusively in the trigeminal ganglia. in order to define the transcriptional activity, rna preparations of 10 ehv-4 dna-positive ganglia were investigated by nested rt-pcr. ehv-4-specific transcripts de ...199910466816
cytomegalovirus us2 destroys two components of the mhc class ii pathway, preventing recognition by cd4+ t cells.human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes life-threatening disease in patients who are immunosuppressed for bone marrow or tissue transplantation or who have aids (ref. 1). hcmv establishes lifelong latent infections and, after periodic reactivation from latency, uses a panel of immune evasion proteins to survive and replicate in the face of robust, fully primed host immunity. monocyte/macrophages are important host cells for hcmv, serving as a latent reservoir and as ...199910470081
the equine herpes virus 4 thymidine kinase is a better suicide gene than the human herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase.the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene (hsv1tk) together with ganciclovir (gcv) have been successfully used for in vivo treatment of various experimental tumors, and many clinical trials using this system have been launched. with the aim to improve this therapeutic system, we compared the potential efficacy of different herpes virus derived thymidine kinases (hsv1, varicella-zoster virus, equine herpes virus type-4 and epstein-barr virus) as suicide genes in association wi ...199910490775
epidemiology of ehv-1 and ehv-4 in the mare and foal populations on a hunter valley stud farm: are mares the source of ehv-1 for unweaned foals.the prevalence of ehv-1 and ehv-4 antibody-positive horses was determined using a type specific elisa on serum samples collected from 229 mares and their foals resident on a large thoroughbred stud farm in the hunter valley of new south wales in february 1995. more than 99% of all mares and foals tested were ehv-4 antibody positive, while the prevalence of ehv-1 antibody positive mares and foals were 26.2 and 11.4%, respectively. examination of the elisa absorbance data for the individual mares ...199910501159
[mutations in the us2 and glycoprotein b genes of the equine herpesvirus 1 vaccine strain rach have no effects on its attenuation].the equine herpesvirus 1 (ehv-1) modified live vaccine strain rach is apathogenic for both laboratory animals and the natural host. the apathogenicity of rach was caused by serial passages of the virus in heterologous cells. when compared to the virulent parental strain racl11 several changes in the rach genome occurred. previous results have shown that the loss of the ir6 gene correlated with the loss of virulence. additional important mutations were observed within the us2 gene which is direct ...199910507185
herpesviruses of carnivores.this review focuses on felid herpesvirus 1 (fhv-1), the most studied of the carnivore herpesviruses. canid herpesvirus (chv-1) and phocid (seal) herpesvirus 1 (phhv-1) are also included where information is available. fhv-1 is a member of the varicellovirus genus of the alphaherpesvirinae, which appears to be closely related phylogenetically to both chv-1 and phhv-1. fhv-1 infects both domestic and some wild felidae, such as cheetahs, and is predominantly a respiratory pathogen of cats. as in ot ...199910515274
experimental infection with bovine herpesvirus-4 enhances atherosclerotic process in rabbits.an association of herpesvirus and atherosclerosis has been suggested by seroepidemiologic studies and detection of the virus in arterial tissues. to facilitate the studies of the pathogenic role of herpesvirus in atherosclerosis, we established a rabbit model of atherosclerosis with bovine herpesvirus type-4 (bhv-4). forty new zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into six groups. groups 1, 2, and 3 were inoculated iv with bhv-4 and control groups 4, 5, and 6 with normal saline. groups 1 a ...200010652997
development and validation of a monoclonal antibody blocking elisa for the detection of antibodies against both equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv4).a monoclonal antibody blocking elisa was developed for the detection of antibodies directed against either ehv1 or ehv4. for this purpose, we selected a monoclonal antibody directed against a cross-reactive, conservative and immunodominant epitope of both ehv1 and ehv4. high antibody titres were found in rabbit antisera and spf-foal antisera infected with either ehv1 or ehv4. after experimental challenge of conventional horses with ehv1 or ehv4 significant increases in cf and elisa titres were f ...200010665532
establishment of a lymphoblastoid cell line using a mutant mdv containing a green fluorescent protein expression cassette.we have previously described the construction and characterization of mutant marek's disease viruses (mdvs) having mutations within the unique-short (us) region of the genome that have retained oncogenicity (anderson et al., 1998; parcells et al., 1995). we have also reported the characterization of lymphoblastoid cell lines (lbcls) derived using these mutant viruses (parcells et al., 1998). these mutant mdvs were constructed using a lacz expression cassette. expression of lacz was found to be c ...199910696429
identification of simian varicella virus gene 21 promoter region using green fluorescent protein.clinical, pathological, immunological and virological features of simian varicella virus (svv) infection in primates closely resemble those of varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection in humans. in ganglia infected latently of humans and monkeys, gene 21 of vzv and svv is transcribed, respectively. we determined the nucleotide sequence of the intragenic region between svv genes 20 and 21 to identify the putative promoter region for svv gene 21. a recombinant clone was prepared in which the gene en ...200010713380
pathogenicity of a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus 9 (gazelle herpesvirus 1) in horses.pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 9 (ehv-9), a new type of equine herpesvirus isolated from gazella thomsoni, in horses was investigated by intranasal inoculation of ehv-9 (10(7) pfu) to two conventionally reared 8-months old half-bred weanling horses. fever higher than 39 degrees c was recorded. virus was recovered from nasal swabs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. both horses developed neutralizing antibody to ehv-9. perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells and glial reaction wer ...200010720196
characterization of heterosubunit complexes formed by the r1 and r2 subunits of herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpes virus 4 ribonucleotide reductase.we report on the separate pcr cloning and subsequent expression and purification of the large (r1) and small (r2) subunits from equine herpes virus type 4 (ehv-4) ribonucleotide reductase. the ehv-4 r1 and r2 subunits reconstituted an active enzyme and their abilities to complement the r1 and r2 subunits from the closely related herpes simplex virus 1 (hsv-1) ribonucleotide reductase, with the use of subunit interaction and enzyme activity assays, were analysed. both ehv-4 r1/hsv-1 r2 and hsv-1 ...200010727407
differentiation and genomic and antigenic variation among fetal, respiratory, and neurological isolates from ehv1 and ehv4 infections in the netherlands.ten monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced against equine herpes virus type 1 (ehv1). two appeared type-specific, while the other eight were directed against epitopes common to both ehv1 and ehv4. two mabs directed against the glycoprotein gp2 recognized linear epitopes, as demonstrated by western blotting. with pools of type-specific mabs, 282 field isolates were typed in an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (ipma). from a total of 254 fetal or neonatal isolates, 244 (96%) were typed as ehv1 ...200010789516
a discrete-event computer model of feline herpes virus within cat populations.the purpose of this work was to study the epidemiology of feline herpes virus (fhv), which causes a respiratory disease within natural populations of domestic cats. a stochastic model was constructed using discrete-events simulation. two habitats (rural vs. urban) were simulated, featuring different demographic, spatial and social patterns. the evolution of immunity in individuals was reproduced, allowing for the random recrudescence of latent infections (influenced by environment and reproducti ...200010821958
down-regulation of mhc class i antigen presentation by hcmv; lessons for tumor immunology. 200010854174
a deletion in the gi and ge genes of equine herpesvirus type 4 reduces viral virulence in the natural host and affects virus transmission during cell-to-cell spread.in order to identify the role of the equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) glycoprotein i (gi) and e (ge) genes in determining viral virulence and their affect on the infection cycle, we constructed an ehv-4 recombinant strain containing a deletion in both gi and ge genes and its revertant. the recombinant was assayed in vitro in order to compare its growth kinetics with the parent and revertant viruses. our results indicated that a deletion in the genes encoding gi and ge affected cell-to-cell spre ...200010867198
development of a differential multiplex pcr assay for equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 as a diagnostic tool.in this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure was developed for differentiation of strains and field isolates of equine herpesvirus type 1 (ehv-1) and type 4 (ehv-4). specific oli-gonucleotide primers were combined to amplify the thymidine kinase (tk) gene region of ehv-1 and ehv-4, which would yield fragments of different lengths for each virus in the same amplification reaction. the specificity of the largest pcr amplicon for ehv-4 was confirmed by restriction digestion ...200010900826
application of a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4 (ehv-1 and -4) to horse populations inoculated with inactivated ehv-1 vaccine.a type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using equine herpesvirus types 1 (ehv-1) and 4 (ehv-4) glycoprotein g was applied for sero-epizootiology of ehv infections in japan. recently, an inactivated ehv-1 vaccine has been administered to racehorses for prevention of upper respiratory disease. to examine the effect of the vaccination on the result of the elisa, 6 horses were experimentally inoculated three times intramuscularly or intranasally with inactivated ehv-1 vaccine. sera ...200010945284
identification of the products of the equine herpesvirus type 4 gi and ge genes.in order to identify the products of the equine herpesvirus type 4 (ehv-4) gi and ge genes, we have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses containing the putative gi or ge genes. these recombinant viruses synthesized ehv-4 gi and ge with apparent molecular masses of 75 and 80kda, respectively. antibodies raised against both recombinant viruses detected a 75 kda gi and a 95 kda ge in ehv-4-infected cells. the results also suggest that the ehv-4 gi and ge would form a complex like in other herpe ...200010963353
sequence analysis of the leftward end of simian varicella virus (ecori-i fragment) reveals the presence of an 8-bp repeat flanking the unique long segment and an 881-bp open-reading frame that is absent in the varicella zoster virus genome.simian varicella virus (svv) causes varicella (chickenpox) in nonhuman primates, becomes latent in cranial and dorsal root ganglia, and reactivates to produce zoster (shingles). because the clinical and molecular features of svv closely resemble those of varicella zoster virus (vzv) infection of humans, svv infection of primates has served as an experimental model of vzv pathogenesis and latency. the svv genome has been completely mapped, but attempts to clone the 3600-bp ecori fragment located ...200010964784
brain lesions and transmission of experimental equine herpesvirus type 9 in pigs.we demonstrated that pigs are susceptible to acute infection by equine herpesvirus type 9 (ehv-9). six 8-week-old spf pigs were inoculated intranasally and four were inoculated orally with different doses of ehv-9, and observed for 6 days. although neurological signs did not develop in any of the infected pigs, the six intranasally infected pigs and one of the orally infected pigs developed lesions of encephalitis consisting of neuronal necrosis, neuronophagia, and intranuclear inclusion bodies, ...200011055874
efficient expression of the envelope protein of feline immunodeficiency virus in a recombinant feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) using the gc promoter of fhv-1.we constructed two recombinant feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1) expressing the envelope (env) protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). one recombinant, designated dltk-env, has the whole fiv env gene inserted at a thymidine kinase (tk) deletion site. the second recombinant, designated dltk(gcp)-env, has a cassette containing a partial fiv env gene fused with the signal sequence of the gc protein of fhv-1 (under the control of the gc promoter) inserted at the same site. growth kinetics of ...200011074121
effects of l-lysine and l-arginine on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus type-1.to determine the effects of various concentrations of l-lysine and l-arginine on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus type-1 (fhv-1).200011131583
simian varicella virus infects ganglia before rash in experimentally infected monkeys.monkeys experimentally infected with simian varicella virus (svv) develop rash 10-14 days later. however, the route and the time of ganglionic infection are unknown. using pcr, we analyzed dna extracted from tissues of 13 monkeys 5 to 60 days after either intratracheal or intravenous inoculation with svv. svv dna was detected in ganglia from four of five monkeys sacrificed 6 to 7 days after intratracheal inoculation. further, analysis of ganglia from monkeys sacrificed at 10 days revealed that i ...200111145914
equine herpesvirus 9 induced lethal encephalomyelitis in experimentally infected goats.the pathogenicity of a new neurotropic equine herpesvirus 9 (ehv-9) formerly designated gazelle herpesvirus 1 was evaluated using the goat as a representative of domesticated ruminants. two goats inoculated intranasally with ehv-9 showed salivation, teeth grinding and other neurological disorders on day 8 post inoculation. one goat died 30 min after the onset of clinical signs and the other was sacrificed 3 h after the sudden onset of teeth grinding and foamy salivation. ehv-9 was recovered from ...200011205108
control of mhc class i traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum by cellular chaperones and viral anti-chaperones.mhc class i molecules assemble with peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum (er). to ensure that only peptide-loaded mhc molecules leave the er, empty molecules are retained by er-resident chaperones, most notably the mhc-specific tapasin. er exit of class i mhc is also controlled by viruses, but for the opposite purpose of preventing peptide presentation to t cells. interestingly, some viral proteins are able to retain mhc class i molecules in the er despite being transported. by contrast, other ...200011208115
further development of a recombinant feline herpesvirus type 1 expressing the gag protein of feline immunodeficiency virus.we have previously reported the construction of a recombinant feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1), designated c7301ddltk-gag, expressing the gag precursor protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). in this study, we report the construction of a further recombinant fhv-1 (ddltk(gbp)-gag) which carries an fhv-1 gb promoter sequence upstream of the fiv gag gene of c7301ddltk-gag. strong expression of the fiv gag protein by ddltk(gbp)-gag was confirmed by immunoblot analyses and enzyme-linked imm ...200111315645
human cytomegalovirus us2 endoplasmic reticulum-lumenal domain dictates association with major histocompatibility complex class i in a locus-specific manner.the human cytomegalovirus-encoded us2 glycoprotein targets endoplasmic reticulum-resident major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i heavy chains for rapid degradation by the proteasome. we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum-lumenal domain of us2 allows tight interaction with class i molecules encoded by the hla-a locus. recombinant soluble us2 binds properly folded, peptide-containing recombinant hla-a2 molecules in a peptide sequence-independent manner, consistent with us2's abilit ...200111333901
the dna sequence of the simian varicella virus genome.in nonhuman primates, simian varicella virus (svv) causes a natural disease which is clinically similar to human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) infections. the svv and vzv genomes are similar in size and structure and share extensive dna homology. this report presents the complete dna sequence of the svv genome. svv dna is 124,138 bp in size, 746 bp shorter than vzv dna, and 40.4% g + c. the viral genome includes a 104,104-bp unique long component bracketed by 8-bp inverted repeat sequences and a ...200111352673
antigen presentation subverted: structure of the human cytomegalovirus protein us2 bound to the class i molecule hla-a2.many persistent viruses have evolved the ability to subvert mhc class i antigen presentation. indeed, human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) encodes at least four proteins that down-regulate cell-surface expression of class i. the hcmv unique short (us)2 glycoprotein binds newly synthesized class i molecules within the endoplasmic reticulum (er) and subsequently targets them for proteasomal degradation. we report the crystal structure of us2 bound to the hla-a2/tax peptide complex. us2 associates with hla ...200111391001
invasion and spread of equine herpesvirus 9 in the olfactory pathway of pigs after intranasal inoculation.the neuropathogenesis of equine herpesvirus 9 (ehv-9) in pigs was investigated by intranasal inoculation of the virus together with intramuscular administration of dexamethasone (dm). all infected pigs developed characteristic meningo-encephalitis, accompanied by basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the neuronal cells. one non-dm-treated and two dm-treated pigs had prominent malacic lesions in the rhinencephalon. associated with the encephalitic lesions, there was invariably an increase i ...200111437502
detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein b and thymidine kinase dna by pcr assays in bovine milk.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (bhv4) glycoprotein b (gb) dna, and a nested-pcr assay was modified for the detection of bhv4 thymidine kinase (tk) dna in bovine milk samples. to identify false-negative pcr results, internal control templates were constructed, added to milk samples, and co-amplified with viral dna using the same primers for both templates. specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility of the two pcr assays were examined. in bo ...200111483221
virus subversion of immunity: a structural perspective.over the past year, we have witnessed the discovery of further virus immuno-evasins--proteins that alter the host immune response. although many of these factors have been described over the past decade, the structural basis underlying their biology has lagged behind. structural data have now been obtained for several such proteins. major advances of the past year include the structures of a viral chemokine-binding protein, of an intact viral regulator of complement activation and of an immuno-e ...200111498300
ubiquitination is essential for human cytomegalovirus us11-mediated dislocation of mhc class i molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol.human cytomegalovirus encodes two glycoproteins, us2 and us11, which cause rapid degradation of mhc class i molecules, thus preventing recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system. this degradation process involves retrograde transport or 'dislocation' of mhc class i molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum (er) to the cytosol, where they are deglycosylated by an n-glycanase and degraded by the proteasome. at present it is unknown whether ubiquitination is required for us2- and us11- ...200111513735
expression of the simian varicella virus glycoprotein e.simian varicella virus (svv) is closely related to human varicella-zoster virus (vzv) and induces a varicella-like disease in nonhuman primates. the svv genome encodes a glycoprotein e (ge) which is homologous to the ge of vzv and other alphaherpesviruses. the svv ge was expressed in escherichia coli and rabbits were immunized with the recombinant ge fusion proteins to generate polyclonal ge antiserum. immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that the svv ge is expressed ...200111551643
the bovine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early protein (bicp0) associates with histone deacetylase 1 to activate transcription.infected-cell protein 0 encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1) (bicp0) is necessary for efficient productive infection, in large part, because it activates all 3 classes of bhv-1 genes (u. v. wirth, c. fraefel, b. vogt, c. vlcek, v. paces, and m. schwyzer, j. virol. 66:2763-2772, 1992). although bicp0 is believed to be a functional homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1-encoded icp0, the only well-conserved domain between the proteins is a zinc ring finger located near the amino terminus of b ...200111559788
effect of the deletion of us2 and us3 from herpes simplex virus type 2 on immune responses in the murine vagina following intravaginal infection.we investigated the effects of us2 and us3 deficiencies of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2) on host immunity in a murine model of genital herpes infection. viral clearance from the vaginal mucosa was more rapid in mice infected with a us3-deficient mutant l1br1 as compared with a wild-type 186 or yy2 (us2-deficient mutant) infection, although there was no significant difference among them in initial growth in the early stage of infection. flow cytometric studies revealed that the number of va ...200111567752
human cytomegalovirus protein us2 interferes with the expression of human hfe, a nonclassical class i major histocompatibility complex molecule that regulates iron homeostasis.hfe is a nonclassical class i major histocompatibility complex (mhc) molecule that is mutated in the autosomal recessive iron overload disease hereditary hemochromatosis. there is evidence linking hfe with reduced iron uptake by the transferrin receptor (tfr). using a panel of hfe and tfr monoclonal antibodies to examine human hfe (hhfe)-expressing cell lines, we demonstrate the expression of stable and fully glycosylated tfr-free and tfr-associated hhfe/beta2m complexes. we show that both the s ...200111581431
ocular manifestations of feline herpesvirus.feline herpesvirus-1 (fhv-1) infection is ubiquitous in the domestic cat population worldwide. the most common clinical ocular manifestations of infection with fhv-1 are conjunctivitis and keratitis. this paper reviews the pathogenesis of feline herpesvirus-1 and discusses the various clinical ocular manifestations, diagnostic techniques and treatment of fhv-1-induced diseases. ocular manifestations include: conjunctivitis, keratitis, stromal keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, ophthalmia neo ...200111716625
a field trial to assess the effect of vaccination against feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and feline panleucopenia virus in 6-week-old kittens.a trivalent (feline panleucopenia, feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus), modified live, commercially available cat vaccine was used at either 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age (early schedule) or 9 and 12 weeks of age (conventional schedule), and the serological response to vaccination was assessed. the level of maternally derived antibody present at 6 weeks of age was also established. the use of early vaccination at 6 weeks of age induced an antibody response to each virus by 9 weeks of age in a sig ...200111716626
membrane-specific, host-derived factors are required for us2- and us11-mediated degradation of major histocompatibility complex class i molecules.human cytomegalovirus encodes two glycoproteins, us2 and us11, that target major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i heavy chains for proteasomal degradation. we have developed a mrna-dependent cell-free system that recapitulates us2- and us11-mediated degradation of mhc class i heavy chains. microsomes support the degradation of mhc class i heavy chains in the presence of us2 or us11 in a cytosol-dependent manner. in vitro, the glycosylated heavy chain is exported from the microsomes. a de ...200211717308
mineralized corneal sequestrum in a cat.an 8-month-old 3-kg (6.6-lb) sexually intact male cat was evaluated for chronic refractory keratitis and a corneal plaque that developed after treatment with a corticosteroid-containing ophthalmic preparation. pertinent ophthalmic findings included blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, corneal vascularization, and a tan raised corneal plaque with a dense and gritty composition. lamellar keratectomy was performed to excise the plaque. the cornea healed with mild scarring. histologic examination revealed ...200111759995
the us2 gene product of herpes simplex virus type 2 interacts with cytokeratin 18.in order to clarify the biological role of us2 gene product of herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), a hela cdna library was screened in the yeast two-hybrid system using us2 protein as bait, and several interacting proteins were identified, including cytokeratin 18. us2 protein was co-immunoprecipitated with cytokeratin 18 from hsv-2 infected cell lysates. analysis of infected ora431 cells by immunofluorescence showed that us2 protein gave filamentous or dot-like cytoplasmic staining pattern, an ...200111765921
us2, a human cytomegalovirus-encoded type i membrane protein, contains a non-cleavable amino-terminal signal peptide.the human cytomegalovirus us2 gene product targets major histocompatibility class i molecules for degradation in a proteasome-dependent fashion. degradation requires interaction between the endoplasmic reticulum (er) lumenal domains of us2 and class i. while er insertion of us2 is essential for us2 function, us2 lacks a cleavable signal peptide. radiosequence analysis of glycosylated us2 confirms the presence of the nh(2) terminus predicted on the basis of the amino acid sequence, with no eviden ...200211790769
reactivation of caprine herpesvirus 1 in experimentally infected goats. 200211838996
visualization of the er-to-cytosol dislocation reaction of a type i membrane protein.the human cytomegalovirus gene products us2 and us11 induce proteasomal degradation of mhc class i heavy chains. we have generated an enhanced green fluorescent protein-class i heavy chain (egfp-hc) chimeric molecule to study its dislocation and degradation in us2- and us11-expressing cells. the egfp-hc fusion is stable in control cells, but is degraded rapidly in us2- or us11-expressing cells. proteasome inhibitors induce in a time-dependent manner the accumulation of egfp-hc molecules in us2- ...200211867532
expression of the simian varicella virus glycoprotein l and h.simian varicella is used as a model to investigate varicella-zoster virus pathogenesis and to evaluate antiviral therapies. in this study, the simian varicella virus (svv) glycoprotein l (gl) was characterized along with its association with glycoprotein h (gh). the svv gl gene encodes a predicted 175 amino acid polypeptide that shares 43.5% and 27.9% amino acid identity with the vzv gl and hsv-1 gl, respectively. the svv gl polypeptide sequence lacks a consensus glycosylation site and a typical ...200211890527
the mhc class i homolog of human cytomegalovirus is resistant to down-regulation mediated by the unique short region protein (us)2, us3, us6, and us11 gene products.human cmv encodes four unique short region proteins (us), us2, us3, us6, and us11, each independently sufficient for causing the down-regulation of mhc class i molecules on the cell surface. this down-regulation allows infected cells to evade recognition by cytotoxic t cells but leaves them susceptible to nk cells, which lyse cells that lack class i molecules. another human cmv-encoded protein, unique long region protein 18 (ul18), is an mhc class i homolog that might provide a mechanism for inh ...200211907106
human cytomegalovirus gene products us2 and us11 differ in their ability to attack major histocompatibility class i heavy chains in dendritic cells.human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) encodes several proteins that inhibit major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i-dependent antigen presentation. the hcmv products us2 and us11 are each sufficient for causing the dislocation of human and murine mhc class i heavy chains from the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where the heavy chains are readily degraded. the apparent redundancy of us2 and us11 has been probed predominantly in cultured cell lines, where differences in their spec ...200211967320
inhibitory effects of cytomegalovirus proteins us2 and us11 point to contributions from direct priming and cross-priming in induction of vaccinia virus-specific cd8(+) t cells.the extent to which naive cd8(+) ctls (t(cd8)(+)) are primed by apcs presenting endogenous ags (direct priming) or ags acquired from other infected cells (cross-priming) is a critical topic in basic and applied immunology. to examine the contribution of direct priming in the induction of vv-specific t(cd8)(+), we generated recombinant vaccinia viruses that express human cmv proteins (us2 and us11) that induce the destruction of newly synthesized mhc class i molecules. expression of us2 or us11 w ...200212023332
inoculation with bartonella henselae followed by feline herpesvirus 1 fails to activate ocular toxoplasmosis in chronically infected cats.infection by toxoplasma gondii is very common in cats although most remain disease free. the factors that trigger development of uveitis in some cats infected with t gondii have not been elucidated, but infection by more than one organism may be contributory. in this study, cats chronically infected with t gondii were inoculated with bartonella henselae followed by fhv-1 to test the hypothesis that immune stimulation by multiple infections will reactivate ocular toxoplasmosis. anterior uveitis a ...200212027509
demonstration of generalized infection with caprine herpesvirus 1 diagnosed in an aborted caprine fetus by pcr. 200212090293
binding of human cytomegalovirus us2 to major histocompatibility complex class i and ii proteins is not sufficient for their degradation.human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) glycoprotein us2 causes degradation of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i heavy-chain (hc), class ii dr-alpha and dm-alpha proteins, and hfe, a nonclassical mhc protein. in us2-expressing cells, mhc proteins present in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) are degraded by cytosolic proteasomes. it appears that us2 binding triggers a normal cellular pathway by which misfolded or aberrant proteins are translocated from the er to cytoplasmic proteasomes. to better ...200212134032
construction of infectious simian varicella virus expressing green fluorescent protein. 200212136770
virological and histological findings in goats infected by caprine herpesvirus 1.two adult goats seropositive to caprine herpesvirus 1 were treated with dexamethasone for 6 days to reactivate the virus. the goats shed the virus by the nasal and the vaginal routes. after necropsy, the histologic examinations on vaginal and nasal mucosa and ganglia showed general degenerative and flogistic lesions of the tissues. the findings confirm the respiratory and especially genital tropism of the virus.200212173768
susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.the purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (bue) cells to bovine herpesvirus (bhv) 1, bhv2, bhv4 and bhv5, and to pseudocowpox virus. the detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in bue cells were compared with those in vero, madin-darby bovine kidney (mdbk). or bovine fetal diploid lung (bfdl) cells. detection limits were determined by inoculating cell cultures with serial 10-fold dilutions of these viruses, and growth curves by ...200212212730
nk cell activity during human cytomegalovirus infection is dominated by us2-11-mediated hla class i down-regulation.a highly attractive approach to investigate the influence and hierarchical organization of viral proteins on cellular immune responses is to employ mutant viruses carrying deletions of various virus-encoded, immune-modulating genes. here, we introduce a novel set of deletion mutants of the human cmv (hcmv) lacking the ul40 region either alone or on the background of a deletion mutant devoid of the entire us2-11 region. deletion of ul40 had no significant effect on lysis of infected cells by nk c ...200212218145
lessons from viral manipulation of protein disposal pathways. 200212370262
the human cytomegalovirus us10 gene product delays trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class i molecules.human cytomegalovirus (hcmv) us10 encodes a glycoprotein that binds to major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class i heavy chains. while expression of us10 delays the normal trafficking of mhc class i molecules out of the endoplasmic reticulum, us10 does not obviously facilitate or inhibit the action of two other hcmv-encoded mhc class i binding proteins, us2 and us11.200212388737
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