evolution of the iga heavy chain gene in the genus examine questions of immunoglobulin gene evolution, the iga alpha heavy chain gene from mus pahari, an evolutionarily distant relative to mus musculus domesticus, was cloned and sequenced. the sequence, when compared to the iga gene of balb/c or human, demonstrated that the iga gene is evolving in a mosaic fashion with the hinge region accumulating mutations most rapidly and the third domain at a considerably lower frequency. in spite of this pronounced accumulation of mutations, the hinge re ...19882842228
evolution of a v kappa gene examine the evolution of multigene families we have selected as an example an immunoglobulin light chain variable region subgroup (v kappa 24) which has been extensively characterized in inbred mice (mus musculus domesticus). homologous genes have been isolated and sequenced from mus pahari, a genetically and geographically isolated species believed to be the oldest living representative of the genus. southern blot analysis using probes corresponding to individual genes in this subgroup revea ...19863093373
new infectious spirochete isolated from short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice.a spirochete with two periplasmic flagella was isolated from the blood or tissues of spleens and kidneys from short-tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus) in connecticut and minnesota. after inoculation, the shrew-mouse spirochete infected swiss mice and syrian hamsters. this spirochete is morphologically and serologically distinct from the species of treponema, borrelia, leptospira, and spirochaeta examined.19873305565
an improved hemagglutination test for study of canine parvovirus.optimal conditions for hemagglutination (ha) by canine parvovirus (cpv) strains were investigated using several buffers. porcine erythrocytes often agglutinated spontaneously in phosphate-buffered salt solution, isotonic saline solution or barbitone-complement-fixation buffer. results were reproducible when borate-buffered saline (bbs) was used as the diluent for antigen, and "virus adjusting diluent" (vad), containing 0.15 m nacl and 0.3 m phosphate was used as the diluent for erythrocytes. hig ...19863727364
evolution of the mouse iga gene: nucleotide sequence comparison of iga in balb/c and mus pahari. 19863731840
gene-specific structures within class i genes from mus musculus domesticus are conserved in class i genes from mus pahari. 19863731845
the context of t-cell receptor gamma chain genes among wild mouse species.we have examined the context of mouse t-cell receptor gamma (tcr gamma) chain variable (v gamma) and constant (c gamma) genes among a panel of geographically isolated species of mice. our southern hybridization survey with c gamma reveals that essentially three c gamma genes are found among mouse species extending phylogenetically from inbred mice through the feral species mus pahari. however, a v gamma dna probe detects three to nine v gamma restriction fragment bands among the same group of mi ...19863781572
[life cycle of seuratum nguyenvanaii, le-van-hoa, 1964, parasite of the shrew-mouse, suncus murinus (l.) in vietnam. (preliminary note)]. 19666012572
nucleotide sequence of the genetically labile repeated elements 5' to the origin of mouse rrna transcription.we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a cloned balb/c mouse rdna nts fragment containing 13 tandem copies of a 135 bp subrepeating segment. this repetitious region (vrdna) lies close to the origin of ribosomal rna transcription. analyses of these vrdna subrepeats from balb/c and a related species, mus pahari, reveal regions of inverted repeat dna as well as large poly t tracts, either of which may be significant to the generation of the high levels of vrdna copy number variation ...19836306564
restriction fragment length polymorphism and evolution of the mouse immunoglobulin constant region gamma loci.genomic dna from twelve laboratory mouse strains, in addition to 21 wild-derived strains belonging to different taxa (mus musculus domesticus, mus musculus musculus, mus spretus, mus macedonicus, and mus spicilegus) and four mouse strains that are evolutionarily more distant, were analyzed by southern blot for polymorphism of the ig heavy chain constant region gamma isotype (igh-c gamma) and for the distribution of the duplicated igh-1 (c gamma 2 alpha) haplotype. distinct allelic forms of each ...19938099342
characterization of a v kappa family in mus musculus castaneus: expansion at the subset level.we have examined the same kappa chain variable (v kappa) region family in several mouse species in order to observe short-term, incremental change at immunoglobulin (ig) multigene loci. in the present study, the igk-v24 family has been characterized in a mus m. castaneus colony derived from individuals originating in thailand and compared to the same family in mus m. domesticus (balb/c) and mus pahari, representing about 1-2 and about 5-9 million years of evolution, respectively. southern hybrid ...19938436416
characterization of a v kappa family in mus musculus castaneus: sequence examine genetic variation at immunoglobulin (ig) multigene loci over short spans of evolutionary time, we have compared members of an ig kappa chain variable (v kappa) region family from several mouse species. in this study, seven unique igk-v24 family members have been isolated from mus m. castaneus and characterized by nucleotide sequence determination for comparison to their counterparts in mus m. domesticus (balb/c), and mus pahari, representing 1-2 million years of evolution in the forme ...19938436417
gene mapping in the common shrew (sorex araneus; insectivora) by shrew-rodent cell hybrids: chromosome localization of the loci for hprt, tk, ldha, mdh1, g6pd, pgd, and ada.we selected the common shrew (sorex araneus) to generate the first insectivore gene map. shrew-chinese hamster and shrew- mouse somatic cell hybrid cells were constructed. when the 119 shrew-rodent clones were characterized, only shrew chromosomes were found to have segregated. a panel of hybrid clones was selected for gene assignment. the genes for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt), glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), and malate dehydrogenase 1 (mdh1) were assigned to shrew ...19958597634
substitution rate variation in closely related rodent species.the existence of evolutionary rate variation has previously been demonstrated between different orders, different species and even between different regions of the same gene. to examine rate variation between closely related species of rodents we have sequenced the adenine phosphorybosyltransferase (aprt) gene from mus spicilegus, mus pahari, mastomys hildebrandtii, stochomys longicaudatus and gerbillus campestris and compared these sequences with the previously published mus musculus, rattus no ...19979023989
chromosome location of sixteen genes in the common shrew, sorex araneus l. (mammalia, insectivora).this report extends the genetic map of the common shrew (sorex araneus) by use of a clone panel of shrew-chinese hamster and shrew-mouse hybrid cells (pack et al., 1995; matyakhina et al., 1996). this set of hybrid clones made it possible to assign the shrew genes for isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (idh2), inorganic pyrophosphatase (pp), glutamicpyruvate transaminase (gpt), adenosine kinase (adk), glucuronidase 2 (gusb) and acid phosphatase 2 (acp2) to chromosome ik; the genes for adenylate kinases ...19979284916
[chromosomal localization of 10 genes on the cytogenetic map of the common shrew sorex araneus l].using a panel of hybrid clones (common shrew--chinese hamster and common shrew--mouse), the syntheny and localization of the following genes was determined: genes for alpha-galactosidase (gla), acid phosphatase (acp1), and phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk1) on chromosome de; adenosine kinase (adk) and glucuronidase 2 (gus2) on chromosome ik; glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (got2) and peptidase d (pepd) on chromosome hn; and glyoxalase 1 (glo1) and phosphoglucomutase 2 (pgm2) on chromosome go. ge ...199910420272
emesis in the shrew mouse (suncus murinus) induced by peroral and intraperitoneal administration of staphylococcal enterotoxin a.peroral and intraperitoneal administration of staphylococcal enterotoxin a (sea) to suncus murinus elicited an emetic response. the 50% emetic dose of sea by peroral administration was found to be 32 microg per kg of body weight, whereas that by intraperitoneal administration was 3 microg per kg. multiple emetic responses occurred 70 to 108 min after peroral administration of an emetic dose of sea. similar responses occurred 65 to 102 min after intraperitoneal injection of an emetic dose of sea. ...199910571329
analysis of the epitopes on staphylococcal enterotoxin a responsible for emetic identify which region of staphylococcal enterotoxin a (sea) is responsible for the emetic activity, twelve synthetic peptides corresponding to the entire sea amino acid sequence and their respective anti-peptide antibodies were prepared and tested. the anti-peptide antibodies were tested for neutralization of sea-induced emesis in suncus murinus (shrew mouse). the results indicate that sea-induced emesis was neutralized by the mixture of three anti-peptide antibodies to a-7 (corresponding to ...200111307922
mouse iga allotypes have major differences in their hinge regions.six iga allotypes are serologically identifiable in inbred mice. the sequences of the pcr-amplified c alpha 1, c alpha 2 and c alpha 3 exons from the genomic dna of mice of four previously unsequenced allotypes already have been compared with those of balb/c and of a wild mouse, mus pahari, in the literature. sporadic differences, including several that may encode the known allotypic determinants, are found throughout the three exons, but major differences occur in the hinge. the hinge is longes ...200211904680
functional respiratory chain analyses in murid xenomitochondrial cybrids expose coevolutionary constraints of cytochrome b and nuclear subunits of complex iii.the large number of extant muridae species provides the opportunity of investigating functional limits of nuclear/mitochondrial respiratory chain (rc) subunit interactions by introducing mitochondrial genomes from progressively more divergent species into mus musculus domesticus mtdna-less (rho0) cells. we created a panel of such xenomitochondrial cybrids, using as mitochondrial donors cells from six murid species with divergence from m. m. domesticus estimated at 2 to 12 myr before present. spe ...200312777531
[isolation of coxiella burnetii in shrew mouse sorex minutus in the focus of q fever in northwestern czechoslovakia]. 195713511442
[study of a new seuratidae species, seuratum nguyenvanaii n. sp. in the intestine of the shrew mouse (suncus murinus) in vietnam]. 196414191911
[sexual dimorphism of the submaxillary gland of the shrew-mouse (crocidura)]. 196414234610
development and initial characterization of xenomitochondrial mice.xenomitochondrial mice harboring trans-species mitochondria on a mus musculus domesticus (md) nuclear background were produced. we created xenomitochondrial es cell cybrids by fusing mus spretus (ms), mus caroli (mc), mus dunni (mdu), or mus pahari (mp) mitochondrial donor cytoplasts and rhodamine 6-g treated cc9.3.1 or pc4 es cells. the selected donor backgrounds reflected increasing evolutionary divergence from md mice and the resultant mitochondrial-nuclear mismatch targeted a graded respirat ...200415377882
[study on the prevalence of bartonella species in rodent hosts from different environmental areas in yunnan].to investigate bartonella infections in small mammalian reservoir hosts from different environments and types of climate in yunnan.200415769319
[study of chigger communities on major species of rodents in yunnan province].to understand the characteristics of the chigger communities on the major species of rodent hosts.200617366968
wild mouse variants of envelope genes of xenotropic/polytropic mouse gammaretroviruses and their xpr1 receptors elucidate receptor determinants of virus entry.mouse xenotropic and polytropic leukemia viruses (xmvs and pmvs) are closely related gammaretroviruses that use the xpr1 receptor for entry. to identify amino acid residues in xpr1 important for virus entry, we tested mouse cells derived from evolutionarily divergent species for susceptibility to prototypical pmvs, xmvs, and the wild mouse isolate case#1. case#1 has a variant xmv/pmv host range, and sequence analysis of the case#1 env gene identifies segments related to pmvs and xmvs. cells from ...200717634227
shrew-mouse predation during low mouse abundance. 194818906245
early events in retrovirus xmrv infection of the wild-derived mouse mus pahari.a novel gammaretrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv), has been identified in patients with prostate cancer and in patients with chronic fatigue syndromes. standard mus musculus laboratory mice lack a functional xpr1 receptor for xmrv and are therefore not a suitable model for the virus. in contrast, gairdner's shrew-mice (mus pahari) do express functional xpr1. to determine whether mus pahari could serve as a model for xmrv, primary mus pahari fibroblasts and mice were ...201021084477
long-term infection and vertical transmission of a gammaretrovirus in a foreign host species.increasing evidence has indicated natural transspecies transmission of gammaretroviruses; however, viral-host interactions after initial xeno-exposure remain poorly understood. potential association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (xmrv) in patients with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome has attracted broad interests in this topic. although recent studies have indicated that xmrv is unlikely a human pathogen, further understanding of xmrv xenoinfection would allow in ...201222235324
identification of a group of mus dunni endogenous virus-like endogenous retroviruses from the c57bl/6j mouse genome: proviral genomes, strain distribution, expression characteristics, and genomic integration profile.about 10 % of the mouse genome is occupied by sequences associated with endogenous retroviruses (ervs). however, a comprehensive profile of the mouse ervs and related elements has not been established yet. in this study, we identified a group of ervs from the mouse genome and characterized their biological properties. using a custom erv mining protocol, 191 ervs (159 loci reported previously and 32 new loci), tentatively named mus dunni endogenous virus (mdev)-like ervs (mdl-ervs), were mapped o ...201223197326
phylogeographic structure and karyotypic diversity of the brazilian shrew mouse ( blarinomys breviceps, sigmodontinae) in the atlantic forest.blarinomys breviceps possesses cryptic and burrowing habits with poorly documented genetics and life history traits. due to its rarity, only a few specimens and dna sequences have been deposited in collections worldwide. here, we present the most comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular characterization of this rare genus. phylogenetic analyses based on partial cytochrome b sequences were performed, attempting to establish the relationships among individuals with distinct karyotypes along the geo ...201222907314
alterations in mrna translation as a mechanism for the modification of enzyme synthesis during evolution. the ornithine decarboxylase model.the expression of renal ornithine decarboxylase (odc) is very different between the two murine species mus domesticus and mus pahari. the latter species contains a reduced level of odc protein in the kidney, yet a normal concentration of odc mrna, indicating an alteration in translation, protein degradation, or both. we describe two lines of experimental evidence indicating that the efficiency of odc mrna translation is decreased in m. pahari. first, in vivo measurements showed that the rate of ...19921374399
skin fragility in the wild-derived, inbred mouse strain mus pahari/eij.mus pahari is a wild-derived, inbred mouse strain. m. pahari colony managers observed fragility of this strain's skin resulting in separation of tail skin from the mouse if handled incorrectly. tail skin tension testing of m. pahari resulted in significantly lowered force threshold for caudal skin rupture and loss in comparison to closely related inbred mouse species and subspecies and even more than a model for junctional epidermolysis bullosa. histologically, the tail skin separated at the sub ...201728038939
genetics and primary structure of v kappa gene segments encoding antibody to streptococcal group a carbohydrate. comparison of v kappa gene structure with idiotope expression.two gene segments, v kappa-25-39 and v kappa-25-47, that encode antibody to streptococcal group a carbohydrate in a/j mice were found to be more than 95% homologous in nucleotide sequence in both coding and noncoding regions. it was previously shown that v kappa-25-39 encodes immunoglobulins that express the idx and idi-1 idiotopes, whereas v kappa-25-47 encodes idx+, and idi-1- immunoglobulins. v kappa gene segments that were clearly allelic to v kappa-25-47 are used to encode idx+, idi-1- anti ...19883121751
gene correction in the evolution of the t cell receptor beta chain.mutational mechanisms operating at the t cell receptor beta chain locus have been examined by comparison of the ct beta 1 and ct beta 2 gene sequences from mus pahari, believed to be the oldest living species in the genus mus, with those of inbred mice. results indicate that a gene correction event independent of that suggested to have occurred in inbred mice has homogenized the m. pahari ct beta exon 1 sequences, minimizing diversity in this region of the molecule. these observations suggest th ...19863783089
occurrence of orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiological agent of scrub typhus in animal hosts and mite vectors in areas reporting human cases of acute encephalitis syndrome in the gorakhpur region of uttar pradesh, india.outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (aes) with high fatality and disability, are reported every year in the gorakhpur region of uttar pradesh, india, with the etiology of >60% of the cases being attributed to scrub typhus. in the present study, the prevalence of orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiological agent of scrub typhus, was investigated among animal hosts and their ectoparasitic trombiculid mites prevalent in aes-reported areas of gorakhpur. a total of 154 rodents/shrews were collected ...201830016222
nuclear response to divergent mitochondrial dna genotypes modulates the interferon immune response.mitochondrial oxphos generates most of the energy required for cellular function. oxphos biogenesis requires the coordinated expression of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. this represents a unique challenge that highlights the importance of nuclear-mitochondrial genetic communication to cellular function. here we investigated the transcriptomic and functional consequences of nuclear-mitochondrial genetic divergence in vitro and in vivo. we utilized xenomitochondrial cybrid cell lines conta ...202033031404
chromosome assembly of large and complex genomes using multiple references.despite the rapid development of sequencing technologies, the assembly of mammalian-scale genomes into complete chromosomes remains one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. to help address this difficulty, we developed ragout 2, a reference-assisted assembly tool that works for large and complex genomes. by taking one or more target assemblies (generated from an ngs assembler) and one or multiple related reference genomes, ragout 2 infers the evolutionary relationships between the ...201830341161
one skull to rule them all? descriptive and comparative anatomy of the masticatory apparatus in five mouse species.murine rodents display a unique cranial morphology and masticatory musculature. yet detailed myological descriptions are scarce, especially considering the great diversity of the subfamily and the use of the house mouse and brown rat as model organisms. the masticatory musculature in these two species has been thoroughly described, which allows comparisons with other wild species. description and comparison of a wide range of species constitutes a necessary step to fully understand how ecologica ...201830117607
repeat associated mechanisms of genome evolution and function revealed by the mus caroli and mus pahari genomes.understanding the mechanisms driving lineage-specific evolution in both primates and rodents has been hindered by the lack of sister clades with a similar phylogenetic structure having high-quality genome assemblies. here, we have created chromosome-level assemblies of the mus caroli and mus pahari genomes. together with the mus musculus and rattus norvegicus genomes, this set of rodent genomes is similar in divergence times to the hominidae (human-chimpanzee-gorilla-orangutan). by comparing the ...201829563166
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