the incidence of theilerial parasites in east african buffalo (syncerus caffer).245 buffalo from 13 areas of east africa were examined for theilerial infections. the vast majority of buffalo (97.1%) examined had piroplasms in their erythrocytes. theileria lawrencei was isolated from the buffalo by tick feeding and cell culture and was found to be common in most of these buffalo populations. also over 50% of the buffalo had indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) titres to t. lawrencei. t. mutans was only isolated from 3 buffalo populations but is probably common. haematoxenus s ...1978103262
serological evidence of bluetongue in game animals in botswana.using the agar gel precipitin technique the sera of 397 african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and 90 sera of other common game species were examined for bluetongue antibodies. of the adult buffalo 283 out of 325 (87 per cent) were positive. buffalo calves were positive in 25 out of 72 cases (35 per cent). positive reactions were also recorded in lechwe (kobus leche), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), red hartebeeste (alcelaphus buselaphus), gemsbok (oryx gazella), sable (hippotragus niger) and impala ( ...1978204086
neutralizing antibodies to bovid herpes virus 1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvo-vaginitis) in african wildlife with special reference to the cape buffalo (syncerus caffer). 1978207748
neutralising antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus in african wildlife, with special reference to the cape buffalo (syncerus caffer).as part of a study to assess the prevalence of common viral agents in african wildlife, nearly 3,300 sera from 44 different wild species, from eight african countries, have been examined for neutralising antibodies to parainfluenza 3 (pi3) virus. antibody was demonstrated in 20 of the 44 species examined, including seven species not previously reported as sero-positive. sera were collected between 1963 and 1977 and results indicated that infection has been widespread for a considerable time. the ...1978211274
the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and the role of this species in the epidemiology of the disease in kenya. 1979232107
composition of adrenal lipids from some domestic and wild ruminants.1. lipids from the whole adrenal glands of the ox and the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) were extracted and fractionated into neutral and phospholipids. both species revealed the presence of considerable quantities of cholesterol but only very small quantities of cholesteryl esters. 2. fatty acids from various fractions of bovine and buffalo adrenal glands were investigated by gas-chromatography. they showed a remarkably low content of higher unsaturated fatty acids and a very high content of ...1977318243
studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania. viii. experiments with african buffalo (syncerus caffer).it has been found that african buffalo may remain infective carriers of theileria parva lawrencei for at least 5 years. this infection is now known to exist in buffalo in 3 sites in northern tanzania. it was shown that buffalo can be infected with haematoxenus veliferus and theileria mutans of cattle and retransmission of these parasites from buffalo to cattle was successful. the species of haematoxemus reported in wild buffalo in central and east africa is likely to be h. veliferus, while the p ...1977410128
further observations on the relationship and distribution of schistosoma margrebowiei and s. leiperi in central southern africa.a further survey in east caprivi, chobe national park, okavango swamps and kavango was undertaken in june 1976. no evidence of lechwe schistosomes was found in droppings of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) nor baboons (papio ursinus) living in lechwe habitats. it was thought that they were not capable of spreading or maintaining these parasites outside the confines of the known distribution of kobus sp. the role of goats was equivocal but probably they too are poor hosts. kavango, an endemic ar ...1977599275
the isolation of a chlamydia psittaci-like agent from a free-living african buffalo (syncerus caffer). 1978676013
the role of wild mammals in the epidemiology of bovine theilerioses in east africa.the theileriidae of east african wild mammals are reviewed. three species of wild bovidae were captured in east africa. they were africa cape buffalo (syncerus caffer), blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and eland (taurotragus oryx), and all were found to be naturally infected with theileria species. these animals were studied to determine the transmissibility and pathogenicity of their theilerial infections to cattle. adult rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, which had engorged as nymphs o ...1975803580
correlation between the morphology and infectivity of theileria lawrencei developing in the tick rhipicephalus rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks, infected as nymphs by feeding them on an african buffalo harbouring theileria lawrencei, were applied to the ears of rabbits. equal numbers of the feeding ticks were removed daily from rabbits and either dissected and processed so that parasites in their salivary glands could be examined morphologically and classified, or ground in eagle's minimal essential medium, to harvest parasites from the ticks in the resultant supernatant fluid. the infectivity of ...1975809739
transmission of a theileria species to cattle by the ixodid tick, amblyomma cohaerens donitz 1909.amblyomma cohaerens nymphs, which had been collected as engorged larvae from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the mara region of kenya, transmitted a theilerial parasite to a steer. macroschizonts were detected in the regional lymph node of this steer 12 days after tick application and were subsequently detected for 3 days at low levels of parasitosis. the macroschizonts were large and had numerous nuclei, being morphologically unlike any other theilerial schizonts described previously from ...1977906088
establishment of an experimental field population of theileria lawrencei-infected ticks maintained by african buffalo (syncerus caffer).a population of rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks infected with buffalo-derived theileria lawrencei was established in a paddock. two infected buffalo had been introduced into this paddock which contained a small population of theileria-free r. appendiculatus. at intervals, successive groups of theileria-susceptible cattle were grazed with the buffalo. transmission of t. lawrencei from buffalo to cattle was first noted 7 to 8 months after the introduction of the buffalo, this delay being accoun ...1977915621
preliminary observations on the distribution, definitive hosts and possible relation with other schistosomes, of schistosoma margrebowiei, le roux, 1933 and schistosoma leiperi, le roux, attempting to define the south western limits of the distribution of schistosoma margrebowiei and s. leiperi and investigating their apparent limited distribution in relation to their snail hosts it was found that there was little overlap in the distribution of s. margrebowiei and s. leiperi and that of the human parasites s. haematobium and s. mansoni, and no overlap with s. mattheei within the area surveyed. it is suggested that the presence of either or both lechwe schistosomes prevented t ...1976965705
echinococcosis (hydatodosis) in wild animals of the kruger national park.echinococcosis has been diagnosed in the following wild species in the kruger national park : lion, panthera leo, spotted hyena, crocuta crocuta, cape hunting dog, lycaon pictus, burchell's zebra, equus burchelli antiquorum, buffalo, syncerus caffer, hippopotamus, hippopotamus amphibius, and impala, aepyceros melampus. infestation rates in the herbivores vary from 60% in zebra to less than 1% in impala. species like elephant, loxodonta africana, and blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus, do not ...19751219111
maintenance of foot and mouth disease viruses in buffalo (syncerus caffer sparrman, 1779) in southern africa.using age-related infection rates derived from serological data in available deterministic and specially developed stochastic simulation models, it has been possible to establish that the basic reproductive rates for south african territory (sat) type foot and mouth disease virus in buffalo (syncerus caffer) are high. the models predict that there is a periodicity of infection within herds and possibly the population as a whole. thus, buffalo herds are likely to be more infectious at some times ...19921339066
immunisation of cattle against theileriosis in nakuru district of kenya by infection and treatment and the introduction of unconventional tick hundred and one cross european-boran cattle (50 cows and 51 calves), on a farm in nakuru district, kenya, were immunised against theileriosis using theileria parva lawrencei and theileria parva parva stocks from another district of kenya. the stabilates used were t.p.lawrencei (mara iii) used at 10(-1.7) dilution and t.p.parva (kilae) used at 10(-1.0) dilution. the stabilates were combined and inoculated simultaneously with a short-acting formulation of oxytetracycline hydrochloride given in ...19921496782
transformation of theileria parva derived from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) by tick passage in cattle and its use in infection and treatment immunization.a sporozoite stabilate (st. 199) of theileria parva was obtained by feeding nymphal rhipicephalus appendiculatus on an african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and was used to immunize cattle by the infection and treatment method. nymphal ticks were applied to one of the steers 90 days later and it was shown that the resultant adult tick had become infected. using tick/cattle passage, two passage lines of t. parva were established. by the fifth tick/cattle passage, the parasite stocks had changed their ...19921496792
further evaluation of the use of buparvaquone in the infection and treatment method of immunizing cattle against theileria parva derived from african buffalo (syncerus caffer).three experiments were undertaken to determine the efficacy of different doses of buparvaquone in the infection and treatment immunization of cattle against theileria parva derived from african buffalo (syncerus caffer). two of these experiments also compared buparvaquone with standard doses of long- and short-acting formulations of oxytetracycline. in addition, different dilutions of stabilates were used in the experiments. in the first experiment, a 10(-1.0) dilution of stabilate was used to i ...19921496799
anthrax in wildlife in the luangwa valley, abnormally high mortality among hippos (hippopotamus amphibius) in the luangwa river valley between june and november 1987 and estimated to number more than 4000 deaths was attributed to anthrax. several other species, particularly cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) and elephant (loxodonta africana), appear to have been affected. a smaller outbreak of anthrax in hippos occurred between august and september 1988, approximately 100 km up-river. a field study was arranged in august 1989 to assess th ...19911907048
theileria parva: influence of vector, parasite and host relationships on the epidemiology of theileriosis in southern africa.the protozoan parasite theileria parva, transmitted by the ixodid tick rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is the cause of east coast fever (ecf) and the related syndromes of corridor disease and january disease in cattle of eastern, central and southern africa. it is likely that buffalo (syncerus caffer) are the natural host of t. parva. in eastern and southern africa, there exists both buffalo-adapted and cattle-adapted t. parva. disease caused by buffalo-adapted parasites is called corridor disease ...19911907728
zymogram and life-history studies on trypanosomes of the subgenus megatrypanum.of 13 swedish dairy cows examined, 12 (92.3%) were found to be infected with trypanosomes by cultivation of blood samples. of the two species of tabanid fly caught close to the cattle, 33.3% of the tabanus bromius and 8.6% of the haematopota pluvialis were also found to be infected with trypanosomes on dissection. isoenzyme patterns of trypanosome isolates from one h. pluvialis and from six cattle were identical, incriminating this fly species as a vector of the trypanosome. comparison of these ...19902123546
[virus carriers in foot-and-mouth disease. review].fmdv infection can cause a long lasting virus carrier state in the oesophageal-pharyngeal (op) region of cattle, sheep, goats, african buffalo, wildebeest and kudu. virus can be recovered from op fluids with low titres for several months up to more than 2 years. during this time phases of positive virus recovery are interrupted by negative phases. the number of virus carriers decreases as time progresses. the virus carrier state is always accompanied by fmdv antibodies in serum and op fluid. vac ...19902191649
susceptibility of african buffalo and boran cattle to trypanosoma congolense transmitted by glossina morsitans centralis.four african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and four boran cattle (bos indicus) were each exposed to the bites of 10 tsetse flies infected with trypanosoma congolense. although both groups of animals became infected, the buffalo showed no clinical signs of trypanosomiasis while the cattle suffered from the disease characterized by pronounced skin reactions, high parasitaemia and severe anaemia. the prepatent periods in the buffalo varied from 18 to 27 days in comparison with 11 to 14 days in the catt ...19902343539
evaluation of infection and treatment methods in immunization of improved cattle against theileriosis in an endemic area of kenya.five experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of immunization against theileriosis in an endemic area of kenya using artificial infection with a mixture of stabilates of theileria parva stock or natural infection and treatment with parvaquone or several formulations of oxytetracyclines. for the first four experiments, introduced, susceptible sahiwal/friesian crosses were used and in the fifth, calves of boran/maasai zebu crosses born on the site. cattle were infected either artific ...19902343540
a serological survey of rinderpest antibody in wildlife and sheep and goats in northern extensive serological survey for rinderpest antibody in wildlife, principally buffalo (syncerus caffer), and sheep and goats has been undertaken in the previously endemic region of northern tanzania to determine whether or not the virus has continued to cycle in susceptible species since the last occurrence of overt disease in 1982. the results show that infection but not disease has occurred at least until 1987 in buffalo in parts of the serengeti national park but not in the other game area ...19902384143
characterization of buffalo-derived theilerial parasites with monoclonal antibodies and dna probes.the characteristics of intra-lymphocytic theileria isolated from african buffalo and from cattle that were infected with buffalo-derived parasites were evaluated using anti-schizont monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and dna probes. antigenic differences were revealed by the reactivities of 27 mabs with the buffalo-derived parasites isolated from different animals. antigenic diversity was also seen with theileria-infected lymphoblastoid cell isolates taken from the lymph nodes and lambda gt11, showed ...19892569709
experimental infection of eland (taurotrages oryx), sable antelope (ozanna grandicomis) and buffalo (syncerus caffer) with foot-and-mouth disease virus.the course of experimental infection of a type sat 1 fmdv strain was studied in buffalo, sable antelope and eland following tongue inoculation and contact and has been compared with that in cattle. all species became infected, although disease was less severe in the game animals and larger amounts of virus were required to infect game animals than cattle. neutralizing antibody titres were high and were maintained for an extended period in buffalo, sable antelope and eland. the carrier state was ...19892584449
the hk/lk polymorphism of erythrocyte cation content in two wild species of east african bovids: demonstrated in wildebeest but not in african buffalo.concentrations of k and na were determined in erythrocytes from wildebeest and african buffalo resident in tanzania. the object was to determine if these species possess the hk/lk polymorphism which is typical of other bovid species, but not of other mammals. the polymorphism is characterized by individuals that are either of the hk phenotype (high k and low na concentrations in red cells) or lk phenotype (low k and high na concentrations in red cells). wildebeest were shown to be polymorphic, w ...19902386314
susceptibility of african buffalo and boran cattle to intravenous inoculation with trypanosoma congolense bloodstream forms.this study compares the susceptibility of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and boran cattle (bos indicus) to intravenous infection with t. congolense blood stream forms. the trypanosomes multiplied in the buffaloes and the boran and reached levels of detectable parasitaemia 4 days after infection in the boran and 10 days after infection in the buffalo. the cattle developed severe anaemia and had to be treated 60 days after infection to save them from dying whereas the buffaloes did not develop ...19902382098
serological reactions to leptospira species in buffalo (syncerus caffer) from the kruger national park.four hundred and six serum samples from buffalo (syncerus caffer) were tested for leptospirosis, using the microscopic agglutination test. seven buffaloes (1.7%) reacted positive and 27 (6.6%) inconclusive. reactions against l. tarassovi and l. hardjo were the most prevalent.19902293138
failure of haematobia thirouxi potans (bezzi) to transmit foot-and-mouth disease virus mechanically between viraemic and susceptible 2 separate experiments the blood-feeding fly haematobia thirouxi potans (bezzi) failed to transmit foot-and-mouth disease virus when transferred from viraemic (log 2,6-log 4,3 mld50 or tcid50/ml) to susceptible cattle. each experiment involved 2 susceptible and 2 viraemic animals housed in separate stables and 2,000-4,000 flies of which most had fed on viraemic hosts 120 min prior to transfer. furthermore, only minimal quantities of virus were isolated from free-living flies captured on exper ...19882839809
basic haematological values in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer caffer) and in the red buffalo (syncerus caffer nanus).basic haematological values in 13 african buffaloes (syncerus caffer caffer), 11 cows and 2 bulls, and in 2 red buffaloes (syncerus caffer nanus), 1 bull and 1 cow, are reported. in the african buffalo, the erythrocyte count--mean 9.76 x 10(12) 1(-1)--ranged from 6.72 to 12.42 x 10(12) 1(-1), the haematocrit values--mean 0.391--varied from 0.32 to 0.47 and the haemoglobin content--mean 148.17--was in the range from 122.1 to 172.5 g 1(-1). for the red buffalo only individual values are given. in ...19852866870
buffalo in the northern natal game parks show no serological evidence of infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.a total of 594 sera collected from buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the hluhluwe/umfolozi game reserve complex, ndumu game reserve and the eastern shores of lake st lucia were examined for antibody to sat 1, 2 and 3 types of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in neutralization tests. no neutralization of sat 2 or 3 viruses was exhibited by any of the sera tested at final dilutions greater than 10. a small proportion (2,9%) of sera neutralized sat 1 virus at dilutions up to 10, but these were conside ...19852995896
transmission of foot-and-mouth disease from african buffalo virus carriers to bovines. 19853004007
a serological survey for brucellosis in buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park.a serological investigation was undertaken to determine the prevalence of brucellosis titres in buffalo in the kruger national park. a total of 406 samples were collected over a period of one year. the rose bengal and the complement fixation tests were used in the investigation as these tests are routinely used for cattle sera and have proved to be reliable. in the females, 12.6% adult, 10.7% sub-adult and 3% juvenile animals reacted positively to the tests. in the males, 15.1% adults, 10.6% sub ...19902286995
potential for the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) to cattle.foot-and-mouth disease viruses of types sat 1 and sat 2 isolated from diseased cattle and carrier buffalo, either on the same farm or in the same ecological area within a short time of each other, were compared by t1 oligonucleotide mapping. no similarity was observed between the maps obtained, indicating that the different populations of virus were unique to each species and that no interspecies transmission had occurred.19863010415
antibodies to some pathogenic agents in free-living wild species in tanzania.a total of 535 sera from eight species of wildlife were collected from different game areas in tanzania between 1987 and 1989. these sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, african horse sickness and african swine fever viruses and brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. sera from buffalo syncerus caff ...19902123458
characterisation of lymphocyte populations in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and waterbuck (kobus defassa) with workshop monoclonal order to measure different lymphocyte populations in buffalo (syncerus caffer) and waterbuck (kobus defassa), we analysed the monoclonal antibodies from the 1st international workshop on leukocyte antigens in cattle, sheep and goats for suitable cross-reactive reagents. peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three buffalo and three waterbuck were tested with the whole panel of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) together with some additional antibodies against mhc and ig. in some clusters almost al ...19912021061
corridor disease in south africa: a review of the current status.the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a reservoir host of theileria parva lawrencei the causative organism of corridor or buffalo disease of cattle. this organism can apparently transform its behaviour when tick-passaged through cattle to resemble that of theileria parva parva, causing classic east coast fever (ecf). these are major considerations for the strict quarantine measures imposed on buffaloes from corridor disease endemic areas in south africa. results of continuing studies on diagn ...19883058976
comparative analysis of infection and transformation of lymphocytes from african buffalo and boran cattle with theileria parva subsp. parva and t. parva subsp. lawrencei.this study compared infection and transformation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbm) of boran cattle and african buffalo in vitro to determine whether differences occurred which could account for the greater susceptibility of boran cattle to infection with theileria parva subsp. parva and t. parva subsp. lawrencei. pbm from buffalo and cattle had a similar percentage of cells which bound t. parva subsp. parva sporozoites (24 to 34%) and in which schizonts developed during the first week ...19863087880
antibody to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern africa.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen in southern africa. in order to determine the role of wild mammals in the natural ecology of the virus, sera from 3,772 wild mammals of 87 species and from 1,978 domestic dogs collected in south africa and zimbabwe between 1964 and 1985 were tested for antibody to cchf virus by reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi) and by indirect immunofluorescence (if). antibody was fou ...19873101526
isolation of theileria parasites from african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and characterization with anti-schizont monoclonal antibodies.antigenic differences between intra-lymphocytic theilerial parasites isolated from the blood of 18 african buffalo and grown in vitro were assessed with anti-schizont monoclonal antibodies (mabs). there was marked antigenic diversity both between isolates from different buffalo and between isolates taken at different times from the same buffalo. many of the isolates from both wild and captive buffalo appeared to consist of mixed parasite populations. some isolates were found by limiting dilution ...19873112700
experimental induction of theileria parva lawrencei carrier state in an african buffalo (syncerus caffer).an african buffalo (syncerus caffer), born in captivity and demonstrated to be theileria-free, and 2 susceptible cattle were inoculated with a theileria parva lawrencei sporozoite stabilate. the buffalo had a very mild disease reaction, while the 2 cattle died of acute theileriosis. it was possible to isolate t. p. lawrencei from the buffalo up to 888 days after infection by the application of non-infected rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphs and up to 657 days after infection by the establishmen ...19873112701
infection of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and cattle with theileria parva lawrencei after serial passage in cattle.the infectivity of a theileria parva lawrencei stabilate, from a stock derived from an african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the serengeti national park, tanzania, was investigated. in the first experiment a buffalo and three cattle were inoculated with a stabilate from a stock passaged three times in cattle. all cattle developed fatal theilerial infections. isolations from the buffalo by tick feeding and cell culture isolation showed that it was infected with t p lawrencei at the time of inocula ...19873112876
isolation of theileria parva lawrencei-infected lymphoid cell lines from free-ranging african buffaloes (syncerus caffer).lymphoid cells collected from the peripheral blood of 45 free-ranging buffaloes sampled in the masai mara game reserve in kenya were cultured in vitro in an attempt to establish cell lines of intralymphocytic theilerial schizonts. theileria parva lawrencei-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines were established with samples taken from 12 buffaloes, and 11 of these were maintained continuously in vitro. sixteen of the buffalo samples were contaminated with either trypanosomes or viruses. the successf ...19873114847
immunization of cattle using varying infective doses of theileria parva lawrencei sporozoites derived from an african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and treatment with buparvaquone.a theileria parva lawrencei isolate in the form of a sporozoite stabilate, derived by feeding clean rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal ticks on an african buffalo (syncerus caffer) captured in the laikipia district, kenya, was inoculated into groups of cattle at dilutions between 10(0) and 10(-3). groups of 3 cattle infected with 1 ml inocula at 10(0), 10(-1) and 10(-2) dilutions were treated with 2.5 mg/kg body weight of buparvaquone on day 0 and similar groups were left untreated to act as c ...19883131722
evaluation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and their parasite strain specificity from african buffalo infected with theileria parva.theileria parva-reactive cytotoxic lymphocytes and their precursors were examined in the blood of african buffalo infected with t. parva and uninfected african buffalo. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbm) from eight of 11 infected buffalo were found to have potent cytotoxic activity after stimulation with autologous parasitized cells for 6 days in vitro, while pbm from uninfected buffalo or pbm from infected buffalo not stimulated in vitro had no cytotoxic activity. the cytotoxic activity w ...19883140192
pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle.pestiviruses infect a wide range of domestic, captive and free-living ruminants. among domestic livestock, border disease virus is a well recognised cause of an important congenital disease of sheep in virtually all sheep-rearing countries of the world. the clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and control of this disease are described in detail. one natural outbreak of border disease in domestic goats has been described and there is serological and virological evidence that pest ...19901966719
impact of season on seminal characteristics and endocrine status of adult free-ranging african buffalo (syncerus caffer).pituitary, gonadal and adrenal activity were compared in free-living, adult african buffalo bulls during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. frequent blood samples were collected for 2 h from anaesthetized bulls treated intravenously with saline, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh, 200 micrograms), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hcg, 10,000 i.u.) or adrenocorticotrophic hormone (acth, 1.5 mg). electroejaculates also were collected from anaesthetized bulls during the breeding and nonbreeding ...19911905353
antibodies to brucella spp. among blue wildebeest and african buffalo in kenya.a serologic survey of blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus burchell) and african buffalo (syncerus caffer sparrman) in the masai mara area was conducted. antibodies to brucella spp. were found in 18% of the blue wildebeest and 30% of the african buffalo examined. there were titers in all age groups and in both sexes. hygromata were seen in both species. the increase in numbers of blue wildebeest and african buffalo which share grazing and watering areas with cattle of the masai people, makes t ...19863712644
the response of animals to suxamethonium (succinyldicholine) and succinylmonocholine.the time which elapses before cessation of breathing, and blood pressure and blood gas changes after the intramuscular administration of suxamethonium, or a mixture of suxamethonium and hexamethonium, is compared in immobilised african elephants (loxodonta africana) and buffaloes (syncerus caffer). in addition, the respiratory responses of elephants and other animals to intravenous administration of suxamethonium and succinylmonocholine are reported on, as are the effects of darting animals with ...19911770482
a comparison of african buffalo, n'dama and boran cattle as reservoirs of trypanosoma congolense for different glossina species.teneral glossina morsitans centralis machado were fed on the flanks of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer sparrman), n'dama (bos taurus l.) or boran (bos indicus l.) cattle infected with trypanosoma congolense broden. the infected tsetse were maintained on rabbits and on day 30 after the infected feed, the surviving tsetse were dissected to determine the infection rates. the mean infection rates (% +/- se) in the midgut of tsetse fed on buffalo, n'damas and borans were 23.5 +/- 3.3, 31.6 +/- 2 ...19921421502
effects of tick infestation on boran (bos indicus) cattle immunised against theileriosis in an endemic area of kenya.boran (bos indicus) heifers were immunised by infection with local theileria parva parva, t p lawrencei and t mutans stocks and treated with parvaquone and later exposed to natural tick and tick-borne disease challenge in the trans-mara division of kenya. the theileria species parasites in the challenge were maintained in african buffalo and cattle and the tick vectors were supported by several species of wild bovidae and domestic livestock present in the area. thirty immune cattle were observed ...19854081331
preliminary observations on a theilerial species pathogenic to cattle isolated from buffalo (syncerus caffer) in tanzania. 19734200288
theileria lawrencei infection of cattle and african buffalo: evaluation of a buffalo cell culture schizont antigen for the indirect fluorescent antibody test. 19744216939
anthrax in an african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park. 19724217835
pentastomiasis (armillifer and linguatula sp.) infestations of wild animals in the kruger national park.armillifer armillatus, linguatula serrata and l. nuttalli have each been isolated from nine different mammalian species in the kruger national park: lion, panthera leo; leopard, p. pardus; buffalo, syncerus caffer: blue wildebeest, connechaetes taurinus; giraffe, girraffa camelopardalis; kudu, tragelophus strepsiceros; waterbuck, kobus ellipsyprymnus; tsessebe, damaliscus iunatus and impala, aepyceros melampus. successful transmission of l. serrata from the lion to a domestic ox and impala is re ...19751223283
nutritional studies on east african herbivores. 2. losses of nitrogen in the faeces.1. a series of nitrogen-balance trials was done using groups of four animals of various species of wild and domesticated ruminants using pelleted diets (arman & hopcraft, 1975). 2. various herbivores were given grass or grass hays, legumes, herbs and shrubs. food and faecal samples were analysed for n. 3. with the pelleted diets, the n content of the faecal dry matter (dm) was low for eland (taurotragus oryx pallas), high for sheep and cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus) and intermediate for the ...19751115763
attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.intravenous injection of cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, syncerus caffer; a kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy.1976994140
ticks from the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in ngamiland, november 1972, 93 out of 100 african buffalo from 3 areas in ngamiland, botswana, were found to be infested with ticks. the tick species present and the percentage of buffalo infested by each were: hyalomma truncatum (63%), h. rufipes (54%), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (68%), r. tricuspis (11%), r. simus (4%) and boophilus decoloratus (1%). the mean number of ticks per animal was 8,6 (standard deviation +/-4,1), representing a mean of 6,5+/-3,4 male and 2,1+/-1,9 female ticks. the incidence ...1976940665
pathogenicity for a buffalo (syncerus caffer) of allerton-type herpes virus isolated from a tanzanian buffalo. 19724336528
clinical foot-and-mouth disease in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer). 19724352040
the survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in african buffalo with non-transference of infection to domestic cattle. 19744364599
effect of lipid solvents on cutaneous moisture loss.application of various lipid solvents and dimethyl sulphoxide to the skin of cattle, sheep, eland and african buffalo exposed to an air temperature of 20 degrees c caused an increase in cutaneous moisture loss. the effect did not occur after exposure to an air temperature of 40 degrees c or after adrenaline administration. blockage of sweating by either bethanidine or phenoxybenzamine did not affect the response. camel, donkey, dog and man showed no increase in cutaneous moisture loss after lipi ...1977921632
blood parasites of some wild bovidae in botswana.blood smears from a total of 282 wild bovidae from ngamiland, botswana were examined for the presence of blood parasites. the following species were sampled: 190 african buffalo, 23 impala, 10 blue wildebeest, 18 tsessebe, 1 eland, 13 lechwe, 16 kudu and 11 sable antelope. in addition, blood from 36 of the above antelope and from a further 48 buffalo was inoculated into rodents to test for the presence of trypanosomes. an anaplasm morphologically indistinguishable from anaplasma marginale theile ...1975813170
a case of haemorrhagic septicaemia in an african buffalo (syncerus nanus) in nigeria. 19724666913
liver fluke fasciola gigantica in african buffalo and antelopes in uganda, east africa. 19724673717
observations on the histomorphology of sarcosporidian cysts of some east african game animals (artiodactyla).the histomorphology of formalin-fixed micro and macrosarcosporidian cysts of grant's, thomson's gazelle, impala, wildebeest, bubal hartebeest, cape eland, red duiker, kirk's dik-dik, defassa waterbuck, bohor reedbuck, african buffalo, giraffe, warthog, and giant forest hog is described. the wall of microsarcosporidian cysts is smooth and without villi or with villi. the villi are solid or of honeycomb-like structure on tangential sections. in some animals, microsarcosporidian cysts of almost the ...1975807047
in vitro cultivation of theileria lawrencei-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from a buffalo (syncerus caffer). 19744856519
a severe spinal deformity in a cape buffalo calf (syncerus caffer) similar to "short spine lethal" of angus cattle (bos taurus). 19744856527
contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in african buffalo (syncerus caffer). 19704945496
a new theilerial parasite of the african buffalo (syncerus caffer). 19654956217
thelazia rhodesi (nematoda: spiruroidea) in african buffalo in uganda, east africa. 19725042064
the prevalence of antibody of antibody to contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (mycoplasma strain f38) in some wild herbivores and camels in kenya.sera of 11 species of wild herbivores were tested for antibody to mycoplasma strain f38 which causes contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) in kenya. antibodies were found in buffalo (syncerus caffer) (32%), impala (aepyceros melampus) (10%) and camels (camelus dromedarius) (49%) but not in bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus), eland (taurotragus oryx), grant's gazelle (gazella granti), kongoni (alcelaphus buselaphus cokei), oryx (oryx beisa), thomson's gazelle (gazella thomsonii), waterbuck (kobu ...1978691121
experiments on the babesia bigemina carrier state in east african buffalo and eland.three captive east african buffalo (syncerus caffer) were injected with 5 x 109 bovine erythrocytes with babesia bigemina pathogenic for cattle. none of the buffalo showed signs of disease, but babesia were found in blood smears for four days indicating their multiplication. the carrier state of babesia bigemina was established in two buffalo for 28 and 147 days respectively by sub-inoculation into splenectomized calves, while no parasites were demonstrated 28 days after injection in the third b ...1979543000
the isolation of brucella abortus biotype i from african buffalo in the kruger national park.the isolation of brucella abortus from free living wild africal buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park, south africa, is described. the four isolates testes proved to be biotype i and it is speculated that the origin of brucellosis in wild animals is from domestic stock.1977406393
[sarcosporidiosis in african buffaloes (syncerus caffer)]. 1978120571
isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from african buffaloes (syncerus caffer).eleven virus isolations were made from the blood of 45 free living healthy african buffaloes by long term cocultivation of their leucocytes with bovine thymus or spleen cells. the isolates were indistinguishable from each other or from herpesviruses isolated from a severely ill buffalo calf and from a dead buffalo. these viruses possessed the characteristics of the bovine herpesvirus-3 (bhv-3) group and were indistinguishable by serology and restriction endonuclease analysis from the bhv-3 type ...19892662288
parasitic and other diseases of the african buffalo in the kruger national park. 19705535831
atherosclerosis in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and comparative studies in man. 19685689366
the carrier status of sheep, cattle and african buffalo recovered from heartwater.sheep, cattle and the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) were shown to remain carriers of heart-water (caused by cowdria ruminantium) for long periods after recovery; 223, 246 and 161 days, respectively. transmission was achieved using adults of the southern african bont tick (amblyomma hebraeum) that had fed as nymphs on recovered animals. our findings differ from those of other workers who attempted transmission using nymphs that had fed as larvae on recovered animals or with blood from recover ...19892617830
afrotropical culicoides: a redescription of c. (avaritia) imicola kieffer, 1913 (diptera: ceratopogonidae) with description of the closely allied c. (a.) bolitinos sp. nov. reared from the dung of the african buffalo, blue wildebeest and cattle in south africa.culicoides (avaritia) imicola, kieffer is redescribed and its current worldwide distribution reviewed. it is compared with the closely allied c. (a.) bolitinos sp. nov. descriptions of both sexes of c. imicola and c. bolitinos sp. nov. are based entirely on series of reared adults. t-tests were performed on antennal and palpal data to differentiate more clearly these 2 species. the results are tabulated. short notes are given on the larval habitat of c. bolitinos sp. nov. in south africa, namely ...19892726191
the isolation of parainfluenza 3 virus from free-living african buffalo (syncerus caffer). 19806254236
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2 in african wildlife.a total of 3,470 sera, collected between 1963 and 1980 from 45 different species of wildlife in nine african countries, was examined for virus neutralizing (vn) antibodies to bovid herpesvirus 2. antibodies were demonstrated in 20 species including 15 bovidae, two suidae, hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius), giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) and a green monkey (cercopithecus aethiops); 11 of these species had not been previously recorded as sero-positive. although the significance of neutralizi ...19826296471
infection of mammalian cells with theileria species.experiments were carried out to determine the susceptibility of mammalian cells to infection with different species of theileria in vitro. sporozoites of theileria parva (parva), theileria parva (lawrencei) and theileria taurotragi were isolated from rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks by grinding infected ticks in medium, filtering the suspension and concentrating by centrifugation. the sporozoites were used in attempts to infect in vitro peripheral blood leucocytes harvested from 16 different m ...19836406967
the distribution of wearout over evolved reliability structures.a multiple-integral equation, termed the wearout equation, describes the distribution of wearout (or aging) over evolved reliability structures, such as organisms and self-replicating machines, and thus statistically governs virtually all aging properties of the systems. the equation is applied to the computation of ab initio ("from the beginning") life tables for four natural populations of ungulates--wild boar, dall sheep, african buffalo, and hippopotamus--which represent a broad range of sur ...19892779258
the duration of the foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier state in african buffalo (i) in the individual animal and (ii) in a free-living herd.the maintenance of a virus depends on a number of factors, including the duration of infectivity and the size of the available host population. in this work, foot-and-mouth disease virus was shown to persist in individual african buffalo (syncerus caffer) for up to at least five years; thus, the duration of infectivity is more than adequate to cover the normal periods between calving peaks. in a small isolated free-living population which varied from 30 to 100 buffalo, two immunological types of ...19853004803
foot-and-mouth disease and the african buffalo (syncerus caffer). 1. carriers as a source of infection for cattle.ten pregnant buffalo cows, six of which were subsequently shown to be carriers of sat 1, 2 and 3 viruses, were captured in the kruger national park (knp) and allowed to calve in captivity. the buffalo cows and calves were separated by a fence from 6 fmd susceptible cattle but the buffalo and cattle were obliged to use common drinking troughs and hay racks. over a period of 15 months, during which the buffalo calves lost their maternally-derived immunity, neither the buffalo calves nor the suscep ...19863014418
the biology of bovine herpesvirus-4 infection of cattle.the biology of bovine herpesvirus-4 (bhv-4) infection of cattle is reviewed. the infection is distributed worldwide. most of isolated viruses are non-pathogenic in cattle; some of them are able to produce a genital disease. twenty-nine structural polypeptides were described; ten of them are glycosylated. two major glycoproteins were characterized by monoclonal antibodies. restriction maps of bhv-4 dna are available for the enzymes ecori, bamhi and hindiii. the strain variations studied by restri ...19902155770
foot-and-mouth disease and the african buffalo (syncerus caffer). ii. virus excretion and transmission during acute infection.three groups of young buffalo in captivity were infected by exposing them to similar buffalo in the acute stages of infection induced by needle inoculation with sat 1 or 2 viruses. clear foot lesions developed in most of the buffalo from which the relevant virus types were re-isolated. during the first week following infection virus was found in blood, nasal secretions, saliva, preputial secretions and faeces. air samples collected in the immediate vicinity of acutely infected buffalo were also ...19863014419
tuberculosis in wildlife in the ruwenzori national park uganda (part i).the technique adopted for a survey of tuberculous infection in wild cape buffalo (syncerus caffer, sparrman) living in the ruwenzori national park, uganda is described and the results of gross post-mortem examinations of a random sample of 52 buffalo and a selected sample of 64 thin buffalo are tabulated. tuberculosis was found to occur in buffalo in the area of the park north of the maramagambo forest; the disease is considered to be absent from the area south of the forest. tuberculosis was fo ...19827201688
a set of test life tables for theoretical gerontology.prediction of life tables, which provide the most empirical information available about the statistical properties of aging, provides a rigorous test for any theory of aging as manifested at the organismic level of biological organization. for this purpose, a set of test tables for the wild boar (sus scrofa), domestic sheep (ovis aries), dall sheep (ovis dalli dalli), african buffalo (syncerus cafer), and hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius) is reconstructed from primary data taken from the lit ...19883346518
the occurrence of infectious diseases in mixed farming of domesticated wild herbivores and livestock in kenya. ii. bacterial diseases.the prevalence of antibodies to brucella spp., mycobacterium paratuberculosis and the mycoplasma spp. causing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia was determined in various species of ruminants on a ranch in the semi-arid zone of southeastern kenya. antibody titers to brucella spp. were found in eland (taurotragus oryx), oryx (oryx beisa) and camels (camelus dromedarius). reactors were not found in buffalo (syncerus caffer), sheep (ovis aries) and goats (capra ...19883373635
continuing presence of rinderpest virus as a threat in east africa, 1983-1985.the re-emergence of rinderpest virus in east africa in 1979 caused widespread outbreaks of disease and subclinical infection throughout the region until mid-1983. subsequent massive emergency vaccination campaigns have been successful in eliminating clinical rinderpest from tanzania and preventing its spread southwards. unfortunately the virus is still endemic in north-eastern uganda and has recently caused epidemic outbreaks with high mortality in cattle in that country. in kenya, buffaloes (sy ...19873824842
heartwater challenge of two cape buffalo (syncerus caffer).two fifth generation male cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) born in a european zoo, produced no signs of disease when injected with cowdria ruminantium infected blood. it would suggest that this species has an inate natural resistance to heartwater.19853999108
the isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from african buffalo (syncerus caffer). 19694309109
antigenic analysis of sat 2 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from zimbabwe using monoclonal antibodies.this paper compares strains of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype sat (south african territories) 2 viruses isolated from zimbabwe and other african countries using monoclonal antibodies (mab). a sandwich-elisa was used to examine the relative binding of anti-sat 2 mab to the various viruses. the mab-binding profiles of viruses isolated from field samples were compared using hierarchical cluster analysis. viruses were obtained from game animals, mainly african buffalo (syncerus caffer) which ...19957543860
[serological evidence of the existence of a wild reservoir of trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the pendjari biosphere reservation in the republic of benin].in the national park of pendjari, situated in the north-west of benin, 91 wild animals, belonging to seven species, were darted. thick and thin blood smears were examined for trypanosomes and plasma for trypanolytic antibodies against 6 antigenic variants of trypanosoma brucei gambiense. parasites were found in 13.92% and trypanolytic antibodies in 20.88% of the samples. a total of 28.57% of animals were positive by at least one of the two test systems used. morphologically trypanosoma congolens ...19921417158
investigations of allerton-type herpes virus infection in east african game animals and cattle.neutralization tests with a strain (ba) of allerton-type herpes virus, derived from a buffalo (syncerus caffer) were carried out on 924 sera from 17 species of e. african game animals and on cattle sera from tanzania (2001), kenya (792) and uganda (410).buffalo populations throughout e. africa showed a very high rate of infection, with all animals over 2 years of age serologically positive. antibody was present in some giraffe, waterbuck and hippopotamus sera and, less frequently, in impala, ela ...19714326248
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