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comparative studies on poxvirus strains isolated from camels.five poxvirus strains isolated from camels in egypt, iran and the u.s.s.r. were investigated. the morphology and size of the negatively stained virions of the investigated strains were identical. the strains produced minute white pock lesions localized mainly on the infected area of the chorioallantoic membrane, without generalization of lesions or death of embryos. the ceiling temperature and the haemagglutinating activity of the different strains were different. all the strains were apathogeni ...197835942
preliminary studies on an unusual poxvirus of the western grey squirrel (sciurus griseus griseus) of north america.particles of a poxvirus found in californian western grey squirrels have overall dimensions indistinguishable from those of the poxviruses of the genera orthopoxvirus and leporipoxvirus, but have surface structures somewhat reminiscent of virions of members of the genus parapoxvirus. extracts of tissues infected with the squirrel poxvirus cross-react in gel-diffusion tests with extracts of tissues infected with californian myxoma virus, but not with a similar preparation infected with a south am ...1975181346
structural polypeptides of several strains of orthopoxvirus. 1977198638
pox infection in white rats.2 pox outbreaks among white rats in a breeding colony are described. the infection occurred in 3 different forms: pulmonary, dermal and mixed. apparently healthy animals appeared to be virus carriers. the virus isolated belonged to the genus orthopoxvirus of poxviridae family, and was very close to cowpox virus. it differed from reference strains of cowpox virus in having a lower ceiling temperature and a higher pathogenicity for white rats.1978203770
orthopoxvirus dna: strain differentiation by electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease fragmented virion dna. 1978210580
physical characterization of a stomatitis papulosa virus genome: a cleavage map for the restriction endonucleases hindiii and ecori.the genome of stomatitis papulosa virus (a parapoxvirus) was cleaved with the restriction endonucleases hindiii and ecori, each giving rise to 6 fragments respectively. double digestion with both enzymes resulted in 8 bands, two of which contained dna fragments in double molar concentrations as revealed by reciprocal digests of isolated dna fragments. the genome size, estimated by summation of the molecular weights of the fragments, is approximately 86 x 10(6) daltons, some 30 x 10(6) daltons sm ...1979218532
[possible mechanism of orthopoxvirus preservation in nature].until recently, virus carrier state in the absence of overt clinical infection has been known for only one species of orthopoxviruses, namely, ectromelia virus. the paper describes the results of the modelling of asypmtomatic infection caused by monkeypox, cowpox, and ratpox viruses. persistence of these viruses up to 6 weeks in animals (hamsters, cotton and white rats) with experimental asymptomatic infection as well as in apparently normal naturally infected white rats was established by isola ...1979225883
isolation, identification and characterization of camelpox virus in iraq.a virus was isolated from pox-like lesions in camels during an outbreak of camelpox disease which occurred in december 1977 in an area near the iraqi-iranian border. it was identified serologically as a virus of the orthopoxvirus group. the biological properties of the isolate indicated that it was probably identical with strains of camelpox virus isolated from iran, egypt, kenya and the u.s.s.r.1979226624
orthopoxvirus strains defective in surface antigen induction.various strains of vaccinia, variola, whitepox, monkeypox and cowpox viruses were examined for their capacity to induce a specific early antigen detectable on the surface of infected cells. the elstree strain of vaccinia, two strains of variola minor and white variants of cowpox and monkeypox viruses lacked the capacity to induce the antigen. variation of the parent cowpox and monkeypox viruses to white variants was always accompanied by the loss of the antigen-inducing capacity.1979227999
serologically cross-reactive polypeptides in vaccinia, cowpox and shope fibroma viruses.an immunoprecipitation method coupled with sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) was used to identify the serologically cross-reactive polypeptides in orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and cowpox viruses) and leporipoxvirus (shope fibroma virus). two early and four late polypeptides in cells infected with vaccinia or cowpox virus were specifically immunoprecipitated with antiserum against shope fibroma virus. two early and two late polypeptides in cells infected with shope fibroma virus cross- ...1979230296
conservation and variation in orthopoxvirus genome structure.orthopoxvirus dna from representative strains of rabbitpox, vaccinia, monkeypox, variola, cowpox and ectromelia viruses was analysed by cleavage with restriction endonucleases hindiii, xhoi or smai. genome mol. wt. vary from about 120 x 10(6) for rabbitpox to about 145 x 10(6) for cowpox. physical maps of cleavage sites are similar and characteristic for strains of the same orthopoxvirus type. the distribution of hindiii sites suggests that an internal region of mol. wt. about 30 x 10(6) is high ...1979232137
structural polypeptides of orthopoxvirus: their distribution in various members and location within the virion.the structural polypeptides of accepted species and recently isolated members of the genus orthopoxvirus have been examined by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the viruses shared many polypeptides but some differences were found. the viruses could be divided into a vaccinia group (including buffalopox, 'lenny' and mk-10), an ectromelia group (including elephant virus and moscow virus), cowpox, camelpox and monkeypox. minor differences were found in the polypeptides of monkeypox virus stra ...1979541670
virus-induced loss of class i mhc antigens from the surface of cells infected with myxoma virus and malignant rabbit fibroma virus.shope fibroma virus (sfv) is a leporipoxvirus that causes localized benign fibromas in immunocompetent adult rabbits that spontaneously regress due, in part, to a cell-mediated immune response. myxoma virus (myx) and malignant rabbit fibroma virus (mrv) are related leporipoxviruses that induce rapidly lethal generalized infections accompanied by tumors and immunosuppression. because only these latter two viruses are known to compromise cell-mediated antiviral responses, cell surface levels of cl ...19921309843
in vitro recognition of an orf virus early promoter in a vaccinia virus extract.dna fragments containing varying lengths of the 5' end of an orf virus early gene (orf3) and its associated promoter were introduced into sodium deoxycholate-solubilized vaccinia virus extracts capable of initiating transcription in vitro from vaccinia virus early promoters. after separation of the radiolabelled products of the reactions on a 5% polyacrylamide/7 m urea gel, discrete transcripts were detected the sizes of which were consistent with initiation of transcription from the orf virus e ...19921312824
characterization of orthopoxviruses isolated from feline infections in britain.the biological properties and genomes of orthopoxviruses isolated from cats in britain were compared with strains of cowpox virus isolated from cows and their handlers. all the isolates tested produced haemorrhagic pocks and a-type inclusions on the cam, but did not produce pocks above 40 degrees c. thus the feline isolates behaved as typical strains of cowpox virus. differences were found in the heat resistance of the virions and in the character of the a-type inclusion which did not correlate ...19921322655
further characterization of the biological and pathogenic properties of erythromelalgia-related poxviruses.six isolates of erythromelalgia-related poxvirus (erpv) were characterized with respect to host range, c.p.e. and inclusions, pock formation on chorioallantoic membrane (cam), morphogenesis, serological reactivity, pathogenesis in animals and dna restriction fragment profile. the results suggest that erpv is either a new member of the orthopoxvirus genus or a subspecies of ectromelia virus. evidence is provided that (i) erpv has a wide host range in vitro in which characteristic viral c.p.e. and ...19921322958
independent evolution of monkeypox and variola viruses.smallpox was eradicated more than 10 years ago, but infection with another orthopoxvirus, monkeypox virus, can result in a clinical picture resembling smallpox. human infection with monkeypox virus is extremely rare, not easily transmitted, and confined to the rain forest belt of africa (z. jezek and f. fenner, p. 81-102, in human monkeypox, 1988). evidence that variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, might be readily derived from monkeypox virus was presented [s. s. marennikova and e. m ...19921331540
[expression of orthopoxvirus dna sequences in escherichia coli cells].we observed the expression of recombinant plasmids genes containing ectromelia virus dna fragments in e. coli minicells. using plasmids with vaccinia or ectromelia viruses dna fragments inserted upstream of lacz gene we showed that certain orthopoxvirus genome fragments carry out a promoter-like function in bacterial cells.19921435772
[the quantitative detection of orthopoxvirus antibodies in studying sera in a single dilution in an immunoenzyme test system with a conjugate of protein a and peroxidase]. 19921441432
an orthopoxvirus serpinlike gene controls the ability of infected cells to fuse.most orthopoxviruses encode a functional hemagglutinin (ha), which is nonessential for virus growth in cell culture. however, inactivation of the ha gene leads to the formation of polykaryocytes (syncytia) by fusion of infected cells at neutral ph. fusion is not observed when a functional ha gene is present. deletion of open reading frames (orfs) k2, k3, and k4 within the hindiii k fragment of the ha-positive (ha+) vaccinia virus strain wr also led to fusion of cells upon infection at neutral ph ...19921548753
development of a live cell culture camelpox vaccine.a saudi isolate of camel orthopoxvirus was serially propagated on monolayers of camel kidney cell cultures. the attenuation of the 78th passage was tested in two susceptible camels. two other susceptible camels were inoculated with vaccinia virus four times propagated in camel kidney cell cultures. the four inoculated camels showed no postinoculation clinical symptoms and formed neutralizing antibodies against both the camel orthopox and vaccinia viruses. no postchallenge clinical symptoms were ...19921621417
structural and functional analysis of orthopoxvirus epitopes with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were produced in balb/c mice immunized with live modified vaccinia virus ankara or infected with sublethal doses of the neurovirulent vaccinia virus strain munich 1. the immunization scheme proved to be important for obtaining mabs of different specificity. the mabs could be classified into three epitope groups (1 a, 1 b and 2). immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that the epitopes were localized on the virus surface. in immunoblotting, mabs were ...19901700065
mapping and molecular characterization of a functional thymidine kinase from amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus.a thymidine kinase (tk) gene from the entomopoxvirus of amsacta moorei (amepv) has been identified, mapped, cloned, and sequenced. the amepv tk was shown to be biologically functional as cloning of the gene into a tk-derivative of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia creates a tk+ virus. the gene has been localized to a 1.5-kb ecori-q dna fragment which maps to the far left end of the viral genome. sequence analysis reveals an open reading frame (orf) of 182 amino acids potentially encoding a polypeptide ...19921733099
the molecular biology of swinepox virus. ii. the infectious cycle.studies based on low-stringency hybridizations of radiolabeled swinepox virus (spv) dna to southern blots containing dna of representative members of the orthopoxvirus, leporipoxvirus, and avipoxvirus genera and the entomopoxvirus subfamily have revealed no dna homology at this level of resolution. antigenic relatedness between spv and vaccinia was also analyzed using immunoprecipitations and revealed little if any cross-reactivity. the growth characteristics of spv in tissue culture were examin ...19911845830
vaccinia virus homologues of the shope fibroma virus inverted terminal repeat proteins and a discontinuous orf related to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family.nucleotide sequencing data from a region extending 35 kb inward from the right inverted terminal repeat (itr) of the vaccinia virus (vv) genome established the presence of vv homologues of the shope fibroma virus (sfv) itr proteins. the nucleotide sequences, comprising a total of 8.6 kb, and the amino acid translations for nine predicted open reading frames (orfs) (designated salf4l, salf 19r, salf21r, b4r, b8r, b9r, b10r, and b14r) are presented. eight of the nine vv genes and all the sfv orfs ...19911846491
the sequences of the ribonucleotide reductase genes from african swine fever virus show considerable homology with those of the orthopoxvirus, vaccinia virus.two african swine fever virus (asfv) recombinant plasmids containing large inserts of dna have been sequenced at random, and translations of the dna sequence have been compared to libraries of vaccinia virus protein sequences. among other genes identified by their extensive homology with vaccinia virus genes were the large and small subunits of ribonucleotide reductase. a 5.5-kb fragment from the malawi (lil20/1) strain of asfv was identified as containing the genes for both these subunits. the ...19911871976
inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway specifically block orthopoxvirus replication.inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (etya), bw755c, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were found to specifically interfere with the replication of cowpox virus (an orthopoxvirus) both in vivo and in vitro. further studies in vitro showed that the drugs etya and bw755c were effective in inhibiting the replication of two additional orthopoxviruses, ectromelia and vaccinia viruses, but not human parainfluenza virus-3. in etya-treated and cowpox virus-infected cell ...19911898625
orthopoxvirus gene expression in xenopus laevis oocytes: a component of the virion is needed for late gene expression.we have examined the feasibility of using xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with rabbit poxvirus as a system to study poxvirus gene expression. the injection of either intact virus or subviral cores resulted in accurate synthesis of viral proteins. this expression was dependent on the multiplicity of injected virus, with the optimal injected dose being equivalent to approximately 300 pfu per oocyte. extensive viral gene expression including late viral protein synthesis was observed when intac ...19902157885
isolation of an orthopoxvirus from pox-like lesions of a grey seal (halichoerus grypus). 19902169668
[electron microscopy as a diagnostic method in the epidemiological surveillance of poxvirus infections].the materials of work lasting for 11 years and including the study of 3,425 samples collected at different periods after the eradication of smallpox from patients suspected for orthopoxvirus infection indicate high effectiveness of electron microscopy and especially immune electron microscopy as an integral part of diagnostic examination.19902173298
transcription of orthopoxvirus telomeres at late times during infection.the telomeres of orthopoxvirus dnas consists largely of short repeated sequences organized into at least two separate sets. although the sequence composition of the orthopoxvirus telomeres is highly conserved, these regions do not appear to encode any proteins. at late times during infection, the telomeres of vaccinia virus are transcribed. a promoter in the region between the two sets of repeats directs transcription towards the hairpin-loop end of the viral dna. this promoter resembles the pro ...19902309453
cross-reactivity among cowpox, ectromelia and vaccinia viruses with monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct antigenic determinants in a-type inclusion bodies.several monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct antigenic determinants in a-type inclusion bodies (atib) induced by cowpox virus (cpv) were obtained to examine the cross-reactivity among various strains of poxviridae, comprising cpv, ectromelia virus (ev), vaccinia virus (vv) and shope fibroma virus (sfv). the monoclonal antibodies were classified into at least 3 groups on the basis of the results of an immunofluorescence test and immunoblotting; i. e., strain-specific, cpv and ev-specific an ...19862430550
[tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].in accordance with recommendations of the global commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. the study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of equatorial africa, occurring most frequently in zaire. in a ...19892552712
[increased effectiveness of electron microscope diagnosis of orthopoxvirus infections]. 19892561238
monkey pox in humans: current results.the presented studies were performed at the who collaboration center for smallpox in moscow in the framework of the who monkey pox project. the authors recommend improved methods for rapid detection of orthopoxvirus antigen, namely passive haemagglutination (pha) using dried stable red blood cells and elisa in order to provide more rapid and efficient laboratory diagnosis under field conditions. independent serologic diagnosis of monkey pox by elisa-adsorption (elisa-a) was proved of value for e ...19892570511
physical characterization of the genome of a cattle isolate of capripoxvirus.hindiii, pstl, aval, and sali site maps have been determined for the genome of a cattle isolate of capripoxvirus, kc-1. the length of the genome was estimated, by summation of the lengths of individual hindiii fragments, to be 145.6 kb, and the genome was shown to possess terminally repeated regions 1.13-6.23 kb in length. the restriction site maps demonstrate that the genome of kc-1 does not possess a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology with the genomes of isolates of orthopoxvirus, par ...19872821685
sequence analysis of an 11.2 kilobase, near-terminal, bamhi fragment of fowlpox virus.the nucleotide sequence of an 11.2 kilobase fragment of the fowlpox virus genome is presented. the fragment comes from near one end of the genome and contains part of the terminal inverted repeat. twenty open reading frames (orfs) are predicted from the sequence and are classified into 13 major and seven minor orfs. the 100 base pairs immediately upstream of each orf are up to 83% at-rich, with some motifs similar to those seen in vaccinia virus early gene promoters. the tttttnt element which ha ...19882836548
association of mitochondria dna with viral dna in purified preparations of poxviruses.the presence of cellular material in purified preparations of shope fibroma virus (sfv) and two orthopoxviruses (vaccinia and indiana), was investigated. mitochondria were observed in purified preparations of sfv by electron microscopy and mitochondrial (mt) dna was identified in restricted viral dna by southern blot hybridization with cloned mouse mt dna. mitochondrial dna was also detected in vaccinia and sfv dnas extracted from purified virions treated with dnase i followed by core isolation. ...19882849254
biology of orthopoxvirus infections of domestic ruminants. 19852856166
characterisation of poxviruses from sporadic human infections.an orthopoxvirus was isolated from the vesicular rash of a man in natal who died in coma and who had not been vaccinated. analysis of the viral dna showed that it was a vaccinia virus, more closely related to the virus of south african smallpox vaccine than to other vaccinia viruses. dna analysis also showed that an orthopoxvirus isolated from a sporadic case of severe pustular rash in nigeria was a vaccinia virus closely related to the smallpox vaccine virus used there. minor biological differe ...19872892275
monoclonal antibodies to monkey pox virus: preparation and application.two fusion experiments with nso myeloma cells yielded 30 hybrid cell lines which continuously and actively secreted monoclonal antibodies (moab) to monkey pox virus. eight lines appeared to produce antibodies to specific antigenic determinants. the isotype and serologic reactivity of moab to monkey pox virus was characterized and the karyotype of several hybridomas determined. an enzyme labelled conjugate has been prepared from moab selectively reacting with monkey pox virus. this conjugate allo ...19882897768
[isolation of poxvirus (poxviridae, orthopoxvirus, the cowpox complex) from the root vole microtus (m.) oeconomus pal. 1776 in the forest tundra of the kola peninsula]. 19882967016
the histopathology and electron microscopy of a human monkeypox lesion.the histological and electron microscopic findings from a solitary cutaneous monkeypox lesion taken post mortem from a child who died after a five-day illness are reported. this child is 44th in the who register of monkeypox cases. the lesion was at the papulonecrotic stage, with early evidence of vesiculation and minimal evidence of pustulation. necrosis affected the stratum basale, the related basement membrane and adjacent areas of the dermal papillae at the centre of the lesion. cell necrosi ...19852988159
human monkeypox: a newly emerged orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forests of africa.during the course of the recently concluded smallpox eradication program, a new human orthopoxvirus infection was discovered which is caused by monkeypox virus. the disease occurs sporadically in remote villages within tropical rain forests of west and central africa. the disease is rare; only 155 cases having been reported from 1970 to 1983. the symptoms and signs of human monkeypox resemble those of smallpox, differing significantly only in the occurrence of lymphadenopathy with human monkeypo ...19852992305
molecular characterization of two strains of shope fibroma virus.an isolate of shope fibroma virus (sfv), designated indiana (sfv-i), was previously described to be tumorigenic in vivo as sfv, cytocidal in vitro as the orthopoxviruses (vaccinia, rabbitpox, etc.), and to share antigenic determinants with sfv and vaccinia. the genetic relatedness of sfv-i to sfv and vaccinia was studied by means of southern blotting and hybridization. the results indicated that sfv-i shares extensive dna homology with vaccinia, but few common sequences with sfv. by contrast, sf ...19852997996
orthopoxvirus dna: a comparison of restriction profiles and maps.characteristic dna endonuclease digest fragment electropherograms and restriction site maps permitted differentiation and genome structure analysis of 38 orthopoxviruses that included isolates of monkeypox virus from humans and animals, monkeypox white variants, variola, vaccinia, ectromelia, tatera (gerbil) and raccoon poxviruses, and cowpox and camelpox viruses. hindiii cleavage sites mapped on the 38 virus genome dnas plus smai, bgli, saci, kpni, xhoi, and sali maps for variola (harvey) and m ...19852998003
characterization, molecular cloning, and physical mapping of the shope fibroma virus genome.five strains of shope fibroma virus (sfv), a strain of rabbit myxoma virus, and a strain of vaccinia virus were compared by restriction endonuclease digestion of their viral dnas. restriction digest patterns revealed that sfv and rabbit myxoma, both members of the leporipoxvirus genus, were distinct from vaccinia, an orthopoxvirus. all strains of sfv examined had a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology as shown by conservation of restriction sites within their genomes. however, restriction ...19852998033
four generations of probable person-to-person transmission of human monkeypox.this paper examines an outbreak of five cases of human monkeypox which occurred in children belonging to two families living in the west kasai region of zaire during may-july 1983. epidemiologic investigations suggest that the first case was infected from an animal source, possibly a monkey, and that each of the other four cases was infected from a previous human case. three of these cases of presumed person-to-person transmission occurred in close household contacts. the other case infection oc ...19863010703
replication and resolution of cloned poxvirus telomeres in vivo generates linear minichromosomes with intact viral hairpin termini.the covalently closed terminal hairpins of the linear duplex-dna genomes of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia and the leporipoxvirus shope fibroma virus (sfv) have been cloned as imperfect palindromes within circular plasmids in yeast cells and recombination-deficient escherichia coli. the viral telomeres inserted within these recombinant plasmids are equivalent to the inverted-repeat structures detected as telomeric replicative intermediates during poxvirus replication in vivo. although the telomeres ...19863016294
[detection of antibodies to orthopoxvirus cameli in the sera of east african dromedaries with elisa]. 19863019044
identification and nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of shope fibroma virus.the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of shope fibroma virus (sfv), a tumorigenic leporipoxvirus, was localized within the viral genome with degenerate oligonucleotide probes. these probes were constructed to two regions of high sequence conservation between the vaccinia virus tk gene and those of several known eucaryotic cellular tk genes, including human, mouse, hamster, and chicken tk genes. the oligonucleotide probes initially localized the sfv tk gene 50 kilobases (kb) from the right terminus of t ...19863023681
clustered cases of paravaccinia in milkers.clustered cases of a disease in men and cows firstly diagnosed as cowpox has been described. clinical manifestation, epidemiology and laboratory diagnostics are presented. virological and serological investigations of the specimens taken from sick persons and animals proved paravaccinia virus (genus parapoxvirus) to be etiological agent of the illness. cowpox virus (genus orthopoxvirus) greatly differs from the latter by phenotypical markers. the disease in humans is called milkers' modules, in ...19863027164
characterization and physical mapping of molluscum contagiosum virus dna and location of a sequence capable of encoding a conserved domain of epidermal growth factor.dna from molluscum contagiosum virus (mcv) isolates was analysed by restriction endonuclease cleavage, revealing two virus subtypes. physical maps of cleavage sites for bamhi, clai and hindiii were constructed, and found to differ extensively between the two subtypes. mcv dna was similar to orthopoxvirus dna with respect to size, terminal cross-linking and the presence of inverted terminal repetitions, but did not hybridize with vaccinia virus dna. the genomes of the two mcv subtypes cross-hybri ...19873029297
isolation and partial characterization of an orthopoxvirus from a california vole (microtus californicus). brief report.a virus with the characteristics of an orthopox was isolated from a scab removed from the foot of a california vole. hai antibody surveys indicated that the virus in enzootic in several different vole populations.19873034201
structural and functional studies of a 39,000-mr immunodominant protein of vaccinia virus.little is known about the nature of poxvirus proteins involved in the host immune response. screening a lambda gt11 expression library of genomic rabbit poxvirus dna with hyperimmune rabbit anti-vaccinia virus serum and selection of monospecific antibodies identified a highly antigenic viral protein of about 39,000 molecular weight (39k protein). the same-size protein of vaccinia virus was also identified with a monoclonal antibody (mab b6) obtained from hybridomas generated after fusion of hype ...19873316708
genomic characterization of a poxvirus isolated from a child.a poxvirus was isolated from a six-year-old girl. the comparative analyses of the genome of this isolate (h-cp-lsax) which were carried out using the restriction endonucleases bamhi, hindiii, kpni, mlui, ncoi, saci, and smai revealed that this isolate is a member of the genus orthopoxvirus. since the girl had never been vaccinated against smallpox, and had close contact to domestic animals, including cats, rabbits and guinea pigs, the genome of h-cp-lsax virus was genetically analysed in compari ...19873614092
monoclonal antibodies to cowpox virus: polypeptide analysis of several major antigens.monoclonal antibodies directed against major antigens induced by cowpox virus (cpv) were produced. the specificities of these antibodies were established by immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and several serological analyses, and from the cross-reactivities of these antibodies with cells infected with various other poxviruses, ectromelia virus (ev), vaccinia virus and shope fibroma virus. the antibodies defined included ones reacting with each of the known major antigens of poxviruses, i.e. the ...19873806058
[sero- and immunodiagnosis in parapoxvirus infections in the human. milker's nodes, ecthyma contagiosum contact infection].the currently available methods for the serological and immunological diagnosis of human parapoxvirus infection (milker's nodule, farmyard pox) are demonstrated by the case of a man infected by contact with sheep carrying ecthyma contagiosum lesions. compared to virus identification by electron microscopy, cell culture and animal experiments, identification of viral antigen in skin biopsies is equally sensitive during the first 2 weeks of the disease, whereas it is far more sensitive afterwards. ...19853910614
experimental infection of norvegian rats (rattus norvegicus) with ratpox virus.young as well as adult free living norvegian rats (rattus norvegicus) were highly susceptible to intranasal, intradermal and natural infections with the ratpox virus belonging to genus orthopoxvirus. disseminated disease occurred in infected rats due to generalization of the virus to internal organs. in survivors, virus was excreted for a longer period of time (more than 1 month) in faeces and urine.19826127938
virion polypeptides of poxviruses.structural polypeptides from a number of poxviruses were analysed by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the patterns obtained with orthopoxviruses were generally quite similar to one another, but variola, monkeypox, cowpox and vaccinia viruses could be distinquished by their profiles in the molecular weight (mol. wt.) region around 30,000 to 40,000; some additional variation was found amongst cowpox and vaccinia strains. whitepox virus was shown to have structural polypeptides indistinguish ...19806243923
human monkeypox, 1970-79.increasing attention has been given to human monkeypox since the achievement of global smallpox eradication. monkeypox, which was first described in central africa in 1970, resembles smallpox clinically but differs from it epidemiologically. forty-seven cases of human monkeypox have occurred since 1970 in 5 central and west african countries; 38 of these cases have been reported from zaire. the evolution of the illness and the sequelae of monkeypox and smallpox are the same; monkeypox has a case ...19806249508
characterization of antibodies to orthopoxviruses in human sera by radioimmunoassay.serological surveillance of suspected orthopoxvirus infections in man is important for confirming the success of the worldwide smallpox eradication programme. an adsorption radioimmunoassay (ria) was used to differentiate sera from patients who were naturally infected with human monkeypox or variola virus, and individuals who were immunized with vaccinia virus. the antisera were adsorbed with uninfected chicken chorioallantoic membrane (cam) and vaccinia-infected cam before reacting in ria with ...19816265114
the preparation of orthopoxvirus dna. 19816268651
[on the biological action of transition metal complexes. 4. the antiviral activity of metallocene dichlorides of titanium and molybdenum (author's transl)].in view of the fact that bis cyclopentadienyl metal dihalides are known to be anti-tumour drugs, we have investigated the antiviral activity of this type of coordination compounds. bis cyclopentadienyl titanium dichloride (a) has shown significant antiviral efficiency in vitro against representatives of a nuber of enveloped dna and rna viruses. inhibition of orthopoxvirus (vaccinia), herpes virus (pseudorabies), orthomyxoviruses (influenza a/fowl plague [fpv], influenza a/victoria 3/75, influenz ...19816277097
the surface antigens of orthopoxviruses detected by cross-neutralization tests on cross-absorbed antisera.cross-neutralization tests were done on accepted species and recently isolated members of the genus orthopoxvirus using antisera which had been separately absorbed with the various viruses. the results provided evidence for the involvement of four neutralizing antigens, and their distribution among 13 virus strains was determined. monkeypox (congo-8-lombe), camelpox (gorgan), ectromelia (mill hill), 'lenny' and elephant poxviruses had distinctive antigenic formulae. lister and wyeth vaccines we ...19826278058
shope fibroma virus. i. biological and molecular properties of a cytocidal and a noncytocidal strain.the biological and molecular properties of two strains of shope fibroma virus (sfv) were compared. sfv-i was highly cytocidal to most of the cell lines tested and produced pocks in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. by contrast, sfv-w did not produce cytopathic effects in any of the cell lines or in the chorioallantoic membrane, but it induced characteristic foci 3 to 4 days after infection. both strains produced tumors when inoculated into the skin of susceptible rabbits. maximal in ...19826283131
surveillance of orthopoxvirus infections, and associated research, in the period after smallpox eradication.in 1980, the world health assembly declared the global eradication of smallpox and recommended the universal discontinuation of smallpox vaccination; nevertheless, it recommended that surveillance and research on orthopoxvirus infections should continue. by early 1982, all except 8 countries in the world had stopped routine vaccination programmes and all except 1 no longer required an international certificate of smallpox vaccination for travellers. since 1978, as a result of continuing active s ...19826291794
human monkeypox.human monkeypox, occurring in the tropical rainforest of west and central africa, is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection for epidemiological surveillance during the post-smallpox era. this disease, first recognized in zaïre in 1970 resembles smallpox clinically but differs epidemiologically. clinical features, their evolution and sequelae of monkeypox could be compared with discrete ordinary or modified type of smallpox. a case-fatality rate of 14% has been observed but some c ...19836304185
poxvirus infection in a rat (rattus norvegicus) in kuwait.a poxvirus was isolated from skin lesions on the tail of a rat (rattus norvegicus) in kuwait in february, 1982. the virus grew on the chorioallantoic membrane (cam) developing chicken embryos and induced small generalized haemorrhagic pock lesions, 72 hours post-inoculation. it grew also with cytopathic effect (cpe) in cer and vero cell lines. in cultured cells it produced cell rounding and syncytia 48-72 hours post-infection. the virus was resistant to the effect of ether as well as to chlorofo ...19836315618
physical characterization and molecular cloning of the shope fibroma virus dna genome.dna from several independent strains of shope fibroma virus, a tumorogenic leporipoxvirus of rabbits, was isolated and analyzed by restriction endonuclease digestion and southern blotting. the restriction profiles indicated a high degree of sequence conservation among the isolates but blotting under standard stringencies revealed no detectable cross homology with a member of the orthopoxvirus group, vaccinia. the genome of the fibroma virus was calculated to be in excess of 160 kilobases and sho ...19836316637
the detection of subtle differences between different orthopoxvirus genomes by heteroduplex analysis.corresponding dna fragments from variola (harvey) and monkeypox (denmark) viruses which had been cloned into different plasmid vectors were subjected to heteroduplex analysis. characteristic deletion loops corresponding to differences between the cloning vectors served as internal markers to identify and to orientate the heteroduplexed molecules. partial denaturation of the resulting heteroduplexes was used as a primary screen to locate regions of heterogeneity between the poxvirus inserts. the ...19846099936
tumorigenic poxviruses: construction of the composite physical map of the shope fibroma virus genome.the sites for the restriction enzymes bamhi, bg/i, hindiii, psti, pvuii, and ssti on the linear dna genome of shope fibroma virus, a tumorigenic poxvirus of rabbits, have been determined by digestions of the cloned bamhi and hindiii restriction fragments and by hybridization of 32p-labeled cloned fragments to southern blots of shope fibroma virus dna cleaved partially or completely with the various enzymes. the linear genome is shown to be 160 kilobases in length and to possess terminal inverted ...19846323741
the genome structure of cowpox virus white pock variants.a previous report described restriction endonuclease analysis of white pock variants of red cowpox virus and their characterization as deletion mutants lacking certain sequences including the repetition from one specific terminus of the wild-type genome. further analysis has confirmed the terminal deletion but demonstrated that this is compensated at the site of deletion by the presence of an inverted duplication of a variable amount of sequence from the opposite terminus, with the effect of res ...19846327886
enzyme studies for the characterization of some orthopoxvirus isolates.the thymidine kinase produced in cell cultures by several orthopoxviruses has been tested for sensitivity to inhibition by thymidine triphosphate (ttp). thymidine kinase preparations from eleven variola isolates and from five "whitepox" isolates were all found to be sensitive to inhibition by ttp. preparations from other orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox, were all resistant to inhibition by ttp. there was no overlap between the two groups of results and no viruses were f ...19826982773
efficient resolution of replicated poxvirus telomeres to native hairpin structures requires two inverted symmetrical copies of a core target dna sequence.the terminal hairpin sequences of the linear double-stranded dna genome of the leporipoxvirus shope fibroma virus (sfv) has been cloned in saccharomyces cerevisiae and in recombination-deficient escherichia coli as a palindromic insert within circular plasmid vectors. this sequence configuration is equivalent to the inverted repeat structure detected as a telomeric replicative intermediate during poxvirus replication in vivo. previously, it has been shown that when circular plasmids containing t ...19873033323
characterization of camelpoxvirus isolates from africa and asia.five orthopoxvirus isolates of camels from different geographic regions of africa and asia were analysed with respect to their biological and genomic attributes. the behaviour of the isolates in various cell cultures, the type of pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs, and the respective ceiling temperatures were determined. additionally, physical maps for restriction endonucleases hindiii and xhoi were established. the data obtained from biological assays and d ...19957483250
a rabbitpox virus serpin gene controls host range by inhibiting apoptosis in restrictive cells.poxviruses are unique among viruses in encoding members of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. orthopoxviruses contain three serpins, designated spi-1, spi-2, and spi-3. spi-1 encodes a 40-kda protein that is required for the replication of rabbitpox virus (rpv) in pk-15 or a549 cells in culture (a. n. ali, p. c. turner, m. a. brooks, and r. w. moyer, virology 202:305-314, 1994). examination of nonpermissive human a549 cells infected with an rpv mutant disrupted in the spi-1 ge ...19957494278
interferon induction in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of man and farm animals by poxvirus vector candidates and some poxvirus constructs.prototypes of three poxvirus genera--orthopoxvirus (opv), parapoxvirus (ppv), avipoxvirus (apv)--and newcastle disease virus (ndv) as a control, as well as three recombinant opv strains and one recombinant apv strain, were incubated in vitro with peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (pbml) of man, sheep and swine. antiviral activity was determined in pbml culture supernatants at different time intervals after virus cell interaction using a cytopathic effect inhibition bioassay. additionally, ...19957502485
epitope detection in the envelope of intracellular naked orthopox viruses and identification of encoding genes.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were generated against vaccinia virus, cowpox virus kr2 brighton, monkeypox virus copenhagen, or ectromelia virus. pairwise epitope specificity studies by competition elisas identified 23 distinct antigenic sites in 19 different orthopox virus strains. six epitopes were completely independent of each other, and 17 closely related antigenic sites formed three separate epitope complexes. as shown by immunogold electron microscopy (elmi), all mabs reacted with epitopes ...19947513922
identification of binding sites for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies on the 14-kda fusion protein of orthopox viruses.a 14-kda gene-specific probe of vaccinia virus western reserve (wr) hybridized to homologous sequences in the genomes of the orthopox virus species cowpox, camelpox, mousepox, and monkeypox virus. the corresponding genes were mapped and sequenced. homologies of more than 95% were found when compared to the 14-kda gene of vaccinia virus wr. however, point mutations which led to alterations in the amino acid sequences were mainly located between residues 26 and 40. by use of synthetic peptides, th ...19947513923
orthopoxvirus infections. 19863020388
sequence-nonspecific replication of transfected plasmid dna in poxvirus-infected cells.a system in which transfected plasmid dna replicates in the cytoplasm of poxvirus-infected cells is described. a variety of recombinant plasmids was introduced into poxvirus-infected cells by transfection, and replication of input plasmid dna was monitored by (i) digestion with restriction enzymes that discriminate between input methylated plasmid dna and unmethylated dna produced by replication in mammalian cells; (ii) amplification of intracellular plasmid dna; and (iii) density shift analysis ...19863003742
two types of deletions in orthopoxvirus genomes.the genome nucleotide sequences of two strains of variola major virus and one strain of vaccinia virus were compared. one hundred and sixty-eight short (less than 100 bp in length) and eight long (more than 900 bp in length) deletions, four deletion/insertion regions, and four regions of multiple mutational differences between variola and vaccinia virus dnas were revealed. short deletions generally occur at directly repeated sequences of 3-21 bp. long deletions showed no evidence of repeated seq ...19957597802
[danger to the human caused by animal poxvirus following discontinuation of mandatory vaccination against smallpox].the discontinuation of smallpox vaccination will lead to a gradual decrease or disappearance of immunity to poxviruses of the genus orthopoxvirus. it is discussed whether orthopoxviruses of animals may then constitute a potential danger to man, with respect to their mutagenic and adaptation capabilities as well as their possible genetic interactions. infection of man with these viruses is generally possible, but at present, not of acute importance. monkeypox and cowpox viruses, as well as their ...19852999033
vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity.soluble receptors for gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) are secreted from cells infected by 17 orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, cowpox, rabbitpox, buffalopox, elephantpox, and camelpox viruses, representing three species (vaccinia, cowpox, and campelpox viruses). the b8r open reading frame of vaccinia virus strain western reserve, which has sequence similarity to the extracellular binding domain of cellular ifn-gamma receptors (ifn-gamma rs), is shown to encode an ifn-gamma binding activity by ex ...19957609027
serological evidence for the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus in british wildlife.the reservoir host of cowpox virus in western europe is not known, but epidemiological evidence from human and feline infections indicates that the virus is probably endemic in small wild rodents. therefore, serum and tissue samples were collected from a variety of wild british mammals and some birds, and tested for evidence of orthopoxvirus infection. antibody reacting with cowpox virus was detected in 9/44 (20%) bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), 8/24 (33%) field voles (microtus agrestis), ...19957641833
high levels of genetic recombination among cotransfected plasmid dnas in poxvirus-infected mammalian cells.the frequency of recombination between transfected plasmid dnas was measured by using cultured cells infected with a variety of poxviruses. plasmid derivatives of pbr322 containing xhoi linker insertion mutations in the tetracycline gene were used to assess recombination frequencies in rabbit cells infected with the leporipoxviruses shope fibroma virus and myxoma virus and the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus. recombination frequencies were calculated by southern blotting, which detects novel plasmi ...19882826801
orthopoxvirus fusion inhibitor glycoprotein spi-3 (open reading frame k2l) contains motifs characteristic of serine proteinase inhibitors that are not required for control of cell fusion.the cowpox virus (cpv) spi-3 gene (open reading frame k2l in vaccinia virus) is one of three orthopoxvirus genes whose products are members of the serpin (serine proteinase inhibitor) superfamily. the cpv spi-3 gene, when overexpressed by using the vaccinia virus/t7 expression system, synthesized two proteins of 50 and 48 kda. treatment with the n glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin converted the two spi-3 proteins to a single 40-kda protein, close to the size of 42 kda predicted from the dna se ...19957666502
a seroepidemiological survey for orthopox virus in the red fox (vulpes vulpes).703 blood samples from red foxes (vulpes vulpes) were investigated to determine the prevalence of antibody against an orthopox virus (vaccinia virus strain elstree). a blocking-elisa based on a neutralizing monoclonal antibody was used. in this assay 46 sera (6.5%) were positive with titers of 1:2 to 1:16. elisa-results were confirmed by the plaque reduction test with 44 of the 46 sera reacting positively. the specificity of antibodies in 21 selected sera was also demonstrated by western blot an ...19957740763
mapping and investigation of the role in pathogenesis of the major unique secreted 35-kda protein of rabbitpox virus.following infection, many secreted poxvirus proteins are able to modulate the host immune response through interactions with cytokines or components of the complement pathway. a comparison of the secreted protein profiles from cells infected with vaccinia western reserve (vv-wr), cowpox virus brighton strain, or rabbitpox virus (rpv) showed an abundant 35-kda protein present only in the supernatants from rpv-infected cells. the gene encoding this protein was identified and mapped by n-terminal s ...19957831815
a ligase chain reaction targeting two adjacent nucleotides allows the differentiation of cowpox virus from other orthopoxvirus species.a ligase chain reaction (lcr) assay was developed to distinguish cowpox virus from other orthopoxvirus species. the lcr targets two adjacent adenosine residues which are only present in the a-type inclusion protein gene (ati-gene) of cowpox virus. two primer pairs were designed with a one base pair overlap at the junction site and one primer of each pair was labeled radioactively. detection of the ligation product was achieved after denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiograp ...19947868651
the domestic cat: a possible transmitter of viruses from rodents to man. 19947908383
stochastic model for interhuman spread of monkeypox.with the eradication of smallpox, systematic routine vaccination with vaccinia has ceased and an increasing proportion of the human population in tropical rain forest areas of central and western africa lacks vaccinia-derived immunity to monkeypox virus. this raises the question of the ability of monkeypox virus to establish and maintain itself in an unvaccinated population through continuous man-to-man transmission. a computerized stochastic model of monte carlo type was constructed to assess t ...19872825518
similar genetic organization between a region of fowlpox virus dna and the vaccinia virus hindiii j fragment despite divergent location of the thymidine kinase gene.dna from fowlpox virus, a member of the avipoxvirus genus, has been found to hybridize to dna from vaccinia virus, a member of the orthopoxvirus genus. the greatest homology detected was around the region containing the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase locus. a 3.1-kbp fowlpox virus fragment that hybridizes to the vaccinia virus hindiii j fragment has been cloned and its sequence determined. comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence to the cross hybridizing vaccinia fragment re ...19872820129
characterization of the shope fibroma virus dna ligase gene.the shope fibroma virus (sfv) dna ligase gene has been cloned and sequenced, and the biochemical requirements of the gene product have been determined in vitro. the sfv ligase gene maps to the bamhi l1/l2 boundary and spans 1.7 kb. the gene is predicted to encode a 559-amino-acid protein of m(r) = 63,139 which shares 45% amino acid identity with orthopoxvirus ligases. the c-terminal two-thirds of the protein appears to encode the catalytic domain and shares distant homology with many ligases. th ...19948030229
sequence alterations within and downstream of the a-type inclusion protein genes allow differentiation of orthopoxvirus species by polymerase chain reaction.a pcr protocol was established that not only allows the detection of, but also the differentiation of species of the genus orthopoxvirus. this assay was accomplished by the selection of oligonucleotides located within the gene that encodes the a-type inclusion protein of cowpox virus. the primer pair flanked a region exhibiting distinct and specific dna deletions in the corresponding sequences of vaccinia, mousepox, monkeypox and camelpox virus. for this reason, pcr resulted in dna fragments of ...19948046400
cowpox virus contains two copies of an early gene encoding a soluble secreted form of the type ii tnf receptor.the inverted terminal repeats of the dna of cowpox virus (brighton red strain) contain the crmb gene, an additional member of a family of viral genes that modify cytokine responses to infection. the crmb gene is transcribed from an early promoter. the primary product is a 355-amino-acid protein containing a signal peptide sequence and three potential n-linked glycosylation sites. the mature gene product is a secreted soluble protein that has an apparent molecular mass of 48 kda. tnf alpha and tn ...19948091665
identification by a random sequencing strategy of the fowlpoxvirus dna polymerase gene, its nucleotide sequence and comparison with other viral dna polymerases.the nucleotide sequence of the dna polymerase gene of the avipoxvirus fowlpox is presented and the predicted amino acid sequence compared with that of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia. the results have brought to light an error in the vaccinia sequence which has resulted in the ommission of 44 amino acids from the carboxy-terminus of the vaccinia dna polymerase. there has been extensive conservation of amino acids throughout the enzymes, and regions identified as being present in dna polymerases from ...19872819823
multigenic evasion of inflammation by poxviruses.analyses of different cowpox virus (brighton red strain [cpv-br]) mutants indicate that there is a minimum of three genes encoded by cpv-br that are nonessential for virus replication in tissue culture but are involved in inhibiting the generation of an inflammatory response in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (cam) model. the cpv-br-encoded anti-inflammatory genes include the gene encoding the 38-kda protein (also called 38k, crma, spi-2, or vv-wr-orf-b13r), a tumor necrosis factor r ...19948107235
a comparison of the genome organization of capripoxvirus with that of the orthopoxviruses.comprehensive comparisons of genome organizations for poxviruses of different genera have not previously been reported. here we have made such a comparison by cross-hybridizing genome fragments from capripoxvirus ks-1 and vaccinia virus wr (vv). this showed that a 100- to 115-kilobase (kb) centrally placed section is essentially colinear in organization in the two viruses and that a small region has translocated between the ends of one or other of the genomes during their divergence. no cross-hy ...19892795717
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