bluetongue antibody in botswana's domestic and game animals.bluetongue precipitating antibody was demonstrated in sera of cattle, camels, sheep, goats and seven game species. of the domestic species the percentage of sera positive were; cattle 92%, camels 81%, goats 83% and sheep 36%. sheep sera, unlike those of other domestic species, varied greatly from area to area in the percentage positive. seroconversions were recorded in adult sheep between september and april. in adult cattle there was a gradual decline in the percentage positive with increasing ...1979220761
the life cycle of rhipicephalus lunulatus neumann, 1907 (acarina:ixodidae) under laboratory conditions, with notes on its ecology in zimbabwe.the durations of the developmental periods of rhipicephalus lunulatus at 25 degrees c and 87% rh were: preoviposition, 2-9 days; oviposition, 29-34 days; minimum incubation, 11-27 days; nymphal premoult period, 11-23 days; and adult premoult period, 19-30 days. the durations of the feeding periods on a rabbit were: 3-7 days for larvae and 4-11 days for nymphs. adult feeding was completed on a rabbit and a sheep in 10-22 days in january and 14-64 days in september, and only fertilized females com ...19853870962
electron microscopic study of the african strain of malignant catarrhal fever virus in bovine cell cultures.malignant catarrhal fever (african strain) is a viral disease of ruminants which is considered an exotic disease in the united states. viral isolates obtained from one clinically ill gaur (bos gaurus) and a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) located in a zoologic park in oklahoma, and from one heifer (bos taurus) and a domestic white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) experimentally inoculated with the isolated and identified african strain of malignant catarrhal fever virus (mcfv), were ...19827073076
antibody to crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in wild mammals from southern africa.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is becoming increasingly recognized as an important human pathogen in southern africa. in order to determine the role of wild mammals in the natural ecology of the virus, sera from 3,772 wild mammals of 87 species and from 1,978 domestic dogs collected in south africa and zimbabwe between 1964 and 1985 were tested for antibody to cchf virus by reversed passive hemagglutination inhibition (rphi) and by indirect immunofluorescence (if). antibody was fou ...19873101526
basic haematological values in antelopes--ii. the hippotraginae and the tragelaphinae.basic haematological values in 49 animals of five species of the subfamily hippotraginae, namely the roan antelope hippotragus equinus, sable antelope hippotragus niger, adax antelope addax nasomaculatus, gemsbok oryx oryx gazella gazella and scimitar horned oryx oryx damah and in 51 individuals of five species in the subfamily tragelaphinae, including the bushbuck tragelaphus scriptus, nyala tragelaphus angasi, greater kudu tragelaphus strepsiceros, cape eland tautotragus oryx and bongo bocercu ...19846149054
malignant catarrhal fever in greater kudus. 19744473442
feeding habits and flight range of blow-flies (chrysomyia spp.) in relation to anthrax transmission in the kruger national park, south africa.carrion-frequenting blow-flies (chrysomyia albiceps and c. marginalis) were allowed 4 days of feeding on 32p-orthophosphate-labelled blood or an impala carcass (aepyceros melampus) in the northern kruger national park, south africa. the dispersal and density of fly faecal and discard droplets were then established using a geiger-counter, indicating that most droplets occurred between a height of 1 and 3 m on nearby leaves and twigs. this coincides with the preferred feeding height of kudu (trage ...19902216348
ultrastructural features of spongiform encephalopathy transmitted to mice from three species of bovidae.the ultrastructural neuropathology of mice experimentally inoculated with brain tissue of nyala (tragelaphus angasi; subfamily bovinae), or kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros; subfamily bovinae) affected with spongiform encephalopathy was compared with that of mice inoculated with brain tissue from cows (bos taurus; subfamily bovinae) with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse). as fresh brain tissue was not available for nyala or kudu, formalin-fixed tissues were used for transmission from these sp ...19921462768
detection and control of rotavirus infections in zoo animals.fecal specimens from 15 exotic animal species, with and without diarrhea, were examined for the presence of rotavirus, bacterial enteropathogens, and intestinal parasites. a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect antigens of rotavirus. rotavirus was detected in the feces of 20 (57%) of 35 of the animals, which included addax (addax nasomaculatus), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), saiga (saiga tatarica), white-tailed gnu (connochaetus gnou), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsice ...19836315660
the effect of dipping on parasitic and free-living populations of amblyomma hebraeum on a farm and on an adjacent nature reserve.domestic stock on a farm 30 km north of grahamstown were treated with an acaricide at regular intervals over a period of several years. this resulted in a marked reduction in all stages of development of amblyomma hebraeum on kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), scrub hares (lepus saxatilis) and helmeted guinea fowl (numida meleagris) which were on the farm compared with the burdens of similar animals in an adjacent nature reserve. the populations of free-living larvae of a. hebraeum on this farm an ...19873448583
some avian and mammalian hosts of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae).large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the republic of south africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum. every warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), burchell's zebra (equus burchelli), impala (aepyceros melampus) and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the kruger national park in the north-eastern transvaal lowveld was infested with a. hebraeum. in the eastern cape province every helmet ...19873329327
rabies in the kudu antelope (tragelaphus strepsiceros).an epizootic of rabies in the greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) occurred in namibia during 1977-1983. the virus strain involved in the epizootic proved to be identical to rabies strains found in infected dogs in many african countries. such a sudden and large outbreak of rabies could not be explained on the basis of the etiologic agent. a thorough investigation into kudu characteristics revealed that the kudu population had increased disproportionally before the epizootic in response to fa ...19883206071
surveillance and control of anthrax and rabies in wild herbivores and carnivores in namibia.anthrax has been studied intensively in etosha national park, namibia since 1966; in addition, since 1975, mortality due to rabies and all other causes has been recorded, totalling 6,190 deaths. standard diagnostic procedures demonstrated that at least 811 deaths (13%) were due to anthrax and 115 deaths (2%) were caused by rabies. of the total number of deaths due to anthrax, 97% occurred in zebra (equus burchelli), elephant (loxodonta africana), wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and springbok ...19938518440
parocooperia devossin. sp. (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) from the bushbuck, tragelaphus scriptus (pallas, 1766).a new species of paracooperia travassos, 1935 was found in the small intestines of 4 bushbuck, tragelaphus scriptus (pallas, 1766), and 3 greater kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros (pallas, 1766), all culled in the kruger national park. the nematodes appear to be widespread in the park, since the bushbuck originated from skukuza in the central part of the park, 2 of the 3 kudu from near malelane in the south and the remaining kudu from pafuri in the extreme north. the worms are named paracooperia de ...19846462630
cooperia acutispiculum n. sp (nematoda: trichostrongylidae) from the kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros (pallas, 1766). 19827177587
comparison of genomes of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses by restriction endonuclease analysis.the restriction endonuclease dna cleavage patterns of eight isolates of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses were examined using the restriction endonucleases hindiii and ecori. the eight viruses could be assigned to two distinct groups. virus isolates from a blue wildebeest, a sika deer and an ibex had restriction endonuclease dna cleavage patterns that were in general similar to each other. the restriction pattern of these three viruses was distinct from the other five. of these ...19892558629
tuberculosis in greater kudu.four greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) died while maintained in captivity at a zoo. necropsy revealed tuberculous lesions in the lungs, spleen, and thoracic lymph nodes. histopathologic findings included granulomas with langhans' giant cells, necrosis, and mineralization. acid-fast organisms isolated from tissues of each kudu were identified as mycobacterium bovis.1976789313
primary structure of the hemoglobins from the greater kudu antelope (tragelaphus strepsiceros).the adult greater kudu antelope has two hemoglobin components, hb a and hb b, with one alpha and two beta chains. the complete amino-acid sequences of these three chains are presented. the two beta chains differ only in one residue at position 16 (gly----ser) and may be the product of two allelic genes. the primary structure of the chains was determined by sequencing the tryptic peptides after their isolation from the tryptic digest of the chains by high performance liquid chromatography. the al ...19854026993
experimental malignant catarrhal fever (african form) in white-tailed deer.white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were experimentally infected with the african form of malignant catarrhal fever (amcf) virus by inoculation of whole blood from experimentally infected cattle, from whole blood obtained from a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and from virus isolated in cell culture. the incubation period from amcf in experimentally infected deer ranged from 13 to 18 days. clinical disease was characterized by lacrimation, an elevated body temperature, conjunctivi ...19817310953
rabies in kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) in south west africa/namibia.a serious outbreak of rabies amongst kudus in south west africa/namibia has accounted for the deaths of an estimated 10 000 of them since 1977. the disease has spread at a rate of 40-60 km per year although its progress in an easterly direction was checked for more than 2 years by a game fence. although the fence restricted the movements of big game such as kudus, it did not prevent movement of the known vectors of rabies such as dogs and jackals. the outbreak coincided with a few years above av ...19817341782
a comparison of the tick burdens of wild animals in a nature reserve and on an adjacent farm where tick control is practised.acaricidal treatment of cattle, sheep and goats on a farm in valley bushveld in the grahamstown district resulted in a reduction in the numbers of certain tick species on kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), scrub hares (lepus saxatilis) and crowned guinea fowl (numida meleagris) on the same farm. the tick species most severely affected was amblyomma hebraeum, while haemaphysalis silacea, hyalomma marginatum rufipes and rhipicephalus appendiculatus were affected to a lesser extent. rhipicephalus gla ...19863572954
parasites of south african wildlife. ii. helminths of kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, from south west africa/namibia.a total of 23 kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, were shot at 2-month intervals from june 1983 to april 1984 in the etosha game reserve in the north of south west africa/namibia. the parasite survey conducted on these animals yielded 2 cestode and 12 nematode species. haemonchus vegliai and cooperia neitzi were the most prevalent nematodes and occurred in 13 animals each, followed by cooperia acutispiculum and an onchocerca sp. (9 animals each). the remaining nematodes were present in 4 (17%) or fe ...19883217096
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
parasites of south african wildlife. iv. helminths of kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, in the kruger national park.during ongoing surveys of parasites of wild animals in the kruger national park, a total of 96 kudu. tragelaphus strepsiceros, were culled in the southern part of the park at monthly intervals from april 1981 to march 1983. a single kudu was shot in the same area in november 1983. two more kudu were obtained from pafuri in the northern part of the park during october 1981 and another from near satara in the central part of the park during october 1982. the helminths of all the kudu were collecte ...19892748130
effect of interferons on the replication of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 of malignant catarrhal fever.four isolates of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf) were tested for their inducibility of and sensitivity to various interferons. viral isolates from an indian gaur (bos gaurus), a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and two wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) calves did not induce measurable interferon (ifn) in bovine fetal kidney cells. however, these low passages of each virus were all highly cell-associated and viral replication was inhibited at these passages by ifn ...19882457716
spongiform encephalopathy in an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) and a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros)clinical, pathological and epidemiological details of scrapie-like encephalopathies are described in an arabian oryx and a greater kudu. clinical signs included ataxia and loss of condition with a short, progressive clinical course (22 and three days, respectively). histopathological examination of the brains revealed spongiform encephalopathy characteristic of that observed in scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse). it seems probable that these cases have a common aetiology with bse ...19902264242
scrapie-like encephalopathy in a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) which had not been fed ruminant-derived protein.a 19-month-old greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), whose dam had died 15 months earlier with spongiform encephalopathy, required euthanasia after developing severe ataxia and depression with an apparently sudden onset. no macroscopic abnormalities were detected on post mortem examination but a scrapie-like spongiform encephalomyelopathy was apparent on histopathological examination of brain and segments of spinal cord. negative stain electron microscopy of proteinase k-treated detergent ext ...19921604783
malignant catarrhal fever in an indian gaur and greater kudu: experimental transmission, isolation, and identification of a herpesvirus.herpesviruses were isolated in bovine cell cultures from buffy coat cells obtained from an indian gaur (bos gaurus) and a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) with clinical signs of the head and eye form of malignant catarrhal fever (mcf). both animals were from herds housed in a zoologic park in oklahoma. serial transmission of the head and eye form of mcf was accomplished by using whole blood from the gaur into a hereford-angus heifer, then whole blood from the heifer into a holstein calf, ...19827091816
attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.intravenous injection of cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, syncerus caffer; a kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy.1976994140
spongiform encephalopathy in a herd of greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros): epidemiological observations.a small herd of greater kudu, derived from three individuals, has been maintained at the zoological society of london since 1970. spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in five out of eight of the animals born in this herd since 1987. with the possible exception of the first confirmed case, none of these is thought to have been exposed to feeds containing ruminant-derived protein. the pattern of incidence suggests that greater kudu are very susceptible to the disease and that natural later ...19938256421
helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, zambia.helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the central province of zambia. new host-parasite records are: calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and kafue lechwe kobus leche kafuensis; avitellina centripunctata, gaigeria pachyscelis and gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe damaliscus lunatus lunatus; cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck redunca arundinum; dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu tragelaphus strep ...19989741058
parasites of south african wildlife. ix. helminths of kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, in the eastern cape province.the helminths of 25 kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, from 3 localities in the eastern cape province were collected, counted and identified. the majority of kudu harboured no worms, and the burdens of those infected were small. a race of cooperia rotundispiculum, a dictyocaulus sp., a haemonchus sp., nematodirus helvetianus and ostertagia ostertagi were recovered. two parasites, nematodirus helvetianus and ostertagia ostertagi can be added to the list of helminth parasites of kudu in south africa.19911923383
the ixodid tick burdens of various large ruminant species in south african nature reserves.the ixodid tick burdens of eland (taurotragus oryx), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), nyala (tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) in the kruger national park, transvaal; of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) and nyala in the hluhluwe game reserve, natal; and of gemsbok (oryx gazella) in the mountain zebra national park, an eland in the thomas baines nature reserve and an eland and greater kudu in the andries vosloo kudu reserve, eastern ...19836646664
non-bite transmission of rabies in kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros).the titres of rabies virus in the saliva of kudu are higher than those of the salivary glands. the high titres are an indication of active excretion and multiplication in tissues other than the salivary glands. two out of 4 kudu died of rabies after experimental infection by the instillation of infected saliva onto their buccal and nasal mucosae. mice and 2 cattle resisted a similar exposure. kudu also developed antibodies against rabies after instillation of hep flury virus onto their nasal and ...19827185035
harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros).two greater kudu calves (tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. one was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. both animals shared a common sire. on necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. the principal ...200212450210
studies on the genus setaria viborg, 1795 in south africa. i. setaria africana (yeh, 1959).setaria africana (yeh, 1959) is represented by two subspecies, setaria africana africana troncy, graber & thal, 1976 from giant eland (taurotragus derbianus) from the central african republic and cameroon and setaria africana farchai troncy, graber & thal, 1976 from bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus), also from the central african republic. material collected from nyala (tragelaphus angasii), bushbuck and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from several localities in the eastern region of south africa ...200011206389
[transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals].the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies affect several species of higher animals apart from man. amongst these, undoubtedly the best known is that affecting cattle, since the association between consumption of beef and its derivatives and the appearance of a variant of creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans has been established.200010951669
phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.the phylogeography of the bush habituated african bovid species impala (aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial dna (mtdna) markers. combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from southern africa toward eastern regions in the greater kudu. results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. the study rev ...200111298982
molecular characterization of theileria species associated with mortality in four species of african antelopes.pathogen dna was isolated from roan antelope (hippotragus equinus), sable antelope (hippotragus niger), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), and common gray duiker (sylvicapra grimmia) in south africa whose deaths were attributed to either theileriosis or cytauxzoonosis. we developed theileria species-specific probes used in combination with reverse line blot hybridization assays and identified three different species of theileria in four african antelope species. the close phylogenetic rela ...200516333074
tuberculosis in kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) in the kruger national park.five kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros), three bulls and two cows, within the greater kruger national park complex, were diagnosed with generalized tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis. the lesions seen in these animals were similar to those previously reported in kudus and included severe tuberculous lymphadenitis of the nodes of the head and neck (that resulted in noticeable uni- or bilateral swelling beneath the ear), thorax, and the mesentery. all the animals also suffered from severe gr ...200111769355
tuberculosis, caused by mycobacterium bovis, in a kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from a commercial game farm in the malelane area of the mpumalanga province, south africa.tuberculosis, caused by mycobacterium bovis, was diagnosed for the first time, in a kudu cow from a commercial game ranch in the malelane area of the mpumalanga province close to the kruger national park. this diagnosis has important implications for the eradication of the disease in commercial and communal livestock in the area. kudus are considered to be a potential maintenance host and, because of discharging fistulae in the parotid area where the lymph nodes are commonly infected, they have ...200111769357
epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the british isles.since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19 captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections in the british isles. the affected animals have comprised members of the family bovidae: one nyala (tragelaphus angasi), four eland (taurotragus oryx), and six greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (oryx gazella), one arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and members of the family felidae: four ...19947817514
the epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park, south africa.the presence of bovine tuberculosis (mycobacterium bovis) in the kruger national park (knp) was determined for the first time in 1990. it was diagnosed in an african buffalo (syncerus caffer) bull, which was found recumbent and in an emaciated and moribund state near the south-western boundary fence. this prompted an investigation into the bovine tuberculosis (btb) status of the knp, with emphasis on its epidemiological determinants and risk factors. this report documents the findings of surveys ...200111585089
sequence analysis of the prp protein from two species of antelope susceptible to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.the sequence of the coding regions of the prp genes of the arabian oryx and greater kudu have been determined and compared with the related sheep and bovine prp gene sequences. the oryx gene sequence was found to be very closely related to that of the sheep, encoding just one amino acid difference. the greater kudu gene sequence was found to be more closely related to the bovine, encoding four amino acid differences. the possible influence that the gene sequences have on the transmission of spon ...19938328913
gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order artiodactyla at whipsnade wild animal park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) of wildebeest (connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. gamma herpesvirus dna was detected in the kno ...200212208112
[determination of clotting factor viii activity in mammals using the one-stage clotting and the chromogenic methods].two different laboratory assays exist for the determination of clotting factor viii activities in human plasma. one method is based on the one-stage clotting principle, the other one on the chromogenic principle. to evaluate the suitability for veterinary medicine human plasma and plasma of ten mammalian species (pig, cattle, dog, cat, zebra, llama, snow leopard, greater kudu, horse-like antelope, mink) were examined with each method. factor viii activities in human plasma determined using both ...200212174728
ixodid ticks of angora and boer goats, grysbok, common duikers, kudus and scrub hares in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province, south monthly intervals from february 1983 to january 1984 two angora goats, two boer goats, one grysbok, raphicerus melanotis, one common duiker, sylvicapra grimmia, one greater kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, and four scrub hares, lepus saxatilis, were killed on a farm in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province, south africa and examined for ticks. seven ixodid tick species were collected, of which rhipicephalus glabroscutatum followed by amblyomma hebraeum and rhipicephalus oculatus were th ...200312967172
duinefontein 2: an acheulean site in the western cape province of south africa.excavations at duinefontein (dft) 2 near cape town, south africa have recovered numerous stone artefacts and animal bones on an ancient surface sealed within iron-stained eolian sands. u-series analysis of an overlying calcrete places the sands before 150 ka ago, while the large mammal taxa imply an age between 400 and 200 ka ago. the artefacts include a classic acheulean handaxe and probable biface shaping flakes that support this age estimate. the principal mammalian species are long-horned bu ...199910444350
transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros). 19938430487
patterns of association, nestedness, and species co-occurrence of helminth parasites in the greater kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, in the kruger national park, south africa, and the etosha national park, namibia.the helminth parasites of the greater kudu from the kruger national park (knp), south africa, and the etosha national park (enp), namibia, were examined to determine the major patterns of spatial and demographic variation in community structure and to evaluate nonrandomness in parasite community assembly. nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination procedures were used to test for differences in parasite community composition between hosts of the 2 parks and between hosts of different demograp ...200314627135
a molecular epidemiological study of rabies epizootics in kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) in namibia.a panel of 37 rabies virus isolates were collected and studied, originating mainly from the northern and central regions of namibia, between 1980 and 2003.200616412222
anti-trypanosoma brucei activity of nonprimate zoo sera.constitutive anti-trypanosoma brucei subsp. brucei s 427 clone 1 and 22 activities were evaluated in sera from 22 species of nonprimate mammals. the sera fell into 5 categories. sera from cape buffalo, giraffe, and greater kudu showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of replication of the 2 clones of organisms, which was dependent on the presence of xanthine oxidase. sera from warthog and springbok also severely limited trypanosome replication but lacked xanthine oxidase. their antitrypanoso ...199910207362
bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros).of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) agent, the greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. we present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with bse in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tse), infectivity in greater kudu with ...200415207051
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from zimbabwe were tested for igg antibodies to toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (mat). significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. among the bovidae, the nyala (tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence o ...200515777687
comparative histology of antelope placentomes.the histological structure of ruminant (family: bovidae) placentomes in eight antelope species was compared to that of domestic cattle and sheep. the chorioallantoic villi differed in degree of branching, surface corrugation, and complexity of utero-placental junction. all species had the epitheliochorial type of placenta, with the epithelial lining of maternal caruncular crypts varying between cellular and syncytial types. uganda kob (kobus kob, reduncinae) and common duiker (sylvicapra grimmia ...198816726390
the host status of african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, for rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus.the objective of this study was to assess the host status of african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, for the one-host tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus. to this end the r. (b.) decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern kwazulu-natal province (kzn) nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern kruger national park (knp), mpumalanga province. the r. (b.) decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes w ...200617058441
meat quality of kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (aepyceros melampus): carcass yield, physical quality and chemical composition of kudu and impala longissimus dorsi muscle as affected by gender and age.the meat quality of kudu and impala was compared. live weight and carcass weight differed between species, genders and age groups. impala had the highest dressing percentage while kudu had the highest live weight and carcass weight. kudu had the lowest fat content while female animals had a higher fat and myoglobin content than males. sub-adults had a higher ash content than adults. species, gender and age had no effect of ph, drip loss, cooking loss or tenderness although kudu had higher l *, a ...200920416621
detection of babesia spp. in free-ranging pukus, kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in zambia.babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central zambia in october 2008. blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (kobus vordanii), reedbuck (redunca arundinum), bushbuck (tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of babesia parasites only in the puku. in the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in al ...201122355215
meat quality of kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and impala (aepyceros melampus): the effect of gender and age on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of kudu and impala meat has distinct sensory characteristics and favourable fatty acid profiles which differ between species. the sfa's percentage was found to be higher in impala meat (51.12%) than kudu meat (34.87%) whilst the total pufa was higher in kudu (38.88%) than impala (34.06%). stearic acid (22.67%) was the major fatty acid in impala and oleic acid in kudu (24.35). linoleic acid, c20:3n-6 and c22:6n-3 were higher in kudu while c20:4n-6, c20:5n-3 and c22:5n-3 were higher in impala. the pufa:sfa rati ...200920416629
cloning, sequencing and expression of white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum) interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) and the production of rhinoceros ifn-gamma specific antibodies.bovine tuberculosis (btb) is endemic in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in the kruger national park (knp). in addition to buffalo, mycobacterium bovis has been found in at least 14 other mammalian species in south africa, including kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), chacma baboon (papio ursinus) and lion (panthera leo). this has raised concern about the spillover into other potentially susceptible species like rhinoceros, thus jeopardising breeding and relocation projects aiming at the conservat ...200717118460
massive outbreak of anthrax in wildlife in the malilangwe wildlife reserve, zimbabwe.a massive outbreak of anthrax in the wildlife of the malilangwe wildlife reserve in zimbabwe between august and november 2004 resulted in the death of almost all the reserve's estimated 500 kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros). other species badly affected were nyala (tragelaphus angasi), bushbuck (tragelaphus scriptus), waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and roan antelope (hippotragus equinus), which suffered losses of approximately 68 per cent, 48 per cent, 44 per cent and 42 per cent of their popula ...200717259452
bush selection along foraging pathways by sympatric impala and greater order to identify the selection mechanism of two sympatric african browsers, we analysed encounter rates and selection of bushes along foraging pathways. we monitored the tracks, left overnight, by kudu and impala on an experimental plot of natural acacia nilotica and dichrostachys cinerea in the highveld of zimbabwe, and recorded the number of bushes attacked in each category. both ungulates were selective for the bush categories, but kudu were consistently more selective than impala, and sh ...200415278425
phylogenomic study of spiral-horned antelope by cross-species chromosome painting.chromosomal homologies have been established between cattle (bos taurus, 2n = 60) and eight species of spiral-horned antelope, tribe tragelaphini: nyala (tragelaphus angasii, 2n = 55male/56female), lesser kudu (t. imberbis, 2n = 38male,female), bongo (t. eurycerus, 2n = 33male/34female), bushbuck (t. scriptus, 2n = 33male/34female), greater kudu (t. strepsiceros, 2n = 31male/32female), sitatunga (t. spekei, 2n = 30male,female) derby eland (taurotragus derbianus 2n = 31male/32female) and common e ...200818704723
home range - body mass relations: a field study on african browsing ruminants.home range data were collected concurrently from four syntopic browsing ruminant species in a conserved savanna ecosystem. mean home range areas were: giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) 282 km(2); kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) 21.9 km(2); impala (aepyceros melampus) 5.82 km(2); steenbok (raphicerus campestris) 0.62 km(2). home range area (a hr) scaled on body mass (m) as: a hr=0.024 m (1.38) (r (2)=0.99).199028312570
prevalence and source of trypanosome infections in field-captured vector flies (glossina pallidipes) in southeastern zambia.the prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, glossina pallidipes, collected from chiawa and chakwenga in zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). out of the 550 g. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome dna. infection rates of tsetse with trypanosoma vivax universal, trypanosoma congolense savannah, t. congolense forest and t. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respecti ...200818840966
trypanosoma brucei infection in asymptomatic greater kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in zambia.trypomastogotes of trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of lusaka, zambia. blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (aepyceros melampus), kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (hippotragus niger), tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus), warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (kobus vardoni), zebra (equus burchelli), waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushb ...201020333288
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium bovis isolates from free-ranging wildlife in south african game reserves.bovine tuberculosis is endemic in african buffalo and a number of other wildlife species in the kruger national park (knp) and hluhluwe-imfolozi park (hip) in south africa. it was thought that the infection had been introduced into the knp ecosystem through direct contact between cattle and buffalo, a hypothesis which was confirmed in this study by is6110 and pgrs restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) typing. the molecular characterisation of 189 mycobacterium bovis isolates from nine ...200918786785
physico-chemical, microbiological, textural and sensory attributes of matured game salami produced from springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), gemsbok (oryx gazella), kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and zebra (equus burchelli) harvested in namibia.differences and consumer acceptability of matured salami produced from game species were evaluated. the ph of the salami differed (p < 0.05) with springbok salami having the highest mean ph value. no differences (p > 0.05) were observed among the species for a(w), shear force, gumminess or cohesiveness. microbiological counts of the game salami differed for coliform (p < 0.05) but not for e. coli (p > 0.05) counts. the most distinctive characteristics observed by the quantitative descriptive ana ...201021185658
an investigation of the effects of secondary processing on mycobacterium spp. in naturally infected game meat and organs.the risk for humans to contract bovine tuberculosis through the consumption of undercooked game meat as well as biltong (traditionally dried game meat) is a concern. the survival potential of mycobacterium bovis during the cooking and drying processes was researched in a preceding study on beef and the positive results compelled the authors to investigate the results with a similar preliminary study on game meat. muscular, lymphatic and visceral tissues from skin test positive african buffalo (s ...201021247043
a questionnaire-based evaluation of the veterinary cordon fence separating wildlife and livestock along the boundary of the kruger national park, south africa.veterinary cordon fences are used in southern africa to separate wildlife from domestic animals in order to prevent transmission of infectious diseases. such fences are a control method recognized by the world organization for animal health (oie) for establishing disease-free zones in beef exporting countries. however, few studies have evaluated the ecological impact of these physical barriers or their effectiveness at a multispecies level. we examined the permeability of one such barrier, along ...201121536336
parasites of south african wildlife. xix. the prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the limpopo province, south africa.little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. the aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. ten impalas (aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), two bla ...201123327219
characterisation of the wildlife reservoir community for human and animal trypanosomiasis in the luangwa valley, zambia.animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in sub-saharan africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. the luangwa valley in zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (glossina species) and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. the objective of this study was to characterise the nature of the reservoir community for trypanosomiasis in the absence of influence from ...201121713019
fever and sickness behavior during an opportunistic infection in a free-living antelope, the greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros).to study their thermal responses to climatic stress, we implanted seven greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) with intra-abdominal, brain, carotid, and subcutaneous temperature data loggers, as well as an activity logger. each animal was also equipped with a collar holding a miniature black globe thermometer, which we used to assess thermoregulatory behavior. the kudu ranged freely within succulent thicket vegetation of the eastern cape province, south africa. the kudu spontaneously developed ...200817959702
evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros).failure of passive transfer (fpt) in captive greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. in this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (gg) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (ts) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (tp) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glu ...201122204060
identification of myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle of four southern african wild ruminants.the aim was to separate and characterize the myosin heavy chain (mhc) isoforms of four southern african wild ruminants, namely blesbuck (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) and blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus). longissimus dorsi muscle samples were subjected to sds-page and western blot analyses using antibodies raised against mhc isoforms. the specificity of these antibodies was assessed using immunohistochemistry combined w ...200717631404
molecular cytogenetics of tragelaphine and alcelaphine interspecies hybrids: hybridization, introgression and speciation in some african antelope.hybridization can occur naturally among diverging lineages as part of the evolutionary process leading to complete reproductive isolation, or it can result from range shifts and habitat alteration through global warming and/or other anthropogenic influences. here we report a molecular cytogenetic investigation of hybridization between taxonomically distinct species of the alcelaphini (alcelaphus buselaphus 2n = 40 × damaliscus lunatus 2n = 36) and the tragelaphini (tragelaphus strepsiceros 2n = ...026582842
renal carcinoma with probable pulmonary metastasis and chronic interstitial nephritis in a greater kudu antelope. 20144082393
detection of trypanosoma brucei in field-captured tsetse flies and identification of host species fed on by the infected flies.the prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in the chiawa area of lower zambezi in zambia, with endemic trypanosomosis, was determined by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method that allowed the detection of trypanosome dna and determination of the type of animal host fed on by the tsetse fly glossina pallidipes, using tsetse-derived dna extracts as templates. ninety g. pallidipes (82 females and 8 males; 18.3%) of the 492 flies captured by baited biconical traps tested positive fo ...200818399780
complete genome and molecular epidemiological data infer the maintenance of rabies among kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) in namibia.rabies in kudu is unique to namibia and two major peaks in the epizootic have occurred since it was first noted in 1977. due to the large numbers of kudu that were affected, it was suspected that horizontal transmission of rabies occurs among kudu and that rabies was being maintained independently within the namibian kudu population - separate from canid cycles, despite geographic overlap. in this study, it was our aim to show, through phylogenetic analyses, that rabies was being maintained inde ...201323527015
trophy hunting and sustainability: temporal dynamics in trophy quality and harvesting patterns of wild herbivores in a tropical semi-arid savanna ecosystem.the selective nature of trophy hunting may cause changes in desirable phenotypic traits in harvested species. a decline in trophy size of preferred species may reduce hunting destination competitiveness thus compromising the sustainability of trophy hunting as a conservation tool. we explored the trophy quality and trends in harvesting patterns (i.e., 2004-2015) of cape buffalo (syncerus caffer), african elephant (loxodonta africana), greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) and sable (hippotragu ...201627736930
effect of host diversity and species assemblage composition on bovine tuberculosis (btb) risk in ethiopian cattle.current theories on diversity-disease relationships describe host species diversity and species identity as important factors influencing disease risk, either diluting or amplifying disease prevalence in a community. whereas the simple term 'diversity' embodies a set of animal community characteristics, it is not clear how different measures of species diversity are correlated with disease risk. we therefore tested the effects of species richness, pielou's evenness and shannon's diversity on bov ...201728134065
adaptation of ruminants to browse and grass diets: are anatomical-based browser-grazer interpretations valid?as a result of pioneering work of hofmann (1973, 1989), nutritional ecologists classify ruminants into three feeding-type categories: browsers ("concentrate" feeders), grazers, and intermediate or mixed feeders. hofmann proposed that these feeding types result from evolutionary adaptations in the anatomy of the digestive system and that one consequence is shorter retention of the digesta in the rumen of browsers, and thus a decreased efficiency of fiber digestion relative to that of grazers. we ...199528306775
dilution effect and identity effect by wildlife in the persistence and recurrence of bovine tuberculosis.current theories on disease-diversity relationships predict a strong influence of host richness on disease transmission. in addition, identity effect, caused by the occurrence of particular species, can also modify disease risk. we tested the richness effect and the identity effects of mammal species on bovine tuberculosis (btb), based on the regional btb outbreak data in cattle from 2005-2010 in africa. besides, we also tested which other factors were associated with the regional btb persistenc ...201424612552
dilution effect in bovine tuberculosis: risk factors for regional disease occurrence in africa.changes in host diversity have been postulated to influence the risk of infectious diseases, including both dilution and amplification effects. the dilution effect refers to a negative relationship between biodiversity and disease risk, whereas the amplification effect occurs when biodiversity increases disease risk. we tested these effects with an influential disease, bovine tuberculosis (btb), which is widespread in many countries, causing severe economic losses. based on the btb outbreak data ...201323804614
insights into the skeletal muscle characteristics of three southern african antelope species.skeletal muscle fibre type, cross-sectional area (csa), maximum enzyme capacities and fibre oxidative capacities were investigated in three southern african antelope species. muscle samples from blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), mountain reedbuck (redunca fulvorufula) and greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) were collected post mortem from the vastus lateralis and analysed for myosin heavy chain (mhc) isoform content, citrate synthase (cs), 3-hydroxyacyl co a dehydrogenase (3-had), pho ...201425326514
the pathology of cordophilus sagittus (v. linstow, 1907) infestation in the kudu [tragelaphus strepsiceros (pallas, 1766)], bushbuck [tragelaphus scriptus (pallas, 1766)] and african buffalo [syncerus caffer (sparrman, 1779)] in south africa. 19676069322
wildlife population dynamics in human-dominated landscapes under community-based conservation: the example of nakuru wildlife conservancy, kenya.wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in africa, including in kenya. we analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the nakuru wildlife conservancy (nwc), located in the nakuru-naivasha region of kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from march 1996 to may 2015. rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component an ...201728103269
host-parasite list updating of ciliates and fermentation in the digestive tract of wild miscellaneous herbivores in south africa (rsa).this article is dedicated to the author, burk dehority, who became very ill with cancer. fortunately he confirmed or corrected all identifications on ciliates in this article. this paper was 80% finished when he became ill. he unfortunately passed away in february 2016.201728609902
meiotic behaviour of evolutionary sex-autosome translocations in bovidae.the recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. we used immunofluorescence and fish to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (tragelaphus strepsiceros, taurotragus oryx, tragelaphus imberbis, tragelaphus spekii, gazella leptoceros and nanger dama ruficollis) ...201627136937
interspecific interference competition at the resource patch scale: do large herbivores spatially avoid elephants while accessing water?animals may anticipate and try to avoid, at some costs, physical encounters with other competitors. this may ultimately impact their foraging distribution and intake rates. such cryptic interference competition is difficult to measure in the field, and extremely little is known at the interspecific level. we tested the hypothesis that smaller species avoid larger ones because of potential costs of interference competition and hence expected them to segregate from larger competitors at the scale ...201627495127
changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.a combination of low serum calcium (ca), high serum phosphorus (p), and low serum magnesium (mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (taurotragus oryx), nyala (tragelaphus angasii), bongo (tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis). these mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable ca ...201020945636
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