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bluetongue antibody in botswana's domestic and game animals.bluetongue precipitating antibody was demonstrated in sera of cattle, camels, sheep, goats and seven game species. of the domestic species the percentage of sera positive were; cattle 92%, camels 81%, goats 83% and sheep 36%. sheep sera, unlike those of other domestic species, varied greatly from area to area in the percentage positive. seroconversions were recorded in adult sheep between september and april. in adult cattle there was a gradual decline in the percentage positive with increasing ...1979220761
the capture and translocation of gemsbok oryx gazella gazella in the nambi desert with the aid of fentanyl, etorphine and tranquillizers.twenty-three gemsbok in the namib desert were captured with combinations of fentanyl or etorphine hydrochloride, hyoscine hydrobromide and tranquilizers such as azaperone, su - 9064, triflupromazine hydrochloride and acetylpromazine maleate. fentanyl, a new immobilizing compound, proved to be a safe and effective immobilizing drug for capturing gemsbok. the gemsbok were chased on the interdune plains and darted from a land rover with the palmer powder-charge cap-chur gun. a six-seater helicopter ...19751223289
arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and burchell's and hartmann's zebras in the etosha and hardap nature reserves, namibia.a total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 burchell's zebras and 6 hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the etosha national park in the north and the hardap nature reserve in the south of namibia. all the other animals were shot in the etosha national park. a total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. the springbok carried few ticks. the adults of a rhipi ...19921297955
susceptibility of a fetal tongue cell line derived from bighorn sheep to five serotypes of bluetongue virus and its potential for the isolation of viruses.a cell line (bhfte) was derived from a tongue explant of a bighorn sheep fetus (ovis canadensis nelsoni). the cells have been maintained through 23 serial passages, and the modal number of chromosomes was calculated to be 55. monolayer cultures were shown to be susceptible to various viruses, including bluetongue virus (btv). of 5 btv serotypes (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) tested, each produced a cytopathic effect (cpe) on initial passage at 33 c. a field isolate (serotype 10) of btv from a black-tai ...19892562198
malpais spring virus: a new vesiculovirus from mosquitoes collected in new mexico and evidence of infected indigenous and exotic ungulates.two virus isolates, 1 each from aedes campestris and psorophora signipennis mosquitoes collected in south central new mexico in august 1985, were shown by neutralization tests to be identical to each other, but not to any of more than 250 arthropod-borne and other viruses. electron microscopy of 1 isolate (85-488nm, chosen as the prototype) indicated that this strain shares morphologic characteristics with viruses of the family rhabdoviridae. indirect fluorescent antibody tests indicated that th ...19883061310
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
taenia multiceps larva from a gemsbok. 19724664320
the ixodid tick burdens of various large ruminant species in south african nature reserves.the ixodid tick burdens of eland (taurotragus oryx), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the kruger national park, transvaal; of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and nyala in the hluhluwe game reserve, natal; and of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the mountain zebra national park, an eland in the thomas baines nature reserve and an eland and greater kudu in the andries vosloo kudu reserve, eastern ...19836646664
epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the british isles.since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19 captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections in the british isles. the affected animals have comprised members of the family bovidae: one nyala (tragelaphus angasi), four eland (taurotragus oryx), and six greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (oryx gazella), one arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and members of the family felidae: four ...19947817514
parasites of south african wildlife. xvi. helminths of some antelope species from the eastern and western cape provinces.the numbers and species of helminths recovered from one black wildebeest, connochaetes gnou, three eland, taurotragus oryx, 18 mountain reedbuck, redunca fulvorufula, one red hartebeest, aicelaphus buselaphus and two springbok, antidorcas marsupialis, in the mountain zebra national park, eastern cape province; two black wildebeest, two grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus, two mountain reedbuck and four springbok in the karoo national park, western cape province; two bontebok, damaliscus pygargus dorca ...200010843320
infectious disease survey of gemsbok in new mexico.exotic wildlife can introduce new diseases or act as reservoirs of endemic diseases. on white sands missile range, new mexico (usa), significant declines in populations of native ungulates generally correspond to increases in range and population density of the exotic gemsbok (oryx gazella gazella), introduced beginning in 1969. we surveyed gemsbok in 2001 for exposure to a variety of diseases potentially important for native ungulates. high seroprevalence was found for malignant catarrhal fever ...200314733271
evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (ovibos moschatus), nubian ibex (capra nubiana), and gemsbok (oryx gazella).six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (alhv-1) carried by wildebeest (connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (ovhv-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (cphv-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic mcf in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus; mcfv-wtd). ...200314733283
studies on the genus setaria viborg, 1795 in south africa. iii. setaria thwaitei mönnig, 1933.mönnig (1933) described setaria thwaitei from a sable antelope, hippotragus niger, the type host, as well as from roan antelope, hippotragus equinus, and waterbuck, kobus ellipsiprymnus. yeh (1959) considered setaria thwaitei to be synonym of setaria hornbyi. material collected from roan antelopes, sable antelopes and gemsbuck, oryx gazella, from several localities in the north and south of south africa, together with mönnig's (1933) material, were re-examined. measurements of the adult worms ob ...200415373332
helminth parasites of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the klein karoo.the number and species of helminth parasites from three gemsbok (oryx gazella) were recorded, and their faecal nematode egg counts and the level of pasture contamination determined. six nematode genera were recovered and four species identified, of which trichostrongylus rugatus was the most prevalent. other nematode species recovered were cooperia sp., agriostomum sp., haemonchus contortus, nematodirus spathiger and ostertagia ostertagi. none of the worms were present in all animals studied, an ...200617283732
ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in south africa.the objective of this study was to make an inventory of the ixodid tick species infesting wild animals in three western, semi-arid nature reserves in south africa. to this end 22 animals in the kgalagadi transfrontier park, 10 in the west coast national park and 16 in the karoo national park were examined. fourteen tick species were recovered, of which hyalomma truncatum, rhipicephalus exophthalmos and rhipicephalus glabroscutatum were each present in two reserves and the remainder only in one. ...200717708155
the pleistocene archaeology and environments of the wasiriya beds, rusinga island, kenya.western kenya is well known for abundant early miocene hominoid fossils. however, the wasiriya beds of rusinga island, kenya, preserve a pleistocene sedimentary archive with radiocarbon age estimates of >33-45 ka that contains middle stone age artifacts and abundant, well-preserved fossil fauna: a co-occurrence rare in eastern africa, particularly in the region bounding lake victoria. artifacts and fossils are associated with distal volcanic ash deposits that occur at multiple localities in the ...201020880570
physico-chemical, microbiological, textural and sensory attributes of matured game salami produced from springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), gemsbok (oryx gazella), kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and zebra (equus burchelli) harvested in namibia.differences and consumer acceptability of matured salami produced from game species were evaluated. the ph of the salami differed (p < 0.05) with springbok salami having the highest mean ph value. no differences (p > 0.05) were observed among the species for a(w), shear force, gumminess or cohesiveness. microbiological counts of the game salami differed for coliform (p < 0.05) but not for e. coli (p > 0.05) counts. the most distinctive characteristics observed by the quantitative descriptive ana ...201021185658
parasites of south african wildlife. xix. the prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the limpopo province, south africa.little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. the aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. ten impalas (aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), two bla ...201123327219
where is the game? wild meat products authentication in south africa: a case study.wild animals' meat is extensively consumed in south africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. to test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained dna sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit i and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. the reliability of species assignments were evaluated using blast searches in genbank, maximum likelihood phylog ...201323452350
retrospective serological investigation of bovine tuberculosis in two gemsbok (oryx gazelle gazelle) and an onager (equus hemionus onager).in 1997 a 26-yr-old gemsbok (oryx gazelle gazelle) died of bovine tuberculosis in a zoo. three remaining gemsbok were administered the comparative tuberculin skin test repeatedly over a period of 5 mo. two animals showed inconclusive results on the second test. all three gemsbok were euthanatized. mycobacterium bovis was isolated from one of those with an inconclusive skin test result, whereas mycobacterium fortuitum was detected in the other gemsbok. eight years later, an onager (equus hemionus ...201324450065
weather and prey predict mammals' visitation to water.throughout many arid lands of africa, australia and the united states, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. in part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species ...201526560518
buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in botswana.brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in southern africa, particularly in botswana.201222412932
the genus hyalomma koch, 1844. i. reinstatement of hyalomma (euhyalomma) glabrum delpy, 1949 (acari, ixodidae) as a valid species with a redescription of the adults, the first description of its immature stages and notes on its biology.for nearly 50 years the ixodid tick hyalomma marginatum turanicum, reputedly introduced into south africa on imported persian sheep, has been considered identical to the asian hyalomma (euhyalomma) marginatum turanicum pomerantzev, 1946. comparisons of this tick with the asian h. (e.) m. turanicum and other subspecies of hyalomma (euhyalomma) marginatum, however, reveal that it is an old taxon, namely hyalomma rufipes glabrum delpy, 1949. it is hereby reinstated as hyalomma (euhyalomma) glabrum, ...200616715874
the prevalence of non-o157:h7 shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) in namibian game meat.large game animals play an important role as carriers and transmitters of o157:h7 and non-o157:h7 shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) in nature. fresh meat obtained from game animals has been identified as an important source of food-borne stec infections. the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the top 6 non-o157 stec strains (serogroups o26, o45, o103, o111, o121, and o145) in namibian game meat based on testing for stx, eae, and o-group-specific genes. meat samples fr ...201830574994
serological evidence of bluetongue in game animals in botswana.using the agar gel precipitin technique the sera of 397 african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and 90 sera of other common game species were examined for bluetongue antibodies. of the adult buffalo 283 out of 325 (87 per cent) were positive. buffalo calves were positive in 25 out of 72 cases (35 per cent). positive reactions were also recorded in lechwe (kobus leche), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), red hartebeeste (alcelaphus buselaphus), gemsbok (oryx gazella), sable (hippotragus niger) and impala ( ...1978204086
how free-ranging ungulates with differing water dependencies cope with seasonal variation in temperature and aridity.large mammals respond to seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation by behavioural and physiological flexibility. these responses are likely to differ between species with differing water dependencies. we used biologgers to contrast the seasonal differences in activity patterns, microclimate selection, distance to potential water source and body temperature of the water-independent gemsbok (oryx gazella gazella) and water-dependent blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), free-living in t ...201931723430
alarm calls or predator calls: which elicit stronger responses in ungulate communities living with and without lions?alarm calls and predator vocalizations convey information on predator presence and potential risk. generally, prey employ anti-predator behaviours more in response to alarm calls. however, occasionally prey respond more to the vocalizations of specific predators. a key question is do prey still respond to alarm calls and predator vocalizations when a dangerous predator is absent? additionally, would the prey species' response (e.g. vigilance) differ from prey already living with these predators? ...201930919106
basic haematological values in antelopes--ii. the hippotraginae and the tragelaphinae.basic haematological values in 49 animals of five species of the subfamily hippotraginae, namely the roan antelope hippotragus equinus, sable antelope hippotragus niger, adax antelope addax nasomaculatus, gemsbok oryx oryx gazella gazella and scimitar horned oryx oryx damah and in 51 individuals of five species in the subfamily tragelaphinae, including the bushbuck tragelaphus scriptus, nyala tragelaphus angasi, greater kudu tragelaphus strepsiceros, cape eland tautotragus oryx and bongo bocercu ...19846149054
is the climate right for pleistocene rewilding? using species distribution models to extrapolate climatic suitability for mammals across continents.species distribution models (sdms) are increasingly used for extrapolation, or predicting suitable regions for species under new geographic or temporal scenarios. however, sdm predictions may be prone to errors if species are not at equilibrium with climatic conditions in the current range and if training samples are not representative. here the controversial "pleistocene rewilding" proposal was used as a novel example to address some of the challenges of extrapolating modeled species-climate re ...201020877563
ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the free state province, south africa.eight ixodid tick species, associated with 59 free-ranging mammals belonging to 10 species, were collected at five different localities in the free state province, south africa. four of the study areas were nature reserves (willem pretorius, sandveld, tussen-die-riviere, and soetdoring), and one site was a private farm located in senekal district. the collection was performed from march 2006 until june 2006. ticks (n=569) and tissues from animals (n=52) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction ...200919395753
parasites of south african wildlife. xvii. ostertagia triquetra n. sp. (nematoda: trichostrongylina) from the grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus (forster, 1790).re-examination of teladorsagia hamata (mönnig, 1932) durette-desset, 1989 reported from grey rhebuck, pelea capreolus (forster, 1790) proved it to be a new species of ostertagi ransom, 1907. the new species, for which the name ostertagia triquetra n. sp. is proposed, differs from teladorsagia hamata in the configuration of the bursal rays (2-1-2 in the former, 2-2-1 in the latter), and in that the interno-dorsal branch of the spicules bears a process that is triangular and convex in the new spec ...200312825679
gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order artiodactyla at whipsnade wild animal park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) of wildebeest (connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. gamma herpesvirus dna was detected in the kno ...200212208112
species-specific sperm-egg interaction affects the utility of a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization system for evaluating antelope sperm.the purpose of this study was to evaluate cryopreserved fringe-eared (fe) oryx (oryx gazella callotis) sperm function using a heterologous in vitro fertilization (ivf) system previously developed to study scimitar-horned (sh) oryx (oryx dammah) spermatozoa. semen was collected by electroejaculation from fe oryx (n = 2) and sh oryx (n = 2), evaluated immediately postcollection, and cryopreserved. thawed spermatozoa were evaluated for motility, forward progression, and acrosomal status immediately ...200111566750
fibre utilization by kalahari dwelling subterranean damara mole-rats (cryptomys damarensis) when fed their natural diet of gemsbok cucumber tubers (acanthosicyos naudinianus).kalahari dwelling damara mole-rats (cryptomys damarensis) naturally feed on a high fibre diet of underground gemsbok cucumber tubers, acanthosicyos naudinianus. we investigated the degree of fibre utilization and fermentation on this diet by measuring caecal characteristics (namely temperature, ph and weight) and in vitro rates of gas and short chain fatty acid (scfa) production in these underground dwelling hind-gut fermentors. rectal temperatures (33.8 +/- 0.6 degrees c) were consistently high ...19947956122
an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants in a zoological collection.peste des petits ruminants virus was suspected to be the cause of a disease outbreak in a zoological collection at al ain in the arabian gulf. clinically the outbreak affected gazelles (gazellinae), ibex and sheep (caprinae) and gemsbok (hippotraginae); subclinical involvement of nilgai (tragelaphinae) was suspected. a morbillivirus was isolated and using monoclonal antibodies and biological tests in cattle, sheep and goats the virus of peste des petits ruminants was identified.19873424615
mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in two east african oryxes.tuberculous lesions were observed at necropsy of 2 east african oryxes (oryx gazella beisa) at a municipal zoological park in jackson, ms. microscopic examination revealed granulomas containing acid-fast bacilli in the lungs and liver of both animals, as well as in the uterus and mediastinal lymph nodes of 1 animal. mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the tissues of both oryxes and from fluid aspirated from the mammary gland of 1 oryx; the organism was pathogenic for guinea pigs but not ...1976977460
three african antelope species with varying water dependencies exhibit similar selective brain cooling.the use of selective brain cooling, where warm arterial blood destined for the brain is cooled in the carotid rete via counter-current heat exchange when in close proximity to cooler venous blood, contributes to the conservation of body water. we simultaneously measured carotid blood and hypothalamic temperature in four gemsbok, five red hartebeest and six blue wildebeest to assess the extent to which these free-living animals, with varying water dependency, routinely rely on selective brain coo ...201626920796
trichostrongylus auriculatus n. sp. (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) from the steenbok, raphicerus campestris (thunberg, 1811).during a pilot survey of the parasites of some artiodactylids in the kalahari gemsbok national park a new species of trichostrongylus looss, 1905 was recovered from the small intestine of a steenbok, raphicerus campestris (thunberg, 1811), a gemsbok, oryx gazella (linnaeus, 1758), and a red hartebeest, alcelaphus buselaphus (pallas, 1766). the male spicules were 0,120-0,148 mm long and an ear-shaped protuberance was present on the shaft of the left spicule. the presence of only a single protuber ...19863796947
a near-chromosome-scale genome assembly of the gemsbok (oryx gazella): an iconic antelope of the kalahari desert.the gemsbok (oryx gazella) is one of the largest antelopes in africa. gemsbok are heterothermic and thus highly adapted to live in the desert, changing their feeding behavior when faced with extreme drought and heat. a high-quality genome sequence of this species will assist efforts to elucidate these and other important traits of gemsbok and facilitate research on conservation efforts.201930649288
the morama bean (tylosema esculentum): a potential crop for southern africa.the morama bean is an underutilized leguminous oilseed native to the kalahari desert and neighboring sandy regions of botswana, namibia, and south africa (limpopo, north-west, gauteng, and northern cape provinces), and forms part of the diet of the indigenous population in these countries. it is also known as gemsbok bean, moramaboontjie, elandboontjie, braaiboonjie, marama, marumana, tsi, tsin, gami, and ombanui. it is reported as an excellent source of good quality protein (29-39%); its oil (2 ...201021092905
selective brain cooling in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): a physiological mechanism for coping with aridity?selective brain cooling is a thermoregulatory effector proposed to conserve body water and, as such, may help artiodactyls cope with aridity. we measured brain and carotid blood temperature, using implanted data loggers, in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in the desert of saudi arabia. on average, brain temperature was 0.24±0.05°c lower than carotid blood temperature for four oryx in april. selective brain cooling was enhanced in our arabian oryx compared with another species from the same gen ...201222899527
bayesian, maximum parsimony and upgma models for inferring the phylogenies of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.this investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16s rrna, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial dna using three different computational models including bayesian (ba), maximum parsimony (mp) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (upgma). the respective nucleotide sequences of three oryx species (oryx leucoryx, oryx dammah and oryx gazella) and an out-group (addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to ba, ...200819204824
the conflict between cheetahs and humans on namibian farmland elucidated by stable isotope diet analysis.large areas of namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. according to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: ...201425162403
seasonal and demographic factors influencing gastrointestinal parasitism in ungulates of etosha national park.host-parasite dynamics can be strongly affected by seasonality and age-related host immune responses. we investigated how observed variation in the prevalence and intensity of parasite egg or oocyst shedding in four co-occurring ungulate species may reflect underlying seasonal variation in transmission and host immunity. this study was conducted july 2005-october 2006 in etosha national park, namibia, using indices of parasitism recorded from 1,022 fecal samples collected from plains zebra (equu ...201020966262
carcass yields and physiochemical meat quality characteristics of namibian gemsbok (oryx gazella) as influenced by muscle, gender and age.the carcass yields and physiochemical meat quality characteristics of six different muscles (biceps femoris, infraspinatus, longissimus thoracis et lumborum, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, supraspinatus) for different sex and age groups of gemsbok antelope were determined. no live weight nor dressing percentage differences were observed for the different sex groups. while muscles, age and sex had an influence on the physiochemical parameters investigated, these differences were minor. the cie ...202032554318
massive bezoar in a free-ranging south african oryx (oryx gazella gazella) in south-central new mexico, usa.we documented a 23 kg bezoar that filled >60% of the rumen of an adult oryx (oryx gazella gazella) harvested in new mexico, us. the nidus of the bezoar was comprised of nylon cords and parachute cloth, constituents of parachutes. although slightly thin, the oryx was otherwise healthy at harvest.202031743064
food availability and foraging by wild colonies of damaraland mole-rats (cryptomys damarensis): implications for sociality.we investigated some of the ecological determinants of sociality in the damaraland mole-rat, including the spatial distribution and biomass of resources (geophytes) available to foraging damaraland mole-rats in partly vegetated sand dunes in the kalahari and in grasslands near dordabis, namibia, and the foraging behaviour and residency characteristics of colonies at dordabis. in both study areas, the geophytes had a clumped distribution, but the highest coefficients of dispersion and mean biomas ...199828308209
a comparison between the effects of day and night cropping on gemsbok (oryx gazella) meat quality.this study compares the effects of day- and night cropping on the quality of gemsbok meat. day-cropped animals had higher behavioural scores and cortisol levels (behavioural score: 3.5+/-0.423; cortisol: 136.88+/-2.731nmol/l) than night-cropped animals (behavioural score: 2.1+/-0.378; cortisol: 64.1+/-1.633nmol/l) while night-cropped animals had a higher mean ph(u) (5.54+/-0.013) than day-cropped animals (5.49+/-0.014). the exponential decay model, y=a+b(-)(ct), fitted to the ph data indicated a ...201020374911
phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rrna genes.we conducted a comparative evaluation of 12s rrna and 16s rrna genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (oryx leucoryx, oryx dammah and oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. our findings showed the failure of 12s rrna gene to differentiate between the genus oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16s rrna accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16s rrna segment for mole ...200819048493
brain and arterial blood temperatures of free-ranging oryx ( oryx gazella).we used implanted miniature data loggers to measure brain and arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for up to 15 days in four free-ranging oryx ( oryx gazella) in their natural habitat. globe temperatures exceeded 45 degrees c and average peak radiant heat load was 800 w.m(-2). arterial blood temperature exhibited a moderate amplitude nychthemeral rhythm of 1.8+/-0.3 degrees c (mean +/-sd). the amplitude of the nychthemeral rhythm was not influenced by variations in ambient heat load. average ...200211810215
anaesthesia of gemsbok (oryx gazella) with a combination of a3080, medetomidine and ketamine.an effective anaesthesia protocol was developed for adult free-ranging gemsbok (oryx gazella) using a combination of a3080, medetomidine and ketamine. a short induction time; good muscle relaxation, adequate oxygenation and stable heart rate and respiration rate characterised this anaesthetic regime. equal doses of a3080 and medetomidine (22-45 microg/kg) plus 200 mg of ketamine were administered to each animal. the anaesthesia was rapidly and completely reversed by intramuscular naltrexone at a ...200111513265
coenurus in the muscles of a gemsbok (oryx gazella).several swellings in the muscles of a gemsbok were found to be caused by coenurus. the finding is discussed and the relevant literature reviewed with regard to the occurrence of this tapeworm larva in domestic and wild animals.19902399656
molecular insights into the evolution of the family bovidae: a nuclear dna perspective.the evolutionary history of the family bovidae remains controversial despite past comprehensive morphological and genetic investigations. in an effort to resolve some of the systematic uncertainties within the group, a combined molecular phylogeny was constructed based on four independent nuclear dna markers (2,573 characters) and three mitochondrial dna genes (1,690 characters) for 34 bovid taxa representing all seven of the currently recognized bovid subfamilies. the nuclear dna fragments were ...200111420362
oral yeast flora of a kalahari population.during an epidemiological survey of 181 individuals working or residing in the kalahari national gemsbok park, swabs were taken from the dorsal surfaces of their tongues to determine a possible association between oral yeasts and clinically observed oral lesions as well as other underlying conditions detectable by serum chemistry. identification of yeasts was performed with a commercially available identification system, namely the atb 32c (montalieu, vercieu). yeasts were isolated from 30.4 per ...19959461886
comparison of thiafenantil-xylazine and carfentanil-xylazine for immobilization of gemsbok (oryx gazella).this study compared immobilization of gemsbok (oryx gazella) using thiafentanil-xylazine (tx) versus carfentanil-xylazine (cx). twelve adult gemsboks were divided into two groups, tx and cx. each group received either 6 mg thiafentanil (0.036 microg/kg (0.032-0.040 microg/kg) and 20 mg xylazine (tx) or 3.6 mg carfentanil (0.021 mg/kg [dosage error corrected] (0.017-0.024 mg/kg) [dosage error corrected] and 20 mg xylazine (cx). once handled, physiologic measurements were taken every 5 min for 20 ...201020945664
dietary plasticity of generalist and specialist ungulates in the namibian desert: a stable isotopes approach.desert ungulates live in adverse ecosystems that are particularly sensitive to degradation and global climate change. here, we asked how two ungulate species with contrasting feeding habits, grazing gemsbok (oryx g. gazella) and browsing springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), respond to an increase in food availability during a pronounced rain period. we used a stable isotope approach to delineate the feeding habits of these two ungulates in the arid kunene region of namibia. our nineteen months fi ...201323977249
individual variation of isotopic niches in grazing and browsing desert ungulates.ungulates often adjust their diet when food availability varies over time. however, it is poorly understood when and to what extent individuals change their diet and, if they do so, if all individuals of a population occupy distinct or similar dietary niches. in the arid namibian kunene region, we studied temporal variations of individual niches in grazing gemsbok (oryx gazella gazella) and predominantly browsing springbok (antidorcas marsupialis). we used variation in stable c and n isotope rat ...201525953117
dietary calcium content, calcium balance and mode of uptake in a subterranean mammal, the damara mole-rat.calcium flux and mode of uptake were investigated in an underground dwelling mole-rat, cryptomys damarensis, fed diets of varying ca content. the amount of dietary ca positively influenced the amounts ingested, absorbed and retained. the linear relationship between ingested and absorbed ca was significantly (p less than 0.001) correlated, implying that this process is nonsaturable. when mole-rats were fed a diet low in ca, apparent fractional absorption of ca was high (85.88%). this increased st ...19921729458
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