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[contagious ecthyma with virus demonstration in a negative staining method].the diagnosis of contagious ecthyma was presumed by history and clinical appearance in a 33-year-old farmer. in electron miscroscopical preparations viral particles were found by the negative staining method. it is proposed to use this method for rapid diagnosis of suspected cases. in old lesions it is more difficult to demonstrate viral particles than in fresh lesions. differential diagnosis and the position of orf-virus in the system of viruses are briefly discussed.197768947
cross-neutralization tests on sheep pox, goat pox and contagious pustular dermatitis viruses.in cross-neutralization tests in cell cultures, sheep pox and contagious pustular dermatitis (cpd) hyperimmune sera did not cross-react in the heterologous system. but goat pox hyperimmune serum neutralized both sheep pox and cpd viruses revealing a one-way serological relationship of goat pox virus with both sheep pox and cpd viruses.197990458
chromium-51-release assay of antibody and complement-mediated cytotoxicity for contagious ecthyma virus-infected cells. 1978107837
high c + g content in parapoxvirus dna.the dnas of eight parapoxviruses (four stomatitis papulosa viruses isolated from infected calves, a pseudocowpox virus isolated from a teat lesion of an infected cow and three orf viruses, one isolated from an infected sheep and two isolated from human infections) were analysed in cscl gradients. the mole % of g+c was calculated from the buoyant density and found to be approx. 63% for all virus isolates examined. parapoxvirus dna thus has by far the highest g+c content of all poxvirus dnas so fa ...1979225418
[lameness in sheep as a sequela to vaccination against contagious ecthyma]. 1979425108
[properties of the contagious ecthyma virus used for vaccine production].experiments were carried out to establish the effect of some antibiotics and merthiolate on the vaccinal phylaxia strain of ecthyma contagiosa. besides, followed up was the effect of these antibiotics on concomitant microflora that had multipled in the virus suspension. trials were also made to titrate the vaccinal strain on lambs through scarification. titration was carried out by the method of schmidt. virus dilutions of 10-1 were applied following scarification on the the thighs and fore limb ...1976799865
electron microscopy in the rapid diagnosis of orf. 1977837208
[immunogenicity of the attenuated strain of the virus of contagious ecthyma of sheep]. 19751209954
human orf.human orf is usually considered a rare disease caused by a virus belonging to the paravaccinia subgroup of pox viruses and transmitted to man from sheep and goats. this paper presents 119 new human cases with epidemiological, clinical, histopathological and ultrastructural findings. erythema multiforme was found to be a common complication of human orf. other complications tended to be caused by overtreatment. electron microscopy of negatively stained suspensions from lesions was found to be the ...19751219046
sero-surveillance for orf antibodies in sheep and goats in saudi arabia employing the elisa technique.a serological survey was conducted on sheep and goats in saudi arabia to detect humoral antibodies against the orf virus. the elisa technique was superior to the agid and cft in detecting such antibodies. of the 239 abattoir serum samples examined, 60 per cent had orf antibodies by elisa while 94.8 per cent of the convalescent sera had antibodies detectable by elisa. with the lack of vaccination and the reports that the clinical disease is commonly seen in different parts of the kingdom, it may ...19921597532
differentiation of parapoxviruses by application of orf virus-specific monoclonal antibodies against cell surface proteins.monoclonal antibodies were produced against orf virus-specified cell surface proteins in an attempt to develop reagents capable of differentiating between members of the parapoxviridae. two immunization protocols were used to induce an anti-orf response in balb/c mice, one of which resulted in virus replication in the recipient. the monoclonal antibodies produced were tested for crossreactivity with bovine papular stomatitis virus (bps) and milker's node virus (mnv) by indirect immunofluorescenc ...19911719690
orf of the pinna.a case of orf affecting the pinna is discussed. this is an unusual presentation of an infection that is common in farming communities. at the initial presentation the diagnosis was not suspected, the management therefore was inappropriate and probably gave rise to the secondary infection that ensued. the history described is classical. orf affecting the external auditory canal has been reported once, but orf affecting the pinna has not been described before.19911761951
direct detection of molluscum contagiosum virus in clinical specimens by dot blot hybridization.a dot blot hybridization protocol was developed for the direct detection of molluscum contagiosum virus (mcv) dna in clinical specimens submitted for virus isolation. samples were concentrated by high-speed centrifugation and treated with proteinase k; this was followed by a single phenol-chloroform extraction step. the dna was denatured, and the entire volume was spotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane. a biotinylated dna probe specific for the bamhi-c region of mcv type 1 was used for hybridiza ...19911774321
contagious pustular dermatitis (orf) infection in sheep and goats in saudi arabia. 19911909477
response of efferent lymph and popliteal lymph node to epidermal infection of sheep with orf virus.functional and phenotypic changes in the cell populations were monitored in the popliteal efferent lymph of sheep following experimental epidermal infection with orf virus. in another group of sheep, cells from the popliteal lymph node draining the site of infection were similarly monitored and compared with the cells from contralateral popliteal and mesenteric lymph nodes. all sheep showed serological evidence of previous exposure to orf virus. following infection, anti-orf antibody titres rose ...19911949568
an orf virus sequence showing homology to the 14k 'fusion' protein of vaccinia virus.the nucleotide sequence of a region of dna 30 kb from the right end of the orf virus genome has been determined. examination of the sequences revealed an open reading frame encoding a 10k peptide with significant amino acid homology to the 14k 'fusion' protein reported in vaccinia virus. the orf virus sequence has a 31% identity with the vaccinia virus protein, but a higher level of homology of core predicted residues. the secondary structure of both proteins is also similar. the occurrence of t ...19912033392
[recent information about the orf virus of small ruminants].new scientific findings in the field of immunobiology and diagnosis of parapoxvirus ovis (orf-virus) as the causal agent of a zoonosis are presented. the adaptation of orf-virus to cell lines and its in vitro multiplication without difficulties offer the possibility for extensive studies into the biology of parapoxviruses. the development of monoclonal antibodies (mab) against an attenuated orf-virus strain (d-1701) led to the elaboration of a simplified, cheap and highly sensitive "antigen dete ...19902219103
detection of contagious pustular dermatitis virus of goats in a severe outbreak. 19892588444
a homologue of retroviral pseudoproteases in the parapoxvirus, orf virus.the nucleotide sequence of a near-terminal region of orf virus dna was determined. examination of the sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a peptide with significant amino acid homology to the pseudoprotease domains recently identified in a number of retroviruses including mouse mammary tumor virus, simian mason-pfizer virus, maedi-visna virus, and equine infectious anaemia virus. the orf virus pseudoprotease shares up to 28% amino acid homology with retroviral pseudoproteases and ap ...19892678731
analysis of parapoxvirus genomes.eight stomatitis papulosa (sp), four orf and two milker's nodes (mn) virus isolates were compared by restriction enzyme analysis. considerable genetic heterogeneity was found not only between isolates belonging to the three different taxonomic groups but also between members of the same group. this heterogeneity precludes classification of parapoxviruses simply by comparison of their dna cleavage patterns. restriction maps were therefore prepared for 12 parapoxvirus dnas. fragments from defined ...19852982348
comparison of contagious ecthyma virus genomes by restriction endonucleases.restriction enzyme analysis with kpni revealed heterogeneity among 10 different strains of contagious ecthyma virus from sheep, musk ox, dall sheep and humans. hybridization of electroblots indicated deletion of dna segments and changes in nucleotide sequences.19852986582
safety and efficacy of a combined parapox/bvd vaccine.the combination of a bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease-attenuated vaccine strain with heat-inactivated parapoxvirus was tested with respect to safety and efficacy in mice, rabbits and fattening calves. the safety on this vaccine was guaranteed in mice and rabbits under laboratory conditions and in calves under field conditions. laboratory investigations demonstrated a strong anti-bvd antibody response in rabbits compared to antibody formation after vaccination with the monovalent bvd-vaccine ...19863030862
studies of the pathogenesis of orf virus infection in sheep.damage to the skin is essential for the establishment of orf virus infection and the development of typical lesions. however, analysis of the pathogenesis of experimental lesions induced by viral challenge of mildly abraded skin, indicated that the virus does not establish in the damaged epidermis, but replicates in the cells of an underlying replacement epidermal layer derived from the walls of the wool follicles. the skin reaction consists of a cellular response with necrosis and sloughing of ...19883204166
orf virus replication in bovine testis cells: kinetics of viral dna, polypeptide, and infectious virus production and analysis of virion polypeptides.the replication of orf virus in bovine testis cells was analysed in one-step growth experiments. newly replicated viral dna was detected 4 to 6 hours post-infection (p.i.), accumulated rapidly between 8 and 16 hours p.i. and reached a plateau between 25 and 30 hours p.i. most virus-induced polypeptides were first detected in a two hour period beginning 10 hours p.i., reached a peak rate of synthesis between 14 and 16 hours p.i., and continued at that rate for at least 10 hours. host polypeptide ...19873426396
orf virus and vaccinia virus do not cross-protect sheep.inoculation of lambs with a new zealand strain of orf virus (nz 2) failed to protect them against subsequent infection with the lister strain of vaccinia virus. similarly, in the reciprocal test, vaccinia virus failed to protect against subsequent orf virus infection. inoculation with either orf virus or vaccinia virus alone afforded protection against reinfection with the same virus. these results have relevance to the use of vaccinia virus gene vectors in sheep.19883178493
conservation and variation in orf virus genomes.the genomes of several orf virus strains were analyzed with the restriction endonucleases ecori, hindiii, bamhi, and kpni, and cleavage site maps were deduced. in general, the right half of the genome showed conservation of restriction sites compared with the left half. variations in size of up to 0.5 kbp were found within an inverted terminal repetition, and a 1-kbp deletion was detected in some strains in a subterminal fragment at the left end. a region of approximately 20 kbp, some 12 kbp in ...19873029953
contagious pustular dermatitis (orf) of sheep affecting the ear following ear tagging. 19873606509
orf vaccine supplies. 19873629876
electron microscopical diagnosis of ecthyma contagiosum in camels (camelus dromedarius). first report of the disease in kenya. 19863705801
the structure and cloning of orf virus dna.a map of cleavage sites for the restriction endonucleases ecori, hindiii, bamhi, hpai, and kpni for a new zealand strain of orf virus (nz2) dna has been deduced. also, the entire genome, apart from approximately 0.1 kbp at each end, has been cloned into various vectors. the genome is 139 kbp in length and, in common with other poxviruses, has inverted terminal repetitions and crosslinked ends.19873029950
orf. 19892805803
cell lines for growth of sheep viruses. 19892549933
[ecthyma of sheep and goats].contagious pustular dermatitis (cpd, contagious ecthyma, orf) is a highly contagious viral disease afflicting sheep and goats. the infectious agent is a parapoxvirus which is widespread and also contagious for humans (zoonosis). recently the disease in sheep and goats is marked by increased incidence and severe cases which cause many losses especially among lambs in fattening farms. the immunity of once infected animals is based on cellular defense mechanisms which are very unstable. the most su ...19853895568
immune response of lambs to experimental infection with orf virus.a group of six specific pathogen free (spf) lambs were infected epidermally with orf virus. seven weeks later they were reinfected. for a period of 4 weeks after each inoculation they were observed clinically and blood was collected for analysis of virus specific antibody measured by elisa and peripheral blood lymphocyte (pbl) proliferative response to various viral antigens. after the primary infection all animals showed clinical signs of orf, namely vesicle formation which became pustular foll ...19892534005
parapoxvirus papillomatosis in the muskoxen (ovibos moschatus): genetical differences between the virus causing new outbreak in a vaccinated herd, the vaccine virus and a local orf virus.since 1981 a domesticated muskoxen herd had been successfully vaccinated against papillomatosis with homogenated, glutaraldehyde inactivated papilloma tissue. in the fall of 1985 a new clinical outbreak of disease occurred, affecting previously infected as well as vaccinated animals. the purification of parapox virions directly from papilloma tissue and orf scabs collected in a local sheep farm was followed by restriction endonuclease analysis of viral dna. the morphological identity of purified ...19902169188
sequence analysis of the inverted terminal repetition in the genome of the parapoxvirus, orf virus.two bamhi fragments from the right-hand terminal region of the orf virus genome have been sequenced. the bulk of the inverted terminal repetition (itr) sequence is contained within these fragments and makes up 3388 bp of the 4425-bp sequence reported. the overall base composition of the larger sequence is 59.4% g + c and of the itr, 60.2% g + c. an extremely g/c-rich (83.2%) block of sequence was found spanning the itr/unique sequence junction. the bulk of the itr could be divided into three blo ...19902129563
vaccinia virus-like early transcriptional control sequences flank an early gene in orf virus.the purpose of this study was to map the initiation (tsp) and termination points of transcripts arising from an open reading frame (orf3) found in the inverted terminal repeat of the orf virus genome and also, to identify probable transcriptional control sequences. early transcripts of approx. 0.76 kb were mapped to orf3 and found to be transcribed toward the ends of the genome. using the s1 nuclease and primer-extension methods, the bulk of the tsp were mapped to a position 12-13 nucleotides (n ...19911999284
[experimental double infection of sheep with vaccinia virus and sheep-pox or orf virus. a contribution on the problem of contamination of smallpox dermovaccines with foreign viruses]. 19694318359
cytopathogenicity of contagious pustular dermatitis virus in primary cell culture with special reference to the formation of intracytoplasmic inclusions. 19724675558
propagation of contagious pustular dermatitis virus in hela cell cultures. 19715169601
camel contagious ecthyma (pustular dermatitis).in 1979, pustular dermatitis caused by a virus belonging to the family poxviridae , genus parapoxvirus , was observed among camels in some areas of mongolia . the morbidity in adults ranged from 10 to 80%, of 2 to 3-month-old suckling camels between 50-70% and it reached 100% in 1-year-old animals. in the beginning, pustules developed around the mouth followed by papular elevations and scab formation. the virus designated camel contagious ecthyma (cce) grew on the chorionallantoic membrane (cam) ...19846145344
repeat sequences from complex ds dna viruses can be used as minisatellite probes for dna fingerprinting.in a search for new fingerprinting probes for use with sheep, repeat sequences derived from five poxviruses, an iridovirus and a baculovirus were screened against dna from sheep pedigrees. probes constructed from portions of the parapox viruses, orf virus and papular stomatitis virus and the baculovirus from the alfalfa looper, autographa californica, nuclear polyhedrosis virus all gave fingerprint patterns. probes from three other poxviruses and an iridovirus did not give useful banding pattern ...19911892249
molecular analysis of contagious pustular dermatitis virus: a simplified method for viral dna extraction from scab material.a new simplified method of dna extraction of contagious pustular dermatitis virus directly from scab material of natural and experimental infections is described. scabs are suspended in buffer solution and an enriched core suspension is obtained after treatment with detergent, quelants and centrifugation. dna is isolated after proteinase digestion and phenolchloroform extraction. viral dna and fragments with sizes ranging from 23-25 kb were observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. this dna was u ...19911816256
in vivo recognition of orf virus early transcriptional promoters in a vaccinia virus recombinant.the 4.4-kb bamhi-e fragment of the orf virus (ov) genome contains three discrete open reading frames designated orf-pp, orf-1, and orf-3, all of which are flanked by vaccinia virus-like early transcriptional control sequences. to determine whether the vaccinia transcriptional machinery would recognize these promoters and faithfully transcribe ov genes in vivo the bamhi-e fragment was inserted into the thymidine kinase (tk) locus of vaccinia virus and the recombinant used in transcription studies ...19921546449
human labial orf: a case report.a case of orf in a 59-year-old man with no direct contact with farm animals is reported. the patient presented with an ulcerating lesion on the upper lip and the diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopy from a smear of the lesion. the unusual case history, differential diagnosis and method of diagnosis are discussed.19921467011
in vitro recognition of an orf virus early promoter in a vaccinia virus extract.dna fragments containing varying lengths of the 5' end of an orf virus early gene (orf3) and its associated promoter were introduced into sodium deoxycholate-solubilized vaccinia virus extracts capable of initiating transcription in vitro from vaccinia virus early promoters. after separation of the radiolabelled products of the reactions on a 5% polyacrylamide/7 m urea gel, discrete transcripts were detected the sizes of which were consistent with initiation of transcription from the orf virus e ...19921312824
prevalence of antibodies of selected infectious disease agents in the peninsular desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates) of the santa rosa mountains, california. 19826285010
effect of passively-acquired antibodies and vaccination on the immune response to contagious ecthyma virus.lambs which received colostrum from ewes vaccinated with contagious ecthyma (ce) virus and other lambs vaccinated with ce virus were compared for serum anti-ce immunoglobulin (ig)g levels, delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) responses to ce viral antigen, and protective immunity to challenge with ce virus. ewes vaccinated 3-4 weeks prior to parturition transferred ce antibody to lambs via colostrum. although these lambs had higher levels of antibody at challenge than lambs vaccinated when 1-4 da ...19846506446
[an (unusual) case of ecthyma in goats]. 19846537867
ocular infection with orf virus.orf virus infection of the pericanthal eyelid skin and conjunctiva was diagnosed by electron microscopy. orf is a paravaccinia virus responsible for contagious pustular dermatitis in sheep and goats. it occasionally affects humans. the patient was a farmwife who had recently handled lambs. she had a raised ulcerating lesion at the inner canthus, follicular conjunctivitis, and lymphadenopathy. treatment with 35% idoxuridine in dimethylsulfoxide on the skin and 0.5% idoxuridine ointment on the con ...19846539075
[ecthyma contagiosum (orf): clinical aspects, histology, therapy]. 19751171086
ultrastructural study of cell cultures infected with swinepox and orf viruses.monolayer cells of a porcine kidney cell line were infected with the pp-1 strain of swinepox virus, while secondary or third subcultured monolayer cells of african green monkey kidney were inoculated with the iwate bt-9 strain of orf virus. those infected cells were fixed when cpe became remarkable in the monolayers and examined by electron microscope. in the cytoplasm of cells infected with both viruses, various immature forms of viral particles in different developmental stages were observed. ...1977412491
serologic and experimental investigations of contagious ecthyma in alaska.serologic evidence of contagious ecthyma (ce) was found in domestic sheep (ovis aries), domestic goats (capra hircus), dall sheep (ovis dalli), and musk-ox (ovibos moschatus) in alaska. a moose (alces alces) calf and a caribou (rangifer tarandus) fawn were susceptible to experimental infection and both developed antibody titers as a result. ce virus was isolated from lesions of dall sheep which were involved in a natural outbreak of the disease.19836644914
experimental contagious ecthyma in mule deer, white-tailed deer, pronghorn and wapiti.hand-reared mule deer fawns (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer fawns (odocoileus virginianus), pronghorn fawns (antilocapra americana) and wapiti calves (cervus elaphus nelsoni) were exposed to contagious ecthyma lesion material obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to determine the susceptibility and pathogenesis in these species. all four species developed mucocutaneous proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, grossly and histologically compatible with ...19836685778
survival of orf virus under british winter conditions. 19863727328
orf. a case report with histologic, electron microscopic, and immunoperoxidase studies.orf is an occupational skin disease acquired through contact with infected animals. in humans, orf is usually a self-limited disease that resolves spontaneously within four to 24 weeks. we report a case with multiple lesions of orf, acquired by contact with a wild sheep. the patient was temporarily immunosuppressed by a concomitant viral hepatitis. we reviewed the histologic and electron microscopic findings. also, we attempted to stain the parapoxvirus in the skin of the patient, using the immu ...19853883947
in vivo and in vitro characteristics of contagious ecthyma virus isolates: host response mechanism.three vero cell culture-adapted contagious ecthyma virus (cev) isolates were compared by plaque morphology, ability to induce vesicles in skin and in vivo growth curve characteristics by sampling sequentially experimental skin lesions produced in four sheep and one goat. two of the isolates (cev-29a and cev-378) were from outbreaks of ecthyma in sheep and one (cev-102) from a human case of orf. when replicating in vero cells, the viruses exhibited similar growth parameters, but were distinguisha ...19892466365
cytotoxic antibodies in orf virus infection of sheep. 19826750991
a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the humoral antibody response of the sheep to orf virus infection.the serological response of naturally and experimentally infected lambs to orf virus infection was analysed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) together with the western blotting technique. the combination of these two methods permitted a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the response, which revealed considerable variation between animals. despite this, all post-exposure sera reacted with a polypeptide (molecular weight 40 kilodaltons) which appears to be a component of t ...19872448946
vaccination of sheep with cell culture grown orf virus.orf virus, derived from contagious pustular dermatitis (scabby mouth) lesions in sheep, was adapted to cell culture and subsequently evaluated as a potential vaccine for sheep. the traditional vaccine virus, prepared from the infected scabs of orf virus lesions in sheep, was used to vaccinate sheep by scratching with an applicator (mounted pins) dipped in virus. less than 10 tcid50 (50% tissue culture infectious doses) of virus was required to produce large lesions (greater than 5 mm diameter) w ...19902378601
the inoculation of rabbits with dermatophilus congolensis and the simultaneous infection of sheep with d. congolensis and orf virus. 19817320237
[control of ecthyma contagiosum (pustular dermatitis) of sheep with a new parenteral cell culture live vaccine]. 19817331595
[recent developments in the diagnosis of parapoxviruses].neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against parapoxviruses (ppv) were generated by immunizing balb/c-mice with gradient-purified ppv orf d-1701 or purified envelopes. epitope specificity studies identified three distinct epitopes localized in the virus envelope. these antigenic sites allowed a differentiation between orf and stomatitis papulosa viruses. for a rapid diagnosis of parapoxviruses transmission-electron microscopy, immunofluorescence- or immunoperoxidase-staining, ...19947519370
outbreaks of border disease in goats induced by a pestivirus-contaminated orf vaccine, with virus transmission to sheep and cattle.five herds with a total of 276 female goats experienced severe outbreaks of reproductive failure due to a pestivirus-contaminated experimental orf vaccine given early in the breeding season. the reproductive failures comprised barrenness in 42 goats, abortion in 53 and, in 118, the birth of dead or weak kids. the incidence of female goats with such failures was 82 per cent overall, herd incidence rates ranging from 79 to 96 per cent. no progeny showed characteristic signs of border disease (bd). ...19911650802
cauliflower mosaic virus reverse transcriptase. activation by proteolytic processing and functional alteration by terminal deletion.we have previously expressed the cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) reverse transcriptase (rtase) gene, the orfv gene, in yeast in an active form (rtase-y). an activity gel analysis revealed that the molecular size of rtase-y as well as an rtase associated with the camv particles (rtase-v) is 60 kda. this size is about 18 kda smaller than that of the inactive form previously expressed in escherichia coli (rtase-e) (78 kda), which corresponds to the coding capacity estimated for the orfv gene. to in ...19921375943
orf in sheep and goats in nigeria.orf virus was demonstrated in biopsy material taken from lambs during an outbreak of the disease on the university of ibadan teaching and research farm. clinical cases were also seen in goats. the confirmation of orf in nigeria is discussed in relation to peste des petits ruminants, an important virus disease of small ruminants in west african countries.1978746590
[behavior of orf virus in permissive and nonpermissive systems].dogs were immunized i.m. with attenuated poxvirus vaccines (vaccinia virus, orf-virus) and a bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1) vaccine. after intradermal (i.d.) application of the vaccine viruses a specific delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) reaction of the skin occurred only with vaccinia virus. the i.d. application of orf-virus caused a short-term, non-specific inflammatory reaction of the skin, even in dogs not immunized with orf-virus. out of 30 sera from orf-virus immunized beagles (n = 4) only ...19957624861
dermatophilus infection: the clinical disease and diagnosis. 1978735586
[experimental infection of man using viral strains of bovine papular stomatitis, orf, pseudocowpox and milker's nodule].an account is given of the close correlations that exist between virus strains of bovine papular stomatitis, orf, pseudocowpox, and milker's nodule. reference is made to literature data on natural infection of man with the above virus strains. a report then is presented on experimental infection of human volunteers, using paravaccine birus. while fairly tough and elevated nodules, 4 mm to 5 mm in diameter, were produced on the probends' skin, no re-isolation of virus was achieved.1977203242
lack of cross-protection between vaccinia virus and orf virus in hysterectomy-procured, barrier-maintained lambs.hysterectomy-procured, barrier maintained lambs were immunised with either of virus or vaccinia virus and subsequently challenged with both viruses. under these conditions lambs were protected from challenge with the homologous virus but no cross-protection was observed. the feeding of colostrum that contained antibodies to orf virus had no effect on the duration of viral lesions. immunoblotting analysis and elisa of serum samples taken during the course of the experiment indicated that the anim ...19947801537
the response of the supramammary lymph node of the sheep to secondary infection with orf virus.the response of the supramammary lymph node of seven sheep to secondary infection with orf virus was examined by cannulating the efferent lymphatic before infecting the drainage area of the node. all animals developed typical orf lesions and responded after an initial lag period with an increase in total cell output paralleled by a rising proportion of lymphoblast cells. most lymphoblast contained immunoglobulin with a predominance of the igg class. when cultured, these cells produced measurable ...19873498252
[sero- and immunodiagnosis in parapoxvirus infections in the human. milker's nodes, ecthyma contagiosum contact infection].the currently available methods for the serological and immunological diagnosis of human parapoxvirus infection (milker's nodule, farmyard pox) are demonstrated by the case of a man infected by contact with sheep carrying ecthyma contagiosum lesions. compared to virus identification by electron microscopy, cell culture and animal experiments, identification of viral antigen in skin biopsies is equally sensitive during the first 2 weeks of the disease, whereas it is far more sensitive afterwards. ...19853910614
outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in camels (camelus dromedarius) in the turkana district of kenya.mortality among camel calves (camelus dromedarius) is one of the most serious problems faced by camel herdsmen and, although there are several reasons for this mortality, diseases play a major role. in an investigation of outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in camels in the turkana district of kenya, four outbreaks were detected involving only camel calves. the principal lesions were distinct or largely coalesced pustules on the mouth, nose and muzzle. direct electron microscopy of infected scabs wa ...19947949365
parapox infection in a gazelle kid (gazella gazella).a captured gazelle kid (gazella gazella) held in a mixed herd of sheep and goats in israel developed the characteristic lesions of contagious ecthyma. clinical diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopy and histopathology examinations of infected tissue.19948028113
on contagious ecthyma and its treatment in muskoxen (ovibos moschatus). 19854041120
experimental cross-infection of sheep and goats with different isolates of contagious ecthyma virus. 19947945102
[orf: recontamination 8 months after the original infection. review of the literature apropos of a case].frequent in france among domesticated sheep and goats, contagious pustular dermatitis of the sheep is called orf when it occurs in man. the authors present a case of recontamination in a woman farmer of the cher department (central france), who had been bottle-feeding lambs affected with the zoonosis. this 71-year old woman developed papules, then papulopustules on the ulnar aspect of her hands and wrists (fig. 1). within a few days, these lesions were 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter and surrounded with ...19863545022
severe complications induced by experimental bacterial superinfection of orf lesions.twelve goats about 3 months of age were divided into 4 equal groups. goats in groups 1 and 2 were infected with orf virus followed by corynebacterium pyogenes infection of groups 1 and 3, 3 days after the first appearance of orf lesions. goats in group 4 were uninfected controls. complicated orf lesions which consisted of wet suppurative scabs around the entire lips were observed in goats in group 1. the lesions persisted for 24 days but were most severe from days 8 to 13. goats in group 2 devel ...19938236484
a close comparative study on the response of sheep and goats to experimental orf infection.a comparative experimental study of the clinico-pathological and serological response of sheep and goats to orf infection was made. all infected animals depicted typical orf lesions and seroconverted. the clinical, serological, gross and histopathological responses were similar in both species. however, the disease span was longer in sheep than in goats. it was concluded that sheep could play an important role in maintenance of the virus in the environment.19938237197
heterogeneity of contagious ecthyma virus isolates.results of cross-neutralization tests of 4 isolates of contagious ecthyma (ce) virus and their antisera indicated that the isolates were neutralized to various degrees by the ce virus antisera. cross-reactions among isolates were unilateral, but not bilateral, and therefore grouping of ce virus isolates by neutralization tests was not possible to obtain. structural analysis of polypeptides from 11 isolates of ce virus by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that th ...19846703458
orf virus infection in pregnancy.orf virus infection is endemic among sheep and goats, and can occur in humans who handle these animals. orf virus infection in humans causes a characteristic skin lesion, and systemic symptoms can occur. very little is known about orf virus infection in human pregnancy. a case of orf virus infection, with onset at 33 weeks gestation, is presented. there were no pathological findings in the infant born at term, or in the placenta.19938303253
contagious ecthyma virus-vaccination failures.cross-protection experiments were undertaken to investigate reasons for contagious ecthyma (ce) virus-vaccination failures. vaccination with sheep-passaged or with cell culture-passaged virus did not protect lambs against development of lesions after challenge inoculation with sheep-passaged virus. however, lesions which developed after challenge exposure with sheep-passaged ce virus healed significantly faster than did those induced by the initial vaccination with sheep-passaged virus (p less t ...19846711950
detection of antigen by fluorescence in orf virus lesions in sheep. 19853892874
identification and characterization of an orf virus homologue of the vaccinia virus gene encoding the major envelope antigen p37k.dna sequence analysis of a 1.55-kb region located 10 kb from the left end of the orf virus nz-2 strain (ov nz2) genome revealed an open reading frame, b2l, encoding a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 41.67 kda. this protein (p42k) shows 42% amino acid sequence identity to the vaccinia virus (vac) major envelope antigen p37k. in addition, p42k shows homology to a protein encoded by molluscum contagiosum virus (42.8% identity) and another encoded by fowlpox virus (38.3% identity). thes ...19948030257
immune responses of the camel (camelus dromedarius) to contagious ecthyma (orf) virus infection.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed together with a western blotting technique for the detection of total and specific igg and igm antibodies to the contagious ecthyma (orf) virus in camel (camelus dromedarius) sera and for identifying the seroreactive antigens of the virus. an outbreak of generalised contagious ecthyma in camels was diagnosed for the first time in libya; the seropositivity rate in a herd with clinically affected camels was 37.9% (and was related to clinic ...19958604544
attempted reactivation of contagious ecthyma in dall sheep.dexamethasone was administered to 2 dall ewes that had clinically recovered from contagious ecthyma in an attempt to reactivate contagious ecthyma in the sheep. clinical signs of disease were not detected within 24 days after corticosteroid injection, and virus was not detected in tissues collected at necropsy.19854037507
[adaptation of ecthyma contagiosum virus to cell culture].series of attempts were made to adapt the phylaxia vaccinal strain (hungary) to various cell cultures in vitro. the work with twenty-one successive passages of the virus in a culture of lamb testis resulted in the production of an adapted strain that could produce a characteristic cytopathic effect at the 24th--48th hour of the infection, reaching a titer of 10(4.5) id/cm3. cytologic and electron-microscope investigations confirmed the fact that this cell strain belonged to the parapoxvirus genu ...19826892131
contagious ecthyma in an adult dall sheep (ovis dalli dalli) in alaska. 19827097867
the establishment of a genetic map of orf virus reveals a pattern of genomic organization that is highly conserved among divergent poxviruses.the large differences between the g+c content of the orf virus genome and those of other characterized poxviruses have precluded the use of dna hybridization to establish a gene map of orf virus. here we have sequenced the ends of cloned restriction endonuclease fragments of the nz2 strain of orf virus (ov) and used the translated sequences to search protein data bases. sequence from 15 points found high-scoring matches to data base entries, including 18 vaccinia virus (vac) genes. we also prese ...19957571439
local epidermal viral infections: comparative aspects of vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus in man and orf virus in sheep. 19948156048
[human orf infection].ecthyma contagiosum is caused by a member of the parapoxvirus group, the so-called orf virus. the typical feature of the disease is described, and some of its peculiarities are illustrated by means of a case report.19854082696
natural transmission of orf virus from clinically normal ewes to orf-naive sheep.the apparent natural transmission of orf virus from clinically normal ewes to susceptible sheep was observed during a border disease vaccine experiment. the 14 susceptible sheep were persistently infected with border disease virus and had been reared indoors in isolation from other sheep since birth. their ages ranged from two to four years and they were housed in two groups; group 1 consisted of four sheep persistently infected with the moredun strain of border disease virus and group 2 consist ...19968903019
antigenic relationships among sheep pox, goat pox and contagious pustular dermatitis viruses.antigenic relationships among sheep pox, goat pox and contagious pustular dermatitis (cpd) viruses were determined by serological techniques using soluble antigens partially purified by deae-cellulose chromatography. homologous antigen-antibody reactions were characterized by the presence of 7 precipitation lines with sheep pox and of 5 ones each with goat pox and cpd viruses. the nature of cross-reactions of sheep pox, goat pox and cpd virus soluble antigens with corresponding sera suggested th ...19846151351
genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of different parapoxvirus strains.six stomatitis papulosa and three orf virus strains were compared by serology and by dna restriction analysis. a neutralization kinetic study revealed extensive serological cross-reactivity between all strains, but did not allow their classification. restriction analysis of viral dnas revealed two distinct groups among the stomatitis papulosa strains while the orf virus strains formed a third, more heterogeneous group. the large heterogeneity of restriction patterns of parapoxvirus dnas as compa ...19806153643
cytokines and their inhibitors in orf virus infection.the epitheliotropic parapoxvirus, orf virus, can repeatedly infect sheep skin. a specific immune response is generated as reinfections induce smaller lesions with quicker resolution times than primary lesions. cyclosporin-a treatment abrogates this partial immunity. cytokine mrnas detected in lesion biopsies include the transcripts for il-1 beta, il-3 gm-csf, tnf-alpha and, less reproducibly, ifn-gamma. cd4+ t-cells predominate in afferent lymph draining the site of infection, and are the major ...19968988872
nuclear changes in cells infected with parapoxviruses stomatitis papulosa and orf: an in vivo and in vitro ultrastructural study.during ultrahistological investigations of naturally occurring cases of stomatitis papulosa in cattle and orf in sheep, nuclear changes consisting of aggregations of double membrane-containing tubular structures (outer diam. 100 to 130 nm, inner diam. 50 to 65 nm) and filamentous material were observed. these changes could be reproduced in vitro after infection of bovine (bel) and ovine (oel) embryonic lung cell cultures with stomatitis papulosa virus and orf virus isolates. nuclear tubules were ...19806245168
the restricted igg1 antibody response to maedi visna virus is seen following infection but not following immunization with recombinant gag protein.maedi-visna (mvv) is a retrovirus of the subfamily lentivirinae which includes hiv, simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) and feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). infection of its natural host, the sheep, does not cause overt immunodeficiency, but rather a chronic inflammatory disease. however, subtle immunological changes following infection have been reported including a sheep igg1 subclass-restricted mvv-neutralizing antibody. here we demonstrate by western blotting that there is no igg2 serum ...19957586678
characterization of a dna topoisomerase encoded by amsacta moore entomopoxvirus.we have identified an amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (amepv) gene encoding a dna topoisomerase. the 333-amino acid amepv topoisomerase displays instructive sequence similarities to the previously identified topoisomerases encoded by five genera of vertebrate poxviruses. one hundred nine amino acids are identical or conserved among the six proteins. the gene encoding amepv topoisomerase was expressed in bacteria and the recombinant enzyme was partially purified. amepv topoisomerase is a monomeric ...19979143275
a homolog of interleukin-10 is encoded by the poxvirus orf virus.a gene encoding a polypeptide with homology to interleukin-10 (il-10) has been discovered in the genome of orf virus (ov) strain nz2, a parapoxvirus that infects sheep, goats, and humans. the predicted polypeptide sequence shows high levels of amino acid identity to il-10 of sheep (80%), cattle (75%), humans (67%), and mice (64%), as well as il-10-like proteins of epstein-barr virus (63%) and equine herpesvirus (67%). the c-terminal region, comprising two-thirds of the ov protein, is identical t ...19979151886
identification of three distinct antigenic sites in parapoxviruses.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated in balb/c mice immunized with gradient-purified particles, envelopes and cores of intracellular mature orf virus d-1701. three distinct antigenic sites were identified in this virus strain. their topographical relationships was determined by pairwise epitope specificity studies in competition elisas. one mab (class igm) neutralized virus infectivity. four micrograms/ml purified igm gave a 50% reduction of 100 pfu of orf virus d-1701. as shown by immuno ...19979170506
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