[fluorescence in thelohania apodemi doby, jeannès and rault, 1963, a microsporidian parasite of the brain of the fieldmouse, apodemus sylvaticus].colonies of thelohania apodemi in fresh preparations of the brain of the field mouse show an intense fluorescence with ultra violet radiation. this phenomenon is undoubtedly due to the presence of chitin in the spore envelope. it is to our knowledge the first time that such a phenomenon of fluorescence has been described in the microsporida.1975129237
[small mammals at community refuse dumps as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites].five-year studies (1981-1986) were performed to investigate a total number of 2589 small mammals of 18 species. refuse dumps are marked for highly specific conditions. the difference between refuse dumps and natural habitats consists in more sufficient quantity of food, better sheltering possibilities and in highly specific microclimate particularly. as a result of aerobic and anaerobic decompositions of organic materials, temperature in dumps is approximately 50 degrees c. from ecological point ...19911807042
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in czechoslovakia].the author investigated 4,853 specimens of wild living small mammals (43 species: insectivora, chiroptera, lagomorpha, rodentia, carnivora) from czechoslovakia for blood parasites. trypanosomes were found in talpa europaea, sorex alpinus, crocidura suaveolens, myotis myotis, apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus flavicollis, mus musculus, rattus norvegicus, clethrionomys glareolus and microtus agrestis. babesia was detected in myotis emarginatus, myotis myotis, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis ...19751158292
contribution to the knowledge of swiss piroplasmas.the authors identify 3 species of babesia, which parasitize cattle in switzerland (babesia major, b. divergens and b. hovis). they also confirm the presence of b. canis in a dog in the proximity of geneva. finally, for the first time in switzerland, they point out the presence of non-identified babesia in various rodents (apodemus sylvaticus, a. flavicollis and clethrionomys glareolus).19757111
transfer of eimeria apionodes from wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) to laboratory mice (mus musculus).transfer of eimeria apionodes from wood mice directly into untreated laboratory mice was unsuccessful but transfer into corticosteroid-treated animals produced an oocyst output, about 1000 times less than that observed from wood mice after a similar inoculum. repeated passage through corticosteroid-treated laboratory mice resulted in a line adapted to survival in untreated animals. this line was compared with the parent strain maintained in wood mice and some features of the oocyst output patter ...19911745545
lung and hearth nematodes in some spanish mammals.thirteen host species belonging to the orders rodentia, insectivora and carnivora from various localities in galicia (nw spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. the following species were found: parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in apodemus sylvaticus, crenosoma striatum in erinaceus europaeus (83%), angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis and eucoleus aerophilus in vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), crenosoma taiga in putorius putorius (100%) and crenosoma sp. in meles ...19911844789
[opisthioglyphe jourdanei n.sp. (trematoda, omphalometridae) in the rodent apodemus sylvaticus (l.)]. 19751163937
arrangement of the branches of the aorta abdominalis in the wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus).data on the distribution and variation of the abdominal arteries in the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus, are given. seventy specimens (44 males and 26 females) caught in the field were analyzed by injection of green latex solution and dissection. the general branching pattern of the aorta abdominalis is similar to those described in other rodents. there are certain differences, however, especially in the branching of the coeliac trunk, the origin of the genital arteries and the arrangement of th ...19921497143
isolation of emmonsia crescens emmons et jellison 1960 from small mammals in bulgaria.authors examined a total of 3849 specimens of mammals included in 36 species from different region of bulgaria. adiaspiromycosis was detected microscopically in 18 mammals species. strains of emmonsia crescens emmons et jellison 1960 was isolated from 6 species--apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, musmusculus and rattus norvegicus.19751171369
[the importance of laelaps agilis c.l. koch 1836 (mesostigmata: parasitiformae) as a vector of hepatozoon sylvatici coles 1914 (sporozoa: haemogregarinidae) (author's transl)].the importance of the mite laelaps agilis (parasitiformae) for the transmission of the hepatozoon species living in the blood of apodemus sylvaticus and apodemus flavicollis (hepatozoon sylvatici) is examined. with this mite the experimental transfer of the parasite to bred hosts of the same species was successful five times; for once, the transmission to a non-specific host (clethrionomys glareolus) was also possible. besides, an eventual stimulating effect emanating from the gonads of female m ...1977413271
studies on the ecology of lyme disease in a deer forest in county galway, ireland.the abundance of the tick ixodes ricinus (l.) and the infection rate of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi (johnson et al.) were compared on either side of a deer fence in a forest park in county galway, ireland, in an attempt to elucidate the role of fallow deer, dama dama, and woodmice, apodemus sylvaticus, in determining the population density of i. ricinus and the transmission of b. burgdorferi. the results showed that tick numbers were much higher on the deer side of the fence, although the de ...19921460628
a woodland population of small rodents (apodemus sylvaticus (l.) and clethrionomys glareolus schreber) at adare, co. limerick. 1976995918
pregnancy-associated murine protein-1 (pamp-1) in wild rodents.the presence of pregnancy-associated murine protein-1 (pamp-1) in a number of wild rodent species was examined using tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis and anti pamp-1 antisera raised in rabbits. pamp-1 is a protein present in female laboratory mice and rats; analogues were readily detected in the following species: musculus domesticus, m. musculus, apodemus sylvaticus, a. agrarius, a. flavicollis, and microtus arvalus. immunologically, cross-reacting proteins could not be detected in the labo ...19921431788
[observations of fleas of small mammals at the gran paradiso national park (italian occidental alps)].the siphonaptera of small mammals (nearly 200 rodents, insectivora and mustelids) of the parco nazionale del gran paradiso (western italian alps) have been collected and studied during the years 1973-75. all the animals have been captured at altitudes ranging from 1570 to 2400 m during different seasons. twelve genera and sixteen species have been identified, namely: chaetopsylla (c.) homoea homoea from mustela erminea; hystrichopsylla (h.) talpae talpae from clethrionomys glareolus; rhadinopsyl ...19751233394
host specificity of and cross-immunity between two strains of heligmosomoides polygyrus.the infectivity of wild and laboratory strains of heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematospiroides dubius) in laboratory mice and in three species of wild british rodent was compared. wild strains, of the subspecies h. p. polygyrus, were isolated from wild caught apodemus sylvaticus. only very low-level infections of the wild strains became established in laboratory mice. similar worm burdens of the laboratory strain became established in laboratory mice and a. sylvaticus, although infections in a. sy ...19911866189
[gamasid tick (acarina, gamasoidea) fauna from the nests of the common field mouse].14087 specimens of 26 species of gamasid mites were found in 52 nests of apodemus sylvaticus collected in the vicinity of odessa. the annual index of abundance of all species of gamasids is 270. the most abundant were hl. glasgowi (53.9%), e. stabularis (10.1%), hg. nidi (8.6%) and hi. latiscutatus (7.2%).1978673452
yersinia enterocolitica among small wild mammals in france.a survey of yersinia enterocolitica was made in two french areas (indre and alsace) in several components of the terrestrial ecosystem. y. enterocolitica has been isolated from several habitats and from numerous species of small mammals. the trap line method enabled us to estimate the density of the two abundant small mammal species, microtus arvalis and apodemus sylvaticus, and the densities of y. enterocolitica carriers. the frequency of isolation was high when temperatures were low, but did n ...1979400946
schizorchis arfaai sp. n. (cestoda: anoplocephalidae) from the wood-mouse, apodemus sylvaticus, in caspian area of iran.schizorchis arfaai sp. n. is described from the wood-mouse in the caspian area of iran and its morphological characteristics compared with those of the five previously known species of schizorchis hansen, 1948.1977864227
structure, stability and species interactions in helminth communities of wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus.the helminths of the alimentary tract of wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus, were studied at two sites over a 33-month period. nine helminth species were recovered regularly. all but one was absent for at least 1 month. monthly samples from these helminth communities were more similar to samples taken in the following month than to samples taken at progressively greater intervals up to a year. helminth communities at both sites, however, had cyclical elements. comparison of mean similarity indices f ...19902332281
[a new typhloceras from tunisia (author's transl)].typhloceras favosus benrachidi ssp. nova, parasitic on apodemus sylvaticus ssp., can be separated from all others typhloceras, by the morphology of segments viii and ix in the male. synonymy with t. f. asunicus jordan, described on female only, is discuted.1977603205
[erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and hemoglobin electrophoretic characteristics in rodent adaptation to high mountains].adaptation of the erythropoetic system to hypoxia was shown to be different in different populations of montaine rodents of the central caucasus. one type of adaptation includes the increase in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate content of erythrocytes, the hemoglobin structure remaining apparently unchanged. this pattern was found in two groups of animals -- in one population of the ground squirrel citellus suslicus whose ancestors were introduced to the mountains some 25 years ago, and in the wood mouse a ...1979516947
dermatophytes in a population of bank voles and woodmice.a population of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) and wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an oak wood in somerset was examined for dermatophytes at monthly intervals for 2 years. the marked animals were frequently retrapped, allowing a study of host fungus relationship over a period of time. microsporum persicolor (sabouraud) guiart er grigorakis and trichophyton mentagrophytes (robin) blanchard were isolated from both animal species, but m. persicolor predominated in bank voles and t. ...1978375097
use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus for oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: innocuity to several non-target bait consuming species.the pathogenicity of a vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (vvtggrab) was tested in several wild animal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in consuming vaccine baits in europe. the following species were included in this study: wild boar (sus scrofa), eurasian badger (meles meles), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), common vole (microtus arv ...19892681844
a lyme borreliosis human serosurvey of asymptomatic adults in ireland.blood samples were obtained through the blood transfusion service in ireland in order to obtain information on the prevalence of asymptomatic b. burgdorferi infections and in an attempt to identify the type of habitat that presents the most risk of infection. areas in the country were rated as low, medium or high risk based on the availability of suitable tick habitat, access to the public and the distribution of deer, the latter parameter being related to both the occurrence of rodent reservoir ...19911741921
eimeria species infecting wood mice (genus apodemus) and the transfer of two species to mus musculus.characteristics of four species of eimeria isolated from apodemus sylvaticus are described. from oocyst morphology, three are identified as e. apionodes, e. hungaryensis and e. uptoni, the fourth being unnamed. cloning demonstrated that oocysts of e. hungaryensis were polymorphic. previous literature relating to the taxonomy is discussed and discrepancies outlined. species isolated from a. sylvaticus were not transmissible to clethrionomys glareolus, but both e. hungaryensis and e. apionodes hav ...19892528109
ovarian interstitial tissue of the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus.the ovary of the wood mouse contains an unusually large amount of interstitial tissue which appears to develop from undifferentiated cells of the ovarian stroma and also by transformation of theca or granulosa cells of atretic follicles. the cells are characterized by the presence of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rounded mitochondria with tubular cristae, and abundant, large (1.5 micron diameter) lipid droplets containing cholesterol and its esters. 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity o ...19892915357
immune response of the long-tailed field mouse (apodemus sylvaticus) to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection.the immune response following infection with a virulent strain of central european encephalitis (cee) virus in a natural host, long-tailed field mouse (apodemus sylvaticus l.) and white laboratory-bread icr mouse, was compared. viraemia was demonstrated in icr mice after intraperitoneal infection with a dose of 10(5) ld50/0.5 ml. the virus titres were high in the spleen and, particularly, in the brain. in a. sylvaticus the virus was detected in the blood and spleen, but not in the brain. cee vir ...19911725516
genetic divergence in mitochondrial dna between the wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus) and the yellow necked mouse (a. flavicollis).genetic variability and the relationships between clones of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) provide data which can be used to construct hypotheses about the biogeographical and postglacial colonization history of fennoscandian species. we have investigated fragment differences in mtdna among 24 wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) from 8 localities, and 9 yellow necked mice (a. flavicollis) from four north european localities. the greatest intraspecific sequence divergence found between mtdna clones was 1. ...19892793512
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in yugoslavia: epidemiologic and epizootiologic features of a nationwide outbreak in 1989.a nationwide epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) occurred in yugoslavia in 1989. sera from 609 hospitalized patients, from all six republics (bosnia and hercegovina, croatia, macedonia, montenegro serbia, slovenia) and two provinces (kosovo and vojvodina), who had signs and symptoms suggestive of hfrs, and sera and lung tissues from 544 small mammals belonging to 13 species were studied for evidence of hantavirus infection. of the 226 patients with serologically confirmed hf ...19921363468
[a comparison of the behavioral response of the field mouse (apodemus sylvaticus l.) to a 24 hour fast as measured by actograph or in a cage].1. the "general activity" of apodemus sylvaticus l. has been recorded and analysed using two techniques: a) in an actograph, several components of the "general activity" have been recorded and quantified over 24 hours, including wheel running, locomotion in various areas of the enclosure, nest occupancy, drinking, eating and hoarding; b) in a breeding cage, ten times smaller than the actograph and where the possibilities of locomotion are considerably reduced, the wheel running only has been rec ...19751206592
apodemus sylvaticus, a new host for acanthocheilonema viteae (nematoda: filarioidea).susceptibility of apodemus sylvaticus and a. agrarius to infection with acanthocheilonema viteae was compared with that of hamsters and jirds. microfilaremia in a. sylvaticus was first noted on day 52 post-infection (p.i.) and lasted during the course of the study (up to day 150 p.i.). maximum microfilaremic levels (female worm basis) of a. sylvaticus [mean +/- s.d. (n) = 690 +/- 1288(6)] were considerably higher than those of hamsters [16 +/- 18(6)] and jirds [51 +/- 25(5)]. adult worm recovery ...19912040555
longitudinal study of natural foci of central european encephalitis virus in west slovakia.a total of 2922 small terrestrial mammals of 12 species were collected in six localities of west slovakia between 1981 and 1986. when examined for the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (na) to central european encephalitis (cee) virus we found that 14.6% had antibody. nearly all (97%) of the 426 animals with antibody were clethrionomys glareolus, the most abundant species (52.6% of mammals collected, 15.1% of those with antibody). apodemus flavicollis (22.5% of mammals collected, 18.1% of th ...19901983180
reovirus type 1 and small wild mammals in a mixed focus of virus infections in france.during field studies of a natural focus of eyach virus infection in western france, reovirus type 1 was isolated from tissues of a field mouse, apodemus sylvaticus l., caught in 1982. serological survey carried out in the same area among 118 small wild vertebrates, mainly mammals, showed a wide-spread circulation of this agent in 1982 and 1983. epidemiological consequences of such results are briefly discussed in terms of virus interactions.19852864835
leptospirosis in small mammals of iran: i. serologic tests and isolation of leptospira hebdomadis from apodemus sylvaticus.leptospires of the hebdomadis sero-group and related to sejroe serotype, were isolated from the kidney of a vole (apodemus sylvaticus) by direct culture as well as by animal inoculation. sera of the vole from which leptospires were isolated, and serologic specimens from 1372 other small mammals, were negative for leptospiral agglutinins.1976768531
cochlea in old world mice and rats (muridae).morphometric analysis of the cochlea was performed in wild and laboratory murids: mus musculus, apodemus sylvaticus, rattus rattus, r. norvegicus, nmri mouse, and wistar rat. results are based on light microscopic examination of surface specimens and serial sections and on three-dimensional computer reconstruction. the cochleae have 1.75-2.2 coils. the length of the basilar membrane varies from 6.0 to 12.1 mm. mean density of outer hair cells ranges between 363 and 411, inner hair cells 98 and 1 ...19883221404
[harvest mites of the family trombiculidae in the steppe zone of the southeastern ukraine].virgin and cultivated biotopes of the sea of azov area of donetsk province were investigated for parasite coenoses of small mammals. 469 animals and 210 nests were collected, apodemus sylvaticus, mus musculus, microtus arvalis and cricetulus migratorius being the most abundant species. in all 2940 larvae of trombiculids (18 species) were found on animals and in their nests (2846 specimens on animals and 94 specimens in nests). two species, hoffmannina theodori and doloisia skljari, are new for s ...19892717200
an early-breeding population of fieldmice apodemus sylvaticus (l) in limekiln wood, athenry, co. galway. 19725026155
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (nephropathia epidemica) in norway: seroepidemiology indirect fluorescent antibody technique (ifat) was applied to serologically confirm the clinical diagnosis in 507 nephropathia epidemica (ne) suspected patients. hantaan virus (hv), the agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, which is serologically related to the ne agent, was used as antigen. both igg and igm reactions were detected. high levels of igg antibodies to hv were common, even in the acute phase of illness. over a 5-year period, a total of 35% of the ne suspected patients revealed antib ...19882900551
serological survey with the antigen of haemorrhagic fever virus with renal syndrome in small rodents in slovakia.results of serological survey in small rodents with the antigen of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus indicate the existence of a natural focus of this virus in slovakia. antibodies were found in the following free-living rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus agrarius, apodemus sylvaticus, pitymys subterraneus, microtus arvalis and microtus economus. a total 10 out of 120 (8.2%) small rodents trapped in investigated localities of western and eastern slovakia had anti ...19862873734
laboratory studies with clones of eimeria hungaryensis, a parasite of the wood mouse apodemus sylvaticus.doses from 1 to 10(5) sporulated oocysts of a cloned strain of eimeria hungaryensis were used to infect laboratory-reared, coccidia-free wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus). total oocyst production, reproductive indices (output/dose) and daily patterns of oocyst production were compared. at doses of 10(2) oocysts or less, observed yields exceeded expected yields calculated using details of endogenous stages. at doses above 10(2) oocysts, the converse occurred. from infections initiated with 10(2) oo ...19883200603
seasonal and age distributions of babesia, hepatozoon, trypanosoma and grahamella species in clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus sylvaticus populations.four common blood parasites belonging to the genera babesia, hepatozoon, trypanosoma and grahamella were detected in sympatric populations of clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus sylvaticus. seasonal changes in the abundance of hosts and parasites were monitored in a longitudinal field survey for 18 months. all parasites in both hosts showed similar seasonal patterns with most transmission occurring in summer and autumn and ceasing in winter. amongst aged subsets of each host population, hepatoz ...19863537923
[comparative study of migrations of angiostrongylus (parastrongylus) dujardini drozdz and doby 1970 and of a. (p.) cantonensis (chen 1935) (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) in the body of the field mouse, apodemus sylvaticus (l. 1758)]. 19714258426
cyclic and non-cyclic dynamics in populations of the helminth parasites of wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus.two populations of apodemus sylvaticus, one in deciduous woodland and another in coniferous forest in co. down, northern ireland, were trapped at monthly intervals over 33 months. the dynamics, reproduction and age structure of the mouse populations differed between years with over a 40 fold range of population size. nine species of helminths were recovered from the alimentary tract and associated organs of the mice. the prevalence and mean worm burden of the cestodes, catenotaenia lobata, hymen ...19883372984
[adiaspiromycosis in small mammals in large capacity pigsties in the trebon basin].from 1977 to 1979 a study on the occurrence of adiaspiromycosis was performed on three animal farms in south bohemia. in 113 examined small mammals from the farms and their neighbourhoods adiaspiromycosis was detected in m. arvalis living both in the fields in the precincts (7/613, i. e. 1.14%) and in the grassy areas inside the three animal farms (5/221, i. e. 2.3%). by that time no adiaspiromycosis was found in small mammals living in the farm buildings. the obtained results were compared with ...19816787784
reservoir animals for nephropathia epidemica in norway: indications of a major role for the bank vole (c. glareolus) in comparison with the woodmouse (a. sylvaticus).small rodents were collected live in two different locations within a nephropathia epidemica (ne) endemic area, and tested for both antiviral serum antibodies and viral antigens in lung sections. in one location, only apodemus sylvaticus (woodmice) were found in the traps, in the other, both a. sylvaticus and clethrionomys glareolus (bank voles) were collected. among the woodmice from the former location the prevalence of ne virus markers was significantly lower than for either woodmice or bank ...19853919085
the distribution of larval aspiculuris tetraptera schulz during a primary infection in mus musculus, rattus norvegicus and apodemus sylvaticus. 19744281078
[further observations on the adaptation to human cells, of a strain of cytomegalic virus from the field-mouse (apodemus sylvaticus)]. 19724339325
[behavioral changes following septal lesions in the sylvan field mouse (apodemus sylvaticus l)]. 19705476364
[objectification of normal or disturbed behavior of the sylvan field-mouse (apodemus sylvaticus l) in a terrarium]. 19675588171
[adaptation of a cytomegalic virus from fieldmice (apodemus sylvaticus) on various heterologous cells, human included]. 19694309264
demodex lacrimális spec. nov. (demodicidae: trombidiformes) from the meibomian glands of the european wood mouse apodemus sylváticus. 19744466312
experimental infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus in clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus and mus musculus. 1. virological studies. 19665958418
[study, using the nauta technique, of degeneration after electrolytic lesion of the septal region in the wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus)]. 19695783109
experimental infection with tick-borne virus in clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus and mus musculus. 2. serological studies. 19665958662
[on the cerebralization of the nest-escaping acomys (cahirinus) minous (bate, 1906) in comparison with the nest-dwelling (albino mouse, apodemus sylvaticus (linnaeus, 1758) and albino rat). ii. morphology and allometry of postnatal brain development of acomys (cahirinus) minous, of the albino mouse, and of the albino rat]. 19685719048
serum esterases of apodemus sylvaticus and mus musculus. 19665968948
[adiaspiromycosis in small wild mammals caught in tunisia].the authors examine the lungs of 125 small mammals caught in different provinces of tunisia and belonging to 12 species; 4 apodemus sylvaticus, 1 mus spretus and 1 crocidura russula possess one adiaspore of emmonsia crescens = chrysosporium parvum or more hundred. they find adiaspiromycosis only in damp biotopes.19846541531
maritrema apodemicum sp. nov. (digenea: microphallidae) from the long tailed field mouse, apodemus sylvaticus sylvaticus (l.) on skomer island. 19666006845
[epidemiological survey in a natural focus of rickettsia transmitted by ixodes ricinus in switzerland (author's transl)].a spotted fever group rickettsia referred to as "swiss agent" was detected in 8.5% of ixodes ricinus collected in a marshy forest of the swiss plateau. this organism, in its tick vector, was found to be transmitted stadially as well as ovarially; of 433 larval, nymphal or adult ticks from 17 parental tick females, all were infected. a total of 3,612 larval i. ricinus were collected from 168 small mammals including 127 clethrionomys glareolus, 29 apodemus sylvaticus and flavicolis, 7 microtus agr ...19817020557
serum proteins of apodemus sylvaticus and mus musculus. 19676051654
experimental characteristics of viraemia caused by two strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus in small rodents.two strains of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus differing in virulence for subcutaneously (s.x.) inoculated adult white mice elicited different levels of viraemia in small rodents. strain skalica of a lowered virulence caused no detectable viraemia in adult clethrionomys glareolus and only negligible viraemia in adult apodemus sylvaticus, microtus arvalis and pitymys subterraneus species. the virulent strain 204 gave rise to higher levels of viraemia, sufficient for infection of tbe virus vec ...19816116416
the ovary of the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus, during late pregnancy and lactation.female wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus, were killed on day 18 of pregnancy (p 18) and on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 of lactation (l 0, l 3, l 6, l 9, l 12, l 15, and l 18 respectively), and the ovaries were studied. the weight of the ovaries was recorded at dissection. the corpora lutea and the follicles of the right ovary were counted and measured, and the appearance of the interstitial tissue was noted. a decline in weight from day p 18 to day l 6 coincided with a decrease in mean diameter ...19846524462
prevalence of pneumocystis carinii delanoë & delanoë, 1912 in rodents in denmark.pneumocystis carinii has been found in 17 of 90 (19%) wild living trapped brown rats (rattus norvegicus). the positive brown rats originated from about 25% of the trapping localities examined. among brown rats of two breeding stocks, h and s, pneumocysts were found in 43.5% of the h rats, but in none of the s rats. by keeping brown h rats on a low protein diet for 8 weeks, it was possible to augment the prevalence to 53.8%. pneumocystis carinii has furthermore been found in one of eight (12.5%) ...19806965782
infections with blood parasites in the small british rodents apodemus sylvaticus, clethrionomys glareolus and microtus agrestis.three populations of small wild british rodents were studied by capture-recapture methods over a period of 3 years, a fourth group was studied for 1 year and a fifth was sampled annually for 4 years. blood smears were taken from 3 species of rodents: the woodmouse apodemus sylvaticus, the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus (and an island sub-species c.g. skomerensis) and the short-tailed vole microtus agrestis. the smears were examined microscopically. four genera of haemoparasites babesia, hepat ...19817022328
leishmaniasis in tuscany (italy): (ii) leishmania form wild bodentia and carnivora in a human and canine leishmaniasis focus.from april 1977 to february 1978, wild mammals were trapped in a focus of low leishmanial endemicity (baccinello) in the province of grosseto (tuscany, italy). spleen homogenates of the trapped animals were injected i.p. into hamsters, from which spleen biopsies were taken after 60 days and impression smears carefully observed for the presence of leishmania. positive spleens were subinoculated into hamsters. 404 animals of 12 species were trapped: 31 insectivores, 317 rodents and 56 carnivores. ...19807434419
antibodies to berne virus in horses and other animals.after inoculation into 2 foals, berne virus induced neutralizing antibody, but did not cause clinical symptoms. in a horizontal study of seropositive mares and their offspring, a decline of maternal antibodies and a sudden synchronous seroconversion in all foals were observed, again without clinical symptoms. the virus is widespread in the swiss horse population and has been so during the last decade; rises in antibody titers were noted in 9% of paired sera sampled at random. positive reactions ...19846506447
association between pelodera strongyloides (nematoda: rhabditidae) and wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus.pelodera strongyloides larvae were found in the conjunctival sacs of apodemus sylvaticus and clethrionomys glareolus and in hair follicles of a. sylvaticus. those in the eyes were 3rd-stage larvae while most of those in the dermis were early 4th stages. there was no evidence of pathology and sections of the skin showed that the nematodes of freshly killed mice and moulted once to the adult stage in 1-2 days at 15 degrees c. the stimulus to resume development appeared to be a reduction in tempera ...19817267150
small mammal studies in a sad baiting area.studies in the laboratory or in the field on the effect of sad virus on small rodents are reported. laboratory experiments by oral inoculation of sad strain in a wide variety of small mammals led to the conclusion that spontaneous sad transmission from rodent to rodent is a rare event. field experiments were conducted by live-trapping, sacrifice and analysis of 192 apodemus sylvaticus, 28 clethrionomys glareolus and 48 crocidura russula. they gave no indication that sad virus became established ...19827128065
[brucella isolates in france: evaluation of 10 years of typing].with the aim of knowing more exactly what species and biotypes are responsible for brucellosis in france, 2,058 strains have been examined since 1972. of these, 1,693 were isolated from cattle, 190 from sheep, 10 from hare, 9 from goats, 3 from swine and 3 from field mice (apodemus sylvaticus); 150 were of cases of human infection. of the 18 types presently recognized for the genus brucella, 11 were identified within the sample. in animal strains, they were b. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9, ...19826819798
the development of the ovary in the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus.the ovary of a young wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus, is filled with small follicles, which quickly become atretic. a follicle in an advanced stage of atresia leaves a hole, sometimes with demonstrable remnants of the oocyte or the granulosa cells. the secondary interstitial tissue of the ovaries appears first in association with these holes, possibly developing from the thecal cells. the presence of the secondary interstitial tissue was first observed in seven weeks old females. all the nine we ...19817257881
[arbovirus infections in morocco: serosurvey in small wild mammals in the northern part of the country].sera of 128 small wild mammals (rodents, insectivora) trapped in northern morocco in march 1979, were studied for antibody against 15 arboviruses. in inhibition-haemagglutination tests, positive reactions were found against west nile (0.8%), tahyna (21 %), arumowot (14 %) and sicilian sandfly fever (9.4 %) viruses. in complement fixation tests, an unique serum from apodemus sylvaticus was simultaneously positive for quaranfil virus and for a kemerovo group virus, brest/ar/t222, previously isolat ...19827165896
granulated metrial gland cells in the uterine wall and placenta of the pregnant woodmouse, apodemus sylvaticus.the differentiation of the decidua and the fetal placenta in the woodmouse, apodemus sylvaticus, was studied with particular attention to the differentiation and migration of granulated metrial gland cells. numerous granulated metrial gland cells, characterised by their glycoprotein-containing cytoplasmic granules, were found to differentiate in the decidua basalis and metrial gland of the uterine wall during the first half of pregnancy. many granulated metrial gland cells appeared to pass into ...19957649841
the spatial distribution of borrelia burgdorferi-infected ixodes ricinus in the connemara region of county galway, ireland.studies were carried out in the connemara area of county galway in the west of ireland in order to determine the abundance and distribution of the tick, ixodes ricinus and the prevalence of its infection with borrelia burgdorferi. the tick was very abundant locally, in particular when associated with cattle, sheep and enclosed red deer. large numbers of ticks not only occurred on the pastures, but also on adjacent roadside verges. no infections with b. burgdorferi could be demonstrated when nymp ...19957634971
serological evidence for the reservoir hosts of cowpox virus in british wildlife.the reservoir host of cowpox virus in western europe is not known, but epidemiological evidence from human and feline infections indicates that the virus is probably endemic in small wild rodents. therefore, serum and tissue samples were collected from a variety of wild british mammals and some birds, and tested for evidence of orthopoxvirus infection. antibody reacting with cowpox virus was detected in 9/44 (20%) bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), 8/24 (33%) field voles (microtus agrestis), ...19957641833
rhythmicity of egg production by heligmosomoides polygyrus in wild wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus.the rhythmicity of egg production by heligmosomoides polygyrus (nematoda) in wild caught wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) was studied. faecal production followed a 24 h cycle, with peaks at 0400 h and troughs at 1300-1900 h. the patterns in eggs per gram of faeces (epg) and total eggs were similar to each other, though the former was more accentuated. both of these followed a 24 h cycle, with peaks coinciding with troughs in faecal production and vice versa. faecal weight was inversely correlated ...19947930449
strain variation of lyme disease spirochetes isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents collected in two endemic areas in switzerland.the relationship among lyme borreliosis, borrelia genospecies, rodent reservoirs, and ixodes ricinus l. ticks was studied in two endemic areas in switzerland. ear punch biopsies and sampling of internal organs were used to isolate borrelia burgdorferi (johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt and brenner) from small mammals, apodemus sylvaticus l., a. flavicollis melchoir, clethrionomys glareolus schreber. spirochetes were isolated from ear tissue and spleen of the rodents. isolates were homogeneous a ...19957650703
grahamella in small woodland mammals in the u.k.: isolation, prevalence and host specificity.bacteria isolated from the blood of small woodland mammals were identified as members of the genus grahamella. the prevalence of grahamella infection among the 37 small mammals examined, detected by cultivation of blood samples, was 62%. this figure is somewhat higher than previous reports. further characterization of the isolates, based on restriction enzyme analysis of the 16s rrna gene, serological reactivity and dna hybridization studies, revealed three distinct grahamella species. one of th ...19947944677
metabolic labelling of wild and laboratory subspecies of the trichostrongyle nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus.the immunological, biochemical and taxonomic relationship between wild and laboratory subspecies of heligmosomoides polygyrus was studied by metabolically labelling parasite proteins with [35s]-methionine. much variability, both in content and synthesis of proteins was observed between the two subspecies. laboratory female worms had a higher protein content and incorporated more radioactive label into somatic proteins than their wild counterparts. incorporation of radioactivity into excretory/se ...19947879381
transmission of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of lyme borreliosis, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), in sweden.factors regulating prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in ixodes ricinus (l.) were examined during 1991-1992 at bogesund, near stockholm in south-central sweden. nine species of small and medium-sized mammals (sorex araneus l., s. minutus l., neomys fodiens pennant, clethrionomys glareolus [schreber], microtus agrestis [l.], apodemus sylvaticus [l.], a. flavicollis [melchior], lepus europaeus pallas, l. timidus l.) were found to infect feeding tic ...19947815401
differential immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi in european wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus l. (acari: ixodidae).immune responses to borrelia burgdorferi and their influence on spirochete transmission to ixodes ricinus were analyzed in the natural european reservoir hosts; i.e., the mouse species apodemus flavicollis (yellow-necked mouse) and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse) and the vole species clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole), and, in addition, in the laboratory mouse strain nmri. naive and preimmunized rodents were infected either by artificially infected i. ricinus larvae or by intradermal injection ...19947960113
[arbovirus infections in spain: serological survey on small mammals].sera of 386 small mammals (rodents, insectivora, small carnivora and cheiroptera) trapped in spain in 1978 and 1979 were studied for antibody against 10 arboviruses. positive reactions were found against flaviviruses: west nile (3.1%), dengue type 2 (0.5%), tick-borne encephalitis, european type (0.2%), together with tahyna (6.5%), uukuniemi (2%) and bhanja (1%) viruses. the animal species concerned by positive reactions were essentially mus spretus and apodemus sylvaticus which were also the mo ...19807460127
density-dependent acquired resistance to ticks in natural hosts, independent of concurrent infection with babesia microti.the question of whether the known immunosuppressive effects of babesia microti may disrupt the development of acquired resistance to its tick vector, ixodes trianguliceps, in natural rodent hosts (clethrionomys glareolus), and thus enhance the disease transmission potential, is addressed experimentally. the results show for the first time that natural hosts can acquire resistance to ticks; that this acquired resistance is manifested chiefly by a strongly density-dependent reduction in the percen ...19948008455
different patterns of retinal cone topography in two genera of rodents, mus and apodemus.recently, we have reported the peculiar topographic separation of shortwave- and middlewave-sensitive (s and m) cones in the retina of the common house mouse (mus musculus) and in a number of inbred laboratory mouse strains derived from the same species. in an attempt to follow the phylogeny of the complementary cone fields, we have investigated the retina of other mouse-like rodents. two monoclonal anti-visual pigment antibodies, os-2 and cos-1, specific to the s and m cones, respectively, have ...19948187156
small mammals as reservoir hosts for borrelia in 1992-1993, a total of 29 isolates of borrelia were obtained from small mammals captured in taiga forests of the perm' region: 26 isolates were obtained from clethrionomus glareolus and one each from c. rufocanus, microtus oeconomus, and apodemus sylvaticus. isolation of borrelia was performed by plating the animal material on bsk-ii medium. most isolates (86.2%) were obtained from the urinary bladder, the rest from the heart and spleen. according to the results of ifa with a set of monoclonal ...19957549164
a study of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to air pollution: ultrastructural study.a study was made of the ciliar tracheal epithelium on passerine birds and small mammals subjected to nox, so2 emissions and particulates from a coal-fired power plant. the results were compared to those of a non-polluted area, very similar in vegetation, relief, and climatology. we studied carduelis carduelis (goldfinch), emberiza cia (rock bunting), parus major (great tit), turdus merula (blackbird), and apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse). all animals were captured in the wild. we also used goldf ...19948024317
prevalence of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in danish rodents.six rodent species from six danish localities were examined for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi by immunofluorescence assay (ifa). a total of 1097 specimens were tested using a serum titre of 1:8. the wild mice apodemus sylvaticus and a. flavicollis had high prevalences of b. burgdorferi antibodies of 42.1% and 27.9% respectively, but the vole microtus agrestis also showed an exceptionally high prevalence of 32.7%. clethrionomys glareolus had a low average prevalence of 17.4%. the lowest and ...19957612254
the effects of host population density on the epidemiology of the trichostrongyle nematode heligmosomoides polygyrus.the present study considers the effect mouse population density on the fecundity, expressed as daily egg output per gram of faeces, and infectivity of the trichostrongyle nematode. heligmosomoides polygyrus and in the field mouse (apodemus sylvaticus) and h. p. bakeri in laboratory mouse (cd1). the higher host density resulted in an increased fecundity of h. polygyrus compared with medium and lower host densities. however, the number of h. p. polygyrus and h. p. bakeri recovered 30 days post-inf ...19979257998
serosurvey for orthopoxviruses in rodents and shrews from norway.two hundred and twenty one blood samples representing eight different rodent species and the common shrew (sorex araneus), collected in norway between 1993 and 1995, were examined for anti-orthopoxvirus antibodies by a competition enzyme linked imunnosorbent assay (elisa) and, when possible, an indirect immunofluorescence assay. the serological results indicated that the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), woodmouse (apodemus sylvaticus) and norway lemming (lemmus lemmus) may be reservoir speci ...19989577770
effects of air pollution on passerine birds and small mammals.the effects produced by emissions from coal-fired power plants, including mainly so2, nox and particulates, on natural populations and caged specimens of birds and small mammals were studied. the field-captured species used to evaluate these effects were passerine birds: parus major (coal tit) and emberiza cia (rock bunting), and the rodent apodemus sylvaticus (wood mouse). in parallel to this study on animals captured in the field, we used other animals, mus musculus (house mouse) and carduelis ...19938466292
oral transmission of trypanosomes of the subgenus herpetosoma from small mammals.the rodents microtus agrestis, clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus sylvaticus and white bk rats were given either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, an intragastric (i.g.) inoculation or an oral (p.o.) inoculation of the culture forms, including metacyclic trypomastigotes, of trypanosoma microti, t. evotomys, t. grosi and t. lewisi, respectively. similar levels of parasitaemia were produced by each of the three routes of infection, although the prepatent period was 3-5 days shorter in the ...19958570586
prevalence of encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies in terrestrial mammals in iceland, 1986 to 1989.antibodies to encephalitozoon cuniculi were found in wild arctic foxes (alopex lagopus), feral mink (mustela vison), wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus) and house mice (mus musculus) in iceland. animals with antibodies were found throughout the country. no lesions attributable to encephalitozoonosis were found in adult animals necropsied. however, one arctic fox cub with a neurological disorder had pathological and serological evidence of encephalitozoonosis.19938487387
a serological proof of adiaspiromycosis in wild rodents.using serological and histological methods, we examined 92 specimens of small, wild rodents (apodemus sylvaticus, clethrionomys glareolus, micromys minutus, microtus agrestis, m. arvalis, mus musculus and pitymys subterraneus) for the incidence of adiaspiromycosis. in addition, we examined 16 white, laboratory mice after their exposure to a natural biotope in which the incidence of adiaspiromycosis had been confirmed earlier. the results of serological tests were in correlation with those obtain ...19807450616
borrelia burgdorferi in a focus of lyme borreliosis: epizootiologic contribution of small mammals.the contribution of woodmice (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mice (apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) was compared in a focus of lyme borreliosis in switzerland during a 7 months' study. all three species of mice and one species of shrews (sorex araneus) were shown parasitized by infected ixodes ricinus immatures. about 14% of larvae and 50% of nymphs collected on small mammals were infected with b. burgdorferi. spirochetes were isolated from blood of 3 woodmice ...19938325567
selective isolation of pseudomonas stutzeri from vertebrate faeces on rambach agar.faecal samples collected from 308 wild birds of 25 species and 19 rodents of 3 species in south moravia (czechland) were pre-incubated in müller-kauffmann tetrathionate broth at 42 degrees c for 24 h and then streaked onto rambach agar plates which were incubated at 37 degrees c for 48 h. seventeen out of 22 isolates forming orange-red colonies on rambach agar were identified as pseudomonas stutzeri, the rest as pseudomonas sp. and alcaligenes sp. the colonies of p. stutzeri were either dry, wri ...19989861678
the woodmouse (apodemus sylvaticus) as a reservoir of tick-transmitted spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi) in the three widely separated locations in the netherlands, woodmice (apodemus sylvaticus) were trapped, examined for ticks and subjected to xenodiagnosis for the detection of tick-transmitted spirochetes (borrelia burgdorferi). during the spring and summer, an average of 2.4 ixodes larvae/mouse (n = 170) was observed, but the true numbers were probably greater. the numbers of nymphs could be determined more accurately and amounted to 0.46 nymphs/mouse. the percentage of mice that were infected with ...19938219511
the arterial system of the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus: the pelvic this paper we describe the origin, arrangement and variations of the major pelvic arterial trunks in the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus. seventy-six specimens have been analyzed by injection of coloured latex solution through the left ventricle of the heart and subsequent dissection of the pelvic region. measurements of the origin of the major arterial trunks have been performed taking into account the number of anterior and posterior branches arising from its origin. only the values of the ...19938238956
[serologic screening for the occurrence of leptospira antibodies in small wild mammals].during the five years (1986-1990) free living small mammals were examined serologically for the presence of antibodies to leptospires. standardized techniques were used in the serological examinations (sebek, 1979). a total 4634 specimens representing 15 mammalian species were examined. during the studied period, higher occurrence of small terrestrial mammals was noticed in the years 1987-1988. in these years, 61% of specimens out of the total number of trapped animals were examined. the field m ...19938236637
sexual dimorphism of gabaa receptor levels in subcortical brain regions of a woodland rodent (apodemus sylvaticus).this is the first report of quantitative autoradiography results showing sex differences of gabaa receptor levels in brain regions of a wild rodent (wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus) living in its natural habitat. the labeling of this gabaergic site with its specific high affinity radioligand [3h] muscimol provided a heterogeneous and dimorphic binding pattern in some of the neural centers. in the female, higher (> or = 50 < or = 65%) to moderately higher (< 50%) binding levels than in the male, ...19968736580
seasonal incidence of ixodes ricinus ticks (acari:ixodidae) on rodents in western collected from a longitudinal survey carried out over 2 years on four farms in western france were used to assess the incidence and infestation of ixodes ricinus on rodents. once a month, on each farm, 25 sherman live traps were set in hedges bordering selected pastures. a total of 799 micromammals were examined, including apodemus sylvaticus, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus agrestis, microtus arvalis, and crocidura spp. larvae and nymphs of i. ricinus were found. small numbers of ixodes ...19968771769
apparent absorption efficiency and gut morphometry of wood mice, apodemus sylvaticus, from two distinct populations with different diets.interpopulation variation in the diet of the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus, is well documented. in this study, we examined the gut morphology and apparent absorption efficiencies of two populations of wood mice whose diet in the field was known to differ. one population inhabited sand dunes, where food availability was relatively low and the diet was dominated by invertebrates. the other population lived in deciduous woodland, with greater food availability and a diet consisting primarily of s ...19979361134
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