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new host and distribution record of amblyomma javanense (acari: ixodidae) in thailand.amblyomma javanense (supino) was collected from a malayan pangolin (manis javanica desmarest) and a wild boar (sus scrofa l.) from tak province on the western boundary of thailand along the myanmar (burma) border. to date, this tick species has not been recorded from this area and from a wild boar.200010916309
molecular detection of anaplasma spp. in pangolins (manis javanica) and wild boars (sus scrofa) in peninsular malaysia.anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. this study describes the identification of a novel species of anaplasma (candidatus anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (manis javanica) and anaplasma bovis from wild boars (sus scrofa) in malaysia. based on 16s rrna gene sequences, candidatus anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of anaplasma bovis (97.7%) ...201627523941
evolutionary analysis of fam83h in vertebrates.amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of disorders causing abnormalities in enamel formation in various phenotypes. many mutations in the fam83h gene have been identified to result in autosomal dominant hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta in different populations. however, the structure and function of fam83h and its pathological mechanism have yet to be further explored. evolutionary analysis is an alternative for revealing residues or motifs that are important for protein function. in the prese ...201728683132
the prevalence and intensity of amblyomma javanense infestation on malayan pangolins (manis javanica desmarest) from peninsular malaysia.a parasitological survey of 16 pangolins, confiscated from the department of wildlife and nature park peninsular malaysia (dwnp) at kelantan and pulau pinang, malaysia was conducted in 2011. amblyomma javanense (family: ixodidae) was the only ectoparasite found on the pangolins. the prevalence, intensity and life cycle of a. javanense were observed together with the respective pangolins' age and sex. it was found that 68.8% of the pangolins were infected, and significant difference, χ(2)(1, n=16 ...201323416121
pgd: a pangolin genome hub for the research community.pangolins (order pholidota) are the only mammals covered by scales. we have recently sequenced and analyzed the genomes of two critically endangered asian pangolin species, namely the malayan pangolin (manis javanica) and the chinese pangolin (manis pentadactyla). these complete genome sequences will serve as reference sequences for future research to address issues of species conservation and to advance knowledge in mammalian biology and evolution. to further facilitate the global research effo ...201627616775
de novo sequencing, assembly and analysis of eight different transcriptomes from the malayan pangolin.pangolins are scale-covered mammals, containing eight endangered species. maintaining pangolins in captivity is a significant challenge, in part because little is known about their genetics. here we provide the first large-scale sequencing of the critically endangered manis javanica transcriptomes from eight different organs using illumina hiseq technology, yielding ~75 giga bases and 89,754 unigenes. we found some unigenes involved in the insect hormone biosynthesis pathway and also 747 lipids ...201627618997
molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of sars-cov-2 and hosts ace2 protein suggest malayan pangolin as intermediary host.an emergence of a novel coronavirus, causative agent of covid19, named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), occurred due to cross-species transmission. coronaviruses are a large family of viruses able to infect a great number of hosts. entrance of sars-cov-2 depends on the surface (s) protein interaction with host ace2 protein and cleavage by tmprss2. ace2 could be a species-specific barrier that interferes with bat-to-human coronavirus cross-species transmission. mol ...202032592038
the complete phylogeny of pangolins: scaling up resources for the molecular tracing of the most trafficked mammals on earth.pangolins, considered the most-trafficked mammals on earth, are rapidly heading to extinction. eight extant species of these african and asian scale-bodied anteaters are commonly recognized, but their evolutionary relationships remain largely unexplored. here, we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of pangolins, based on genetic variation of complete mitogenomes and 9 nuclear genes. we confirm deep divergence among asian and african pangolins occurring not later than the oligo ...201829140441
phylogenetic relationship and molecular dating of indian pangolin (manis crassicaudata) with other extant pangolin species based on complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene.pangolins are a group of eight endangered mammalian species included in the family manidae (order pholidota) and divided into four each african (arboreal species; phataginus tetradactyla, phataginus tricuspis, ground dwelling species; smutsia gigantea and smutsia temminckii) and asian (ground dwelling; manis crassicaudata, manis pentadactyla, manis javanica and manis culionensis) species. the taxonomy of all the eight extant pangolin species based on molecular genetics studies, remains unresolve ...201829540087
pangolin indexing system: implications in forensic surveillance of large seizures.demand for pangolin scales in east asia has increased dramatically in the past two decades, raising concern to the pangolin survival and bringing them to the brink of local extinction. enumerating the number of individuals from the seized pangolin scales primarily goes undocumented, mostly due to the unavailability of the appropriate methods. in this study, we developed a pangolin indexing system, a multi-locus str panel of eight dinucleotide microsatellites that showed promising results in indi ...202032621146
evidence for the medicinal value of squama manitis (pangolin scale): a systematic review.squama manitis (pangolin scale) has been used in traditional chinese medicine for thousands of years. however, its efficacy has not been systematically reviewed. this review aims to fill the gap.202132837905
time-budgets and activity patterns of captive sunda pangolins (manis javanica).this is the first assessment of manis javanica behavior in captivity. the aim of the investigation was to assess behavior in order to suggest ways of improving captive care and management of the species. this was undertaken by constructing time-budgets and activity patterns and identifying any abnormal repetitive behavior (arb) exhibited. scan and focal animal sampling were implemented in observations of seven subjects. analyses detailed idiosyncrasies in how subjects partitioned their active ti ...201221360581
[allometry of scales in chinese pangolins (manis pentadactyla) and malayan pangolins (manis javanica) and application in judicial expertise].pangolins are unique mammals in that they possess scales that serve a protective biological function. as an important raw material of traditional medicine, illegal trades of these scales are frequent and difficult to investigate or prosecute. we used allometric models of dry weight of scales to compare 35 chinese pangolins (manis pentadactyla) and 119 malayan pangolins (manis javanica). our results showed that the dry weight of scales increases significantly faster with the length of head and bo ...201222653854
morphofunctional alterations in the stomach of the sunda pangolin (manis javanica desmarest, 1822, pholidota, mammalia) associated with specific nutrition features. 201623975467
immunohistochemical demonstration of keratins in the epidermal layers of the malayan pangolin (manis javanica), with remarks on the evolution of the integumental scale armour.using immunohistochemistry, the study demonstrates the distribution of keratins (pan-keratin with ck1-8, 10, 14-16, 19; keratins ck1, 5, 6, 9, 10; hair keratins ae13, ae14) in the epidermis of the malayan pangolin (manis javanica). a varying reaction spectrum was observed for pan-keratin, with body region-dependent negative to very strong reaction intensities. the dorsolateral epidermis exhibited positive reactions only in its vital layers, whereas the abdominal epidermis showed strong positive ...201324085276
comparison of mitochondrial genome sequences of pangolins (mammalia, pholidota).the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for three species of pangolins, manis javanica, phataginus tricuspis, and smutsia temminckii, and comparisons were made with two other species, manis pentadactyla and phataginus tetradactyla. the genome of manidae contains the 37 genes found in a typical mammalian genome, and the structure of the control region is highly conserved among species. in manis, the overall base composition differs from that found in african genera. phylogenetic analyses ...201525746396
pangolin genomes and the evolution of mammalian scales and immunity.pangolins, unique mammals with scales over most of their body, no teeth, poor vision, and an acute olfactory system, comprise the only placental order (pholidota) without a whole-genome map. to investigate pangolin biology and evolution, we developed genome assemblies of the malayan (manis javanica) and chinese (m. pentadactyla) pangolins. strikingly, we found that interferon epsilon (ifne), exclusively expressed in epithelial cells and important in skin and mucosal immunity, is pseudogenized in ...201627510566
forensic application of dna barcoding for identification of illegally traded african pangolin scales.the escalating growth in illegal wildlife trade and anthropogenic habitat changes threaten the survival of pangolin species worldwide. all eight extant species have experienced drastic population size reductions globally with a high extinction risk in asia. consequently, forensic services have become critical for law enforcement, with a need for standardised and validated genetic methods for reliable identifications. the seizure of three tonnes of pangolin scales, believed to have originated fro ...201728177847
comparative optical genome analysis of two pangolin species: manis pentadactyla and manis javanica.the pangolin is a pholidota mammal with large keratin scales protecting its skin. two pangolin species ( manis pentadactyla and manis javanica ) have been recorded as critically endangered on the international union for conservation of nature red list of threatened species. optical mapping constructs high-resolution restriction maps from single dna molecules for genome analysis at the megabase scale and to assist genome assembly. here, we constructed restriction maps of m. pentadactyla and m. ja ...201628369358
keeping and breeding the rescued sunda pangolins (manis javanica) in captivity.the sunda pangolin (manis javanica desmarest, 1822) is a critically endangered species. given that this species lacks effective policies for in situ conservation and prevention of poaching in the wild, ex situ conservation and a captive breeding program are urgently needed to save this species from extinction. however, techniques for the maintenance and captive breeding of pangolins have not been well developed. in june 2010, we established the pangolin research base for artificial rescue and co ...201729148093
transcriptomic analysis identifies genes and pathways related to myrmecophagy in the malayan pangolin (manis javanica).the malayan pangolin (manis javanica) is an unusual, scale-covered, toothless mammal that specializes in myrmecophagy. due to their threatened status and continuing decline in the wild, concerted efforts have been made to conserve and rescue this species in captivity in china. maintaining this species in captivity is a significant challenge, partly because little is known of the molecular mechanisms of its digestive system. here, the first large-scale sequencing analyses of the salivary gland, l ...201729302388
eimeria tenggilingi sp. n. from the scaly anteater manis javanica desmarest in malaysia.eimeria tenggilingi is described from the pangolin or scaly anteater, manis javanica, in malaysia. the spheroid to subspheroid oocysts average 18.9 x 17.8 mum. the oocyst wall is composed of 3 layers, each approximately 0.6 mum thick. the 2 outer layers are striated and yellowish green. the inner layer is dark brown. one or 2 polar granules are present, but an oocyst residuum is absent. ellipsoid sporocysts average 12.4 x 6.2 mum. a sporocyst residuum is present. this is the first eimeria specie ...19761003338
evolutionary plasticity in coccidia - striking morphological similarity of unrelated coccidia (apicomplexa) from related hosts: eimeria spp. from african and asian pangolins (mammalia: pholidota).two morphologically similar, but phylogenetically unrelated eimeria species from ancient mammals, african tree pangolin phataginus tricuspis and sunda pangolin manis javanica (pholidota: manidae), from two distant biogeographic realms (afrotropical and oriental), are characterized and compared morphologically and molecularly. phylogenetic analyses produced an unstable topology. however, while precise position of the two eimeria species from pangolins could not be firmly established due to the la ...201323837921
acidic mammalian chitinase gene is highly expressed in the special oxyntic glands of manis javanica.the malayan pangolin (manis javanica) is a mammal that feeds primarily on ants and termites, which contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin. chitin is digestible by endogenous enzymes of the typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract, especially the acidic mammalian chitinase (amcase). the objective of this research was to determine whether amcase activity is expressed in the stomach of m. javanica. the stomach tissues were divided into three parts: the gastric sack, the oxyntic glands, and the ...201830087830
evidence for zoonotic potential of enterocytozoon bieneusi in its first molecular characterization in captive mammals at bangladesh national zoo.to determine the occurrence and genotypes of enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive mammals at bangladesh national zoo and to assess their zoonotic significance, 200 fecal samples from 32 mammalian species were examined using a nested pcr and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (its) gene. enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected in 16.5% (33/200) of the samples. seven different its genotypes were identified, including two known genotypes (d and j) and five new ones (ban4 to ban8). genotype d was ...202032115792
chromosomal rearrangements underlying karyotype differences between chinese pangolin (manis pentadactyla) and malayan pangolin (manis javanica) revealed by chromosome painting.the chinese pangolin (manis pentadactyla), a representative species of the order pholidota, has been enlisted in the mammalian whole-genome sequencing project mainly because of its phylogenetic importance. previous studies showed that the diploid number of m. pentadactyla could vary from 2n = 36 to 42. to further characterize the genome organization of m. pentadactyla and to elucidate chromosomal mechanism underlying the karyotype diversity of pholidota, we flow-sorted the chromosomes of 2n = 40 ...200919283495
the comparison of semen collection in electroejaculation, rectal massage and combination of both methods in the critically endangered malayan pangolin, manis javanica.this article describes the semen characteristics from different collection methods between captive and confiscated malayan pangolins, manis javanica. semen was collected from 15 pangolins; two captive and 13 confiscated individuals at the mean weight of 9.36 ± 1.94 kg. the three semen collection methods employed were electroejaculation, rectal massage and a combination of both techniques. the semen characteristics (mean ± standard deviation) of the malayan pangolin are volume (73.75 ± 144.57 µl) ...202033113883
covid-19: time to exonerate the pangolin from the transmission of sars-cov-2 to humans.the emergence of covid-19 has triggered many works aiming at identifying the animal intermediate potentially involved in the transmission of sars-cov-2 to humans. the presence of sars-cov-2-related viruses in malayan pangolins, in silico analysis of the ace2 receptor polymorphism and sequence similarities between the receptor binding domain (rbd) of the spike proteins of pangolin and human sarbecoviruses led to the proposal of pangolin as intermediary. however, the binding affinity of the pangol ...202032768565
structural and functional analysis of the d614g sars-cov-2 spike protein variant.the sars-cov-2 spike (s) protein variant d614g supplanted the ancestral virus worldwide, reaching near fixation in a matter of months. here we show that d614g was more infectious than the ancestral form on human lung cells, colon cells, and on cells rendered permissive by ectopic expression of human ace2 or of ace2 orthologs from various mammals, including chinese rufous horseshoe bat and malayan pangolin. d614g did not alter s protein synthesis, processing, or incorporation into sars-cov-2 part ...202032991842
an update on the origin of sars-cov-2: despite closest identity, bat (ratg13) and pangolin derived coronaviruses varied in the critical binding site and o-linked glycan residues.the initial cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) occurred in wuhan, china, in december 2019 and swept the world by 23 june 2020 with 8 993 659 active cases, 469 587 deaths across 216 countries, areas or territories. this strongly implies global transmission occurred before the lockdown of china. however, the initial source's transmission routes of sars-cov-2 remain obscure and controversial. research data suggest bat (ratg13) and pangolin carried cov were the pro ...202032633815
investigating the use of sensory information to detect and track prey by the sunda pangolin (manis javanica) with conservation in mind.pangolins are of conservation concern as one of the most heavily poached, yet least understood mammals. the sunda pangolin (manis javanica) in particular is a critically endangered species. here, we investigate the behaviour of these pangolins, for the first time, using a battery of cognitive tasks based on a manipulation of available sensory information. in an object-choice task in which only one of two containers was baited with food, the pangolins were able to find the food with olfactory inf ...202032555311
cytosolic dna sensing through cgas and sting is inactivated by gene mutations in pangolins.the release of dna into the cytoplasm upon damage to the nucleus or during viral infection triggers an interferon-mediated defense response, inflammation and cell death. in human cells cytoplasmic dna is sensed by cyclic gmp-amp synthase (cgas) and absent in melanoma 2 (aim2). here, we report the identification of a "natural knockout" model of cgas. comparative genomics of phylogenetically diverse mammalian species showed that cgas and its interaction partner stimulator of interferon genes (stin ...202032533513
isolation of sars-cov-2-related coronavirus from malayan pangolins.the current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (covid-19) poses unprecedented challenges to global health1. the new coronavirus responsible for this outbreak-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2)-shares high sequence identity to sars-cov and a bat coronavirus, ratg132. although bats may be the reservoir host for a variety of coronaviruses3,4, it remains unknown whether sars-cov-2 has additional host species. here we show that a coronavirus, which we name pangolin-cov, is ...202032380510
newly identified viral genomes in pangolins with fatal disease.epizootic pathogens pose a major threat to many wildlife species, particularly in the context of rapidly changing environments. pangolins (order pholidota) are highly threatened mammals, in large part due to the trade in illegal wildlife. during july to august 2018 four sick wild pangolins (three manis javanica and one manis pentadactyla) exhibiting a variety of clinical symptoms were rescued by the jinhua wildlife protection station in zhejiang province, china. although three of these animals d ...202032296543
protein structure and sequence reanalysis of 2019-ncov genome refutes snakes as its intermediate host and the unique similarity between its spike protein insertions and hiv-1.as the infection of 2019-ncov coronavirus is quickly developing into a global pneumonia epidemic, the careful analysis of its transmission and cellular mechanisms is sorely needed. in this communication, we first analyzed two recent studies that concluded that snakes are the intermediate hosts of 2019-ncov and that the 2019-ncov spike protein insertions share a unique similarity to hiv-1. however, the reimplementation of the analyses, built on larger scale data sets using state-of-the-art bioinf ...202032200634
probable pangolin origin of sars-cov-2 associated with the covid-19 outbreak.an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (sars-cov-2) began in the city of wuhan in china and has widely spread worldwide. currently, it is vital to explore potential intermediate hosts of sars-cov-2 to control covid-19 spread. therefore, we reinvestigated published data from pangolin lung samples from which sars-cov-like covs were detected by liu et al. [1]. we found genomic and evolutionary evidence of the occurrence of a sars-cov-2-like cov (name ...202032197085
expression profile of the digestive enzymes of manis javanica reveals its adaptation to diet specialization.the expression of animal digestive enzymes reflects important dietary adaptations. the pangolin, also known as scaly anteater, is a specialized myrmecophage that consumes mainly ants and termites, but its digestive enzymes have not been fully investigated. therefore, in this study, we used shotgun proteomic analysis to examine the protein components of the saliva and intestinal juice of a sunda pangolin (manis javanica) that died shortly after being rescued. the intestinal juice contained greate ...201931788625
reproductive behavior of the captive sunda pangolin (manis javanica desmarest, 1822).understanding reproductive behavior is important for the conservation of endangered species, but research on the reproductive behavior of sunda pangolins (manis javanica desmarest, 1822) is still very scarce. in this study, we used focal animal sampling and all-occurrence recording by an infrared monitor to observe the behaviors of two sunda pangolins during a 5-day breeding period at the pangolin research base for artificial rescue and conservation breeding of south china normal university (prb ...202031737937
viral metagenomics revealed sendai virus and coronavirus infection of malayan pangolins (manis javanica).pangolins are endangered animals in urgent need of protection. identifying and cataloguing the viruses carried by pangolins is a logical approach to evaluate the range of potential pathogens and help with conservation. this study provides insight into viral communities of malayan pangolins (manis javanica) as well as the molecular epidemiology of dominant pathogenic viruses between malayan pangolin and other hosts. a total of 62,508 de novo assembled contigs were constructed, and a blast search ...201931652964
the addition of soil and chitin into sunda pangolin (manis javanica) diets affect digestibility, faecal scoring, mean retention time and body weight.pangolins (manis spp.) are myrmecophagous mammals with a wild diet of termites and ants. diets are not yet readily acceptable by all pangolins and lack soil and chitin compared to their wild diet. this study aimed to assess the usefulness of including soil and chitin in pangolin diets by measuring changes in digestibility, food mean retention time, faecal scoring and body weight changes. two male and two female sunda pangolins (manis javanica) from night safari (singapore) were fed their typical ...202031621114
mitochondrial genome of amblyomma javanense: a hard tick parasite of the endangered malayan pangolin (manis javanica).amblyomma javanense is an important ectoparasite of manis javanica, although the population genetics, molecular biology and systematics of a. javanense remain poorly understood. in the present study, the mitochondrial genome of a. javanense was sequenced using the illumina hiseq sequencing platform (illumina, san diego, ca, u.s.a.) and compared with the genomes of two closely related species: amblyomma fimbriatum and amblyomma americanum. the intraspecies and interspecies relationships of a. jav ...202031433511
complete genome sequence of parainfluenza virus 5 (piv5) from a sunda pangolin (manis javanica) in china.we report here the complete genome sequence of the parainfluenza virus piv5-gd18 strain, isolated from a wild sunda pangolin (manis javanica) in china in 2017. it was 15,246 nucleotides with four nucleotides substitutions, which resulted in four changes of amino acid that were found only in piv5-gd18, which further broadens the piv5 infection host spectrum and will aid in our understanding of the complete genome sequence of piv5 in different hosts.201930896364
smrt sequencing of the full-length transcriptome of the sunda pangolin (manis javanica).it is widely known that transcriptional diversity contributes greatly to biological regulation in eukaryotes. with the development of next-generation sequencing (ngs) technologies, several studies on rna sequencing have considerably improved our understanding of transcriptome complexity. however, obtaining full-length (fl) transcripts remains a considerable challenge because of difficulties in short read-based assembly. in the present study, single-molecule real-time (smrt) sequencing and ngs we ...201930664913
the fecal metagenomics of malayan pangolins identifies an extensive adaptation to myrmecophagy.the characteristics of flora in the intestine of an animal, including the number and abundance of different microbial species and their functions, are closely related to the diets of the animal and affect the physical condition of the host. the malayan pangolin (manis javanica) is an endangered species that specializes in myrmecophagy. analyzing the microbiome in the intestine of the pangolin is imperative to protect this species. by sequencing the metagenomes of the feces of four pangolins, we ...201830532742
hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rescued sunda pangolins (manis javanica) in singapore.the sunda pangolin (manis javanica) population in southeast asia faces threats such as poaching and deforestation. health assessments of rescued individuals including physical examination and blood work are crucial for clinicians to determine the health status of these animals. the establishments of reference intervals of hematology and serum biochemistry are important for identifying clinical abnormalities. the objectives of our study were to establish blood reference intervals for sunda pangol ...201830333379
the first authenticated record of the pangolin tick amblyomma javanense (acari: ixodidae) in singapore, with notes on its biology and conservation.the first authenticated record of the co-endangered pangolin tick (amblyomma javanense) is reported from the republic of singapore, based on specimens of males and females collected from the sunda pangolin (manis javanica). the biology of the species is reviewed and steps for its conservation are outlined to ensure its continued survival across its range.201830298232
morphological features of the stomach of malayan pangolin, manis javanica.the morphology of the stomach of malayan pangolin, manis javanica was studied at macroscopic, light microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic levels. the stomach of m. javanica was c-shaped with short lesser curvature. at the oesophageal junction, the inner smooth muscle was thickened in the greater curvature side. the entire stomach was lined by a thick cornified stratified squamous epithelium, except at the duct orifices of glands and in the pyloric gland region. the wall of the fundus wa ...201020645954
immunohistochemical study on the distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the stomach of the malayan pangolin, manis javanica.the distribution and relative frequency of six kinds of endocrine cells in the stomach of the malayan pangolin, manis javanica were studied immunohistochemically using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. the stomach of the pangolin has three regions of mucous gland, one oxyntic gland and one pyloric gland. cells immunoreactive for chromogranin, serotonin, somatostatin, bpp and glucagon were detected in all of the gastric glands, while gastrin-immunoreactive cells were found in the entir ...200516288608
[histogenesis of perineal gland cells from the pangolin (manis javanica demarest, 1821, pholidota, mammalia) during organ culture in diffusion chambers]. 19989777307
identifying sars-cov-2-related coronaviruses in malayan pangolins.the ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in china and across the world is associated with a new coronavirus, sars-cov-21. this outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in wuhan, china, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection2. although bats are probable reservoir hosts for sars-cov-2, the identity of any intermediate host that may have facilitated transfer to humans is unknown. here we report the identification of sars-cov-2-related coronavirus ...202032218527
are pangolins the intermediate host of the 2019 novel coronavirus (sars-cov-2)?the outbreak of a novel corona virus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the city of wuhan, china has resulted in more than 1.7 million laboratory confirmed cases all over the world. recent studies showed that sars-cov-2 was likely originated from bats, but its intermediate hosts are still largely unknown. in this study, we assembled the complete genome of a coronavirus identified in 3 sick malayan pangolins. the molecular and phylogenetic analyses showed that this pangolin coronavirus (pangolin-cov-2020 ...202032407364
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