isolation from the asian mouse mus caroli of an endogenous type c virus related to infectious primate type c viruses.treatment of a cell line derived from the asian feral mouse mus caroli with 5-bromodeoxyuridine induces an infectious, xentropic type c virus. this virus shares strongly cross-reactive reverse transcriptase (rna-dependent dna polymerase) and p30 antigens and crossinterferes with type c viruses isolated from a woolly monkey (ssav) and gibbon apes (galv). by similar criteria, the caroli virus is much less related to previously described type c viruses of the laboratory mouse, mus musculus. inducti ...197549058
two distinct endogenous type c viruses isolated from the asian rodent mus cervicolor: conservation of virogene sequences in related rodent species.the cocultivation of a lung cell line from the southeast asian mouse mus cervicolor with cells from heterologous species has resulted in the isolation of two new distinct type c viruses. both viruses are endogenous to m. cervicolor and are present in multiple copies in the cellular dna of these mice. one of the viruses, designated m. cervicolor type ci, replicates readily in the sirc rabbit cell line and is antigenically related to the infectious primate type c viruses isolated from a woolly mon ...197766330
infectious primate type c virus group: evidence for an origin from an endogenous virus of the rodent, mus caroli. 1975183658
mus musculus x mus caroli hybrids: mouse mules.analysis of six enzymes using starch gel electrophoresis indicates that autosomal and x-linked genes of both parental species are expressed normally in m. musculus x m. caroli hybrids. there is no evidence for allelic repression for the four autosomally inherited enzymes. banding patterns for g6pd and pgk-1 indicate that x-chromosome inactivation occurs and that the maternally derived m. musculus x-chromosome is preferentially expressed in the yolk sac. despite normal genetic expression none of ...1978744873
survival curves, reproductive life span and age-related pathology of mus caroli.although mus caroli is being used in a number of laboratories as an experimental animal, basic information concerning its life span, reproductive ability, and age-related pathologies has been unavailable. here we present this basic information, and discuss the similarities to and differences from the laboratory mouse, mus musculus domesticus [strains a/sttrwo and (a/sttrwo x c57bl/6nnia)f1] and, from published data, wild-type mus musculus.19921318441
highly conserved upstream regions of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene in two mouse species govern liver-specific expression by different mechanisms.alpha 1-antitrypsin (at), the major elastase inhibitor in mammalian serum, is produced primarily in the liver. we have characterized at gene structure and expression in the mouse species mus caroli, which expresses high levels of at in the kidneys as well as in the liver. analysis of cdna and genomic clones showed that the at gene in m. caroli exhibits high sequence homology (greater than 90%) to the gene in laboratory mice (m. domesticus) throughout the coding and 5'-flanking regions. despite t ...19901689000
molecular genetics of androgen-inducible rp2 gene transcription in the mouse kidney.androgen control of the rp2 gene in the mouse kidney has been modified during evolution. in inbred mice (mus domesticus), the concentrations of mrnas encoded by rp2 undergo a 10- to 12-fold induction in response to testosterone; in other mus species (e.g., mus hortulanus and mus caroli), induction ranges from none to about two- to fourfold. in this communication, we show that androgens induced rp2 transcription in m. domesticus, although this induction may not have fully accounted for the increa ...19892710112
genome comparison in the genus mus: a study with b1, mif (mouse interspersed fragment), centromeric, and y-chromosomal repetitive sequences.using four repetitive sequences, we compared dnas isolated from mus caroli, m. cookii, m. hortulanus, m. musculus, m. pahari, m. saxicola, and m. spretus. except for b1, these probes showed species-specific hybridization patterns. mouse interspersed fragment (mif) sequences were present in all species examined, but those defined by the 1.3-kb ecor1 band were fewer in m. pahari and m. saxicola than in the other species. the y-chromosomal probe showed male-specific accumulation only in m. hortulan ...19892805816
isolation and characterization of two repetitive dna fragments located near the centromere of the mouse x chromosome.two repetitive dna fragments located on the mouse x chromosome are described. the fragments were isolated from a lambda phage library enriched in x-chromosomal sequences by flow sorting. both fragments, which are repeated 20 to 50 times in the genome, were mapped to the mouse x chromosome by southern blot hybridization to dna from hybrid cells retaining the mouse x chromosome, by dosage analysis, and by in situ hybridization to mouse chromosomes. in mouse strain c57bl/10bk, one fragment appeared ...19852932308
evidence that specific cellular immunity cannot account for death of mus caroli embryos transferred to mus musculus with severe combined immune deficiency disease.mus caroli blastocysts transferred to pseudopregnant mus musculus implant but die about midgestation. death of the m caroli embryos is associated with infiltration of the fetoplacental units by m musculus lymphocytes, including functional cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl). to determine if specific maternal antifetal immune responses are responsible for the initiation of m caroli failure, survival of m caroli embryos transferred to m musculus with severe combined immune deficiency disease (scid) was ...19882968010
an evolutionary switch in tissue-specific gene expression. abundant expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin in the kidney of a wild mouse species.alpha 1-antitrypsin (at), one of the major proteinase inhibitors in mammalian serum, is generally considered to be synthesized exclusively in the liver. we have found that a wild-derived mus species, mus caroli, expresses at mrna in kidney at levels approaching that in liver; no other mouse, inbred or wild-derived, exhibits this striking property. liver and kidney mrnas from m. caroli encode very similar at polypeptides that are distinct from that encoded by mus musculus liver mrna. in vivo, liv ...19852981835
hemoglobin beta chain structural variation in mice: evolutionary and functional implications.the hbb(d) allele at the hemoglobin beta chain locus of mus musculus is composed of two linked genes, coding for structurally different beta chains, betadmin and betadmaj. mus caroli has only one beta chain, which combines structural features of both betadmin and betadmaj and thus may be a lepore type of beta chain. sequence data suggest that selection may have been important in the evolution of the mouse beta chains.19725085986
local active suppression by suppressor cells in the decidua: a review.the immunological survival of the antigen-bearing mammalian feto-placental unit is determined by the functional properties of the tissues at the feto-maternal interface. antigen-specific systemic suppressor mechanisms such as suppressor t cells and nonantigen-specific suppressive serum factors appear not to play a major role in protection of the fetus. a novel type of non-mhc specific suppressor cell accumulates locally in the decidua of successfully allopregnant mice. this decidua-associated su ...19846232864
recruitment of cytotoxic cells by ectopic grafts of xenogeneic, but not allogeneic, previous studies we showed that survival of mus caroli embryos in the mus musculus uterus was dependent on trophoblast genotype; m musculus trophoblast was protective while m caroli trophoblast was not. in this report we compare the immune response of m musculus to ectopic grafts of pure trophoblast of m caroli and m musculus genotypes to elucidate further differences between the properties of trophoblast from the two species that might account for the failure of m caroli trophoblast to prote ...19846420958
role of sperm-surface glycoproteins in gamete recognition in two mouse fertilization and sperm binding to the zona pellucida within and between mus musculus (laboratory mouse) and mus caroli (asian wild field mouse) were examined. maximum homologous sperm binding in m. musculus was 12.3 +/- 0.3 spermatozoa bound/egg and in m. caroli, 9.2 +/- 0.2. in heterologous crosses, sperm-zona binding was significantly reduced (m. musculus eggs with m. caroli spermatozoa, 1.9 +/- 0.14; m. caroli eggs with m. musculus spermatozoa, 5.5 +/- 0.2). homologous sperm-zona in ...19846537979
relatedness of mouse satellite deoxyribonucleic acid to deoxyribonucleic acid of various mus species.mouse (mus musculus musculus) satellite dna is able to reassociate with repeated dna sequences of mus caroli and mus cervicolor, but low thermal stability of the products indicates significant differences between satellite and related dnas of these two mus species. there appear to be several satellite-related populations in m. caroli dna, each of which forms hybrids of low thermal stability with repeated sequences of m. cervicolor dna. dnas from the subspecies mus musculus molossinus and mus mus ...19734519644
effects of alterations in the immunocompetent status of mus musculus females on the survival of transferred mus caroli embryos.the role of the immune system in promoting the midterm death of mus caroli embryos transferred to the mus musculus uterus was studied in vivo by transferring m. caroli blastocysts to recipients with altered immune status. transfers of embryos to chimaeric mothers (mus musculus in equilibrium mus caroli), which were expected to be tolerant of species antigens, resulted in survival of m. musculus embryos but death of m. caroli embryos. the preferential survival of m. musculus embryos was explained ...19853876431
activation of a type c virus particle in cells from the inbred mouse strain 129/j: antigenic relationship with the horizontally transmitted type c viruses of primates. brief report.we have activated a thymus-derived fibroblast cell line from 129/j mice for production of noninfectious type c viral particles. retroviral particles were produced continuously after cells were treated with ethylnitrosourea, a powerful mutagen and carcinogen. antigenic analysis of the major structural protein of these particles showed a close relationship with an infectious virus from mus caroli, a potential progenitor of the horizontally transmitted primate type c viruses. this finding demonstra ...19836625885
methylation of the mouse hprt gene differs on the active and inactive x has been proposed that dna methylation is involved in the mechanism of x inactivation, the process by which equivalence of levels of x-linked gene products is achieved in female (xx) and male (xy) mammals. in this study, southern blots of female and male dna digested with methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases and hybridized to various portions of the cloned mouse hprt gene were compared, and sites within the mouse hprt gene were identified that are differentially methylated in femal ...19863022138
interspecific chimaerism between sheep and rodents, chimaeric blastocysts produced by combining embryonic cells of two different species have been used in investigations of cell lineage and interaction during development (mus musculus-rattus norvegicus, m. musculus-clethrionomys glareolus, m. musculus-mus caroli). however, interspecific chimaerism also offers new approaches to the study of reproductive incompatibilities between species and may even allow such incompatibilities to be neutralized, thus improving the chances of successfu ...19846694751
nematodes of the family heligmonellidae (trichostrongyloidea) collected from rodents of the ryukyu archipelago and taiwan.six species of the family heligmonellidae (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea), including 3 new species, are recorded from rodents of the subfamily murinae in the ryukyu archipelago and taiwan. heligmonoides ikeharai n. sp. from tokudaia osimensis muenninki on mt. yonaha, okinawa island, is characterized by extremely long spicules and hypertrophied ridges in the prevulval region. heligmonoides taiwanensis n. sp. from apodemus draco on mt. alishan, taiwan, is distinguished from other members of the ge ...19902380855
interspecific chimeras in mammals: a new experimental system.the first viable interspecific chimeras in mammals have been made by mixing embryonic cells from two species of mouse, mus musculus and mus caroli. these chimeras resemble intraspecific chimeras in m. musculus in their patterns of mosaicism. they provide an interesting experimental system for studying interactions between cells of the two species. three separate but related areas of investigation utilizing these chimeras are described. 1) in situ dna-dna hybridization using a cloned repetitive d ...19826757236
molecular characterization and acute phase expression of the multiple mus caroli alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (agp) genes. differences in glucocorticoid stimulation and regulatory elements between the rat and mouse agp this study, we have analyzed alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (agp) production in the wild mouse strain mus caroli to assess whether the stimulation of agp by inflammatory mediators has been conserved during rodent evolution and to determine what dna elements manifested the hormonal induction in mouse agp gene sequences. to this end, we isolated the m. caroli agp genes and characterized their expression. southern blot hybridization of m. caroli genomic dna revealed the existence of approximately eig ...19902354997
neuronal lineages in chimeric mouse forebrain are segregated between compartments and in the rostrocaudal and radial planes.on the basis of neuronal phenotypes and the mode of development of the mammalian forebrain, the cerebral cortex can be subdivided into deep versus superficial layers, and the striatum into patch versus matrix compartments. interspecific chimeric mus musculus----mus caroli mice were used to determine the contribution of lineage to cellular position within these forebrain compartments. statistical analysis revealed evidence of both spatial and compartmental lineage segregation. a significant diffe ...19902167859
expression of glucose phosphate isomerase in interspecific hybrid (mus musculus x mus caroli) mouse embryos.hybrid mus musculus x mus caroli embryos were produced by inseminating m. musculus (c57bl/olaws) females with m. caroli sperm. control m. caroli embryos developed more rapidly than did control m. musculus embryos and implanted approximately 1 day earlier. at 1 1/2 days, both the hybrid embryos and those of the maternal species (m. musculus) had cleaved to the 2-cell stage. by 2 1/2 days some of the hybrids were retarded compared to m. musculus, and by 3 1/2 days most were lagging behind. this is ...19911822432
a new class of murine retroviruses: immunological and biochemical comparison of novel isolates from mus cervicolor and mus caroli. 197770107
histological and immunological studies of post implantation death of mus caroli embryos in the mus musculus uterus.mus caroli blastocysts surgically transferred to the mus musculus uterus implant and develop successfully during the first 9.5 days of gestation. at this time, the trophoblast giant cell area becomes infiltrated with lymphocytes and, subsequently, massive hemorrhage occurs, associated with embryo death. this process is specific for the xenogeneic embryos and does not affect adjacent allogeneic embryos present in the same uterus. cells taken from the resorbing tissues contain a population of larg ...19827131431
differences in the androgen response between two mouse species.renal weight and beta-glucuronidase activity are two of several well-characterized androgen-responsive parameters in mus musculus. a similar sexual dimorphism was not reported for a second mouse species, mus caroli, however. since this was not associated with a general absence of androgen action, we considered whether a localized defect in androgen receptors or a difference in renal androgen-responsive endpoints in the two species existed. only minor differences in the characteristics of renal a ...19863800866
tissue- and species-specific regulation of murine alpha 1-antitrypsin gene transcription.previous studies from our laboratories have shown that the tissue specificity of alpha 1-antitrypsin (at) expression differs among closely related mouse species. in laboratory mice (mus domesticus), at mrna is found almost exclusively in the liver. in the wild-derived species mus caroli, the mrna is expressed not only in the liver but also in the kidney, where it is regulated by androgens during post-natal development. we presently show that the tissue specificity, the species specificity, and t ...19883262614
golden: a novel coat color mutant in the wild mouse mus caroli.we identified a spontaneous pigmentation mutant in the wild mouse species mus caroli. mutant mice exhibit a golden coat color on the agouti background, easily distinguishable from the darker wild type. the golden phenotype segregates as an autosomal recessive, showing no linkage to the sex-linked enzyme marker glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. obligate heterozygotes are phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type. at birth, homozygotes have poorly pigmented eyes, which darken with age t ...19883164745
specificity of androgen resistance in mus caroli kidney.androgen controls the expression of beta-glucuronidase and several other proteins in the kidney of the standard laboratory mouse, mus musculus. other species within the genus mus exhibit a variety of response patterns for kidney beta-glucuronidase and other markers of androgen action. we have investigated the mechanism of androgen action in m. caroli, a mus species that does not produce beta-glucuronidase in response to testosterone. the failure of testosterone to induce beta-glucuronidase in m. ...19883071998
nuclease sensitivity of the mouse hprt gene promoter region: differential sensitivity on the active and inactive x chromosomes.we investigated the conformation of the x-linked mouse hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (hprt) promoter region both in chromatin from the active and inactive x chromosomes with dnase i and in naked supercoiled dna with s1 nuclease. a direct comparison of the chromatin structures of the active and inactive mouse hprt promoter regions was performed by simultaneous dnase i treatment of the active and inactive x chromosomes in the nucleus of interspecies hybrid cells from mus musc ...19872823112
an amino acid change in the dna-binding region of sry, found in mus musculus domesticus and other species, does not explain c57bl/6j-ydom sex-reversal.sry is the testes determining factor gene located on the y chromosome. we have performed dideoxy sequencing or restriction enzyme digestion of sry sequences amplified by pcr from a variety of inbred strains and species of mice. a nonconservative replacement of thr for isoleu at position 61 was found in sry from the y chromosome of mus musculus domesticus, mus spretus, and mus caroli. we demonstrate that this variation is not sufficient to explain the gradiation in the sex-reversal seen when diff ...19921599466
the application of scid mouse technology to questions in reproductive biology.mice expressing the scid gene have been used to study major questions in the field of reproductive immunology. transfer of mus caroli embryos to the uteri of pseudopregnant scid/scid mice disproved the hypothesis that antigen-specific immune rejection of fetuses was occurring in this model of midgestational pregnancy failure. the results of breeding studies of mice having the scid/ genotype suggested that uterine lymphocytes have little or no role in promoting embryonic survival under ...19938320958
somatic and germline mosaicism in interspecific chimaeras between mus musculus and mus caroli.detailed analysis of mosaicism in interspecific chimaeras between mus musculus and mus caroli revealed that cells of the two species could coexist and interact normally in all tissues studied. no selection occurred against m. caroli cells during gestation of chimaeras in the m. musculus uterus, but some tissue-specific differential growth of m. musculus and m. caroli cells occurred during postnatal development. similar effects have, however, been reported in interstrain m. musculus chimaeras. th ...19836576092
in situ identification of host derived infiltrating cells in chemically induced fibrosarcomas of interspecific chimeric mice.chimeric mice have been used to investigate the cellular origin of chemically induced tumors. interspecific chimeras were formed between the ha/icr strain of mus musculus and mus caroli. the normal tissues of the chimeric mice were composed of a mixture of cells which originated from each of the 2 species. the species of origin of the cells was determined both histologically with in situ hybridization using a dna probe which recognizes m. musculus satellite dna and by electrophoretic analysis of ...19863943924
seroepidemiology of hantaan virus infection in order to investigate the infection rate of hantaan virus in taiwan, a total of 6,536 human serum samples were collected from residents, selected by stratified random sampling, from 19 townships covering four different ethnic groups: aborigines, fukien taiwanese, hakka taiwanese, and mainland chinese. serum samples were screened for hantaan virus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. the prototype hantaan virus (76/118)-infected vero e6 cells were used as the viral antigen for the antibod ...19968950687
active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. vii. spontaneous abortion of allogeneic cba/j x dba/2 fetuses in the uterus of cba/j mice correlates with deficient non-t suppressor cell activity.the mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of "allograft" and "unexplained" spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctl) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (lak) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (il 2). a deficiency of these ...19862936806
evolutionary relationships between laboratory mice and subspecies of mus musculus based on the genetic study of pancreatic proteinase loci, prt-1, prt-2, prt-3, and prt-6.various patterns of mouse pancreatic proteinase activity bands were observed on agarose gel electrophoresis. prt-1a and prt-1b genes control the positive (prt-1a) and negative (prt-1b) expression of tryptic band v, respectively; prt-2a and prt-2b correspond to chymotryptic bands ii (prt-2a) and iii (prt-2b); prt-3a and prt-3b control the low (prt-3a) and high (prt-3b) tryptic activities of band iv; the prt-1 and prt-3 loci are closely linked on the same chromosome; prt-6a and prt-6b correspond t ...19873300637
activity of x-linked genes in stem and differentiated mus musculus x mus caroli hybrid cells.hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient (hprt-) f9-derived teratocarcinoma stem cells carrying an sv40 genome (12-16tg cells) were fused with mus caroli (m. car.) spleen cells, and a stem cell hybrid containing reduced numbers of m. car. chromosomes was isolated (bc6 stem cell). the bc6 cells containing an active x chromosome from each parental cell were induced to differentiate in retinoic acid, and differentiated clones were isolated. most differentiated clones retained both parental ...19846543551
a new host species for lactic dehydrogenase virus.lactic dehydrogenase virus has been found to replicate and maintain a chronic infection in the asian mouse mus caroli as it does in mus musculus. however, the level of viraemia is lower and the increase in plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity very much less.19807418841
developmental expression, cellular localization, and testosterone regulation of alpha 1-antitrypsin in mus caroli kidney.alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-protease inhibitor), an essential plasma protein, is synthesized predominantly in the liver of all mammals. we have previously shown that mus caroli, a southeast asian mouse species is exceptional in that it expresses abundantly alpha 1-antitrypsin mrna and polypeptide, in the kidney as well as the liver (berger, f.g., and baumann, h. (1985) j. biol. chem. 260, 1160-1165) providing a unique model for examination of the evolution of genetic determinants of tissue-spec ...19873497926
immune presensitization and local intrauterine defences as determinants of success or failure of murine interspecies pregnancies.putatively immuno-incompetent mus musculus females exhibited failure to support pregnancy of mus caroli embryos. these results for m. musculus females (i.e. treated by cyclosporine a, of the nu/nu genotype, and as an interspecies chimaera) can be explained in immunological terms. mus musculus females possessed pre-sensitized cytotoxic t cells against mus caroli antigen. nu/nu mice possessed activated nk cells and macrophages, and selectively discriminated against mus caroli embryos early in preg ...19863488398
characterization and identification of borrelia isolates as borrelia valaisiana in taiwan and kinmen islands.eleven pure cultures of borrelia from 3 species of wild rodents (apodemus agrarius, mus formosanus, rattus losea) captured in taichung, located in the center of taiwan island, and on kinmen island were characterized. five isolates showed restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) patterns of 5s-23s rrna gene intergenic spacer sequences identical to those of strains 5mt and 10mt, identified as borrelia valaisiana, which were isolated in the southern tip of south korea. although the remaining ...200011220673
cenp-b binds a novel centromeric sequence in the asian mouse mus caroli.minor satellite dna, found at mus musculus centromeres, is not present in the genome of the asian mouse mus caroli. this repetitive sequence family is speculated to have a role in centromere function by providing an array of binding sites for the centromere-associated protein cenp-b. the apparent absence of cenp-b binding sites in the m. caroli genome poses a major challenge to this hypothesis. here we describe two abundant satellite dna sequences present at m. caroli centromeres. these satellit ...19957623797
serologic variations in kappa light chains of various mus species correlate with differences in gene structure.kappa light chains were investigated in sera of several groups of wild derived mouse strains by radioimmunological analysis using xenogeneic anti-mouse kappa light chain antibodies. although the majority of strains tested expressed serologically indistinguishable kappa chains, several significant exceptions were observed. anti-kappa chain reactivity was not detectable in normal sera of mus caroli and mus cervicolor species using specific antiserum. these strains express a variant of the kappa li ...19863099180
molecular cloning and long terminal repeat sequences of intracisternal a-particle genes in mus caroli.we isolated dna clones of intracisternal a-particle (iap) genes from the genome of an asian wild mouse, mus caroli. a typical m. caroli iap gene was 6.5 kilobase pairs in length and had long terminal repeat (ltr) sequences at both ends. the size of the ltr was 345 base pairs in clone l20, and two ltrs at both ends of this clone were linked to directly repeating cellular sequences of 6 base pairs. each ltr possessed most of the structural features commonly associated with the retrovirus ltr. the ...19846708171
functional respiratory chain analyses in murid xenomitochondrial cybrids expose coevolutionary constraints of cytochrome b and nuclear subunits of complex iii.the large number of extant muridae species provides the opportunity of investigating functional limits of nuclear/mitochondrial respiratory chain (rc) subunit interactions by introducing mitochondrial genomes from progressively more divergent species into mus musculus domesticus mtdna-less (rho0) cells. we created a panel of such xenomitochondrial cybrids, using as mitochondrial donors cells from six murid species with divergence from m. m. domesticus estimated at 2 to 12 myr before present. spe ...200312777531
development and initial characterization of xenomitochondrial mice.xenomitochondrial mice harboring trans-species mitochondria on a mus musculus domesticus (md) nuclear background were produced. we created xenomitochondrial es cell cybrids by fusing mus spretus (ms), mus caroli (mc), mus dunni (mdu), or mus pahari (mp) mitochondrial donor cytoplasts and rhodamine 6-g treated cc9.3.1 or pc4 es cells. the selected donor backgrounds reflected increasing evolutionary divergence from md mice and the resultant mitochondrial-nuclear mismatch targeted a graded respirat ...200415377882
extensive movement of lines one sequences in beta-globin loci of mus caroli and mus domesticus.lines one (l1) is a family of movable dna sequences found in mammals. to measure the rate of their movement, we have compared the positions of l1 elements within homologous genetic loci that are separated by known divergence times. two models that predict different outcomes of this analysis have been proposed for the behavior of l1 sequences. (i) previous theoretical studies of concerted evolution in l1 have indicated that the majority of the 100,000 extant l1 elements may have inserted as recen ...19882905421
species-specific changes in regulatory elements of mouse haptoglobin genes.although expression of the haptoglobin (hp) as an acute phase reactant is evolutionarily conserved among mammals, there are differences among species with regard to the hormones required for stimulation. using primary hepatocyte cultures, we show that in mus caroli, as in rat, il-1 and il-6 are stimulatory, whereas in m. domesticus, as in humans, il-1 response is diminished. in vivo, an acute inflammatory process increases hepatic hp expression in both mouse species up to 30-fold but minimally a ...19948294478
morphological demonstration of the failure of mus caroli trophoblast in the mus musculus uterus.a histological study of mus caroli embryos gestating in the mus musculus uterus was undertaken at day 8.5 of gestation, 1 day after such embryos are reported to be normal and 1 day before the earliest events associated with death of the xenogeneic embryos. in comparison to control m. caroli embryos recovered from m. caroli and to control m. musculus embryos recovered from m. musculus, the xenogeneically transferred embryos showed intrauterine growth retardation that was associated with trophobla ...19892754647
use of repetitive dna sequences to distinguish mus musculus and mus caroli cells by in situ hybridization.mammalian chimaeras have proved useful for investigating early steps in embryonic development. however, a complete clonal analysis of cell lineages has been limited by the lack of a marker which is ubiquitous and can distinguish parental cell types in situ. we have developed a cell marker system which fulfils these criteria. chimaeric mice were successfully produced from two mouse species which possess sufficient genetic differences to allow unequivocal identification of parental cell types. dna ...19836875456
identification of embryonic cell lineages in histological sections of m. musculus in-equilibrium m. caroli in situ cell marker system has been developed which allows identification of mus caroli and mus musculus cells in interspecific chimaeras. a radioactively labelled, cloned dna probe to m. musculus satellite dna was hybridized in situ to sections of m. musculus and m. caroli adult tissues. autoradiography revealed high levels of hybridization to the nuclei of m. musculus cells, but little or no label bound to m. caroli cells. the dna probe could also distinguish m. musculus and m. caroli cells ...19836875458
x chromosome reactivation in oocytes of mus caroli.mature mammalian oocytes have both of their x chromosomes active, while somatic cells from the same individual have one of their x chromosomes in an inactive state. we asked whether the x chromosomes of the germ cells never undergo inactivation in their ontogeny or whether inactivation of an x chromosome does occur but is followed by a subsequent reactivation event. our approach has used an electrophoretic polymorphism for the x-linked enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) in the mouse ...19816942418
[study of chigger communities on major species of rodents in yunnan province].to understand the characteristics of the chigger communities on the major species of rodent hosts.200617366968
recent evolutionary origin of the expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap) in lens epithelial cells. a molecular and genetic analysis of various mouse species.we have investigated the phylogenetic distribution of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap) in lens epithelial cells (lec) of various mouse species within the genus mus. we have shown that lens gfap is expressed in mice of the mus musculus complex and in mus spicilegus and mus macedonicus species (l.gfap(+) phenotype) while it is absent in mus spretus, mus caroli and mus cooki species (l.gfap(-) phenotype). our results argue in favour of one of the phenograms illustrating the probable phylo ...19911712888
centromeres, cenp-b and tigger too.the highly conserved centromere-associated protein cenp-b is a common feature of mammalian centromeres. binding sites for cenp-b, so-called 'cenp-b boxes', are present in the otherwise unrelated centromeric satellite dnas of humans, mus musculus, mus caroli, ferrets, giant pandas, tree shrews and gerbils, suggesting a role for cenp-b in centromere function. however, cenp-b and its binding sites are not detected at the centromeres of mammalian y chromosomes and few, if any, binding sites seem pre ...19979097724
Rodent-Borne Hantaviruses in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand.In order to evaluate the circulation of hantaviruses present in southeast Asia, a large scale survey of small mammal species was carried out at seven main sites in the region (Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand). Small scale opportunistic trapping was also performed at an eighth site (Cambodia). Using a standard IFA test, IgG antibodies reacting to Hantaan virus antigens were detected at six sites. Antibody prevalence at each site varied from 0 to 5.6% with antibodies detec ...201122124701
structure and expression of the murine sp100 nuclear dot gene.the human sp100 gene encodes an autoantigen that colocalizes with two other proteins, pml and ndp52, in distinct nuclear domains, called "nuclear dots" (nds). nds do not overlap with other known subnuclear structures, and their function is still unknown. patients suffering from the autoimmune disease primary biliary cirrhosis often produce antibodies against the sp100 protein. the present study describes the structure and expression of the murine sp100 gene. in the species mus caroli, sp100 cons ...19979268632
interspecific chimeras in mammals: successful production of live chimeras between mus musculus and mus chimeras between two species of mouse, mus musculus and mus caroli, were produced by blastocyst injection. these chimeras were entirely similar to m. musculus in equilibrium with m. musculus chimeras in their somatic tissue organization. this is the first report of completely normal development of interspecific chimeras in mammals.19807367871
interspecific hybrids and chimeras in mice.interspecific hybrids and chimeras in mammals provide unique tools for investigating problems in genetics and embryology, because of the degree of disparity between the two component genotypes. we have attempted to produce hybrids and chimeras between mus musculus, the laboratory mouse, and mus caroli, a wild species of mouse from southeast asia. m. musculus and m. caroli do not normally interbreed, although sterile hybrids can be produced at a low rate by artificial insemination. extrinsic prob ...19836663258
identification of a group of mus dunni endogenous virus-like endogenous retroviruses from the c57bl/6j mouse genome: proviral genomes, strain distribution, expression characteristics, and genomic integration profile.about 10 % of the mouse genome is occupied by sequences associated with endogenous retroviruses (ervs). however, a comprehensive profile of the mouse ervs and related elements has not been established yet. in this study, we identified a group of ervs from the mouse genome and characterized their biological properties. using a custom erv mining protocol, 191 ervs (159 loci reported previously and 32 new loci), tentatively named mus dunni endogenous virus (mdev)-like ervs (mdl-ervs), were mapped o ...201223197326
detection of anaplasma phagocytophilum and anaplasma bovis in small wild mammals from taichung and kinmen island, taiwan.a total of 138 animals from 7 species (apodemus agrarius, bandicota indica, crocidura suaveolens, mus caroli, mus formosanus, rattus losea, and suncus murinus) captured in taichung, located in central taiwan, and kinmen island, an island off the shore of china, were examined for the presence of anaplasma phagocytophilum. the presence of the bacteria, which causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis, was examined by nested pcr targeting the16s rdna. twelve animals (8.7%) from m. caroli and r. losea, ...201424647253
diversity of gastrointestinal helminths among murid rodents from northern and northeastern thailand.the presence of gastrointestinal helminths (gi helminths) was investigated among 725 murid rodents, trapped in various habitats of nan, loei and buri ram provinces, thailand. the study revealed 17 species of rodents infected with 21 species or taxonomic groups of parasites (3 trematodes, 3 cestodes, 14 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan). the overall prevalence of infection was 57.7% (418/725). of the gastrointestinal (gi) helminths, the dominant parasitic group was members of the family trichostro ...201223082550
evolution of the retroviral restriction gene fv1: inhibition of non-mlv retroviruses.fv1 is the prototypic restriction factor that protects against infection by the murine leukemia virus (mlv). it was first identified in cells that were derived from laboratory mice and was found to be homologous to the gag gene of an endogenous retrovirus (erv). to understand the evolution of the host restriction gene from its retroviral origins, fv1s from wild mice were isolated and characterized. most of these possess intact open reading frames but not all restricted n-, b-, nr-or nb-tropic ml ...201424603659
importance of trophoblast genotype for survival of interspecific murine chimaeras.interspecific chimaeras between mus musculus and mus caroli were made by injection of m. musculus inner cell masses (icms) into m. caroli blastocysts, and by aggregation of 8-cell embryos. both types of chimaera were transferred to m. musculus recipients: the former did not survive to term, but viable chimaeras were produced following embryo aggregation. previous experiments have shown that chimaeras produced by injection of m. caroli icms into m. musculus blastocysts are viable, whereas m. caro ...19827119665
development and cell fate in interspecific (mus musculus/mus caroli) intraocular transplants of mouse molar tooth-germ tissues detected by in situ hybridization.mandibular first molar tooth germs were dissected from mus musculus (cdi) and mus caroli (age range: 14-day embryo to 1-day postnatal). most of the tooth germs were separated enzymically into epithelial and mesenchymal components. interspecific tissue recombinations and intact m. caroli tooth germs were grown in the anterior chamber of the eye of adult cdi mice for 24 weeks. recombinations of m. caroli enamel-organ epithelium with m. musculus, dental papilla and follicle mesenchyme developed int ...19968833594
reduced nucleotide variability at an androgen-binding protein locus (abpa) in house mice: evidence for positive natural selection.previous work has shown that the gene for the alpha subunit of androgen-binding protein, abpa, may be involved in premating isolation between different subspecies of the house mouse, mus musculus. we investigated patterns of dna sequence variation at abpa within and between species of mice to test several predictions of a model of neutral molecular evolution. intraspecific variation among 10 mus musculus domesticus alleles was compared with divergence between m. m. domesticus and m. caroli for a ...199910486974
the renal glomerulus and vasculature in 'aggregation' chimeric glomerular development, the glomerular epithelium is derived from the lower loop of the s-shaped renal vesicle. however, it is unclear whether the capillary endothelium is derived directly by vasculogenesis (e.g. differentiated directly from local metanephric mesenchyme) or whether they are derived by angiogenesis (i.e. derived from pre-existing vasculature in the metanephros). this question has been addressed in other laboratories using surgically created chimeric kidney model systems. in th ...200211867947
plasma alpha-1-antiproteinase from the mongolian gerbil, meriones unguiculatus: isolation, partial characterization, sequencing of cdna, and implications for molecular evolution.alpha-1-antiproteinase (also called alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha-1-antitrypsin) with a molecular mass of 56 kda was purified from plasma of the mongolian gerbil, meriones unguiculatus, to apparent homogeneity. it inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and plasmin, but not kallikrein or thrombin. eight cdna clones coding for this protein were isolated from a liver cdna library and sequenced. they contained the same coding regions consisting of a 24-residue signal peptide and a 382-re ...19947852275
temporal, spatial, and ecological modes of evolution of eurasian mus based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.we sequenced mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 12s rrna) and nuclear (irbp, rag1) genes for 17 species of the old world murine genus mus, drawn primarily from the eurasian subgenus mus. phylogenetic analysis of the newly and previously available sequences support recognition of four subgenera within mus (mus, coelomys, nannomys, and pyromys), with an unresolved basal polytomy. our data further indicate that the subgenus mus contains three distinct 'species groups': (1) a mus booduga species group, al ...200415522792
studies of a novel repetitive sequence family in the genome of mice.a new middle repetitive sequence is described in the mouse genome. it has been revealed with a recombinant clone isolated from a mus musculus bamhi gene library constructed in pbr322 and containing an insertion of 1.73 kb. when digests of genomic dna were subjected to southern blot hybridization, using the 1.73-kb insert as probe, we obtained a light smear and discrete bands, indicating a dispersion in the mouse genome of this sequence. this 1.73-kb sequence seems to be a part of a greater repet ...19882839338
development and cell fate in interspecific (mus musculus/mus caroli) orthotopic transplants of mouse molar tooth germs detected by in situ hybridization.interpretation of results from previous tooth germ transplantation studies is limited by the inability to distinguish between donor and host cells unequivocally. furthermore, ectopic transplantation sites have generally been used and the relevance of this to tooth development in situ is uncertain. the aim here was to determine cell fate in orthotopic tooth germ transplants using an interspecific mouse marker system. mandibular first molar tooth germs were dissected from mus musculus (cd1) and mu ...19989681115
intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting the viability of mus caroli x m. musculus hybrid embryos.interspecific hybrids between m. musculus and m. caroli, a wild species of mouse, were produced by artificial insemination, although the species do not normally interbreed. however, the success rate was low, with many embryos dying at various stages of pregnancy. hybrid embryos were retarded in comparison with either parent species from the earliest stages of development, suggesting that intrinsic problems of genomic incompatibility play a major role in poor hybrid survival. however, failure of ...19807431295
nkp30 (ncr3) is a pseudogene in 12 inbred and wild mouse strains, but an expressed gene in mus caroli.ancient duplications and rearrangements of protein-coding segments have resulted in complex gene family relationships. as a result, gene products may acquire new specificities, altered recognition properties, modified functions, and even loss of functionality. the natural cytotoxicity receptor (ncr) family are natural killer (nk)-activating receptors whose members are nkp46 (ncr1), nkp44 (ncr2), and nkp30 (ncr3). the ncr proteins are putative immunoglobulin superfamily members whose ligands are ...200515872155
y chromosome variation of mice and men.dna sequences from the nonrecombining portion of the y chromosome were compared with autosomal and x-linked sequences from mice and humans to test the neutral prediction that ratios of polymorphism to divergence are the same for different genes. intraspecific variation within mus domesticus was compared with divergence between m. domesticus and mus caroli for sry, a region 5' to sry, and four x-linked genes, hprt, plp, amg, and glra2. none of these comparisons revealed significantly reduced vari ...19989866208
[visible and "cryptic" segregation of parental chromosomes in embryonic stem hybrid cells].chromosome segregation of the parental chromosomes was studied in 20 interspecific hybrid clones obtained by fusion of mus musculus embryonic stem cells with mus caroli splenocytes. fish analysis with labeled species specific probes and microsatellite markers was used for identification of the parental chromosomes. cytogenetic analysis has shown significant intra- and interclonal variability in chromosome numbers and ratios of the parental chromosomes in the hybrid cells: six clones contained al ...200515859482
identification of the myelin protein plasmolipin as the cell entry receptor for mus caroli endogenous retrovirus.the asian wild mouse species mus caroli harbors an endogenous retrovirus (mcerv) that is closely related to but distinct from the endogenous retrovirus family defined by the mus dunni endogenous virus and the mus musculus endogenous retrovirus. mcerv could infect some cell types from humans, dogs, and rats, but not all, and did not infect any mouse cell line tested. because of its interesting host range and proposed ancestral relationship to primate retroviruses and because none of the entry rec ...200818463156
synchronous evolution of an odor biosynthesis pathway and behavioral response.rodents use olfactory cues for species-specific behaviors. for example, mice emit odors to attract mates of the same species, but not competitors of closely related species. this implies rapid evolution of olfactory signaling, although odors and chemosensory receptors involved are unknown.201323177478
test for fused-cell origin of tumors with mus caroli carrying glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cellular mosaicism.a test system for examining the fused cell-origin of tumors was developed by application of mus caroli carrying the x-chromosome inactivation cellular mosaicism for g6pd. a g6pd heterodimer pattern is expected if a tumor is initiated from a fused cell. among tumors induced by subcutaneous injection of a high dose of mca, three tumors exhibited a single g6pd phenotype and one tumor exhibited a multiple g6pd phenotype; however, the g6pd heterodimer pattern was not found. although the results obtai ...200610854566
polymorphic electrophile response elements in the mouse glutathione s-transferase gsta1 gene that confer increased induction.induced transcription of a battery of stress response genes in mammals, including several phase i and phase ii drug-metabolizing enzymes, is regulated by the electrophile responsive element (epre). because previous directed mutagenesis of nucleotide motifs within the large, composite epre were shown to affect transcription factor binding and associated induced expression of dependent genes, we hypothesized that naturally-occurring variation or polymorphism in the epre sequence, if found, could a ...200111179824
insulin secretion and ip levels in two distant lineages of the genus mus: comparisons with rat islets.islet responses of two different mus geni, the laboratory mouse (mus musculus) and a phylogenetically more ancient species (mus caroli), were measured and compared with the responses of islets from rats (rattus norvegicus). a minimal and flat second-phase response to 20 mm glucose was evoked from m. musculus islets, whereas a large rising second-phase response characterized rat islets. m. caroli responses were intermediate between these two extremes; a modest rising second-phase response to 20 m ...200111287354
interspecific hybridization induced amplification of mdm2 on double minutes in a mus hybrid.we report a case of interspecific hybridization induced amplification of chromosome 10 on double minutes (dm) in the karyotype of a hybrid mus embryo. stable, non-mosaic dm were previously found in tissues of a 16.5-day mus musculus x mus caroli hybrid (graves, 1984). dm in tissues of the hybrid was of interest to us because of previous reports of genomic instability in interspecific hybrids (o'neill et al., 1998) and thus we decided to characterize the dm in the hybrid karyotypes. whole chromos ...200212698001
unequal segregation of parental chromosomes in embryonic stem cell hybrids.chromosome segregation was studied in 14 intra- and 20 inter-specific hybrid clones generated by fusion of mus musculus embryonic stem (es) cells with fibroblasts or splenocytes of dd/c mice or mus caroli. as a control for in vitro evolution of tetraploid karyotype we used a set of hybrid clones obtained by fusion of es cells (d3) with es cells (tgtp6.3). identification of the parental chromosomes in the clones was performed by microsatellite analysis and in situ hybridization with labeled speci ...200515806559
multiple independent pseudogene derivations indicate increased instability of the mdm2 locus in mus caroli.under conditions of genomic stress, the mdm locus in human and in mouse is prone to instability manifested as amplification and oncogenesis. the mdm2 gene is a known oncogene that is amplified in approximately one-third of sarcomas and whose protein product interacts with the tumor suppressor p53. concimitant with such gene amplification events is the activation and mobilization of endogenous retroelements, typically through the relaxation of epigenetic controlling mechanisms. processed pseudoge ...200516022282
origin and evolution of processed pseudogenes that stabilize functional makorin1 mrnas in mice, primates and other mammals.we investigate the origin and evolution of a mouse processed pseudogene, makorin1-p1, whose transcripts stabilize functional makorin1 mrnas. it is shown that makorin1-p1 originated almost immediately before the musculus and cervicolor species groups diverged from each other some 4 million years ago and that the makorin1-p1 orthologs in various mus species are transcribed. however, mus caroli in the cervicolor species group expresses not only makorin1-p1, but also another older makorin1-derived p ...200616415359
lentiviral gene delivery to plasmolipin-expressing cells using mus caroli endogenous retrovirus envelope protein.gene therapy is a promising method for treating malignant diseases. one of the main problems is target delivery of therapeutic genes. here we show that lentiviral vector particles pseudotyped with mus caroli endogenous retrovirus (mcerv) envelope protein can be used for selective transduction of pllp-expressing cells. as a therapeutic gene in mcerv-pseudotyped vector particles we used minisog encoding the cytotoxic fmn-binding protein, which can generate reactive oxygen species under illuminatio ...201728912093
allelic expression and dna methylation profiles of promoters at the parental oct4 and nanog genes in mus musculus es cell/mus caroli splenocyte hybrid cells.expression of the parental oct4 and nanog alleles and dna methylation of their promoters were studied in a set of mus musculus embryonic stem (es) cell/m. caroli splenocyte hybrid cells containing a variable ratio of parental chromosomes 6 and 17. the transcripts of the reactivated splenocyte oct4 and nanog genes were revealed in all hybrid cell clones positive for m. caroli chromosomes 6 and 17. we found that 11 cpg sites in the oct4 promoter were heavily methylated in m. caroli splenocytes (>8 ...200919609564
evolutionary origins of retroposon lineages of mhc class ii ab alleles.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii ab genes have evolved into three distinct lineages. while lineage 2 alleles differ from lineage 1 alleles by the insertion of a retroposon in intron 2, the basis for the extremely large intron 2 in lineage 3 alleles has heretofore been undetermined. in this report, we demonstrate by nucleotide sequencing that the genomic sequences of prototypic alleles from all three lineages diverge significantly and that lineage 3 is derived from lineage 2 by two ...19968550095
high prevalence of rickettsia spp. infections in small mammals in taiwan.surveillance for rickettsia spp. is urgently needed due to the recent emergence of many novel rickettsioses around the globe, but previous studies in taiwan have been limited to small areas and no investigation of infections in vertebrate hosts has ever been attempted. we surveyed rickettsial infections systematically in small-mammal hosts trapped between 2006 and 2010 throughout taiwan. fragments of ompb and glta genes in the liver, spleen, and kidney of mammals were targeted by nested polymera ...025629776
Retroelement Demethylation Associated with Abnormal Placentation in Mus musculus x Mus caroli Hybrids.The proper functioning of the placenta requires specific patterns of methylation and the appropriate regulation of retroelements, some of which have been co-opted by the genome for placental-specific gene expression. Our inquiry was initiated to determine the causes of the placental defects observed in crosses between two species of mouse, Mus musculus and Mus caroli. M. musculus × M. caroli fetuses are rarely carried to term, possibly as a result of genomic incompatibility in the placenta. Taki ...201122116807
cell production and cell death in the generation of variation in neuron number.retinal ganglion cell numbers in adult mice vary from 40,000 to 80, 000. much of this variation and the prominent bimodality of strain averages are generated by allelic variants at the neuron number control 1 (nnc1) locus on chromosome 11. the nnc1 locus may modulate either ganglion cell production or the severity of ganglion cell death. here we have determined what the relative contributions of these two processes are to variation in adult cell number by estimating total ganglion cell productio ...19989822750
[the role of sensory systems in the behavior of ryukyu mice (mus caroli banhote, 1902)].the role of vibrissa sense of touch, sense of smell, and vision in the ryukyu mice in experiments with the optic boundary and the glass corridor were studied. a total of 20 adult and 20 young mice were used in the experiments. at the first stage, observations on the intact animals were performed; the animals with removed vibrissa and anosmic animals were used at the second and third stages, respectively. significant similarities were observed between the behavior of adult males and females. more ...20168723619
multiple inflammation-inducible alpha 1-acid glycoprotein forms correlate with multiple genes in mus caroli. 19892780626
[differentiation of the dormouse eliomys quercinus (linnaeus 1766) fro the murid mus caroli (bonhote 1902) based on the masticatory muscles].investigated were the masticatory musculature of the murid, mus caroli, and the glirid, eliomys quercinus. differences between both species could be found, which includes different mastication. mus caroli eats mixed food. the masticatory musculature admits mainly antero-posterior mandibular movements with a minimal transverse component. the food of eliomys quercinus exists of mainly insects. the masticatory muscles, in particular the m. pterygoideus internus and the well developed m. zygomaticom ...20092806847
tempo and mode of concerted evolution in the l1 repeat family of mice.a 300-bp dna sequence has been determined for 30 (10 from each of three species of mice) random isolates of a subset of the long interspersed repeat family l1. from these data we conclude that members of the l1 family are evolving in concert at the dna sequence level in mus domesticus, mus caroli, and mus platythrix. the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon may be either duplicative transposition, gene conversion, or a combination of the two. the amount of intraspecies divergence averages 4 ...19853870857
detection of rickettsia spp. and host and habitat associations of fleas (siphonaptera) in eastern taiwan.rickettsia typhi and rickettsia felis (rickettsiales: rickettsiaceae) are two rickettsiae principally transmitted by fleas, but the detection of either pathogen has rarely been attempted in taiwan. of 2048 small mammals trapped in eastern taiwan, apodemus agrarius pallas (24.5%) and mus caroli bonhote (24.4%) (both: rodentia: muridae) were the most abundant, and m. caroli hosted the highest proportion of fleas (63.9% of 330 fleas). two flea species were identified: stivalius aporus jordan and ro ...201222390200
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