herpesvirus sylvilagus in cottontail rabbits: evidence of shedding but not transplacental transmission.herpesvirus sylvilagus was inoculated into five cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) at various stages of pregnancy; they subsequently had litters in the laboratory. three other cottontails chronically infected with the virus were bred and bore young in large outdoor pens. thirty-four living neonates and dead fetuses were weighed, measured and aseptically necropsied. a total of 31 liver, spleen and kidney samples, 16 lymph node, 28 heart and 10 brain samples were collected and processed fo ...1977190423
herpesvirus sylvilagus in cottontail rabbits: attempted laboratory transmission by two insect species.the vector potential of the rabbit flea (cediopsylla simplex) and a mosquito (aedes triseriatus) was investigated for herpesvirus sylvilagus transmission among cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus). twelve groups of 12-50 fleas were fed on three viremic cottontails for 2-21 days before transfer to 12 susceptible rabbits. standard interrupted feeding trials employed five groups of 6-12 mosquitoes, two viremic donor cottontails anf five healthy recipients. no evidence of virus was detected fr ...1977190425
experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. the clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. the rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (ped) 5 and were dead or moribund on ped 6. the virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on ped 6 and from conjunctival swabs on ped 1 to 6. hi ...1979230773
sarcocystis leporum in cottontail rabbits and its transmission to carnivores.muscle from sarcocystis-infected cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to coccidia-free cats (felis domestica) and dogs (canis familiaris). only cats became infected and shed sporocysts in their feces. the prepatent period ranged from 10 to 25 days and the patent period from 3 to 46 days. sporocysts were fully sporulated when shed. they contained 4 sporozoites and a coarse granular residuum and averaged 9.4 by 13.6 micron (n=55). doses of 200-75,000 sporocysts were orally administer ...1977405509
transmission of sarcocystis leporum from a cottontail rabbit to domestic cats.muscle tissue containing grossly visible cysts of sarcocystis leporum from a cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to laboratory cats. sporocysts averaging 13.2 x 9.7 micron were detected in the feces 14 days post-infection and were found until 69 days post-infection.1977405510
experimental infection of vertebrates of the pocomoke cypress swamp, maryland with keystone and jamestown canyon viruses.experimental studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis), and cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) to jamestown canyon (jc) and/or keystone (key) virus infection. viremia occurred in 5 of 6 deer inoculated with jc virus; however, all deer developed key virus neutralizing antibody. based on the observation that antibody elicited by primary infection of deer with either key or jc virus exhibited part ...1979453437
bot fly myiasis of the cottontail rabbit, sylvilagus floridanus mallurus in virginia with some biology of the parasite, cuterebra buccata.twenty four percent of 2,643 cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) collected in virginia from 1949-1975 showed evidence of cuterebra parasitism. occurrence was seasonal with greatest prevalence from july to november. some oryctolagus cuniculus, s. palustris and one s. transitionalis also showed cuterebra myiasis. juvenile rabbits had higher infection rates (28%) than did adult rabbits 14.5%, p less than .001). juveniles had greater numbers of larvae per host than adults, with means of 2.14 ...1978633518
hematologic comparisons of shot and live trapped cottontail rabbits.comparisons were made between hematologic measurements of shot and box-trapped cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus). trapped rabbits had significantly (p less than 0.001) higher serum corticoid levels and segmented neutrophil percentages and significantly (p less than 0.001) lower lymphocyte percentages than did shot rabbits. trapped rabbits also had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher packed cell volumes and blood urea nitrogen values than did shot rabbits.1978633520
two renal tumors in cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus).renal tumors were found in two cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) about 1 year old. one tumor was intimately associated with the kidney and consisted of isolated ductular and tubular structures within an abundant connective tissue stroma and was diagnosed as a hamartoma of urogenital origin. the second was composed of epithelial cells arrange as alveolar structures with papillary projections, epithelium that was less differentiated into tubules and ducts, and neoplastic epithelial cells ...1977850992
experimental chlamydiosis in wild and domestic lagomorphs.chlamydia psittaci (strain m56, the agent of epizootic chlamydiosis of muskrats and hares) was highly lethal for the snowshoe hare (lepus americans) following intravenous inoculation, whereas the agent was much less virulent for cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) and albino domestic rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus). tissue titres of strain m56 were generally higher after 96 hr in the snowshoe hare than in tissues of the other lagomorphs. spleen, liver and bone marrow were apparently the chief sit ...1976933312
an epizootic of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in cottontail rabbits.a progressively debilitating neurologic syndrome characterized by torticollis, ataxia, circling, and abnormal posture was observed in 16 of approximately 60 cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) captured in a 12-hectare portion of a woodlot in southwestern virginia. inflammatory and degenerative alterations in cerebellum and midbrain regions were characterized principally by malacia, perivascular cuffing, and gliosis. single ascaris columnaris larvae were found in the cerebellum of 2 rabbit ...19751176355
probable herpesvirus infection in an eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus).one wild eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) from milwaukee county, wisconsin was necropsied. the lungs contained numerous multifocal, circumscribed, tan foci; the spleen was markedly enlarged and had a mottled reddish tan color; and the brain had a red to tan friable tract in the left hemisphere. microscopically, the lung had a severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. the bronchiolitis was characterized by epithelial cells containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. the encephaloma ...19921335521
parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern illinois.fifteen species of parasites including haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes dentatus, amblyomma americanum, cediopsylla simplex, odontopsyllus multispinosus, cuterebra sp., obeliscoides cuniculi, trichostrongylus calcaratus, trichostrongylus affinis, longistriata noviberiae, dermatoxys veligera, trichuris sp., mosgovoyia sp., taenia pisiformis, and hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern il ...19921491303
hematology and serum chemistry of cottontail rabbits of southern 1983 and 1984 blood was collected from 79 cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) confined to an outdoor enclosure in southern illinois to establish reference values for hematology and serum chemistry. packed cell volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, calcium, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and osmolality were ...19911758030
serological prevalence of tularemia in cottontail rabbits of southern illinois.sera of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) collected in southern illinois in 1983 and 1984 were screened for the presence of antibodies against francisella tularensis by rapid slide agglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques; 6% of 118 and 16% of 119 samples were positive by these methods, respectively. rabbits gained, lost and maintained titers over at least an 8 mo period. francisella tularensis tularensis was isolated from one serologically negative, clinically hea ...19902338733
host associations of ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a lyme disease endemic area of southern new york.ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic lyme disease in westchester county, n.y., from 1 april 1984 to 31 march 1985. most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, procyon lotor (l.) (47%), opossum, didelphis virginiana (kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, mephitis mephitis schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species co ...19892724317
serum antibody prevalence for herpesvirus sylvilagus, bacillus piliformis and california serogroup arboviruses in cottontail rabbits from pennsylvania.a serologic survey of 60 eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) from three counties in pennsylvania was conducted in march 1983. serum antibody prevalences for herpesvirus sylvilagus and la crosse virus (california serogroup) were less than 4%. there was no evidence of previous exposure to either jamestown canyon or snowshoe hare viruses (california serogroup). antibody to trivittatus virus (california serogroup) was found in 60% of the 20 cottontails from york county. no cottontails ...19883373643
cryptosporidium in a wild cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus). 19863712653
cortisol and aldosterone comparisons of cottontail rabbits collected by shooting, trapping, and falconry.cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured in plasma of eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) collected by three different methods, i.e., shooting, live-trapping and falconry. cortisol levels ranged from near 0 to 27.5 micrograms/100 ml and aldosterone from near 0 to 220 ng/100 ml. shot animals had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than those taken by either of the other methods. trapped cottontails also had significantly lower aldosterone levels.19853981742
the pathology and epidemiology of acute enteritis in captive cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus). 19695387986
a trypanosoma lewisi-like organism from the rabbit, sylvilagus floridanus, in virginia. 19665942537
circular herpesvirus sylvilagus dna in spleen cells of experimentally infected cottontail rabbits.cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) were infected with herpesvirus sylvilagus, and spleen cells were analyzed for the presence of virus-specific, covalently closed circular, and linear dna molecules by a simple electrophoretic technique, followed by transfer to nitrocellulose filters and hybridization with cloned viral dna (gardella et al., j. virol. 50:248-254, 1984). approximately 0.2 copies per cell of circular dna and 0.2 copies per cell of linear dna were detected by hybridization wi ...19846092696
pathology and epizootiology of dirofilaria scapiceps (leidy, 1886) (nematoda: filarioidea) in sylvilagus floridanus (j.a. allen) and lepus americanus erxleben.dirofilaria scapiceps was found between the synovial sheath and tendons, i.e., within the tendon sheath, in the ankle region of eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) and snowshoe hares (lepus americanus). in cottontail rabbits, tendons and sheaths appeared normal and all worms were adults. only one (4%) of 24 infected rabbits contained dead worms. all female worms were gravid in rabbits killed in late winter or early spring. microfilaremias in rabbits were high (approximately 30-100 ...19846492321
characteristics of natural infections of the stomach worm, obeliscoides cuniculi (graybill), in lagomorphs and woodchucks in canada.wild lagomorphs and woodchucks collected predominantly in southern ontario, canada were examined for subspecies of obeliscoides cuniculi (graybill). obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus was found in snowshoe hares (lepus americanus). obeliscoides cuniculi cuniculi was found in cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus), european hares (lepus capensis) and woodchucks (marmota monax). prevalence of obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus in snowshoe hares was 100% and mean intensity (and range of inten ...19836644920
development of the stomach worm, obeliscoides cuniculi (graybill), in lagomorphs, woodchucks and small rodents.the parasitic development of obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus measures and anderson, 1983 was studied in new zealand white rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus). third-stage larvae exsheathed within 24 hr. the third molt occurred 3 days and the fourth 8-11 days post-infection. all worms were fifth stage 14 days post-infection. males were mature at 16 days and copulation occurred in 15-16 days. females were gravid at 18 days. the prepatent period was 16-22 days. the patent period was 61-118 days and ...19836644921
sarcocystis and related organisms in australian wildlife: iv. studies on sarcocystis cuniculi in european rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus).the role of the cat (felis domestica) as a definitive host for sarcocystis cuniculi of european rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) was confirmed. it was shown that after dosing with sporocysts from cats, rabbits developed sarcocysts and these became infective for cats at not less than 93 days post-infection (p.i.). the earliest infection detected was at 142 days p.i. infected muscle from an experimental rabbit did not transmit sarcocystis when fed to other rabbits. microscopically, sarcocysts in eu ...19806776293
sarcocystis sp. in the eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus).sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100 of 185 (54.1%) eastern cottontails (sylvilagus floridanus) examined in pennsylvania over a three year period. gross and histologic examination commonly revealed cysts in skeletal muscle of the fore and hind legs, flanks and loins. two rabbits had cysts in esophageal skeletal muscle. host response to sarcocystis sp. is described. adult rabbits had a significantly greater rate of infection (69.3%) than juveniles (20.7%) (p less than 0.01).19826808158
metazoan parasites of the eastern cottontail rabbit in western kentucky.forty-five eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus allen), collected over a 15 mo period from two areas of western kentucky, were examined for disease conditions, helminth and arthropod parasites. a single lymphosarcoma, two cutaneous papillomas and the following parasites were identified: hasstilesia tricolor, taenia pisiformis, cittotaenia variabilis, raillietina stilesiella, obeliscoides cuniculi, trichuris leporis, longistriata noviberiae, trichostrongylus calcaratus, dermatoxys ve ...19836842731
the role of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus spp.) in the ecology of rickettsia rickettsii in the united states.rocky mountain (sylvilagus nuttallii) and eastern (s. floridanus) cottontails were examined for their susceptibility to virulent and avirulent strains of the spotted fever agent, rickettsia rickettsii. both species of rabbits responded to inoculation of yolk sac suspensions containing 500 egg ld50 of either virulent or avirulent rickettsiae, with rickettsemias detectable as early as 3 days after inoculation and lasting up to 7 days. when fed upon by infected ticks, only one of three rocky mounta ...19807406116
endoparasites of selected populations of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) in the southeastern united states.during the fall of 1966 and spring of 1967, 260 cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) were collected from 13 sites in 8 southeastern states and examined for endoparasites. in order of prevalence, the endoparasites found were: obeliscoides cuniculi, trichostrongylus calcaratus, trichostrongylus affinis, taenia pisiformis (cysticerci), raillietina salmoni, eimeria spp., longistriata noviberiae, cittotaenia variabilis, hasstilesia tricolor, trichuris leporis, dermatoxys veligera, passalurus am ...19807411746
gastrointestinal parasites of the eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) in central pennsylvania.during a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. nine species of coccictia were identified: eimera audubonii, e. azul, e. environ, e. honessi, e. maior, e.minima, e. neoirresidua, e. neoleporis, and e. sylvilagi. ova from 5 helminth species were found: cittotaenia sp., hastilesia tricolor, passalurus sp., a trichostrongyle-type ...19807463607
urea-n retention by sylvilagus floridanus. 19714398987
ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized kansas species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in kansas; amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes cookei packard, i. kingi bishopp, i. sculptus neumann, and i. texanus banks. dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, a. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the ixodes spp. and h. leporispalustris were widely scattered. the most common tick found was d. varia ...19948057327
ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern illinois.high prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, cyanocitta cristata (l.), by immature ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman and corwin was found in castle rock state park in northwestern illinois during may-august 1991. raccoons, procyon lotor l., and opossums, didelphis virginiana kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. all species had similar nymphal densities, except ...19938254647
ectopic fetuses in two cottontail rabbits.mummified fetuses were discovered in the abdominal cavities of two cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) collected during separate years from the same geographical location in virginia. one of these rabbits had a patent opening through the vaginal wall to the abdominal cavity. the uterus and vagina of the second rabbit appeared normal.19751195499
analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.blood samples were collected from cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus), raccoons (procyon lotor), white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) between 1977 and 1991 in southern connecticut and new york state (usa) and were tested for antibodies against eight strains of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. among these spirochetes were six strains of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, one strain of b. garinii (=ip90) and ...19958583632
a homologue of the rabbit kappa-chain allotype b9 on igg from a cottontail rabbit.eight out of 12 anti-b9 antisera tested strongly bound 125igg of only one of four individual cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus). in addition to this apparent polymorphism of a b9 homologue in cottontail rabbits, a polymorphism defined by some anti-b5 antisera was found. three of 15 anti-b5 antisera reacted with igg from only two of the four cottontail rabbits. reactions with anti-b4 and anti-b6 were similar to those with hare igg. most anti-b4 and anti-b6 antisera bound the igg from each ...1976820806
field study of the relationship between skin-sensitizing antibody production in the cottontail rabbit, sylvilagus floridanus, and infestation by the rabbit tick, haemaphysalis leporispalustris (acri: ixodidae).the resistance of cottontail rabbits to tick feeding appears correlated with the rabbits' development of skin-sensitizing antibodies. resistance appeared to be greatest in adult rabbits which had been repeatedly infested with ticks. rabbits with little exposure to ticks, usually the young cottontails, showed little or no skin-sensitizing antibody present in their blood and usually had relatively high tick loads when compared with adult rabbits. models used to interpret the data show promise as t ...1979512764
first isolation and cultivation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from missouri.five borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from missouri are described. this represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. the isolates were obtained from either ixodes dentatus or amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in bollinger county, mo., where a human case of lyme disease had been reported. all isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclona ...19989431909
small mammal survival and trapability in mark-recapture monitoring programs for hantavirus.following the 1993 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (hps) epidemic in the south-western united states, mammalogists and epidemiologists instituted long-term studies to monitor population density and prevalence of infection in rodents which constitute the reservoir for sin nombre virus (snv). in this study, field techniques used in sampling small mammals for snv infection were evaluated to determine if trapping and handling protocols were having significant effects on future trapability or mortality ...19989476220
seasonal activity and host associations of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern missouri.based on tick collections recovered from wild vertebrates and by dragging, the seasonal occurrence of adult blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis say, extended from october through may in southeastern missouri. adult activity was bimodal with the higher peak occurring in november followed by a lower peak in february. the activity of immature i. scapularis had the general pattern of that found in the northeast where lyme disease is hyperendemic, with larval activity (july) peaking after that of ny ...199910593072
host association and seasonal activity of amblyomma americanum (acari: ixodidae) in missouri.from june 1993 through june 1996, 2,260 adult, 4,426 nymphal, and 2,178 larval lone star ticks amblyomma americanum (l.) were collected in missouri from vertebrate hosts and by dragging a cloth over vegetation. prevalence, mean intensity, and relative abundance of each stage varied among hosts. the relative abundance of adult lone star ticks was highest on white-tailed deer, but this stage was also collected from raccoons, opossum, red fox, coyotes, and wild turkey. nymphs were collected from gr ...200011128501
ascorbic acid and l-gulonolactone oxidase in lagomorphs.1. the activity of l-gulonolactone oxidase (ec in the liver of eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) is about 10-fold greater in winter than in summer. 2. l-gulonolactone oxidase activity is low and tissue ascorbate high during all seasons in snowshoe hares (lepus americanus). 3. liver contents of ascorbate fall to low levels in l. americanus fed on rabbit chow in the laboratory. 4. the activity of l-gulonolactone oxidase in liver of sylvilagus and oryctolagus is depressed ...1978318384
parathion effects on reproductive characteristics and vital organ weights of female cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus). 19846487843
host associations and seasonal occurrence of haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes brunneus, i. cookei, i. dentatus, and i. texanus (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern missouri.hemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes brunneus koch, ixodes cookei packard, ixodes dentatus marx, and ixodes texanus banks were collected during a 3-yr study of pathogen-tick-host interactions in southeastern missouri. h. leporispalustris was collected from the eastern cottontail rabbit, northern bobwhite, and carolina wren, and it was active all year. i. brunneus was collected by drag and from passerine birds during december, march, and april. i. cookei was collected from raccoons and ...200312597662
studies on the biology of dicrocoelium dendriticum (rudolphi, 1819) looss, 1899 (trematoda: dicrocoeliidae), including its relation to the intermediate host, cionella lubrica (müller). viii. the cottontail rabbit, sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi, as a definitive host. 195313043205
demonstration of the nymph of linguatula serrata frolick, 1789 in sylvilagus floridanus from north central oklahoma. 195913664609
genome structure of cottontail rabbit herpesvirus.the genome structure of a herpesvirus isolated from primary cultures of kidney cells from the cottontail rabbit sylvilagus floridanus was elucidated by using electron microscopy and restriction enzyme analysis. the genome, which was about 150 kilobase pairs long and which had an average g + c composition of 45%, consisted of two regions with unique base sequences (54 and 47 kilobase pairs) enclosed by reiterations of a 925-base-pair sequence with a variable copy number. the internal repeats were ...19892911115
mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from free-ranging deer and rabbits surrounding minnesota dairy herds.the objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) among deer and rabbits surrounding infected and noninfected minnesota dairy farms using fecal culture, and to describe the frequency that farm management practices were used that could potentially lead to transmission of infection between these species. fecal samples from cows and the cow environment were collected from 108 minnesota dairy herds, and fecal pellets from free-ranging w ...200515745220
arrangement of repetitive sequences in the genome of herpesvirus sylvilagus.herpesvirus sylvilagus is a lymphotropic (type gamma) herpesvirus of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus). analysis of virion dna of herpesvirus sylvilagus has revealed that the genome consists of one stretch of about 120 kilobase pairs of internal, unique dna flanked by a variable number of 553-base-pair tandem repeats. the g + c content of the repetitive dna is extremely high (83%), as determined by sequencing. the organization of the herpesvirus sylvilagus genome is, therefore, similar ...19892911114
relationship between skin-sensitizing antibody production in the eastern cottontail, sylvilagus floridanus, and infestations by the rabbit tick, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (acari: ixodidae). 19827086855
isolation of mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with map-infected cattle.paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map). the role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. to examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (procyon lotor), and three opossums (didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dair ...200516244077
coliform enteritis of cottontail rabbits.yuill, thomas m. (university of wisconsin, madison), and robert p. hanson. coliform enteritis of cottontail rabbits. j. bacteriol. 89:1-8. 1965.-mortality from enteritis occurred among 78 penned adult cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) during severe winter weather, and in 9 juvenile rabbits held in captivity during the summer. this mortality was associated with high numbers of escherichia coli throughout the intestinal tract. grossly normal cottontails from the laboratory, from the outdo ...196514255664
comparison of the structure of sarcocystis cuniculi of the european rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) and sarcocystis leporum of the cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) by light and electron microscopy. 19846241986
eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) develop west nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.the potential of the eastern cottontail rabbit (ctr; sylvilagus floridanus) to contribute to an enzootic west nile virus (wnv) cycle was demonstrated by characterizing the wnv viremia profile of 15 ctrs and demonstrating that mosquitoes could become infected by feeding on these ctrs. eight ctrs were infected with a titer of 10(5.0) cell-infectious dose 50% endpoints (cid50s) of wnv (ny99-crow) by needle and seven ctrs by bite of one or more wnv-infected mosquitoes. there were no marked differenc ...200516417430
herpesvirus sylvilagus in cottontail rabbits: antibody prevalence and flea burden relationships.a serologic survey of a wild cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) population in southern wisconsin was conducted from november-march, 1971-72 and november-april, 1972-73, to determine prevalence of antibody against herpesvirus sylvilagus. flea burdens on each live-trapped cottontail were quantified by species. all but six of the 5029 fleas collected were cediopsylla simplex. no correlation was found between flea infestation and viral antibody. of 101 cottontail rabbits trapped, only six had ...197616498867
epizootiology of an outbreak of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in cottontail rabbits and epizootic of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) and woodchucks (marmota monax) caused by baylisascaris procyonis larvae followed the establishment of an ascarid-infected raccoon (procyon lotor) population in a woodlot. five of seven raccoons examined from the woodlot harbored ascarids, with one heavily infected animal shedding approximately 27,500 eggs per gram of feces. a laboratory-reared cottontail rabbit developed neurologic disease due to larval migr ...197616498877
effect of atropine on the onset of fear bradycardia in eastern cottontail rabbits sylvilagus floridanus. 19806107202
herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both b and t lymphocytes in vivo.herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of t cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. cir ...19852993667
[presence in france of a selvatic xenopsylla: x. cunicularis smit, 1957 (siphonaptera, pulicidae), a parasite of wild rabbits].the authors point out, for the first time in france, a selvatic xenopsylla: x. cunicularis smit, 1957, parasite on the european rabbit, well-known in morocco and spain until today. the paleogeographical, ecological, and epidemiological interest of this parasite is laid stress on. the other fleas linked to the european rabbit are evoked, and the acclimatization of euphoplopsyllus glacialis affinis (baker, 1904), in france and italy, introduced with its host sylvilagus? floridanus is related.1977580913
tick infestations of the eastern cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) and small rodentia in northwest alabama and implications for disease transmission.studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with dermacentor variabilis, the eastern united states vector of rocky mountain spotted fever. a secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each in the disease transmission cycle. these epidemiologic surveys were conducted in response ...200516599149
susceptibility of wild mammals to infection with naegleria fowleri.animals of 4 families of small wild mammals were live-trapped and inoculated intranasally with naegleria fowleri to determine patterns of susceptibility. of the 7 species of animals examined, only rodents were susceptible to n. fowleri. susceptible animals were eastern gray squirrel, hispid cotton rat, muskrat, and house mouse. mammals that were not susceptible at a dose of 10(6) were opossum, raccoon, and eastern cottontail rabbit. perhaps rodents and humans share a common anatomical or physiol ...19902254821
nonneutral evolution of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial dna control region of lagomorphs.the mitochondrial dna of the european rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) contains a tandem array of 153-bp repeats in the vicinity of the replication origin of the h-stand. variation among molecules in the number of these repeats results in inter- and intraindividual length polymorphism (heteroplasmy). generally, in an individual, one predominant molecular type is observed, the others representing a low percentage of the mtdna content. at the tissue level, we observe a particular distribution of thi ...19979254915
composition of cottontail rabbit milk from stomachs of young and directly from gland.milk samples were from stomachs of 27 nursing cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) within 5 min after cessation of nursing. four milk samples were directly from mammary glands by hand milking aided by tranquilizer and oxytocin. means and standard errors for 27 stomach samples for total solids, fat, protein, lactose, and ash were 33.6 +/- .8%, 13.9 +/- 1.7%, 14.6 +/- .5%, 2.22 +/- .05%, and 2.06 +/- .07%. those values of 4 samples directly from the gland were 35.2 +/- .4%, 14.4 +/- .4%, 15. ...19751184805
eimeria azul sp. n. (protozoa: eimeriidae) from the eastern cottontail, sylvilagus floridanus, in pennsylvania.eimeria azul sp. n. is described from the cottontail rabbit, sylvilagus floridanus, in central pennsylvania. the oval oocysts are 19.5--27.0 micrometer by 15.0--19.0 (mean - 22.9 x 16.7 micrometer). the fusiform sporocysts are 7.8--14.0 micrometer by 3.3--6.5 micrometer (mean = 11.8 x 5.8 micrometer). a stieda body is present. there is no micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule. the sporocyst has a residuum which is variable in appearance. the oocysts are characterized by a blue tint when vi ...1979480068
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of missouri and east central kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmission.sera from 273 wild mammals from missouri and kansas (usa), collected between december 1974 and december 1987, were tested for the presence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii using the sabin-feldman dye test. sixty-five (24%) had antibodies at titers of > or = 1:8, including 38 (66%) of 58 carnivores, 14 (15%) of 94 omnivores, 13 (11%) of 117 herbivores, and none of four insectivores. the prevalence of antibodies in mice (mus musculus and peromyscus spp.) and rats (rattus norvegicus and sigmodon ...19957563419
enzootic transmission of the agent of lyme disease in determine whether cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) maintain an enzootic cycle of transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we examined the prevalence of infection in ticks and rabbits in a location in which rabbits were abundant. of 72 unfed nymphal ixodes dentatus swept from vegetation, 32% were infected by this spirochete, as determined by darkfield microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibody h5332. infected ticks were reared from ...19892802026
bird-feeding ticks transstadially transmit borrelia burgdorferi that infect syrian hamsters.bird-feeding ixodes dammini ticks were documented for the first time to successfully molt and transstadially pass borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that were indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the type b31 strain. forty-six of 73 blood-engorged larvae and 50 of 66 fully-fed nymphs, removed from wild-caught birds, successfully molted. borreliae were isolated from 21 of 78 partially- and fully-fed larvae off birds, including six specimens that molted ...19902304189
humoral immune response of cottontail rabbits naturally infected with francisella tularensis in southern illinois.cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) usually are thought to succumb to infection with francisella tularensis. reports of a rabbit population from southern illinois (usa) with a high prevalence of f. tularensis antibodies suggested that some cottontails survived infection with this typically fatal bacterium. our goal was to examine the humoral response of cottontails from a study area in southern illinois for which multiple serum samples existed. multiple sera were collected from 79 cottont ...19979391956
spontaneous myxosarcoma in a cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus): observation of tubular structures in the endoplasmic reticulum of tumor cells. 19734737213
genetic differentiation among cottontails from isolated playa basins.protein variation in 182 sylvilagus floridanus from 19 playa basins in castro co., texas was examined using starch-gel electrophoresis. heterozygote deficiencies were noted for all populations. this heterozygote deficiency may be due to differential selection against heterozygous individuals over the winter months. results of f-statistics indicated a significant degree of population differentiation at six loci. nei's genetic distance between populations ranged from 0.20 to 0.388 and a significan ...19873504804
evaluation of the eastern cottontail sylvilagus floridanus as an amplifying vertebrate host for cache valley virus (bunyaviridae) in evaluate the importance of eastern cottontails (sylvilagus floridanus) as amplifying hosts for cache valley virus (cvv), we tested hunter-provided blood samples from northern indiana for specific neutralizing (n) antibodies against this mosquito-borne bunya-virus. samples were collected during the winter of 1994-95. two seronegative eastern cottontails, captured in july 1995, were also infected with cvv by subcutaneous inoculation, and two others were infected by allowing cvv-infected mosquit ...200818263839
the prostate of the female cottontail rabbit, sylvilagus floridanus. 194718895454
ectoparasites and associated pathogens of free-roaming and captive animals in zoos of south carolina.a survey of ectoparasites and their associated pathogens was conducted in two south carolina zoos, from 2004 to 2007. dead, wild birds and mammals, as well as captive animals examined during routine veterinary checks constituted the study populations. ectoparasites were tested for species of anaplasma, bartonella, coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia, rickettsia, and trypanosoma. forty-six species of ectoparasites were collected from 133 free-roaming and captive hosts and their associated nesting and be ...200918973443
pathogenesis of herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits.experimental infection with herpesvirus sylvilagus produces clinical and histopathologic changes in its natural host, the cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus), similar to those observed in humans acutely infected with epstein-barr virus (ebv). twenty-seven seronegative cottontail rabbits were infected with herpesvirus sylvilagus and all developed antibodies within 10 days. neutralizing antibody was detected as early as 7 days after infection. virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells, ...19882849303
occurrence of escherichia coli in wild cottontail cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) from two areas in central pennsylvania were sampled over a 4-year period. large numbers of coliforms were isolated from the intestinal tracts of these animals; in 136 of the 141 rabbits sampled, escherichia coli was found to be a major component of the alimentary flora. four serogroups (o7, o77, o73, and o103) were predominant among the isolates and were considered resistant coliflora of this species of cottontail rabbit.197716345208
first report of obeliscoides cuniculi in european brown hare (lepus europaeus).obeliscoides cuniculi is a new world nematode parasite of the trichostrongilidae family infecting the gastric tract of different domestic and wild lagomorph species. this parasite is reported for the first time from a european brown hare (lepus europaeus). the nematodes isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract were identified using the primary characteristics used to differentiate the species of this genus as adults morphology (length and thickness) and other characteristics of spicules, cervic ...201121484345
novel hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern united states.abstract novel hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in north america were compared with documented hepatozoon 18s rrna sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. an approximately 500 base pair fragment of 18s rdna common to hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the souther ...201121506825
in vitro cultivation of a zoonotic babesia sp. isolated from eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) on nantucket island, massachusetts.a babesia sp. found in eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) on nantucket island, massachusetts, is the same organism that caused human babesiosis in missouri and kentucky, on the basis of morphology and identical small-subunit rrna (ssu rrna) gene sequences. continuous cultures of the rabbit parasite were established from infected blood samples collected from two cottontail rabbits livetrapped on nantucket island. hl-1 medium or minimal essential medium alpha medium supplemented wi ...200516081941
eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) as carrier of dermatophyte fungi.eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus, fam. leporidae), introduced into piedmont (italy) in the 1960s, was studied as carrier of dermatophyte fungi. of 216 hair samples collected from animals culled between september 1999 and july 2000 in the province of alessandria (piedmont, italy) during a pest control project, 57 (26.4%) yielded dermatophyte colonies. as two different species of dermatophytes grew from two samples, a total of 59 fungal isolates (26.5%) were obtained. six dermatophyte spe ...200516170613
serum antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi in cottontail rabbits.archived serum samples, from 95 eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) captured in new york, new york, usa and millbrook, new york, usa, during 1985-86, were analyzed in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for total and class-specific immunoglobulin (ig) m antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. using a polyvalent conjugate, rabbit sera contained antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens (protein [p]35, p37, o ...201222247369
host preferences of aedes trivittatus (diptera: culicidae) in central iowa.the vertebrate host preferences of aedes trivittatus mosquitoes were studied to gain an insight into the possible hosts of trivittatus (tvt) virus (california encephalitis group) in iowa. engorged mosquitoes were collected with a malaise trap and dry ice-baited cdc miniature light traps. the origin of mosquito blood meals was determined by the capillary tube precipitin test. of 600 a. trivittatus blood meals tested, 409 (68.2%) reacted positively with anti-rabbit serum. the incidences of mosquit ...19751190374
host utilization and seasonal occurrence of dermacentor species (acari:ixodidae) in missouri, usa.a total of 3,235 dermacentor variabilis (say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 d. albipictus (packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. peak seasonal occurrence of adult d. variabilis was from may through july with a precipitous decrease in august. nymphal d. variabilis populations peaked in june. peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (september) and a second peak in winter or early sprin ...200011201355
environmental investigation following the first human case of babesiosis in tennessee.babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease in the united states caused by babesia parasites. in 2009, the first case of babesiosis was documented in tennessee. environmental investigation at the reported site of tick exposure included collection of ticks and specimens from eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) and white-tailed deer ( odocoileus virginianus ) that were tested for piroplasms by molecular and serologic methods. one hundred and sixty-six ixodes scapularis tic ...201423971411
serologic evidence for rabbit syncytium virus in eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) in ohio.thirteen of 20 eastern cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus) sera collected near delaware, ohio (usa) in 1991 were positive by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat) for antibody to rabbit syncytium virus (rsv), a kemerovo serogroup orbivirus. in addition, two of 10 domestic bovine sera and three of 30 sheep sera collected in southeastern ohio gave weak positive ifat reactions to rsv.19938394944
associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with borrelia miyamotoi and borrelia andersonii in michigan, u.s.a.wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus), and ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, borrelia miyamotoi and b. andersonii in a region of michigan where the zoonotic pathogen b. burgdorferi co-circulates.201223057837
encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection in invasive eastern cottontail rabbits sylvilagus floridanus in northwestern italy.sylvilagus floridanus is a lagomorph introduced for hunting purposes from north america to europe where, in certain areas like northern italy, its population reached high densities. brain, kidney and skeletal muscle of 144 eastern cottontail rabbits s. floridanus were examined by pcr for encephalitozoon cuniculi, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. dna of e. cuniculi was found with a prevalence of 9.72% (ci 95% 0.058-0.156). t. gondii and n. caninum dna was detected in 2.08% (ci 95% 0.0071-0 ...201323747104
the safety of onrab® in select non-target wildlife.onrab(®) is a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (had5) with the rabies glycoprotein gene incorporated into its genome. onrab(®) has been used in canada as an oral rabies vaccine in target wildlife species such as: red fox (vulpes vulpes), raccoon (procyon lotor), and striped skunk (mepthis mephitis). we evaluated the safety of onrab(®) in non-target wildlife species likely to contact the vaccine baits during oral rabies vaccine campaigns in the united states. we investigated the effects of ora ...201323831321
evolution of viral sensing rig-i-like receptor genes in leporidae genera oryctolagus, sylvilagus, and of the most severe european rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (myxv), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. other leporid genera, sylvilagus and lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to myxv, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. the protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-i (rig-i/ddx58) in sensing myxv in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the rig-i-lik ...201424220721
phylogenetic and biologic evidence that babesia divergens is not endemic in the united states.the causative agent of human babesiosis in a kentucky case, which was first identified as babesia divergens, is identical to a parasite of eastern cottontail rabbits on nantucket island, massachusetts based on piroplasm size, morphology, and ribosomal rna sequence analysis. studies showing differential infectivity for cattle, host erythrocyte specificity in vitro, parasite size and morphology in vitro, and ribosomal rna sequences clearly demonstrate that the parasite from the rabbit (conspecific ...200617135561
west nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis.exposures to west nile virus (wnv) have been documented in a variety of wild mammals in both the new and old worlds. this review tabulates at least 100 mammal species with evidence of wnv exposure. many of these exposures were detected in free-ranging mammals, while several were noted in captive individuals. in addition to exposures, this review discusses experimental infections in terms of the potential for reservoir competence of select wild mammal species. overall, few experimental infections ...201323212739
aversive responses of white-tailed deer,odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.we tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). urine from bobcats (lyra rufus) and coyotes (canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of japanese yews (taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. urine of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or ...199124258921
invasive species and their parasites: eastern cottontail rabbit sylvilagus floridanus and trichostrongylus affinis (graybill, 1924) from northwestern italy.the eastern cottontail sylvilagus floridanus is a native american lagomorph. within the genus sylvilagus, the eastern cottontail is the species with the widest distribution. from 1950s, the species was introduced to several european countries. a rapid territorial expansion of the introduced eastern cottontails has been observed in many areas of italy. the eastern cottontail has been demonstrated to play a main role as carrier of exotic parasites. to date, three nematode species, exotic in italia ...201424481904
comparative infectivity of babesia divergens and a zoonotic babesia divergens-like parasite in cattle.babesia divergens-like parasites identified in human babesiosis cases in missouri and kentucky and in eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) on nantucket island, massachusetts, share identical small subunit ribosomal rna gene sequences. this sequence is 99.8% identical to that of babesia divergens, suggesting that the u.s. parasite may be b. divergens, a causative agent of human and bovine babesiosis in europe. holstein-friesian calves were inoculated with cultured nantucket island b ...200516282295
tyzzer's disease in free-living cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) in maryland.complement-fixing (cf) antibody to bacillus piliformis antigen was found in 9 of 14 (64%) serum samples obtained from cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) killed in the wild. cf antibody was not present in the serum of 8 cottontail rabbits trapped as juveniles in the same geographic areas and held in captivity for 4 years. sero-negative cottontail rabbits died acutely with lesions typical of tyzzer's disease following the intragastric administration of 10(3.8) eld50 of b. piliformis spores ...197616502694
detection of babesia and anaplasma species in rabbits from texas and georgia, usa.rabbits have been shown to harbor a suite of zoonotic organisms, including a babesia species, borrelia burgdorferi, and anaplasma phagocytophilum. in this study, we conducted a molecular survey for various tick-borne pathogens in three species of rabbits from texas and georgia. of 18 black-tailed jackrabbits (lepus californicus) tested from texas, six (28%) were polymerase chain reaction (pcr) positive for babesia, and nucleotide sequencing revealed two distinct species or strains. two jackrabbi ...200616584322
influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.the influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the cross timbers experimental range in payne county, oklahoma (usa). six helminth species were found (dermatoxys veligera, trichostrongylus calcaratus, passalurus nonanulatus, wellcomia longejector, taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and mosgovoyia pectinata ame ...19902338720
systematic position of some nearctic heligmosomoidea (nematoda: trichostrongylina) from the u.s. national parasite collection and their description.the systematic position of some heligmosomoid nematodes from rodents, deposited in the u.s. national parasite collection (usnpc), is revised, mainly through the study of their synlophe, which in all cases was unknown or insufficiently described. the material was registered as different species of longistriata schulz, 1926, a genus whose representatives are only parasitic in holarctic insectivores. longistriata norvegica dikmans, 1935, parasitic in rattus sp. becomes a synonym of hassalstrongylus ...200517089761
redescription, synonymy, and new records of vexillata noviberiae (dikmans, 1935) (nematoda: trichostrongylina), a parasite of rabbits sylvilagus spp. (leporidae) in the united states.vexillata noviberiae (dikmans, 1935) (trichostrongylina: heligmosomoidea), originally described as a parasite of sylvilagus floridanus from louisiana, is redescribed from material collected from sylvilagus palustris in florida and from s. floridanus in kansas. new morphometric and morphological data are provided. stunkardionema halla arnold, 1941, described from s. floridanus from kansas and new york, is proposed as a junior synonym of v. noviberiae. these findings confirm the occurrence of v. n ...200717918368
detection of l1, infectious virions and anti-l1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.shope papillomavirus or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (crpv) is one of the first small dna tumour viruses to be characterized. although the natural host for crpv is the cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus floridanus), crpv can infect domestic laboratory rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) and induce tumour outgrowth and cancer development. in previous studies, investigators attempted to passage crpv in domestic rabbits, but achieved very limited success, leading to the suggestion that crpv infection in ...200718024897
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