the electrocardiogram of the capibara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, linné). 1978417533
comparative anatomical studies of the sml face cortex with special reference to the occurrence of "barrels" in layer the sml cortex of mice and rats there are cytoarchitestonically identificable groups of cells -- called barrels -- some of which have been shown to be directly related to whiskers and other sensory hairs on the contralateral face. in this study we have used a comparative approach to determine the incidence and variation of the barrels. the brains of 27 mammalian species have been examined histologically to determine whether barrels exist in layer iv of what is known or likely to be the face a ...1975809494
displaced horizontal cells and biplexiform horizontal cells in the mammalian retina.we have used the neurofibrillar method of gros-schultze to stain the axonless horizontal cells of capybara, agouti, cat, and rabbit retinae. in all of these species, we have found two unusual horizontal cell morphologies: displaced horizontal cells and biplexiform horizontal cells. the displaced horizontal cells have perikarya located in the ganglion cell layer and dendrites branching in the inner plexiform layer. many dendrites take an ascending trajectory to branch in the outer plexiform layer ...19892487119
isoenzyme characterization of trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybaras and dogs in brazil.trypanosoma evansi was seen in blood samples taken randomly from both wild and semi-captive capybaras caught in mato grosso do sul state, brazil and in sick dogs brought into local veterinary clinics. trypanosome stocks from capybaras and dogs were significantly different in their patterns of growth in mice, while the trypanosomes from dogs were mostly dyskinetoplastic. by isoenzyme electrophoresis all the trypanosomes were of the most common type of t. evansi found elsewhere.19892571248
bovine leukaemia: facts and hypotheses derived from the study of an infectious cancer.bovine leukaemia virus (blv) is the etiological agent of chronic lymphatic leukaemia/lymphoma in cows, sheep and goats. infection without neoplastic transformation was also obtained in pigs, rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees, rabbits and observed in capybaras and water-buffaloes. structurally and functionally, blv is a relative of human t lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (htlv-i and htlv-ii) in humans, htlv-i induces a t-cell leukaemia and its type 2 counterpart has been found in dermatopathic lymphadenop ...19882847391
bovine leukemia: facts and hypotheses derived from the study of an infectious cancer.bovine leukemia virus is the etiological agent of a chronic lymphatic leukemia/lymphoma in cows, sheep, and goats. infection without neoplastic transformation also was obtained in pigs, rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees, and rabbits, and was observed in capybaras and water buffaloes. structurally and functionally, blv is a relative of the human t lymphotropic viruses (htlv-i and htlv-ii). htlv-i induces in humans a t cell leukemia, and its type ii counterpart has been found in dermatopathic lymphadeno ...19882847501
bovine leukaemia: facts and hypotheses derived from the study of an infectious cancer.bovine leukaemia virus (blv) is the aetiological agent of a chronic lymphatic leukaemia/lymphoma in cows, sheep and goats. infection without neoplastic transformation has also been demonstrated in pigs, rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees and rabbits and observed in capybaras and water buffaloes. structurally and functionally, blv is a relative of human t lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (htlv-i and htlv-ii) since all three viruses show clear-cut sequence homologies. the pathology of the blv-induced disease ...19872891439
rumen ophryoscolecid protozoa in the hindgut of the capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).rumen ophryoscolecid protozoa were observed in feces obtained from two capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) housed at the columbus zoo, columbus, ohio. total numbers were 58.1 x 10(4) and 19.0 x 10(4) per gram of wet feces in a male and female capybara, respectively. four common rumen species of entodinium were observed in the feces from both animals, with low numbers of eudiplodinium maggii and elytroplastron bubali also occurring in the male. establishment of rumen ophryoscolecid ciliates in t ...19873108491
corrections in the names of rodent coccidia (apicomplexa, coccidiasina).the following new taxonomic combinations are introduced for coccidia whose names were previously given erroneously: dorisa bengalensis (bandyopadhyay & ray, 1982) n. comb. from the indian palm squirrel funambulus pennanti in india; eimeria sicistae from the intestine of the birch mouse sicista tianschanica in the ussr; e. hydrochaeri carini, 1937 emend. from the capybara hydrochaerus hydrochaerus in south america; frenkelia sp. (doby, jeannes & rault 1965) from the brain of the water vole arvico ...19873123645
inhibition of trypsins and chymotrypsins from different animal species: a comparative study.the effect of 3 purified trypsin inhibitors and 4 legume seed extracts on teh trypsins and chymotrypsins of the activated pancreata of 11 animal species, including man, was measured. the activation was performed by either homologous enterokinase or by bovine trypsin. several trypsinogens were not activated by the latter. rabbit trypsin was the most sensitive to all inhibitor preparations, while the human trypsin was the most resistant, except to the black bean extract. the response of the chymot ...19854053591
use of the capybara for antisera production. 19744129428
[isolation of trypanosoma evansi steel 1885 from a capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochoeris lin.) imported to belgium and preliminary study of its virulence]. 19715004234
failure of guinea pig antibodies to beef insulin, chicken insulin, and cod insulin to neutralize capybara insulin. 19695776457
brucella spp. from the capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in venezuela: serologic studies and metabolic characterization of isolates.a bacteriological and serological study of 201 wild capybara from the llanos, state of apure, venezuela was made to isolate brucella from spleen and lymph node tissues and determine the role of this rodent as a reservoir of this bacteria. twenty-three isolations were made, eight were identified as b. abortus and 15 as b. suis by oxidative metabolic techniques. a poly b antigen in immunodiffusion in gel test was compared with other serologic tests. there was good correlation and 58% of sera were ...19836417349
primary isolation of spotted fever group rickettsiae from amblyomma cooperi collected from hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in brazil.this paper reports the first isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia from an amblyomma cooperi ixodid collected from a capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in an endemic area of spotted fever in the county of pedreira, state of são paulo, brazil. isolation was performed in vero cell culture and submitted to immunofluorescence, using antibody from rickettsia rickettsii-positive human serum.19969040845
endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species.high amounts of endogenous nitric oxide (no) have been demonstrated in the human upper airway, but the role of nasal no is still unclear. the present study aims to describe nasal no excretion in different animal species with special living conditions or anatomy.19979366933
coagulation and fibrinolysis in capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), a close relative of the guinea-pig (cavia porcellus).fibrinolytic and coagulation properties of capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, linnaeus, 1766) plasma were analysed and the results compared to the guinea-pig (cavia porcellus), a close relative. capybara fibrinogen was isolated and fibrinolysis of its plasma was carried out in a homologous system and with bovine fibrin. undiluted plasma did not have fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates; euglobulins gave a dose-related response. zymography of capybara and guinea-pig plasma gave the same patte ...200010779737
report on ticks collected in the southeast and mid-west regions of brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man.specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the southeast and mid-west regions of brazil. nine species of amblyommidae were identified: anocentor nitens, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma ovale, amblyomma fulvum, amblyomma striatum, amblyomma rotundatum, boophilus microplus, boophilus annulatus, and rhipicephalus sanguineus. the potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. a flaviviridade flavivirus ...199910881097
a review of the ticks (acari, ixodida) of brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. the state of rio grande do sul, southern brazil.a review of the ticks (acari, ixodida) of the state of rio grande do sul, southern brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12) of such species, their hosts and distribution. the ticks: argas miniatus (poultry), ixodes loricatus (opossums), amblyomma aureolatum (dogs), a. calcaratum (anteaters), a. cooperi (capybaras), a. nodosum (anteaters), a. tigrinum (dogs) (neotropical) and rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs) (introduced, cosmopolitan, afrotropical) were ...200010904399
trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (hidrochaeris hidrochaeris).a study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the peruvian amazon. trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and giemsa-stain methods and t. evansi was identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the ...200111685258
specific antibody levels and antigenic recognition of wistar rats inoculated with distinct isolates of trypanosoma evansi."mal de cadeiras", an enzootic disease caused by trypanosoma evansi, is one of the most important trypanosomiases in the brazilian pantanal region. the disease affects mainly horses, which are widely used in extensive cattle production, an activity of greatest economical significance for the region. the parasite also infects sylvan (coatis and capybaras) and domestic (dogs) animals, respectively considered wild and domestic reservoirs of t. evansi. for a better understanding of the interaction o ...200111685263
guinea pig gonadotropin-releasing hormone: expression pattern, characterization and biological activity in rodents.gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh) is a decapeptide widely known for its role in regulating vertebrate reproduction by serving as a signal from the hypothalamus to pituitary gonadotropes. the first form of gnrh to be identified was isolated from mammals (mgnrh) and the same form has been reported for all mammals studied, which includes marsupials and placental mammals. later, another variant, chicken gnrh-ii (cgnrh-ii) was shown to be expressed together with mgnrh in the brains of all jawed v ...200212006786
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on wild animals from the porto-primavera hydroelectric power station area, brazil.from june 2000 to june 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the porto-primavera hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the paran river, between the states of s o paulo and mato grosso do sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: ambly-omma (7 species), boophilus (1) and anocentor (1). a total of 421 immature amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the ...200312563479
life cycle and host specificity of amblyomma triste (acari: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.we report biological data of two generations of amblyomma triste in laboratory and compared the suitability of different host species. infestations by larval and nymphal stages were performed on guinea pigs (cavia porcellus), chickens (gallus gallus), rats (rattus norvegicus), rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus), wild mice (calomys callosus), dogs (canis familiaris) and capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). infestations by adult ticks were performed on dogs, capybaras and rabbits. tick developmenta ...200314756395
[diet of the capybara hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (rodentia: hydrocharidae) in caño limón, arauca, colombia].we studied the composition and seasonal variation of the diet of the capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in the flooded savannas of caño limón, colombia. this was achieved by direct observation of the consumption patterns of these animals. the capybaras only consumed plants, and their diet included 89 species of 22 families. sixty three percent of these plant species had not been reported before. the most commonly consumed plants (94% of the diet), belonged to the poaceae, cyperaceae, leguminos ...200315162750
foot-and-mouth disease in the americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.foot-and-mouth disease(fmd) was first recorded in south america (sa) circa 1870, in buenos aires, argentina, in uruguay, and in southern brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from europe during the early days of colonization. livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the la plata region, and the trade of livestock and products with chile, northeastern and central western states of brazil, to peru, bolivia, and paraguay spread fmd, which reached venezu ...200415604472
the muscular organization of the stomach of capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris): an architectural view.twenty-two stomachs from adult capybaras were used in this study, and an acid digestion mesoscopic technique was pursued using different concentrations of nitric acid to observe the muscular organization of the stomach. the capybara's stomach possessed a muscular coat composed of four layers or strata: external longitudinal, external oblique, circular and internal oblique. also, the cardiac and pyloric sphincter muscles were comprised of three or two different layers, respectively. furthermore, ...200515835400
kurloff cells in peripheral blood and organs of wild capybaras.peripheral blood and tissue from twenty-two free-ranging, hunter-killed capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) collected between december 1996 and april 1997 in casanare, colombia (5 degrees 58'n and 71 degrees 33'w), were examined by light microscopy for kurloff cells (kcs). kurloff cells were observed in the blood of one pregnant adult female, and in organs from all the animals, including spleen (21 of 22 animals), liver (18 of 21), lungs (13 of 21), ovary (8 of 11), uterus (7 of 10), bone marr ...200516107679
histopathology of tick-bite lesions in naturally infested capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in the present work features of tick-bite lesions were evaluated in capybaras naturally infested with amblyomma cajennense and amblyomma dubitatum ticks. gross appearance of tick bite site was characterized by a mild swelling and erythema. microscopic examination revealed the cement cone, a tube-like homogenous eosinophilic mass penetrating deep into the dermis. this structure was surrounded in the dermis by a cellular infiltrate and free eosinophilic granules and was associated to edema of vari ...200516323054
[rickettsiae detection in amblyomma ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected in the urban area of campinas city, sp].the city of campinas is located in an endemic area for brazilian spotted fever in são paulo state, where several cases have recently occurred. capybaras have been associated with the cycle of this disease, for they present positive serology and serve as host for ticks of the genus amblyomma, the main vectors of brazilian spotted fever. ticks were collected both from capybaras and from the vegetation in the city park lago do café, located in the urban area of campinas city, sp, a site associated ...200616501770
the capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) as a reservoir host for trypanosoma evansi.discovery of two ill horses and three dogs naturally infected with trypanosoma evansi near an experimental station in the eastern plains of colombia led to a search for reservoir hosts of the parasite. infection was detected in 8/33 healthy capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), none of the remaining 14 horses, and none of 32 zebu cattle (bos indicus), 18 paca (cuniculus paca) and 20 spiny rats (proechimys sp.). contrary to common opinion, the results indicated a carrier state in the capybara. d ...197616502701
[the effect of immersion in distilled water on the engorged larvae and nymphs of amblyomma dubitatum neumann, 1899 (acari: ixodidae)].to evaluate the effect of the immersion of engorged larvae and nymphs of amblyomma dubitatum experimentally fed on rabbits, the ticks were collected and formed control groups, without immersion, and groups witch were immersed by 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and, for engorged larvaes, by eight weeks, in test tubes containing distilled water. during all experiment ticks were kept at 27 +/- 1 degrees c, 80 +/- 10% ru and scotophase the parameters evaluated were: pre-ecdysis, ecdysis and moulting periods; a ...200616646997
monitoring of clinical, parasitological and serological parameters during an experimental infection of capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) with trypanosoma evansi. 19947887342
a preliminary investigation of ehrlichia species in ticks, humans, dogs, and capybaras from brazil.a molecular epidemiologic investigation in two brazilian states (rondônia and são paulo) was undertaken to determine if ehrlichia species responsible for human and animal ehrlichioses in north america could be found in brazilian vectors, potential natural mammalian reservoirs and febrile human patients with a tick bite history. samples, including 376 ticks comprising 9 amblyomma species, 29 capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) spleens, 5 canine blood, and 75 human blood samples from febrile pati ...200716962245
investigations on naturally occurring trypanosoma evansi infections in horses, cattle, dogs and capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in pantanal de poconé (mato grosso, brazil).the prevalence of mal de cadeiras--portuguese for trypanosoma (t.) evansi infections in horses--as well as the prevalence of t.evansi infections in cattle, dogs and free-ranging capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) was investigated in pantanal de poconé (mato grosso, brazil). in 0.3, 8.6 and 8.0% of the horses, dogs and capybaras, respectively, infection was detected using standard parasitological methods. a seroprevalence of 4.1, 2.3, 7.1 and 22.0% was found in horses, cattle, dogs and capybar ...19947887341
brazilian spotted fever: a case series from an endemic area in southeastern brazil: epidemiological aspects.brazilian spotted fever (bsf) is the most important tick-borne disease in brazil and is caused by rickettsia rickettsii and transmitted by the ixodid tick amblyomma cajennense, its main vector. we present epidemiologic aspects of a case series of patients admitted to the hospital das clínicas da unicamp from 1985 to 2003 with a confirmed diagnosis of bsf either by a fourfold rise in indirect immunofluorescence (ifa) titers of igg antibodies reactive with r. rickettsii or isolation of r. ricketts ...200617114702
natural infection with zoonotic subtype of cryptosporidium parvum in capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from brazil.a total of 145 capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) fecal samples from the state of são paulo, brazil, were screened for cryptosporidium spp. oocysts using the malachite green method. eight samples (5.52%) showed positive results and were further submitted to nested pcr reaction for amplification of fragments of 18s rrna gene and 60-kda glycoprotein gene for determination of species, alleles and subtypes of cryptosporidium. sequencing of the pcr products of the 18s rrna gene fragments and 60-kda ...200717467175
rapid identification of capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) using allele-specific pcr. 200717505769
purification and characterization of transducin from capybara hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.polypeptides of approximately 39, 36 and <or= 14.4 kda remained tightly bound to illuminated hydrochoerus hydrochaeris retinal rod outer segment (ros) membranes following extensive isotonic and hypotonic washes, and were specifically released in the presence of gtp. these results identified them as the alpha-, beta-and gamma-subunits of transducin (t). once purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography, capybara t showed light-dependent beta,gamma-imido-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (gmpp ...200817855138
[dipetalonema (alafilaria) hydrochoerus yates (1983)].four filariae are known to parasitize the capybara "hydrochoerus hydrochaeris" namely the "cruorifilaria tuberocauda", eberhard, morales & orihel, 1976; the "dipetalonema (alafilaria) hydrochoerus", yates & jorgenson, 1983, and "mansonella longicapita" and "mansonella rotundicapita [corrected]", eberhard, campo-aasen & orihel, 1983. in this study we describe briefly the adult parasites and, the microfilaria of the species "dipetalonema (alafilaria) hydrochoerus" which were isolated from skin ni ...19863528706
rickettsial infection in capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from são paulo, brazil: serological evidence for infection by rickettsia bellii and rickettsia brazil, capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are important hosts for amblyomma ticks, which in turn can transmit rickettsiae to humans and animals. therefore, capybaras are potential sentinels for rickettsial infection.200718320102
[cruorifilaria tuberocauda (nematoda: filarioidea) in venezuelan capybaras].four filariae are known to parasitize the capybara "hydrochoerus hydrochaeris" namely the "cruorifilaria tuberocauda", eberhard, morales & orihel (1976). the "dipetalonema (alafilaria) hydrochoerus", yates (1983), and two "mansonella" recently described by eberhard, campo-aasen & orihel (1983), "mansonella longicapita" and "mansonella rotundicapita". in this study we describe the adult parasites and the microfilaria of the "cruorifilaria tuberocauda" (nematoda, filarioidea), eberhard, morales & ...19863528705
isolation of toxoplasma gondii from capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from são paulo state, brazil.the capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of south america. in the present study, viable toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. antibodies to t. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of são paulo state, brazil, using the modified agglutination test (mat, > or =1:25 dilution) and the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat, > or =1:16 dilution), and antibodies were found in 48 (75%) ...200818576842
occurrence of neospora caninum antibodies in capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from são paulo state, brazil.capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical america. antibodies to neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the state of são paulo, brazil, were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer >or=1:25) and found in 20 (9.4%), with titers of 1:25 in 4, 1:50 in 7, and 1:100 in 9 animals. this is the first report of occurrence of n. caninum antibodies in capybaras.200818605804
characterization of metal-responsive transcription factor (mtf-1) from the giant rodent capybara reveals features in common with human as well as with small rodents (mouse, rat). short communication.from mammals to insects, metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (mtf-1) is essential for the activation of metallothionein genes upon heavy-metal load. we have previously found that human mtf-1 induces a stronger metal response than mouse mtf-1. the latter differs from the human one in a number of amino acid positions and is also shorter by 78 aa at its c-terminus. we reasoned that the weaker metal inducibility might be associated with a lesser demand for tight metal homeostasis in a low-weight ...200818729110
[colonization by panstrongylus megistus (hemiptera, reduviidae, triatominae) inside homes in são josé do cerrito, sc: first report].in response to complaints of the presence of triatomines in a fishing hut on the banks of the caveiras river, in the municipality of são josé do cerrito, state of santa catarina, an investigation was conducted in this hut and in other ecotopes neighboring the initial finding. fifteen specimens of panstrongylus megistus were found and none of them were infected. the locality of this ecotope is visited occasionally by capybaras, opossums, armadillos and rats.200818853021
[scabies among the zoo mammals].scabies was observed in 9 species of mammals at the zoological garden of lódź in years 1957-1989. sarcoptes scabiei spp. was found in capybaras, tapirs and camelids. notoedres cati was recorded from the siberian tiger, but notoedres sp. from the erinaceus europaeus. scabies was also found in a wild dead tapla europaea at the zoo area.19911823472
yersiniosis in the bristol zoo (1955-1974).ninety one cases of yersiniosis occurred betwen 1955 and 1974 at bristol zoo. species affected included a range of primates and birds, a rodent (capybara) and a carnivore (caracal lynx). the incidence of the disease was highest in the winter months. there were variations in the annual incidence of yersiniosis, with peaks occurring at intervals of 4-6 years. common pathological findings included miliary focal necrosis and abscess formation.19761015489
comparisons between brains of a large and a small hystricomorph rodent: capybara, hydrochoerus and guinea pig, cavia; neocortical projection regions and measurements of brain subdivisions.somatic sensory, auditory and visual areas of cerebral neocortex were mapped in anesthetized capybaras using surface macroelectrode-evoked potential recording methods. the cortical motor area was mapped using electrical stimulation methods. the results of these experiments in the largest living rodent were similar to those found for the cortical sensory and motor areas of guinea pigs, a small rodent in a closely related family. the representation of the perioral skin in si cortex was relatively ...1976990909
molecular profiles of venezuelan isolates of trypanosoma sp. by random amplified polymorphic dna method.nine trypanosoma sp. venezuelan isolates, initially presumed to be t. evansi, were collected from three different hosts, capybara (apure state), horse (apure state) and donkey (guarico state) and compared by the random amplification polymorphic dna technique (rapd). thirty-one to 46 reproducible fragments were obtained with 12 of the 40 primers that were used. most of the primers detected molecular profiles with few polymorphisms between the seven horse, capybara and donkey isolates. quantitativ ...200919286320
genetic diversity among capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) isolates of toxoplasma gondii from brazil.recent studies indicate that toxoplasma gondii isolates of many domestic hosts from brazil are genetically and biologically different from t. gondii isolates from usa and europe. however, little is known about genetics of t. gondii isolates from wild mammals in brazil. in this study, genotypes of 36 t. gondii isolates from capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from six counties in são paulo state, brazil, were determined. sixteen genotypes were identified using 11 genetic markers including sag1, ...200919375864
detection of plasmodium sp. in the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the sanctuary zoo for plasmodium sp. infection. one animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssrrna) of all plasmodi ...200919411142
what is the role of small rodents in the transmission cycle of trypanosoma cruzi and trypanosoma evansi (kinetoplastida trypanosomatidae)? a study case in the brazilian pantanal.determining the reservoir hosts for parasites is crucial for designing control measures, but it is often difficult to identify the role that each host species plays in maintaining the cycle of infection in the wild. one way to identify potential maintenance hosts is to estimate key parameters associated with transmission and pathogenicity. here we assess the potential for three native rodent species of the brazilian pantanal (clyomys laticeps, thrichomys pachyurus and oecomys mamorae) to act as ...200919467452
growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris).the guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. we paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiati ...200919493333
ecology of rickettsia in south america.until the year 2000, only three rickettsia species were known in south america: (i) rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by the ticks amblyomma cajennense, and amblyomma aureolatum, reported in colombia, argentina, and brazil, where it is the etiological agent of rocky mountain spotted fever; (ii) rickettsia prowazekii, transmitted by body lice and causing epidemic typhus in highland areas, mainly in peru; (iii) rickettsia typhi, transmitted by fleas and causing endemic typhus in many countries. d ...200919538276
absence of mitral cells in monolayer in monotremes. variations in vertebrate olfactory invariant feature of the olfactory bulb in placental and marsupial mammals is the arrangement of the perikarya of mitral cells in a monolayer. contrasting with this is the arrangement found in the olfactory bulbs of the monotremes, platypus and echidna, where the large perikarya are not only absent from the position of a monolayer (usually forming the external boundary of the internal plexiform layer) but occupy a region which would characterize them as tufted cells. in other classes of amnio ...1977899683
observations of sylvatic rabies in northern argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (desmodus rotundus).during rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in argentina associated with the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (mazama americana), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (artibeus lituratus). rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savan ...200919901391
prevalence of antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania infantum, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, and neospora caninum in capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from são paulo state, brazil.little is known about the importance of capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of são paulo, brazil, were examined for antibodies to trypanosoma cruzi, leishmania infantum, encephalitozoon cuniculi, sarcocystis neurona, and neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to t. cruzi epimastigotes. none of the samples ...201020020808
[seasonal dynamics of amblyomma ticks (acari:ixodidae) in an urban park of londrina city, parana, brazil].ticks are important to public health due to diseases they transmit to animals and humans and, economic losses they cause to livestock production. among other agents, such as babesia, ehrlichia, anaplasma, the rickettsia are the most important pathogens transmitted by ticks in brazil. worldwide there are about 870 tick species described and, of these, 55 species were already reported in brazil, being the genus amblyomma the most numerous with 33 species. the a. cajennense is the principal tick in ...200820059815
experimental leptospirosis in capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) infected with leptospira interrogans serovar pomona.capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), the largest rodent in the world, is widely distributed in south america. these animals live in areas with abundant water, which makes them a potential reservoir for leptospira. the objective of this study was to investigate seroconversion, leptospiremia, and leptospiruria in capybaras experimentally infected with a virulent strain of leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. seven capybaras were used: one control and six infected. agglutinins against serovar po ...200920063819
hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16s rdna) of amblyomma dubitatum (acari: ixodidae).we supply information about hosts and distribution of amblyomma dubitatum. in addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of a. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other neotropical amblyomma species, using sequences of 16s rdna gene. although specimens of a. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, tapirus terrestris, mazama gouazoubira, tayassu pecari, sus scrofa, cerdocyon thous, myocastor coypus, allouata caraya, glo ...201020084537
trichinella infection in wild animals from endemic regions of argentina.natural infection with trichinella has been described in more than 150 mammalian species. however, few reports of trichinella infection in wild animals have come from argentina. in this study, muscle tissue was obtained from wild animals in argentina with the aim of evaluating the presence of trichinella. a total of 169 muscle samples were collected to determine the presence of trichinella larvae by artificial digestion. the 169 muscle samples originated from 12 species including 36 opossums (di ...201020424859
toxoplasma gondii in capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) antibodies and dna detected by ifat and pcr.toxoplasmosis is considered nowadays as one of the most important foodborne diseases in the world. one of the emerging risks in acquiring infection with toxoplasma gondii is the increasing popularity of wild animals and game meat. capybara (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is the world's largest extant rodent and is used for human consumption in many areas of south america, and in case it carries t. gondii cysts, it may act as a source of infection. in the present study, we detected infection with t. ...201020445992
detection of neospora caninum dna in capybaras and phylogenetic analysis.the role of rodents in the sylvatic cycle of neospora sp. and in the neosporosis epidemiology is still uncertain. the aim of the present work was to detect neospora caninum and to determine its prevalence in capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), to help elucidate the role of this rodent in the life cycle of the parasite. n.caninum dna was detected by pcr using 4 different sets of primers specific to the nc5 and its1 sequences. the parasite was found in the lymph nodes, heart, liver, and blood o ...201020470895
stereological and allometric studies on neurons and axo-dendritic synapses in the superior cervical ganglia of rats, capybaras and horses.the superior cervical ganglion (scg) in mammals varies in structure according to developmental age, body size, gender, lateral asymmetry, the size and nuclear content of neurons and the complexity and synaptic coverage of their dendritic trees. in small and medium-sized mammals, neuron number and size increase from birth to adulthood and, in phylogenetic studies, vary with body size. however, recent studies on larger animals suggest that body weight does not, in general, accurately predict neuro ...201020596877
non-legalized commerce in game meat in the brazilian amazon: a case tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. this study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the amazon rainforest, brazil. wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and prod ...201020737856
new tick records in rondônia, western brazilian the present study, we provide new tick records from vilhena municipality, in the southeast of the state of rondônia, northern brazil. ticks collected from a capybara, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (linnaeus), were identified as amblyomma romitii tonelli-rondelli (1 female), and amblyomma sp. (1 larva). ticks collected from a harpy eagle, harpia harpyja (linnaeus), were identified as amblyomma cajennense (fabricius) (16 nymphs) and haemaphysalis juxtakochi cooley (1 nymph). ticks collected from a ...201020943027
ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern brazil with new host and locality records.from september 2008 to march 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern brazil. six tick species were identified, including amblyomma auricularium (conil) on tamandua tetradactyla (l.), amblyomma dubitatum neumann on hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (l.), nectomys rattus (pelzen) and t. tetradactyla, amblyomma parvum aragão on t. tetradactyla, amblyomma rotundatum koch on boa constrictor l., chelonoidis ...201021175080
fasciola hepatica in capybara.the purpose of this report was to register the presence of fasciola hepatica in an adult female capybara (hydrocherus hydrocheris). the macro and microscopical characteristics of hepatic lesions, together with the finding of f. hepatica in mature forms indicate the possible infection of capybara by the trematode.200616774732
seasonal dynamics and hosts of amblyomma triste (acari: ixodidae) in argentina.the seasonal dynamics and host usage of amblyomma triste in argentina were analyzed. adults of a. triste were present from early winter to mid-summer, with the peak of abundance from late winter to mid-spring (august to october). larvae and nymphs were found from december to june, with the peak of abundance in summer. there were no differences among the biological parameters (pre-moult period of larvae and nymphs, pre-oviposition period of females, and minimum incubation period of eggs) of engor ...201121536384
capybaras in an anthropogenic habitat in southeastern brazil.capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are widely distributed in the neotropics, living in both natural and anthropogenic habitats. in the present study, we monitored the fluctuating capybara population at the campus "luiz de queiroz", university of são paulo, in piracicaba, southeastern brazil from 1998 to 2000. to assess population fluctuation and growth rates, we used an abundance index based on direct weekly daylight counts. population monitoring was carried out in an anthropogenic wetland as ...200616710529
Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Distribution of ß-Lactamase A (blaA) and ß-Lactamase B (blaB) Genes in Enteropathogenic Yersinia Species.One hundred eighty-six strains of enteropathogenic Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica of bioserotypes 2/O:5,27, 2/O:9, 3/O:3, and 4/O:3 and 12 strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis of bioserotypes 1/O:1, 1/O:2, and 2/O:1 from different human (feces) and nonhuman (pig, pork, wild boar, monkey, chinchilla, mara, capybara, salad) sources collected in the years 1995-2009 were examined. Antimicrobial resistance patterns for 12 antimicrobial agents were generated using broth microdilution. The presence and ...201121970627
occurrence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dasyprocta aguti from brazil: comparison of diagnostic this study, the occurrence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in brazilian agouti (dasyprocta aguti) was compared by modified agglutination test (mat) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) using anti-capybara conjugate. sera from 109 animals were tested using mat (1:25 cut-off) and ifat (1:16 cut-off); 19% were positive by mat, and 18% were positive by ifat. overall, the 17 ifat-positive samples were also positive for mat. the four positive mat samples with a titer < or = 200 were ifa ...201122204080
[surveillance of rickettsia sp. infection in capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) a potential model of epidemiological alert in endemic areas].introduction. capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are considered amplifying hosts of rickettsia sp. these rodents are usually parasitized by the tick vector, amblyomma cajennense, the main vector of rickettsioses in humans and animals in south america. capybaras can be used as sentinels in detection of circulation of rickettsiae. objective. antibodies to rickettsiae of spotted fever group were detected in capybaras in a rural area of cordoba province, northern colombia. materials and methods. ...201122159538
toxoplasma gondii infection in sentinel and free-range chickens from argentina.this study aimed at isolating and genotyping toxoplasma gondii from serologically positive free-range chickens from argentina, and to evaluate the use of sentinel animals during a short time period of exposure to determine environmental contamination with t. gondii oocysts. two groups of chickens on six farms were compared in this study: (i) young, 2-3 month-old broiler-type chickens reared as sentinel animals on the farms and (ii) adult chickens reared on the same farms for more than one year. ...201121962965
pathology and first report of natural infections of the eye trematode philophthalmus lachrymosus braun, 1902 (digenea, philophthalmidae) in a non-human mammalian host.the avian eye trematode philophthalmus lachrymosus braun, 1902 is for the first time referred naturally occurring in a non-human mammalian host. previously, natural infections with p. lachrymosus and other species of philophthalmus have been occasionally reported from man, with few data on experimental infections of non-human mammals. results presented here are related to the report of two cases of philophthalmosis due to natural infections of wild brazilian capybaras, hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ...200516302069
Updated neuronal scaling rules for the brains of Glires (rodents/lagomorphs).Brain size scales as different functions of its number of neurons across mammalian orders such as rodents, primates, and insectivores. In rodents, we have previously shown that, across a sample of 6 species, from mouse to capybara, the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and the remaining brain structures increase in size faster than they gain neurons, with an accompanying decrease in neuronal density in these structures [Herculano-Houzel et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:12138-12143]. Important r ...201121985803
a review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in south america.meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in south america. these include the alpaca (lama pacos), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (lama guanicoe), llama (lama glama), nutria (myocastor coypus), collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (rhea americana), lesser rhea (rhea pennata), yacare (caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (tupinambis m ...200822063568
Study of infection by Rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in humans and ticks in an urban park located in the City of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil.Spotted fevers are emerging zoonoses caused by Rickettsia species in the spotted fever group (SFG). Rickettsia rickettsii is the main etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF)and it is transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks.201121901874
intestinal helminths of capybaras, hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from venezuela.quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from venezuela are reported for the first time. the intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at hato el cedral. six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (monoecocestus macrobursatum, m. hagmanni), 2 nematodes (viannella hydrochoeri, protozoophaga obesa), and 2 trematodes (hippocrepis hippocrepis, t ...200415558163
rickettsial infection in ticks collected from road-killed wild animals in rio de janeiro, brazil.during 2008-2010, ticks were collected from road-killed wild animals within the serra dos orgãos national park area in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil. in total, 193 tick specimens were collected, including amblyomma dubitatum neumann and amblyomma cajennense (f.) from four hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (l.), amblyomma calcaratum neumann and a. cajennense from four tamandua tetradactyla (l.), amblyomma aureolatum (pallas) and a. cajennense from five cerdocyon thous l., amblyomma longirostre (koc ...201223270184
enzootiology of trypanosoma evansi in pantanal, order to better understand the enzootiology of trypanosomiasis caused by trypanosoma evansi in the brazilian pantanal we examined domestic and wild mammals by microhematocrit centrifuge technique (mhct), immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). t. evansi infection was detected in all species sampled with exception of the sheep and the feral pig. high parasitemias were observed in capybaras (5/24), coatis (18/115), horses (31/321) and dogs (3/112). among the ...200415482883
estimate of size and total number of neurons in superior cervical ganglion of rat, capybara and horse.the superior (cranial) cervical ganglion was investigated by light microscopy in adult rats, capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) and horses. the ganglia were vascularly perfused, embedded in resin and cut into semi-thin sections. an unbiased stereological procedure (disector method) was used to estimate ganglion neuron size, total number of ganglion neurons, neuronal density. the volume of the ganglion was 0.5 mm3 in rats, 226 mm3 in capybaras and 412 mm3 in horses. the total number of neurons ...200415235907
life cycle of amblyomma cooperi (acari: ixodidae) using capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) as hosts.the life cycle of amblyomma cooperi was evaluated under laboratory conditions testing different host species. larval infestations were performed on chickens (gallus gallus) and capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). nymphal infestations were performed on g. gallus, h. hydrochaeris, guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) and wild mice (calomys callosus). infestations by adult ticks were performed only on capybaras. all free-living stages were observed in darkness at 27 degrees c and rh 85%. capybaras were ...200415139274
epidemiological surveillance of capybaras and ticks on warning area for brazilian spotted fever.the vulnerability of tropical developing countries to the emerging disease constitutes a critical phenomenon in which the invasion of wild niches by human hosts, contributes to expansion of zoonotic diseases, such as the brazilian spotted fever (bsf). this study performed a diagnosis of species occurrence of their hosts (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and vectors (amblyomma sculptum and amblyomma dubitatum) on the warning area for this reemerging disease in brazil.201527047211
vascular organization of the hystricomorph placenta: a comparative study in the agouti, capybara, guinea pig, paca and rock cavy.the placental vasculature of five hystricomorph rodents was examined by latex injection of the blood vessels, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. the pattern of branching of the vessels is described at the level of fine structure. the placenta is divided into lobes separated by interlobular trophoblast. fetal arteries course through the interlobular areas and give rise to capillaries from which blood drains into veins at the centre of the lobes. maternal blood ...200415081638
rickettsial infection in amblyomma cajennense ticks and capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a brazilian spotted fever-endemic area.brazilian spotted fever (bsf), caused by the bacterium rickettsia rickettsii, is the deadliest spotted fever of the world. in most of the bsf-endemic areas, capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the principal host for the tick amblyomma cajennense, which is the main vector of bsf.201424387674
ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in brazil.spotted-fever-caused rickettsia rickettsii infection is in brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to r. parkeri was discovered in the country (atlantic rainforest strain). both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the mai ...201323875178
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the rodent capybara (hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) from brazil.capybaras (hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) are 1 of the largest rodents used for meat in south and central america. prevalence of anti-toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 149 feral h. hidrochoeris from the state of são paulo, brazil, was evaluated using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) and the modified agglutination test (mat). using ifat, antibodies (>1:16) were found in 104 (69.8%) and with the mat, antibodies (>1:25) were found in 63 (42.3%) capybaras. this is the first report of pr ...200314533702
trypanosoma evansi and surra: a review and perspectives on origin, history, distribution, taxonomy, morphology, hosts, and pathogenic effects.trypanosoma evansi, the agent of "surra," is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from africa. it is thought to derive from trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic dna (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies). it is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-saharan area. the disease spread from north africa towards the middle east, turkey, india, up to 53° north in russia, across all south-east asia, ...201324024184
absence of bovine leukemia virus (blv) infection in buffaloes from amazon and southeast region in brazil.enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by bovine leukemia virus (blv) and is well described in bovines. the majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. the virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. the occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to blv infection by some authors in india and venezuela, but not confirmed by othe ...201627317318
evolution. enhanced: a rodent as big as a buffalo.the largest living rodent is the south american capybara, a creature the size of a sheep that unlike smaller rodents stands on relatively straight legs. however, as alexander explains in his perspective, a new fossil find in venezuela (sánchez-villagra et al.) reveals that the capybara would be dwarfed by phoberomys, a giant rodent the size of a buffalo that lived during the miocene epoch.200314500968
host preference of the arbovirus vector culex erraticus (diptera: culicidae) at sonso lake, cauca valley department, colombia.culex erraticus (dyar & knab) is a competent vector of eastern equine encephalitis virus and subtype ic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and both st. louis encephalitis virus and west nile virus have been isolated from field-collected specimens. previous bloodmeal analysis studies have shown this species to be a generalist, feeding on a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. this behavior can bridge arboviral transmission across different vertebrate groups. our study examined ...201223025191
health evaluation and survey of zoonotic pathogens in free-ranging capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodents and play an epidemiologic role in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including the causative agents of brazilian spotted fever, leptospirosis, and others. we surveyed the health of 31 free-ranging capybaras at the alberto löfgren state park, são paulo, brazil using a variety of diagnostic methods. hematology and serum chemistry were consistent with mild malnutrition and parasitism but did not indicate severe physiologic i ...201424779462
chromatographic and immunological identification of gnrh (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) variants. occurrence of mammalian and a salmon-like gnrh in the forebrain of an eutherian mammal: hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (mammalia, rodentia).the molecular variants of gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh) in brain extracts of the eutherian mammal hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (mammalia, rodentia) were characterized. an indirect method combining reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) and radioimmunoassay (ria) with different antisera was used. two different forebrain regions (olfactory bulbs and preoptic-hypothalamic region) were analyzed. characterization of rp-hplc fractions from preoptic-hypothalamic extracts wi ...19989556083
trypanosoma evansi in capybara from venezuela.during the slaughtering season of february and march 1991, 559 capybaras (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) were tested for trypanosoma evansi in two areas in venezuela: el frio ranch and el cedral ranch. blood and serum samples were evaluated for t. evansi. forty-eight (9%) of 559 capybaras had t. evansi using the microcentrifugation technique. further, 279 (50%) of the 559 capybaras had antibodies against t. evansi immunofluorescence test in both ranches. thus, capybaras may be important in the epizo ...19979131577
molecular detection of leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the central western area of the state of são paulo, brazil.road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection.201424963288
comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris dabbenei) oil, horse oil, and sardine oil in cholesterol-fed rats.the hypocholesterolemic efficacy of various polyunsaturated fatty acids was compared in rats given cholesterol-enriched diets. capybara oil (co, linoleic + alpha-linolenic acids), horse oil (ho, alpha-linolenic acid), and sardine oil (so, eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids) were added to diets at 50 g/kg. the weight gain, food intake, and liver weight in the co-fed group were significantly higher than those in other groups during the 6-wk experimental period. the serum total and very low d ...19979113627
[helminth parasites of capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) on sub-region of nhecolândia, pantanal, mato grosso do sul].a sequence of 23 necropsies was carried out on capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the central area of nhecolândia, pantanal region, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil, from december 1984 to december 1986. the helminths identified and their respective prevalences and mean intensity were: trichostrongylus axei--60.9 and 14, viannella hydrochoeri--95.6 and 1031, strongyloides chapini--47.8 and 1014, yatesia hydrochoerus--44.4 and 6, cruorifilaria tuberocauda--40.0 and 8, capillaria hydroch ...19948209035
xenotransplantation and the capybara. 19947907722
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